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Water Loop Calculations

Process Engineering

WATER LOOP DISTRIBUTION

Simultaneous usage within a
minute
Need to identify users for a
distribution loop

Water quality
Temperature

WATER DELIVERY OPTIONS

Basic Distribution
temperature as stored
Cool/Reheat
Point-of-use heat exchangers
Chase the tail

BASIC DISTRIBUTION

COOL / REHEAT

POINT-OF-USE EXCHANGERS

Line Sizing Calc Guide

Factors to consider include:

Economics (capital cost, energy)

Pressure frop
Velocity
Turbulence
Length of pipe run
Pipe run components
Noise
Space
Plant expansion
Pump/compressor capability

Pressure Drop/Velocity
Guidelines
Service

velocity,
ft / sec
Pump Suct., General Service, low visc. ----Pump Suct., Gen. Serv., near boiling pt. ----Pump Discharge, General Service
----WFI / USP Water, 1" to 1 1/2"
2 to 4
WFI / USP Water, 2" to 4"
3 to 7
CIP Solutions, 1/2" to 1 1/2"
2 to 5
CIP Solutions, 2" to 3"
3 to 7
Compressed Air / N2, 15 psig
----Compressed Air / N2, 50 psig
----Compressed Air / N2, 100 psig
----Saturated Steam, 15 psig
----Saturated Steam, 50 psig
----Saturated Steam, 100 psig
-----

pressure drop,
PSI / 100 ft
0.5 to 1.0
0.2 to 0.4
1.0 to 3.0
1 to 4
1 to 3
1 to 4
1 to 3
0.25 to 0.5
0.5 to 1.0
1.0 to 2.0
0.5 to 1.0
0.5 to 1.0
1.0 to 2.0

(Re > 3000)

R e =

5 0 .6 Q
d

f = a function of
Reynolds Number and
Relative Roughness; see
Crane Technical Paper
No. 410

P =

0 .0 0 0 2 1 6 f L Q
d

Re = Reynolds Number
d = inside diameter, inches
L = length of pipe, feet
Q = flowrate, gpm
= density, lb/cf
m = viscosity, cp
P = pressure drop, psi
/D = relative roughness
D = inside diameter, feet
= 0.00015 for commercial steel
= 0.000005 for drawn tubing

Line Sizing Guidelines

Maximum flow rate of 7-8 ft/sec
Maximum pressure drop of 2 lb per 100
feet

Minimum flow rate

3 ft/sec
Turbulent flow (Reynolds Number > 3000 is
turbulent. >10,000 15,000 is preferred)

Line Loses - Equivalent

Length
Typically done when you can only
estimate the linear footage of the
system
Other resistances to be considered
include manual valves, elbows, tees,
reducers, entrances/exits, etc.
Difficult to tabulate the resistances at
this stage of design
Rule of thumb - allow the equivalent
length to be twice the linear footage for
the purpose of the initial pump head
calculation

(CIRCULATION LOOP)
c o n tr o l
v a lv e lo s s
s u c tio n
te r m in a l
p re s s u re

d is c h a r g e lin e
lo s s

d is c h a r g e
te r m in a l
p re s s u re
s p r a y b a ll
lo s s
exchanger
lo s s

s u c tio n
s ta tic

u s e p o in ts

m e te r
lo s s
FI

s u c tio n lin e lo s s
pum p w ear
lo s s

d is c h a r g e
s ta tic h e a d

N O T E : c o n s id e r d iffe r e n t flo w s c e n a r io s fo r
p r e s s u r e d r o p c a lc (n o u s e , p e a k u s e , e tc .)

TYPICAL EQUIPMENT LOSSES

In-line filter - allow 3 to 5 psi
Flowmeter - allow 3 to 5 psi
Control valve - allow 10 psi
Heat exchanger - allow 3-5 psi shellside,
3-5 psi tubeside
Tank jacket - allow 5-10 psi
Sprayball - allow 25-30 psi
Pump wear - allow 5 psi
note: check these values as the vendor information comes in

EVALUATE TWO
SCENARIOS
Hot WFI Loop
Ambient WFI Loop

WATER USE-POINT
LAYOUT
QC Lab
A-10

Buffer Prep
Fractionation
A-6

Buffer Prep
Purification
A-9

Fractionation
A-4, A-5, A-12
C-1

Purification
A-7, A-8, A-13
H-1, H-2

Inactivation
A-1, A-2, A-3
C-2

Utility

WFI

CIP
A-11
H-3

Ambient Loop
Hot Loop

HOT WFI LOOP

HWFI System Use-Point Matrix
Use
Room
Point
Name
H-1
Purification Autoclave
H-2
Purification Washer
H-3
CIP

Estimated

Use-Pt.
Temp.
80 Deg C
80 Deg C
80 Deg C
Maximum Possible Draw:

From
Tank
H-3
H-1 / 2
TOTAL

To
H-3
H-1 / 2
Tank

Estimated
Design
Peak
Flow
Daily Volume
Usage
5 gpm 150 gals
5 gpm
5 gpm 200 gals
5 gpm
10 gpm 500 gals
10 gpm
20 gpm

850 gals

Distance
20 ft
80 ft
120 ft
220 ft

20 gpm

HOT WFI
CONSIDERATIONS
Maximum Demand - 20 GPM
Minimum Return Flow
Future Expansion
Storage Tank Sprayball flowrate (???)

2.5 - 3 GPM / ft of circumference

400 Gal Tk, 4 ft diameter -> 30 - 40 GPM

Economics
FDA Approval

Service: HWFI
Line No.
INPUT
Flow
(GPM)
Pipe Length (feet)
Specific Gravity
Viscosity
(centipoise)
Roughness
(ft)

>>>>

Nominal
Size (in)
0.500
0.750
1.000
1.500
2.000
3.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000

Actual ID
Reynolds
P
(inches)
Number Flow Region (psi/100ft)
0.37
473982 Turbulent 1,717.8892
0.62
282860 Turbulent
118.2286
0.87
201578 Turbulent
20.8810
1.37
128010 Turbulent
2.1202
1.87
93782
Turbulent
0.4538
2.87
61106
Turbulent
0.0559
3.83
45742
Turbulent
0.0138
5.78
30331
Turbulent
0.0019
7.98
21974
Turbulent
0.0004
10.02
17502
Turbulent
0.0001
note : Clean Tubing

Engineer:

20.00
440
0.97
0.35
0.00005
Velocity
(ft/sec)
59.68
21.25
10.79
4.35
2.34
0.99
0.56
0.24
0.13
0.08

Friction
Factor
0.0227
0.0207
0.0199
0.0195
0.0198
0.0208
0.0218
0.0237
0.0254
0.0269

Service: HWFI
Line No.

Engineer:

INPUT
Flow
(GPM)
Pipe Length (feet)
Specific Gravity
Viscosity
(centipoise)
Roughness
(ft)

>>>>

Nominal
Size (in)
0.500
0.750
1.000
1.500
2.000
3.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000

Actual ID
Reynolds
(inches)
Number Flow Region
0.37
1066459 Turbulent
0.62
636435 Turbulent
0.87
453551 Turbulent
1.37
288022 Turbulent
1.87
211011 Turbulent
2.87
137488 Turbulent
3.83
102919 Turbulent
5.78
68245
Turbulent
7.98
49441
Turbulent
10.02
39380
Turbulent
note : Clean Tubing

45.00
440
0.97
0.35
0.00005
P
(psi/100ft)
8,585.3781
581.2814
100.8326
9.9066
2.0675
0.2470
0.0598
0.0082
0.0017
0.0006

Velocity
(ft/sec)
134.28
47.82
24.29
9.79
5.26
2.23
1.25
0.55
0.29
0.18

Friction
Factor
0.0224
0.0201
0.0189
0.0180
0.0178
0.0181
0.0187
0.0199
0.0211
0.0222

AMBIENT WFI LOOP

AWFI System Use-Point Matrix
Use
Room
Point
Name
A-1
Inactivation Wash Room CIP
A-2
Inactivation Wash Room
A-3
Inactivation Wash Sink
A-4
Fractionation Wash Room
A-5
Fractionation Wash Sink
A-6
Fractionation Buffer Prep
A-7
Purification Wash Room
A-8
Purification Wash Sink
A-9
Purification Buffer Prep
A-10
Q.C. Lab
A-11
CIP
A-12
Fractionation Diafiltration
A-13
Purification Diafiltration
C-2
Batching/Reactor Tanks
C-1
Fractionization Freezers

Estimated

Use-Pt.
Temp.
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
25 Deg C
2 Deg C
2 Deg C

Maximum Possible Draw:

Design
Flow
5 gpm
4 gpm
2 gpm
5 gpm
2 gpm
2 gpm
4 gpm
2 gpm
4 gpm
2 gpm
10 gpm
4 gpm
4 gpm
7 gpm
7 gpm

Estimated
Peak
Daily Volume Usage
200 gals
5 gpm
100 gals
4 gpm
50 gals
0 gpm
100 gals
5 gpm
50 gals
0 gpm
100 gals
2 gpm
50 gals
0 gpm
50 gals
0 gpm
200 gals
4 gpm
10 gals
0 gpm
500 gals
10 gpm
50 gals
4 gpm
50 gals
0 gpm
1000 gals
7 gpm
200 gals
7 gpm

64 gpm 2710 gals

48 gpm

From
To
Distance
Tank
A-11
20 ft
A-11
A-4 / 5 / 6
40 ft
A-4 / 5 / 6
C-1
10 ft
C-1
A-1 / 2 / 3
90 ft
A-1 / 2 / 3
C-2
10 ft
C-2
A-7 / 8 / 13
60 ft
A-7 / 8 / 13
A-9
30 ft
A-9
A-6
20 ft
A-6
A-10
40 ft
A-10
Tank
60 ft
TOTAL

380 ft

AMBIENT WFI
CONSIDERATIONS
Maximum Demand - 48 GPM
Minimum Return Flow
Future Expansion
Storage Tank Sprayball flowrate

2.5 - 3 GPM / ft of circumference

1000 Gal Tk, 5.5 ft diameter -> 43 - 50 GPM

Economics
FDA Approval

Service: AWFI
Line No.
INPUT
Flow
(GPM)
Pipe Length (feet)
Specific Gravity
Viscosity
(centipoise)
Roughness
(ft)

>>>>

Nominal
Size (in)
0.500
0.750
1.000
1.500
2.000
3.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000

Actual ID
Reynolds
P
(inches)
Number Flow Region (psi/100ft)
0.37
692053 Turbulent 18,442.8108
0.62
412999 Turbulent 1,258.1437
0.87
294321 Turbulent
220.1296
1.37
186905 Turbulent
21.9881
1.87
136930 Turbulent
4.6502
2.87
89219
Turbulent
0.5652
3.83
66787
Turbulent
0.1383
5.78
44286
Turbulent
0.0191
7.98
32084
Turbulent
0.0041
10.02
25555
Turbulent
0.0014
note : Clean Tubing

Engineer:

65.00
760
1.00
0.80
0.00005
Velocity
(ft/sec)
193.96
69.08
35.08
14.15
7.59
3.22
1.81
0.79
0.42
0.26

Friction
Factor
0.0226
0.0203
0.0194
0.0187
0.0188
0.0194
0.0202
0.0218
0.0233
0.0245

Service: AWFI
Line No.
INPUT
Flow
(GPM)
Pipe Length (feet)
Specific Gravity
Viscosity
(centipoise)
Roughness
(ft)

>>>>

Nominal
Size (in)
0.500
0.750
1.000
1.500
2.000
3.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000

Actual ID
Reynolds
P
(inches)
Number Flow Region (psi/100ft)
0.37
180998 Turbulent 1,311.6706
0.62
108015 Turbulent
93.3924
0.87
76976
Turbulent
17.0159
1.37
48883
Turbulent
1.8080
1.87
35813
Turbulent
0.3980
2.87
23334
Turbulent
0.0506
3.83
17467
Turbulent
0.0127
5.78
11582
Turbulent
0.0018
7.98
8391
Turbulent
0.0004
10.02
6684
Turbulent
0.0001
note : Clean Tubing

Engineer:

17.00
760
1.00
0.80
0.00005
Velocity
(ft/sec)
50.73
18.07
9.17
3.70
1.99
0.84
0.47
0.21
0.11
0.07

Friction
Factor
0.0235
0.0221
0.0219
0.0225
0.0235
0.0254
0.0271
0.0300
0.0327
0.0348

CONCLUSIONS
HWFI System

AWFI System

2 Line, 65 GPM, Min Return Flow of 18 GPM

(2 ft/sec). May limit Expansion
3 Line if Expansion critical and Cost is not.

Tools: Pipe Sizing - Non Compressible

Fluids, Pipe Sizing - Matrix
Can use other tools for complicated
systems