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Answer Keys
1

40

10

0.717

11

12

-4.61

13

-5

14

-5

15

128

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

0.195

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

44

34

35

10

36

11.8

37

100

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

9.5

51

92.5

52

53

54

562.94

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

Explanations:1.

Skew- symmetric of even order, is a perfect square (non-zero)


Hence, option (d) i.e., 9 is a perfect square.
(or)
Using expansion, we get 9.

2.

We have

(x x)

= r

x
( y y)
y

1.5
x 10 = 0.6
( y 20 )
2
x = ( 0.45 ) y + 1

3.

We know that f (z) = u + iv is analytic then

u v
u
v
verify the options, only
= and
=
x y
y
x

(A) sasitfies

4.

Let

1
=x
27

f (x) =

1
2
27 = 0, f 1 ( x ) = 3
2
x
x

The Newton-Raphson formula is


x n +1 = x n

f (xn )

f 1 (xn )

x n +1 =

3x n 27x 3n
2

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5.

2 =

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2 2 2
+
+
x 2 y 2 z 2

= 12xy 2 z 4 + 4x 3 z 4 + 24x 3 y 2 z 2
2

6.

(1, 1,1)

= 12 + 4 + 24 = 40

1 resistor is removed from fig, and the circuit configuration is shown in fig below
I1 = 2 1 = 1A

V1 = 1A 2 = 2V

VO C

4 5 20
4
= V
2
V1
V2
2
1
4+5 9
I1
2
VOC = V1 V2 = V
9
Deactivating the constant sources, R TH from fig below is obtained as
Also V2 = 1A

R TH

R TH
4

VOC

4 5 38
=
4+5 9
2
V0.c
2
I=
A = 42.55mA
= 9 =
38
R TH + 1
+ 1 47
9
R TH = 2 +

7.

d 2i(t)
di(t)
+8
+ 12i(t) = 0
dt 2
dt
Apply laplace Transform

s 2 I(s) + 8s I(s) + 12 I(s) = 0 I(s) s 2 + 8s + 2 = 0


s 2 + 8s + 12 = 0 (s + 6)(s + 2) = 0
Roots are real & unequal So it is a overdamped circuit
8.

Since ND>>ni we can approximate


no = ND and Po =

9.

n i2 9.3 1019
=
= 9.3 102 cm 3
n0
1017

Since, boron is p-type impurity, therefore Fermi level goes down


E i -E F =

KT

NA
4x1017
-3
=25x10
ln

10
1.5x10
ni

ln

= 0.427 eV

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10.

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N .N
Vbi = VT ln A 2 D
ni

1017 1015
= 0.0259ln
= 0.717 Volts
( 9.65 109 ) 2

11.

Now reducing the given circuit, getting thevenins equivalent at the both electrodes of the
diode, we will get the following result.
1.5

4.5V

6V
I

So the diode is in reverse bias and from its characteristics, it is clear that it should be replaced
with 5k resistor.
5K

1.5
4.5V

6V
I

Hence I ~ = 0.3mA
12.

Here, both BJTs cant be ON at a time because it violates KVL between +5 and -5 sources.
Now lets assume that upper BJT is ON and lower one is OFF. In this case, current flows into
the ground via 1k so emitter is at positive voltage and base is at (emitter voltage)-0.7V. But
for the current to flow into its base, it must be at voltage lower than -5 V. So this is not
possible. Now if upper BJT is OFF and lower one is ON then current follows the path as
shown below.
+ 5V

OFF
10 K

5V

VB

IB

IE
ON

1K

5V

Now applying KVL over this path and putting I E = 101 IB . We get I E = 3.91mA
Also VE VB = 0.7. Hence we get VB = 4.61V
13.

Here Q 2 will be ON and Q1 will be OFF. Assume that Q1 will be ON, then voltage at its
emitter will be +0.3. It is higher than voltage at the base of Q 2 so suddenly it will get ON and
now voltage at emitter will be -0.7 which wont allow Q1 to switch ON. Hence no current in
Q1 and no current in the 1 K resistor at collector of Q1 and no current in the 1K resistor at
collector of Q1 . Hence V= -5 V.

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14.

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Here both Zener will be in reverse breakdown, analyzing circuit in following sequence,
10 V

1 mA

+ 10 k

1
+ 10 v

2k

5k
+5

+ 15v
5v

5v

Vo

+5

5v

fi
; where N = MOD number of the counter
N
256kHz
2kHz =
N = 128
N

15.

f0 =

16.

When J = K = 1 output will always toggle with clock and produce the square wave with half
frequency of the input frequency.

17.

Since the ROC is left sided before doing the long division it has to be arranged in ascending
order of z. In the quotient expression, the coefficient of z represents the sample value at n = 1.
1
4 z
z 1 + 1
Z 2 + 1
4
represents
z 1 + 4z
( )

x(n) at n = 1

1 4z

X (e

) d = 2 x ( 0) = 2 ( 1) = 2

18.

19.

Let the overall impulse response of the system be h[n], then by observing the block diagram
given in figure
h(n) = h1 ( n ) + h 2 ( n ) h 3 ( n ) + h 4 ( n ) = u ( n ) + u ( n + 4 ) u ( n ) (n 4) + a n u(n)
= u ( n + 4 ) (n 4) + a n u(n) = u(n + 4 4) + a n u(n) = [1 + a n ]u(n)

20.

Steady state errors for various inputs


1
ess ( unit step ) =
= 0; as K p = lim G ' ( s ) =
s 0
1 + Kp

ess ( ramp ) =

1
= 0.5; as K a = limsG ' ( s ) =
s 0
Kv

ess ( parabolic ) =

1
= 0.5; as K a = lims 2 G ' ( s ) = 2
s0
Ka

Steady state error when r(t) is applied is = 0 + (4 0) + (10 0.5) = 5


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21.

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Because derivative controller acts only on rate of change of an error.


So it is effective in transient only.

22.

s ( t ) = A C cos ( 2f c t ) A C sin ( 2f c t ) sin ( 2f m t )


1
1
= A C cos ( 2f c t ) + A C cos 2 ( f c + f m ) t A c cos 2 ( f c + f m ) t
2
2
Mean power of s ( t ) is
A c 2 2 A c2 2 A c2 A c2 2
+
+
=
1 + 2
2
8
8
2
P
2
1 =1+
Pc
2
P1 =

23.

2
= Pc 1 + 2

fsi = 2100, I.F = 500 KHz, Q = 50, fsi = fs + 2I.F  fS = 1100 KHz
Image rejection ratio = 1 + Q 2 2
Where; =

f si f s
= 1.9 0.52 = 1.38
fs f si

= 1 + (50) 2 (1.38)2 = 69

24.

As I=0, the bridge is balanced.

Z x Z1 = Z2 Z3
Zx =

(10)(100)
= 33.3320 = ( 31.32 + j11.4 )
30 20

L x = 11.4 H 12 H

25.

Pav =

G d Pr ad E s2
=
4r 2
2

Convert gain to normal value.

26.

dy
3
+ 3y = 12 ( x 2 )
dx
dy
3
2

+
.y = 12 ( x 2 )
dx x 2
3
2
P=
Q = 12 ( x 2 )
x2

( x 2)

I.F = e x 2

dx

where ( x > 2 )

= e3log ( x 2) = ( x 2 )

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Solution is y ( x 2 )

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= 12 ( x 2 ) ( x 2 ) dx + c
2

=12 ( x 2 ) dx + c
5

y ( x 2 ) = 12
3

( x 2)

+c

1
y ( 3) = 2 2 (1) =12 + c c = 0
6
y ( x 2)

27.

( x 2)
= 12

y = 2 ( x 2)

sa
; Magnitude is same for any value of a and frequency, hence it is a All pass filter
s+a

Phase =180- 2tan -1 ; At = a ; phase = 90
a

28.

1
s
1
1

= L1 2
L1 2
2

2
4
s

2s
+
2
s
+
2s
+
2

( s 2s + 2 )( s + 2s + 2 )
1

1 1
1
1
L

2
4 ( s 1)2 + 1
s
+
1
+
1

(
)

1 1
1 t 1 1
= e t L1 2
e L 2
4 4
s +1
s + 1

1 t
e sin t e t sin t
4
1
= sin t e t e t
4
1
= sin t sin ht
2
=

29.
X

------

P(X)

1
n

1
n

1
n

1
n

------

1
n

1
1
1
1
Mean = 1. + 2. + 3. + .... + n.
n
n
n
n
n +1
=
2
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30.

In mesh 1:

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I1=4A

Mesh 2: I2=-2A
Mesh 3 &4 forming supermesh so the KVL

4 mA

I1

2 k

I2

2 mA

1k

1k

equation & writing KCL at Q


I1 + I 2 3I3 2I4 = 0

1k

I3 I 4 = 2A

I4

I3

2 k

1mA

4
Solving the above equation I3 = mA
5

Vo

8
4
So, Vo = ( 2k ) mA = V
5
5

31.

Writing KCL at C1 junction

Vc Vc2
Ic1 = I 1

R1
C1

dVC1
V
V
= I C1 + C2
dt
R1
R1

1
1
1
VC1 =
VC1 +
VC2 + I
R
C
R
C
C
1 1

1 1

(i)

Writing KCL at C 2 junction

V VC2 VC2
IC2 = C1

R1

R2
C2

1
1
dVC2
1
= VC1 VC2
+

dt
R1
R1 R 2

1
R1 + R 2
VC2 = VC1
VC2

R 1C 2
R 1R 2 C 2

(2)

Arranging Equation (1) & (2) in matrix form


1

R C
VC1 = 1 1
1
VC2
R 1C 2
32.

V 1
C1 + C I
R 1 + R 2 VC2

0
R 1R 2 C 2
1
R 1C1

For t < 0, the switch is in close position and network is in steady state when the inductor is
short circuit.
i L (0 ) =

12
= 1.5 A
8

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8
+

V1

i L (0 )

12 V

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3V1

(t < 0)

But for t>0, switch is opened and here the circuit becomes a source free circuit. So i L () = 0 ,
as no source is present in the network.
I

8
+

V1

3V1

(t > 0)

i L (t) = i L (0 )e

V 8I 3V1 = 0

V = 32I ( V1 = 8I )
V
= 32
I
L 16 1
Z= =
=
R 32 2

R eq =

i L (t) = i L (0 ) e = 1.5 e 2t
33.

As the network is linear, by superposition I R is because of linear combinations of I and V.


From 1st statement
6 = k1 (1) + k 2 (5)
k1 + 5k 2 = 6

(1)

From 2nd statement


10 = k1 (5) + k 2 (30)
5k1 + 30k 2 = 10

(2)

Solving Equation (1) & (2) k1 = 26 & k 2 = 4


So, IR = 26I 4V
So when I = 2A & V = 2V
I R = 26(2) 4(2) = 44 A
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34.

J p, diff = q D p

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dp
dx

L
15

2
10 exp
0

19

= 1.6 10 12
0 12 104

1
1.6 1019 12 1015 exp
2 = 0.97 A cm 2
=
12 104
35.

For an ideal transistor, o = 0.999


o =

o
0.999
=
= 999
1 o 1 0.999
ICBO = 10 106 A

So,

ICEO = (1 + o ) ICBO
= (1 + 999 ) 10 106 = 10 mA

1W
2
n Cox ( VGS VT )
2 L
1 W 650 6.9 108
2
( 5 0.65 )
4 103 =
2 1.25
= 3.39 W
W = 11.8 m

36.

I D( sat ) =

37.

From the given data solve the circuit in following sequence


Hence maximum current that can flow from resistance R L = 50 mA
Voltage across R L = 5V ( 7805 IC )

Vs = +6.5V

P = 60 mw
= VImax

60 mw
I max =
1.5V
= 40 mA

1k

Minimum value of R L =

2
= 1.5 V

IB = 0 1

Max current from 7085IC = 10mA


Total I through R L = 40 + 10 = 50mA
5
= 100 Ohm
50 m

0.7V

7805
7805

40 mA

10 mA

RL

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38.

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The given amplifier is a series-shunt feedback amplifier. Now for approximation


A
1
we can take voltage gain with feedback A f =

(1 + A )
+12V

Vf
1
=
Vo 10

1
= 10

4.7K
2K

Q3

Q2

Vin

V0

Q1

9k

39.

2mA

1k

Vf

Given circuit both Op-amps are in inverting mode


20
So, the output of 1st Op-amp is V0 = (1 + 2Sint ) = 10 (1 + 2Sint ) , V0 = 10 20Sint
2
By applying nodal at second Op-amp -terminal
The second one acts as a summer so,

10 (1 + 2Sint ) 10
V0 = 20
mV
1
1

= +200 (1 + 2Sint ) + 200 = 200 + 400Sint + 200


= 400 + 400Sint = 0.4 (1 + Sint ) mV

( )

J A ( x ) K A QB

40.

41.

A B+1

For x = 0;

For x = 1;

If any input is HIGH, (-0.8V) then corresponding transistors will be ON and common emitter
voltage will become - 1.6V at emitter terminal of all the transistors of differential amplifier
(Q1 to Q5). Second terminal of RE is at -5.2V. So
IE =

42.

J B ( x ) K B ( Q A ) Q A +1

MVI
ADI

MOV

1.6 ( 5.2 )
779

A,5EH ;
A2H ;

C, A ;

1.6 + 5.2
= 4.62 mA
779

[ A ] = 5EH
[ A ] = [ A ] + A2H
= 5EH + A2H
= 00H ;CY = 1
[ C] = [ A ] = 00H

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43.

44.

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Fourier transform of autocorrelation function is the power spectral density of the signal.
Power spectral density of the signal is Real, even and non negative in nature.

H(z)

z = e j

= e j e 3 j + e 5 j
= e 3 j (2cos(2)) 1

H() = 3
Tp =

45.

H()

=3

x [ n ][1 2 3] ; y [ n ] = [1 4 8 8 3]

N1 = 3 which starts at -1 and terminates at +1


N=5 which starts at -2 and terminates at +2.
We know,
N = N1 + N 2 1 N 2 = 3 i.e the number of samples in h[n].
By observation, it can be stated that ' N 2 ' ranges from ' 1' to '+ 1'.
h[n] = [ a 1 a o

a1 ]

a 1

ao

a1

a 1

ao

a1

2a 1

2a o

2a1

3a 1

3a o

3a1

{a 1 , 2a 1 + a o , 3a 1 + 2a 0 + a1 , 3a o + 2a1 , 3a1} = {1

4 8 8 3}

a 1 = 1; 2 + a o = 4 a o = 2
3a1 = 3 a1 = 1

h [ n ] = {1 , 2,1}

46.

The pole location for a second order standard system n jd


So comparing n = 0.46 and d = 0.63
Time for 2nd =

3
3
=
= 14.96 s
d 0.63

Settling time = t s =

4
4
=
= 8.69s
n 0.46

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47.

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By dominant pole technique the reduced open loop transfer function is


100
G(s) =
s(s + 1)(s + 2) 10
To determine the value of when the polar plot intersects with the real axis is nothing but
the phase crossover frequency.
G(j )

=pc

= 180


90 tan 1 () tan 1 = 180
2
= 2 rad / sec

G(j )

=pc

= M = gain m arg in
=

10
+ 1 2 + 4
2

= 1.67
=pc

48.

After writing the characteristic equation Option (C) becomes s3 + 2s 2 + 2 = 0 , which missed
out s-term. So it is unstable.

49.

fi = f c +

kp d
(m(t))
2 dt

d
2 104
4
For max fi m(t) =
= 10
2
dt

109.55k = 105 +

kp
2

.104

kp = 6

50.

f max = 2 2000 Hz; f c = 2 105 Hz


i = 4 105 + 5 4 2000(0)(4.2000t)
+ 7.5 4 1000 cos(4.1200t)
4(7.5 1200 + 5 2000)
Hence =
= 9.5
4 2000

51.

800t
40t
10cos 400t + 2 2cos
cos

2
2

or y(t) = 10cos400 f()1+0.4cos(20 t)


So ma=0.4; Power saved in DSB-SC=Pc
Pc
2
2
% power saving =
=
=
= 92.5 %
2
2
m a 2 + ma 2 + (0.4) 2
Pc 1 +

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52.

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x(f) has spectral speaks at 1 KHz


After balanced modulator the peaks will be at (2 + 1), (2 1) 3 KHz, 1 KHz
After low pass filter with f=2 KHz the peaks are at 1 KHz
Now after balanced modulator (4 + 1), (4 1) 5 KHz, 3 KHz
After low pass filter at 4 KHz the y(f) has spectral peak at 3 KHz

53.

From stokes theorem

 A.dl =
 A.ds

ax ay az

x A=
=0
x y z
x 2 y2 z 2

 A.dl = 0
54.


k = 1 o
2a

3 108
= 6cm
4.95 109
a = 1.59 inches = 40.386mm = 4.04cm

o =

6
k = 1
= 0.6698
2 4.04
Z(TE) =

55.

377
377
=
= 562.94
k
0.6698

Bd cos +
Array factor = 2cos

2 3 3
. =
4
2
o
= 90
Bd =

3
o
2 cos 90
3
o
Thus array factor = 2cos
= 2 cos cos 45
2
4

Null pattern will occur at these point where


d(AF)
=0
d
d(AF)
3
3
= 2sin cos 45o sin
d
4
4
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Equating this to zero


we get =
1
1
cos = , = cos 1
3
3

56.

8 145 140 135 130 125 120 115

= 28.77%
10 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

57.

Exaggerate blowing out of proportion, overstate

58.

i.

, False

ii.

, True

iii.

, True

iv.

, False,

Hence (C) only (II) and (III)


59.

Exulted- to express great pleasure or happiness, especially at someone else's defeat or failure

60.

Reluctant unwilling

61.

[ x ] =1,only if 1 x < 2
1 1
1 1
1 80
4 + 108 = 0, 4 + 108 = 0............................................, 4 + 108 = 0

1 81
1 188
4 + 108 =1,.............................................................., 4 + 108 =1

1
189
1
190
1
216

4 + 108 = 2, 4 + 108 = 2,......................................., 4 + 108 = 2

For1, 2,..................................., 80, [ x ] = 0


For 81,82,83,..........................,188, [ x ] =1

108 x1 =108

For189,190,..........................., 216, [ x ] = 2

28 x 2 = 56

Hence the required sum =108 + 56 = 164


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62.

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Let N =120120120120120120120120...............................................278times
We know that a number is divisible by 72 ( = 8 x 9 ) ,if it is divisible by8and 9
Clearly the last three digits of the given number is120,so it is divisible by 8
Sum of digits = (1 + 2 + 0 ) 278 = 834,soif we divide the number by9, then theremainder is 6
N = 8K = 9M + 6 8K = 9M + 6
The values that fits in for 8K = 9M +6 = 24 or 96
96
The required remainder = rem = 24
72
Alternate Solution:

120
48
72
120120
24
72
120120120
0
72
120120120120
48
72
Forms a cycle,
1 - 48
2 - 24
30
278th - 24
63.

Let the total work be 120 units


A
B
C
D
E
F
Number of days
10 12 15 20 24 30
Units/day
12 10
8
-6
-5
-4
Any three alternate days, whatever way they be paired up, net work done would be the same
i.e.,30 15 = 15 units every 3 days.
Hence, (D)

64.

1 P(x) 50%
0
7
1
6
2
5

1 2
1 2
1 2
1 7 C0 + 7 C1 + 7 C 2 = 0.4293 < 50%
3 3
3 3
3 3

0
8
1
7
2
6

1 2
1 2
1 2
1 8 C0 + 8 C1 + 8C 2 = 0.5317 = 53.17%
3 3
3 3
3 3

65.

(B) and (C) qualifies, but (C) best sums up the passage as it is clearly stated in the passage

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