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Introduction to Geology

Time and Age

How old is old?


Earth is roughly 4.6 billion years old
Put 4.6 billion years into 1 year (365 days)
Dinosaurs appeared in mid-December but became
extinct on December 25. Most of the known petroleum
formed during this time period.
Modern man appeared during the last minute of the last
of the last hour of the last day of the year.
Industrial Revolution began 1-1/2 seconds before
midnight.
Man started keeping records of the weather during the
last second of the last minute of the last hour of the year

From
Petroleum
point of view
this time range
is most
interesting
Mesozoic &
Cenozoic

Pg. 7 in
Geology book

Structure of the Earth


Core is 1800 miles deep
(nickel and iron)
Inner core is solid (pressure
too high to melt)
Outer core is molten
and creates magnetic
field
Mantle is 6-19 miles deep
(Silicon and Magnesium)
Inner mantle is solid
Outer mantle is liquid
rock (1400 - 3000 C)
Crust is thin layer that floats
on top

Continental Drift

THE LAWS OF GEOLOGY


1. LAW OF
UNIFORMITARIANISM:
THE PRESENT IS THE KEY TO
THE PAST.
u-ni-form-i-tar-i-an (yue nuh fr mi
tr'ee uhn) adj.
1. of, pertaining to, or designating
the theory that geologic processes
operative in the remote past were no
different from processes operative
now.

THE LAWS OF GEOLOGY


2. LAW OF SUPERPOSITION:
IN A SEQUENCE OF
UNDISTURBED FORMATIONS,
THE OLDEST FORMATION IS AT
THE BOTTOM OF THE SEQUENCE,
THE YOUNGEST AT THE TOP.

THE LAWS OF GEOLOGY


3. LAW OF FAUNAL
SUCCESSION:
SIMPLEST FOSSILS ARE FOUND IN
THE OLDEST FORMATIONS.

THE LAWS OF GEOLOGY


4. CROSS-CUT
RELATIONSHIPS:
THE OLDER FORMATION
IS CUT BY THE YOUNGER.

THE LAWS OF GEOLOGY


5. INTRUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS
THE YOUNGER
FORMATION INTRUDES
THE OLDER FORMATION.

THE LAWS OF GEOLOGY


6. ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY
LAYERS OF SEDIMENT ARE
ORIGINALLY DEPOSITED
HORIZONTALLY

Matt and Clays Golf Outing

Blithely ignorant of what has happened beneath their feet, our two heroes, Matt and Clayton, tour the links
concerned only with their golf game. Can you decipher the series of events depicted in the cross section? List the
events from youngest to oldest and in each case tell how you established the relative age of that particular event.
Indicate the periods of erosion by drawing wavy lines between letters in the space below.

Saifs Forced March

Professor Takesh forces his students to tramp across the Highlands to see yet another boring monument. Can
you decipher the series of events depicted in the cross section? List the events from youngest to oldest and in
each case tell how you established the relative age of that particular event. Indicate the periods of erosion by
drawing wavy lines between letters in the space below.

Claudia in the Field at Fort Sill

Oblivious to all but the sandstone beneath her feet, Professor Garces has led the participants on the annual field
trip onto the artillery range at Fort Sill. Decipher the geologic events depicted in the cross section and return the
troops to safety quickly. List the events from youngest to oldest and in each case tell how you established the
relative age of that particular event. Indicate the periods of erosion by drawing wavy lines between letters in the
space below. Lava flow X is 50,000,000 years old; lava flow Y is 200,000,000, and lava flow C is 1,000,000,000.
The Dike P is 5,000,000 years old and dike Q is 600,000,000 years old. The metamorphic rock has been dated at
2.5 billion years old. Constrain the absolute age of the deposition of the sedimentary rocks F, H, and K as closely
as possible

Minerals vs- Rocks


Minerals must occur
naturally
Must be inorganic
Must be a solid
Possess atomic pattern
Definite chemical
composition

Any solid mass of mineral


or mineral-like material
Can contain one mineral
or many minerals
Can even have no
minerals (obsidian) or
plant material (coal)

Rocks can contain minerals, but minerals cannot contain rocks!

Mineral Diagnostic Properties

Crystal Form reflects atomic structure


Luster reflected light (metallic, pearly, earthy, etc)
Color obvious, but can be unreliable
Streak drag across unglazed porcelain plate
Hardness very diagnostic, Mohs hardness scale
Cleavage and Fracture way the rock breaks
Specific Gravity heavy vs- light
Acid reaction effervesce (fizz) with acid

Crystal Form

Hardness

Cleavage and Fracture

Luster

Metallic

Vitreous/Glassy

Pearly

Color and Streak

Reaction to Acid

Mineral Groups
Silicates (Quartz, feldspars, etc) and
nonsilicates (carbonates, sulfates, etc)
Silicates composed of SiO4-4 tetrahedron
Single molecule has 4:1 ratio
Molecules can share oxygen ions
3-D framework can have 2:1 ratio
High or low silicon content

Rock Forming Minerals


Element
Oxygen
Silicon
Aluminum
Iron
Calcium
Sodium
Potassium
Magnesium
Titanium
Hydrogen

Symbol Abundance
(Percent)
O
Si
Al
Fe
Ca
Na
K
Mg
Ti
H

46.6
27.7
8.1
5.0
3.6
2.8
2.6
2.1
0.4
0.1

Quartz
Silicate mineral (SiO2)
Resistant to mechanical erosion
Abundant in sediments (most common rockforming mineral making up 12% of the Earths
crust)
Hardness of 7
Sandstone is mostly quartz

Feldspar
Aluminosilicates
Plagioclase - sodium
or calcium
Potassium
Found in sandstone
Forms the Clay in
Shales

Calcite

Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)


Seashells
Lime in limestone
Hardness of 3
Used in Cement
Rhombic cleavage
Fizzes with acid

Dolomite
Calcium Magnesium Carbonate CaMg(CO3)2
Magnesium rich waters replace the Calcium
in limestone
Hardness of 3.5 - 4
Rhombic cleavage
Must be ground up to
fizz with acid

Silicate Abundance

The Rock Cycle

Rock Types

Igneous (5%
production)

Metamorphic (2%
production)

Sedimentary (93%
production)

Igneous Rocks

Igneous Rocks

65% of Earths crust


Two Groups
Extrusive (Small crystals)
Basalt

Intrusive (Large crystals)


Granite

Usually crystalline and


non-porous

Weathering
Rocks exposed
at the surface
Mechanical
Breaks into
smaller pieces

Chemical
Changes in one
or more compounds

Erosion carries away


the product of
weathering
Paper example

Mechanical Weathering

Chemical Weathering

Sediment Transport
Particles are
carried and
deposited by:

Gravity
Wind
Water
Waves
Glacier

Sediment Compaction
Sediments
undergo
lithification by
compaction and
cementation
Sediments then
become
sedimentary rock

Sedimentary Rocks
Vary greatly in appearance
and composition
8% of crust
Cover 75% of land surface
Porous (space
between grains)
Accumulates
petroleum

Metamorphic Rock

Existing rock is altered


Heat
Pressure
Chemically active fluids

Metamorphic Rock

Regional Metamorphism

Metamorphic Rock

Seawater can
help convert
rock to
serpentine
and talc

Metamorphic Rock
Two types
Foliated
Layered or sheet-like
appearance due to
pressure aligning the
minerals (Slate)
Non-foliated
Grains are not aligned
(marble)
About 27% of the crust
Crystalline texture

Rock Cycle

Rock Cycle

Sedimentary Process
Most important rock to
our industry
Sediment types
Clastic
Nonclastic

Clastic Sediments
Smaller pieces of larger
rocks
Classified by grain size
Formed by physical and
chemical weathering

Nonclastic Sediments
Chemical

Precipitation
Crystalline
Limestone
Dolomite
Gypsum
Halite

Lithification
Compaction
Crystallization
Dolomite

Dessication
Cementation

CaCO3
SiO2
Fe2O3
Clays
Silica cement usually
strong, hematite
usually weak

Sediments to Sedimentary Rock


Diagenisis and Lithification

Sedimentary Environments

Continental, Shoreline and Marine

Continental Environments
Fluvial
Meanders
Alluvial fans
Flood plain

Desert
Lake
Glacial

Continental Environments
Fluvial
Meanders
Alluvial fans
Flood plain

Desert
Lake
Glacial

Continental Environments
Fluvial
Meanders
Alluvial fans
Flood plain

Desert
Lake
Glacial

Continental Environments
Fluvial
Desert
Alluvial
Eolian
Evaporate

Lake
Glacial

Continental Environments
Fluvial
Desert
Alluvial
Eolian
Evaporate

Lake
Glacial

Continental Environments

Fluvial
Desert
Lake
Glacial

Shoreline Environment
Deltaic
Beach
Ranges from
clean, sorted
beds of beach
sand, to cross
bedded near
shore

Marine Environment
Continental Shelf
From the beach to edge of
continental mass

Organic reef
Calcareous remnants of
marine organisms

Deep Sea
Low energy deposition
Biochemical precipitates

Environment and Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic
Evaporites
Biological

Clastic Rocks

Conglomerates
Sandstones
Shales

Evaporite Rocks

Gypsum (CaSO4 * 2 H2O)


Anhydrite (CaSO4)
Halite (NaCl)
Potash (K2CO3)

Biological Rocks
Organically deposited
Fossiliferous Limestone
Calcite shells

Coquina
Dolomite
Chalk
Diatomites
Coal

Rock for Jocks


Exercise

Structural Geology
Compressive, Tensional and Shearing

Structural Folds

Anticline and Syncline

Structural Folds

Strike and Dip

Dip and Strike

Line of Strike

Strike and Dip

Structural Folds

Complex Folds

Basins and Domes

Structural Faults
The layers can fracture instead of fold

Normal fault
Reverse (thrust) fault (reverse>45, thrust <45)
Strike-Slip fault
Joints

Real Life
Mixture of folds, faults, erosion, etc.

Hanging and Foot Wall

Some Real pictures-identify each


2
1

Jointing
Fracture with
no relative
displacement

Real Life

Weathering and Age


Weathering and age can lead to gaps in time
Deposition followed by erosion and deposition
Creates structural age gaps
Disconformity, Nonconformity and
Angular Unconformity

Disconformity Deposition -> Erosion -> Deposition


Angular Unconformity Deposition -> Folding -> Erosion -> Deposition
Nonconformity Erosion -> Weathering of Igneous/Metamorphic rock ->
Deposition

An Unconformity Exercise at the Grand Canyon

Rock Properties
Porosity
Permeability

Porosity vs- Permeability


Porosity is the
fluid space
between grains
Permeability is
how well the
fluid flows
through the rock

Porosity and Perm Terms


Secondary (Dual) Porosity
Porosity created after the initial lithification and
diagnesis process.
Natural fractures, vugs, dissolving the insides of the
primary sediment material

Effective Permeability
How well one fluid will flow through a rock when
compared to another fluid (in the same conditions)

Rule of the Rock

Good porosity does not mean there


will be good permeability
(Shale is perfect example)

Requirements for Production


Source rock (usually not a good storage rock)
Reservoir rock (good porosity and perm)
Cap Rock (method for trapping the oil/gas)

Hydrocarbon Traps

Structural anticlines, domes, faults


Stratigraphic lens, pinchouts, unconformities, etc.
Combination have both trapping features

Structural Traps
Oil is lighter
than water
May need a
structural
trap to
stop its
migration

Structural Traps

Stratigraphic Traps

Shoestring Sand
Beach Sand
Lens
Pinchout
Permeability
changes
Unconformities

Stratigraphic Traps

Shoestring Sand
Beach Sand
Lens
Pinchout
Permeability
changes
Unconformities

Stratigraphic Traps

Shoestring Sand
Beach Sand
Lens
Pinchout
Permeability
changes
Unconformities

Stratigraphic Traps

Shoestring Sand
Beach Sand
Lens
Pinchout
Permeability
changes
Unconformities

Stratigraphic Traps

Shoestring Sand
Beach Sand
Lens
Pinchout
Permeability
changes
Unconformities

Stratigraphic Traps

Shoestring Sand
Beach Sand
Lens
Pinchout
Permeability
changes
Unconformities

Combination Traps

Salt Domes

Homework
Computer Based Training
Complete the ilearn modules called:
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
LA-TECH-GLB-LP__-SROCKS-REV_0001

TRAPS AND SEALS


LA-TECH-GLB-LP__-Traps_-REV_0001

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY
LA-TECH-GLB-SSDS-010_FEF-REV_0002

RESERVOIR GEOLOGY
(LA-TECH-GLB-LP__-RESGEO-REV_0001

Thought for the day:

The summit of Mount Everest is


made of marine limestone.
Questions or Concerns?