Solid Figures and Plane Shapes

1st Grade Math Instructional Unit Teacher Work Sample
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Fall 2006

Contextual Factors
Community, District, and School Factors: Fairmont Elementary School is one of eight elementary schools located in Johnson City of upper east Tennessee. Johnson City is located in Washington County but is part of the Johnson City school system. The school system serves approximately 7, 048 students, according to the Johnson City Report Card 2006, per the Tennessee Department of Education website. A total of ten schools make up this system, including eight elementary schools, one middle school, and one high school. With a community population of approximately 57,394 residents, 90.1% of the residents are white, 6.4% African American, 1.2% Asian, and 0.3% American Indian and Alaskan Native. Fairmont Elementary School serves 465 students ranging in grades from Pre-k (Title I) through 5th grade. The student body population is made up of: 401 white students (86.2%), 42 African American students (9.0%), 12 Asian students (2.6%), and 10 Hispanic students (2.2%). Approximately 54.8% of the student population is considered economically disadvantaged, thus receiving free and reduced lunch. These demographics do have a degree of impact on student learning; however, the educational instruction found at Fairmont is top notch. According to the 2006 Johnson City Report Card, Fairmont received all A’s regarding the TVAAS (value-added) scores. This measures the amount of student progress made within a grade and four subject areas: reading/language, math, science, and social studies. To endorse community involvement, Fairmont Elementary and North Side hospital have teamed up as Partners in Education. Churches and other organizations also provide additional support. A few examples of community involvement include: providing back packs, school supplies, and Christmas gifts to the students. The Parent Teacher Association (PTA) is another key support system that is actively involved in the success of Fairmont Elementary School.

Monthly meetings are held to discuss new ideas and to keep individuals updated on the current activities going on. For example, some activities in which parent volunteers are currently needed are: Fall Festival, homeroom volunteers, yearbook, spring fundraiser, and family fun night. Besides the PTA membership, other parental involvement is average, ranging from the help the students receive at home to the help received in the classroom. Student Characteristics: This teacher work sample was created for one of the four first grade classes at Fairmont Elementary School. The population in this class of 21 students consists of 11 males and nine females. Ranging in age from six to seven years old, 18 of the students are white, two students are African American, and one student is Hispanic. Reading/language arts and mathematics are the two main subject areas of focus in this classroom. The majority of the students are working on the 1st grade level, with some variation of higher and lower achievement. Based on this instruction, the higher and lower achieving groups cover the same material; however, some adaptations are made to meet the individual needs for the students in the lower group. The few students of higher achievement read at a 2nd grade level as well as receive more challenging math assignments. Six students, within the lower-ability learning group, have assigned seating, receive additional one-on-one instruction for assignments, are given extra time to complete assignments, and participate in peer tutoring by the students in the higher group. With the lower ability group, three students go to speech, one student attends ESL, and one student is being tested for speech and resource. One other student, who was retained from the previous year, is resource and has an IEP in which she works on a modified scale. To provide these six students with more individualized attention, they all sit at one large table together. The teacher gave two explanations for this arrangement: one to help the students more easily because they are in one location, versus scattered at different tables, and two to

eliminate behavior problems that were occurring at the beginning of the school year. Classroom Factors: The campus of Fairmont Elementary School has a setup of different buildings, which are connected by covered walkways. Buildings B, C, D, F, H, and I contain four classrooms each, and three other buildings house the 1) office, 2) library and computer lab, and 3) gymnasium and cafeteria. This first grade classroom is located in building B, classroom 3. The entrance into this classroom is a small waiting area, which is shared by one of the other first grade classes in B-4. The four classes inside the B building all share a common bathroom area for the boys and the girls. The B building is also located closest to the office area, which also includes the principal’s office, the bookkeeper’s office, the conference room, the teacher’s lounge, and the teacher’s workroom. After entering the building into the waiting area, the classroom doors for B-3 and B-4 always remain shut and locked. To enter these classrooms, one must have a key or knock on the door to be let in. This has been a recent change due to new safety procedures. It would seem that the outside environment would yield distractions to the classroom; however, very little distractions are experienced. The main distraction encountered is the joint bathroom shared by the three other first grade classrooms. Although a door remains shut to separate the classroom/bathroom area, it still causes disruptions at times. The classroom is setup with five rectangular tables and one round table for the students. The yellow, green, and red rectangular tables have room for four chairs each, as does the round table. Two blue rectangular tables are pushed together to form one big table with seven chairs. These two blue tables are the assigned seating for the six students in the lower ability group. Another seating area for the students is the large, brightly colored carpet where whole group instruction for language arts and mathematics takes place. This carpet has different colored

squares, the days of the week, and the months of the year printed on it. The classroom is also equipped with lots of storage space: two large bookshelves, two metal cabinets, and a large teacher closet. The students have individual cubbies, where backpacks, jackets, and other belongings are stored each day. Each cubby has the student’s name and number labeled on the inside. The teacher’s desk is located directly to the left, upon entering the classroom. Here each student has his/her own mailbox to store the activities completed, which are sent home in the daily folders at the end of each day. Located in the front of the classroom is the large white board, where journal prompts and other relevant information is written each day. Two large bulletin boards are located on one wall between two large windows. One bulletin board is used to display individual student work, and the other is used for the daily morning activities. A hundreds chart, a monthly calendar, a birthday bar graph, a counting coins chart, a place value chart, a tally mark chart, and a vocabulary pocket chart are all found on this second bulletin board. The three classroom rules are also posted in the middle of this bulletin board, easily seen by the students. Due to the emphasis on reading, Accelerated Reading books line two walls of the classroom, clearly and neatly organized into labeled baskets. The students are able to select books from these baskets as needed during the hour set aside for Accelerated Reading each day. As the students read these books, they are free to go to one of the four computers found in the classroom and take the matching A.R. test. Three of the computers are located in front of one window, and the fourth computer with the printer is located near the teacher’s desk. A television with a VCR/DVD combo is mounted on the wall, right above where the overhead projector is stored. The classroom also has a CD/tape player available for use at all times, and another tape player with two sets of headphones is located at the listening station. Although, this

first grade class does not use the computer lab often, it is located in the same building as the library. Instructional Implications: All of the contextual factors mentioned will have an impact on the students learning capabilities and academic success. Careful consideration will be taken when planning the components of this instructional unit. The first characteristic that will be addressed is meeting the diverse, individualized needs of the students. Ranging from low to high abilities, appropriate adaptations will be implemented to ensure each student’s success. The activities selected for this unit will be appropriate for all learning styles because Gardner’s multiple intelligences will be utilized. The material will be presented in a way that the students will see, hear, and experience the information first hand. The second characteristic of equal importance is ensuring cross-curricular connections to other educational areas. Within this instructional unit on Solid Figures and Plane Shapes, I plan to connect the material with areas of literature, writing, and technology. To connect literature, a number of books will be introduced to the students to help them learn about geometry. To incorporate writing, each student will have his/her own math journal. The students will be introduced to new vocabulary words from the unit each day, and they will both write the definition and draw a picture of the word. Technology will also be integrated into this unit, through many forms: the computer, the CD player, an educational video, and others. Addressing these important characteristics will create a successful learning environment, in which the students will feel comfortable, confident, and capable of excelling in all areas.

Learning Goals
Learning Goal 1: The student will identify, compare, sort and classify solid figures.  The student will identify spheres, cones, cubes, cylinders, rectangular prisms, and pyramids, to sort and classify them by properties, and to relate them to everyday objects.  The student will sort and classify solid figures by the number of faces and vertices. The student will identify, compare, sort, and classify plane shapes.  The student will identify plane shapes on solid figures.  The student will sort and identify plane shapes by the number of sides and vertices. The student will use the problem solving strategy make a model to solve problems.  The student will use pattern blocks to make a model. Connection to Tennessee Standards Learning goals 1, 2, and 3 meet the following first grade reading curriculum standards set forth by the Tennessee State Department of Education. It is important that the development of both oral language and listening skills are incorporated throughout this entire mathematical unit: Reading – Content Standard 1.0 The student will develop the reading and listening skills necessary for word recognition, comprehension, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and appreciation of print and non-print text. Learning Expectations: 1.1 Develop oral language. b. Implement rules for conversation (e.g., raise hands, take turns, focus attention on speaker). c. Understand, follow and give oral directions. d. Participate in group discussions. 1.02 Develop listening skills. a. Listen attentively to speaker for specific information. b. Use appropriate listening skills (e.g., do not interrupt, face speaker, ask questions).

Learning Goal 2:

Learning Goal 3:

Regarding the Tennessee standards for first grade mathematics, all three learning goals have in common an alignment with content standard 3.0, Geometry. Learning goal 1 on solid

figures also aligns with Algebra, content standard 2.0, while learning goal 3 also aligns with Numbers and Operations, content standard 1.0. This is only a brief overview of how the three learning goals are directly aligned with the Tennessee State Curriculum Standards for Mathematics First Grade. For a more detailed description please refer to the three visual aids shown at the end of this section. Learning goals 1, 2, and 3 are visually outlined with the Tennessee content standard, learning expectation, accomplishment(s), and also the connection to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards. Levels of Learning Goals Each of the three learning goals for this instructional unit has been directly aligned with the levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Upon completion of this unit, the students should demonstrate understanding of the material ranging from simple recall (Level 1 - Knowledge) to synthesizing information (Level 5 – Synthesis). For learning goal 1, the students must first understand and identify what solid figures are, thus addressing level 1 of Bloom’s taxonomy, knowledge. After this initial concept is understood, the students will take solid figures a step further by comparing, sorting and classifying them. By completing these three skills, the students will be fulfilling level 2, comprehension, level 3, application, and level 4, analysis, of Bloom’s taxonomy. Learning goal 2 requires that the students identify, compare, sort and classify plane shapes. The initial concept of identifying what plane shapes are reflects simple recall of the material, thus level 1, knowledge. The students will also be required to compare/contrast and analyze the characteristics and properties of these plane shapes, thus fulfilling level 2, comprehension, and level 4, analysis. The students must then apply what they have learned by identifying plane shapes on solid figures. By completing this skill, the students will meet level 3 of Bloom’s taxonomy, application.

Learning goal 3 will show that students can apply their learned knowledge of solid figures and plane shapes by making a model to solve problems. Various steps will be demonstrated during this make a model process: understand what the problem is asking, plan how the problem can be solved, solve the problem by creating a model, and lastly check to see if the answer makes sense. By completing each of these steps, the students will work at both the analysis level (level 4) and the synthesis level (level 5) of Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy. Context of Learning Goals The learning goals stated for this unit are developmentally appropriate for the first grade students because they reflect the first grade mathematics curriculum standards set forth by the Tennessee State Department of Education. Students may enter this unit with prior knowledge of naming certain figures and shapes, but they will be exposed to more challenging, real world applications of how these geometrical shapes are used. The material presented on solid figures and plane shapes will require basic knowledge recall; however, will promote that the students become more observant of the role these geometrical shapes play in their own classroom as well as the outside world. Several levels of learning are reflected within these three learning goals, ensuring the success of students with varying abilities and intelligences.

Learning Goal 1
The student will identify, compare, sort and classify SOLID figures.

Algebra – Content Standard 2.0 The student will understand and generalize patterns as they represent and analyze quantitative relationships and change in a variety of contexts and problems using graphs, tables, and equations.

Geometry - Content Standard 3.0 The student will develop an understanding of geometric concepts and relationships as the basis for geometric modeling and reasoning to solve problems involving one-, two-, and three-dimensional figures.

Learning Expectation 2.1 Sort and classify objects by size, number, and other properties. Accomplishments 1.2.1 a. sort objects by two attributes; b. describe how objects in a group are alike and how they are different.

Learning Expectation 3.1 Analyze characteristics and properties of geometric shapes.

Accomplishments 1.3.1
a. recognize basic properties of and similarities and differences between simple geometric figures (e.g., number of sides, corners).

2. Algebra 3. Geometry 6. Problem Solving 7. Reasoning and Proof 8. Communication Taken from the Tennessee State Curriculum Standards for Mathematics First 9. Connections Grade 10. Representation National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards 3. Geometry 6. Problem Solving 8. Communication 10. Representation Taken from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards

2. Algebra

7. Reasoning and Proof 9. Connections

Learning Goal 2 Learning Goal 2
The student will identify, compare, sort and classify PLANE shapes.

Geometry Content Standard 3.0 The student will develop an understanding of geometric concepts and relationships as the basis for geometric modeling and reasoning to solve problems involving one-, two-, and three-dimensional figures.

Learning Expectation 3.1 Analyze characteristics and properties of geometric shapes.
Accomplishments 1.3.1 a. recognize basic properties of and similarities and differences between simple geometric figures (e.g., number of sides, corners); b. predict and describe the results of putting together and taking apart two- and three-dimensional geometric figures.

Learning Expectation 3.2 Specify locations and describe spatial relationships.
Accomplishments 1.3.2 b. apply spatial sense to create a figure from memory.

Taken from the Tennessee State Curriculum Standards for Mathematics First Grade 2. Algebra National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 3. Geometry (NCTM) Standards 6. Problem Solving 2. Algebra 3. Geometry 6. Problem Solving 7. Reasoning and Proof 8. Communication 7. Reasoning and Proof 8. Communication 9. Connections 9. Connections 10. Representation 10. Representation Taken from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards

Learning Goal 3 Learning Goal 3
The student will use the problem solving strategy make a model to solve problems.
Geometry Content Standard 3.0
The student will develop an understanding of geometric concepts and relationships as the basis for geometric modeling and reasoning to solve problems involving one-, two-, and three-dimensional figures.

Numbers and Operations Content Standard 1.0
The student will develop number and operation sense needed to represent numbers and number relationships verbally, symbolically, and graphically and to compute fluently and make reasonable estimates in problem solving.

Learning Goal 1.3 Solve problems, compute fluently, and make reasonable estimates. Accomplishments 1.1.3 a. use words, actions, pictures, and manipulatives to solve problems;

Learning Expectation 3.1 Analyze characteristics and properties of geometric shapes.

Learning Expectation 3.2 Specify locations and describe spatial relationships.

Accomplishments 1.3.1 Accomplishment 1.3.2 b. recognize basic properties c. apply spatial sense to create of and similarities and a figure from memory. differences between simple geometric figures (e.g., number of sides, corners); c. predict and describe the results of putting together and taking apart two- and three-dimensional geometric figures.

Taken from the Tennessee State Curriculum Standards for Mathematics First Grade 2. Algebra National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 3. Geometry (NCTM) Standards 6. Problem Solving 7. Reasoning and Proof 8. Communication 9. Connections 10. Representation

3. Geometry 7. Reasoning and Proof

6. Problem Solving 8. Communication

Taken from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards Learning Goal 1: Learning Goal 2: Learning Goal 3: solve I. The student will identify, compare, sort and classify solid figures. The student will identify, compare, sort and classify plane shapes. The student will use the problem solving strategy make a model to problems. Pre-Assessment a. Mode: Multiple Choice Pre-Test (Learning Goals 1, 2, 3)
i. The multiple choice test includes ten questions that will measure the students’ prior knowledge of all three learning goals. It will be administered the Friday before the unit starts on the following week. ii. Four pictorial or four numerical answer choices will be provided for each question. Scoring: The multiple choice pre-test will be scored traditionally based on the answer key, and a numerical score out of 100 will be given. The unit’s design for instruction will be based on the outcome of these pre-test scores. The results of this pre-test will also be used after the post-test has been administered to analyze student learning.

Assessment Plan Assessment Plan

II.

Formative Assessment b. Mode: Vocabulary Development (Learning Goals 1, 2)
i. Students will create and maintain a vocabulary math journal. ii. Students will add new vocabulary words to the journal each day by illustrating and writing the definition of the specific figure or shape. iii. The vocabulary words will be added to the Math Word Wall throughout the unit. iv. Students will play memory by matching the vocabulary words to the appropriate pictures. Scoring: The vocabulary math journals will be monitored daily. The students will be expected to: practice neat handwriting, learn correct pronunciation, and read the definitions of the vocabulary words listed in the math journal (both daily and at the end of the unit).

c. Mode: Daily Lesson Handout (Learning Goals 1, 2, 3)
i. Students will work the problems on the handout that correlates with the objective of each daily lesson. ii. The handout reviews the new vocabulary words and presents the information from each lesson in various question formats. Examples of various question formats include: writing the answer, coloring the answer, circling the answer, drawing the answer, and modeling the answer. Scoring: The lesson handout will be checked daily. Numeric or letter grades will not be given on each handout; however, the students will be given a star to indicate scoring. A star will only be given when every problem has been correctly completed. Students who have missed a problem(s) will be given the

opportunity to first correct it on their own or with a partner’s help. If the student still struggles, the teacher will sit down and work the problem one-onone with the student.

d. Mode: Essential Questions (Learning Goals 1, 2, 3)
i. The essential question serves as both the introduction and summarizing strategy for each daily lesson. ii. Students will respond to the essential question every day by doing one of two things: delivering their answers orally or writing their responses on the “Ticket Out the Door.” This will be determined based upon the teacher’s discretion. Scoring: The teacher will take note of the students’ responses to the essential question each day. They will be used for future modifications of the lessons as well as an informal assessment of determining student progress.

III.

Post-Assessment e. Mode: Multiple Choice Post-Test (Learning Goals 1, 2, 3)
i. The same ten question, multiple choice test (that was used for the pre-test) will be administered for the post-test. This test will be given to the students the following Monday after the instructional unit concluded the previous week. Scoring: The multiple choice post-test will also be scored traditionally using the answer key, and a numerical score out of 100 will be given. The results of this posttest will be used to analyze individual, subgroup, and whole group progress made in meeting the three learning goals for this unit.

The unit assessment plan on Solid Figures and Plane Shapes will be divided into three main parts: the pre-assessment, the formative assessments, and the post-assessment. One assessment mode, the multiple choice test, will be duplicated for the purposes of the pre- and post-assessment of the unit. The formative assessments will be ongoing over the course of the five-day unit, in which three different modes will be used. Since I will be working with a first grade class, numerical grades will only be recorded, for my own purpose, for the pre-and posttest. The formative assessment modes will be evaluated daily through teacher observation and informal assessment. Description of Pre-Assessment Pre-testing the students before the unit begins will show both individual and group strengths and weaknesses, allowing more detailed instruction to be planned for and carried out. A ten question multiple choice test will be used to pre-test the first grade students’ knowledge on

solid figures and plane shapes. This test will be administered the Friday before the five-day unit begins the following week. To eliminate any confusion or anxiety, each question will be read aloud to the first grade students, and then they will be asked to select their answer choice by filling in one of the four bubbles. Limited assistance will also be provided to the students, in that, the teacher will only clarify or re-read the questions. However, because this assessment is to determine what the students know and do not know, the teacher will not help the students select an answer. This multiple choice test measures all three learning goals mentioned before but more specifically: four questions (1-4) measure learning goal 1, four questions (5-8) measure learning goal 2, and two questions (9-10) measure learning goal 3. To obtain an accurate measure of what the first grade students learned during this unit, the same ten question multiple choice test will be duplicated at the end of the unit for the post-test. Description of Formative Assessments Three modes of formative assessment: vocabulary development, daily lesson handouts, and essential questions, will be implemented throughout the five-day unit for the purposes of assessing student progress each day. Vocabulary development, the first mode of assessment, will align with learning goals 1 and 2. The students will create and maintain a vocabulary math journal, in which they will both write and illustrate the solid figures and plane shapes they learn about throughout the unit. To encourage further recall of the new vocabulary, the students will participate in a memory game of linking the vocabulary words to the appropriate pictures. The math journals will be monitored daily by the teacher, and the students will be expected to: practice neat handwriting, learn correct pronunciations, and read the words/definitions aloud. The second mode of formative assessment, the daily lesson handouts, will measure all three learning goals on different days of the unit. Five lessons (Lesson 15.1 to Lesson 15.5)

make up this five-day unit, and each day the students will complete the related handouts. For example, the handout on Solid Figures correlates with Lesson 15.1, the handout on Faces and Vertices correlates with Lesson 15.2, and so on. Each lesson handout is composed of questions that meet the objective for that daily lesson; however, the questions are presented in various formats. Examples of this may include: writing the answer, coloring the answer, circling the answer, drawing the answer, or modeling the answer. The teacher will check the lesson handouts daily to determine the student progress being made. Based on this progress, it may or may not be necessary to make modifications to the future lessons of the unit. The third mode of formative assessment, the essential question (EQ), is basically the objective for each daily lesson stated in the format of a question. For example, the EQ for Lesson 15.1 on Solid Figures may be: What are solid figures and how do I identify them? The essential questions will serve as both the introduction and summarizing strategies everyday during the five-day unit. The students will be expected to read the EQ aloud before the lesson begins, and then conclude the lesson by responding to the EQ. The teacher will decide each day the type of student response; the students may answer the question orally or they may have to fill out a written “Ticket Out the Door.” Description of Post-Assessment The post-assessment of the unit on Solid Figures and Plane Shapes will involve the duplicated multiple choice test that was given for the pre-test at the beginning of the unit. The same adaptations made for the pre-test will also apply here: the teacher will read the questions aloud and limited assistance will be provided to the students. Learning goals 1, 2, and 3 will correlate with the same questions on this multiple choice test, as mentioned above in the preassessment section. Once the post-tests are scored, using the traditional answer key, analysis of

the collected data will begin. Individual, subgroup, and whole group results from both the pretest and the post-test will be shown in a number of charts, tables, and graphs. The ultimate goal of analyzing these results is to measure student success in achieving the three learning goals.

Learning Goals Learning Goal 1

Assessments I. Pre-Assessment

Format of Assessment I. Multiple Choice Pre-Test

Adaptations I. Read aloud, provide additional time, give limited assistance II. Visual and auditory directions, teacher assistance, provide and model multiple explanations, additional time, peer tutoring, reteaching (if necessary) Each activity should be kept brief and engaging. III. Read aloud, provide additional time, give limited assistance I. Read aloud, provide additional time, give limited assistance II. Visual and auditory directions, teacher assistance, provide and model multiple explanations, additional time, peer tutoring, reteaching (if necessary) Each activity should be kept brief and engaging.

 The student will
identify, compare, sort and classify solid figures.  Lesson 15.1  Lesson 15.2 II. Formative Assessment II. Vocabulary Development (Solid Figures)  Math Journals  Math Word Wall  Math Memory Game Lesson 15.1/Lesson 15.2 Handouts  Solid Figures  Faces and Vertices Essential Question III. Multiple Choice Post-Test

III. Post-Assessment

Learning Goal 2

I. Pre-Assessment

I. Multiple Choice Pre-Test

 The student will
identify, compare, sort and classify plane shapes.  Lesson 15.3  Lesson 15.4 II. Formative Assessment II. Vocabulary Development (Plane Shapes)  Math Journals  Math Word Wall  Math Memory Game Lesson 15.3/Lesson 15.4 Handouts  Plane Shapes on Solid Figures  Sort and Identify Plane Shapes Essential Question III. Multiple Choice Post-Test

III. Post-Assessment

III. Read aloud, provide additional time, give limited assistance I. Read aloud, provide additional time II. Visual and auditory directions, teacher assistance, provide and model multiple explanations, additional time, peer tutoring, reteaching (if necessary) Each activity should be kept brief and engaging.

Learning Goal 3

I. Pre-Assessment II. Formative Assessment

I. Multiple Choice Pre-Test II. Lesson 15.5 Handout  Problem Solving Strategy: Make a Model Essential Question

 The student will use
the problem solving strategy make a model to solve problems.  Lesson 15.5

III. Post-Assessment

III. Multiple Choice Post-Test

III. Read aloud, provide additional time, give limited assistance

Design for Instruction
Results of Pre-Assessment Before beginning instruction of this mathematical unit, I pre-tested the prior knowledge of 21 students on solid figures and plane shapes. The mode of assessment used was a tenquestion multiple choice test that addressed the three learning goals. Questions one through four met learning goal 1, questions five through eight met learning goal 2, and questions nine and ten on the multiple choice test met learning goal 3. Numerical grades are not normally recorded for these first grade students; however, these ten questions were scored on a 100 point scale. For example, if a student received 5 out of the 10 questions correct his/her score would be a 50% or 50/100. Questions one through four on this pre-test met learning goal 1: TSW identify, compare, sort and classify solid figures. An average of the correct answers for these four questions revealed that about half, 52%, of the students understood this goal. More specifically, 76% answered question 1 correctly, 67% answered question 2 correctly, and 33% of the students answered questions 3 and 4 correctly. New vocabulary words, that were unfamiliar to the majority of students, were introduced within these four questions. Some example words were: stack, roll, slide, face, and vertices. Increasing familiarity with the vocabulary in this unit will be addressed within the design for instruction. Questions five through eight met learning goal 2: TSW identify, compare, sort and classify plane shapes. Averaging the correct responses for these questions showed that approximately 77% of the students understood the goal of plane shapes. I believe this percentage was a bit skewed because all 21 students answered question 6 correctly: Which shape is a triangle? The results of the correct responses to the other three questions were as follows: 33% answered question 5 correctly, 86% answered question 7 correctly, and 90% of the students

answered question 8 correctly. Based on the 100% correct responses given on identifying the triangle, I was able to determine that the students had some prior knowledge of identifying 2dimensional plane shapes. Keeping this in mind, more emphasis will be placed on comparing, sorting and classifying these shapes during this instructional unit, rather than identification skills. Questions nine and ten met learning goal 3: TSW use the problem solving strategy make a model to solve problems. An average of 64% of the students gave correct responses to these last two problems on the pre-test. More specifically, 62% of the students answered question 9 correctly and 66% answered question 10 correctly. Since all the students did not master the objective for learning goal 3, further instruction will be provided. A hands-on approach, using manipulatives, will be taken to meet the individual learning styles of all the students.
Solid Figures and Plane Shapes Pre-test Results
120% Percentage of Correct Responses 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 n n n n n n n io io io io io io io io n io n io n 10
76% 67% 62% 67% 100% 86% 90%

Learning Goal 1 Learnin g Goal 2 Learning Goal 3

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Unit Overview – Solid Figures and Plane Shapes Day One
Topic
Solid Figures Lesson 15.1

Day Two
Faces and Vertice s Lesson 15.2
Essential Question: What are faces and vertices? face, vertex (vertices) Review the names and solid figure objects by playing a game of memory, before introducing faces and vertices. Pages 253A-254 1. Have all six solid figures available, but start with the cube. Ask students to describe what they see. Then introduce the new vocabulary words, face and vertex (vertices), to the students. 2. Explain that solid figures have faces, which are the flat surfaces. Ask the students to help count the number of

Day Three
Plane Shapes on Solid Figures Lesson 15.3
Essential Question: How do I identify plane shapes on solid figures? rectangle, square, circle, triangle Show the students a short video about Plane Shapes from the Brain Pop Junior website to introduce the lesson. 1. Pages 255A-256 After watching the Brain Pop Junior video, ask children to name four plane shapes, which are the vocabulary words for this lesson: rectangle, square, circle, triangle. Discuss how plane shapes are twodimensional (flat), and introduce that plane shapes are found on the faces of solid figures. Demonstrate this

Day Four
Sort and Identify Plane Shapes Lesson 15.4

Day Five
Problem Solving: Make a Model Lesson 15.5

Objective(s) Vocabulary Words Set

Essential Question: What are solid figures? sphere, cone, cube, cylinder, rectangular prism, pyramid Play Track 15 from the Math Jingles CD to introduce solid figures.

Essential Question: How do I sort and identify plane shapes? side, vertex (vertices) Read the book, Circus Shapes, to the students. The book highlights key plane shapes: circles, triangles, squares, and rectangles. 1. Pages 257A-258 Draw the four plane shapes on the white board: rectangle, square, circle, and triangle. Draw an arrow to one side of each shape and ask the students what it is pointing to. The correct response is the SIDE of the shape. Then draw a dot on one vertex of each shape, and see if students can remember from Tuesday what it is called: a vertex.

Essential Question: How do I use pattern blocks to make a model? Review the vocabulary words from the previous lessons Read the book, The Snake Shapes Book, aloud to the students. Review the two main concepts of this unit: solid figures and plane shapes. Pages 259A-260

Instructional Procedures

1.

2.

Pages 251A-252 Talk about the six different solid figures: sphere, cone, cube, cylinder, rectangular prism, and pyramid. Introduce these new vocabulary words to the students by showing both wooden solid figures and examples of real objects. Once the students are familiar with the solid figures and their attributes, play a

1. Talk to the students about
how knowing different strategies can help them. Introduce this strategy, make a model. 2. Use the overhead projector to work various questions. Show the students using pattern block manipulatives, how to work these problems. Allow the students to explore the manipulatives. Write examples questions on the overhead, and give the students a chance to

2.

guessing game. A solid will be placed in a bag and volunteers will take turns feeling the solid and describing it to the class. 3. After the class guesses each solid figure, we will talk about whether it stacks, rolls, or slides. A Venn diagram graphic organizer will be used to sort these solid figures into categories. 4. When the students begin working on the activities below, place a set of miniature solid figures on each table for the students to refer to, if necessary. Activities: • Lesson 15.1 Math Handout • Math Journal – Draw and write new vocabulary words • Discuss Essential Question

faces on the cube. Then explain and show that the vertex (vertices) is where the faces come together in a point. Count the cube’s vertices together. 3. Continue discussing the faces and vertices of the rest of the solid figures. Activities: • Lesson 15.2 Math Handout • Math Journal – New vocabulary words • Discuss Essential Question – Ticket Out the Door

concept to the students by tracing around these solid figures: rectangular prism, cube, cylinder, and pyramid on chart paper. Have the students predict what plane shape will be the result. 3. Once the students understand this concept, explain the activities. Activities: • Create a SHAPE MOBILE - The students will match the picture of the plane shape to the picture of the solid figure. They will glue the pictures of these pairs on larger plane shape cutouts: rectangular prism – rectangle, pyramid – triangle, cube – square, cylinder – circle • Lesson 15.3 Math Handout • Discuss Essential Question

2.

Explain to students that solid figures are 3dimensional and have faces, while plane shapes are 2dimensional and have sides. 3. To reinforce the new vocabulary word, side, the students will participate in a short activity. The students will hold yarn to form the following shapes. For example, to make a square the yarn will represent the four sides, and the students holding the yarn will represent the four vertices. Continue making shapes until all the students have participated. Discuss the number of sides and vertices for each shape formed. 4. Play a shape riddle game with the students. Activities: • Lesson 15.4 Math Handout • Math Journal and Essential Question 1. How would you use your knowledge about sides and vertices to identify plane shapes? Application

work with their partner to solve the answer. 3. Once the students understand this concept of using multiple shapes to make other shapes, distribute various pattern block designs. Activities: • Various Pattern Block Designs - The students will use the pattern block manipulatives to make the various designs. They can switch designs with other students once they complete the one they have. • Lesson 15.5 Math Handout • Summarize Essential Question – Ticket Out the Door

Questions for 1. How would you summarize the Highervocabulary word: solid Order figures? Thinking Comprehension

1.

Summarize the two vocabulary words: face and vertex (vertices). Comprehension

1. Compare and contrast
solid figures and plane shapes. Comprehension What examples of plane

1.

2.

2.

What other shapes can be found within a diamond, square, hexagon, etc? Analysis Can you propose an

2.

What examples of real objects in the classroom can be found of solid figures? Application

2.

How would you sort and classify solid figures by the number of faces and vertices? Analysis

shapes can you find on solid figures? Application

2.

What is the relationship between the plane shapes: rectangle and square? Analysis

alternative strategy, instead of make a model, to solve problems? Synthesis

Learning Goal 1

Learning Goal 1

Learning Goal 2

Learning Goal 2

Learning Goal 3

Solid Figure Guessing Game/Venn Diagram On day one of this instructional unit, the first learning goal will be introduced through the topic of this lesson: solid figures. The students will have to identify six solid figures and sort and classify them by their properties. Based on the pre-assessment, out of the three learning goals, the students had the most trouble understanding this one. Therefore, this activity will focus on detailed instruction, using a variety of Gardner’s multiple intelligences. The students will visually see these solid figures, will hear descriptions about them, and will experience a hands-on approach. To begin, I will see how much the students know about the names of these six solid figures. Without writing any names on the board, I will ask the students to raise their hand if they know what the wooden figure is called when I hold it up. Depending on how well they do will determine how much time needs to be spent on identifying the figures. Once the students can name each wooden solid figure, I will show the students everyday objects and see if they can relate these to the solid figure names. For example, I will hold up a Kleenex box and the students should respond by saying a rectangular prism. A can of soup would be an example of a cylinder and so on. For the activity, I will place a wooden solid figure into a bag without the students seeing what the figure is. A volunteer will come up and stick their hand down in the bag without looking at the solid figure. This student will use describing words to give clues about the figure, and the class will have to guess which one it is. Once the class guesses the figure, we will discuss whether it stacks, rolls, and/or slides. A large Venn diagram on chart paper will serve as the recording sheet for this investigation. The diagram will be labeled for whether the six figures stack, roll, or do both. The wooden solid figures and everyday objects will be available to help

the students make their decision. To assess student learning, the math handout that correlates with this lesson will be used as the formative assessment. On the front of the handout, a large 4x6 table has been created for the students to fill in. The solid figures are shown in the first column, and the students must tell whether the figure stacks, rolls, and slides by writing yes or no. Each table will have a tray with one set of solid figure manipulatives to use when filling in the table. I will walk around while the students are working and provide additional assistance to any students who need help. Shape Mobile Day three will begin the introduction of learning goal 2, which deals with identifying, comparing, sorting, and classifying plane shapes. To introduce this concept, a video from the Brain POP jr. website will cover the four plane shapes of interest: a circle, a square, a triangle, and a rectangle. Based on the pre-assessment, the students understood this learning goal the best, with prior knowledge of identifying these plane shapes from Kindergarten. Therefore, extensive discussion about these shapes will not be necessary, allowing more time to be spent on the Shape Mobile activity. The Shape Mobile activity entails more than just identifying these four plane shapes. The students must use the information they learned about solid figures, the previous two days, to complete this activity. A handout with four plane shape (circle, square, triangle, rectangle) and four solid figure (cylinder, cube, pyramid, rectangular prism) cutouts, randomly arranged, will be given to each student. The students will be required to cut these shapes out and match the plane shape to the solid figure, for a total of four pairs. To determine which two shapes match, the students will have to answer this question: What plane shape do I get if I trace around this solid figure? For example, if you trace around a cylinder the plane shape is a circle, hence one match.

The students will continue until all four matches have been made. To avoid making this an “expensive” activity, the Shape Mobiles will be pre-assembled for the students. However, in order for the students to earn a shape mobile, they must first answer the essential question: How do I identify plane shapes on solid figures? I will circulate around the room, and as the students finish I will talk to them individually. Each student will be required to show me the four matches that they made, and then identify each shape by using the correct names (vocabulary terms) we will have learned. Then, the students will be able to glue these pairs on the Shape Mobile and decorate it with shape patterns. Pattern Block Manipulatives and Designs Manipulatives are a wonderful resource to enhance student learning and will be utilized to introduce the problem solving strategy, make a model, on day five. This activity directly correlates with learning goal 3, while addressing similar questions from the pre-assessment. The students need to recognize that shapes can be broken down into smaller shapes. For example, a diamond can be divided into two triangles…a rectangle into two squares…and so on. This activity will provide a hands-on approach, thus meeting the various learning styles of the students discussed within the contextual factors. To begin the activity, I will have a tray filled with pattern blocks on each table for the students to share. Time will be given, before any instruction begins, for the students to explore and build things with these pattern blocks. I will circulate around the classroom and interact with the students during this time, observing the learning that will be taking place. Once the students have discovered the purpose of the pattern blocks, various design cards will be distributed to the students. These cards will require the students to select specific pattern blocks to complete the design. After the students have had the opportunity to complete several pattern

block designs, the activity will move forward. I will collect the design cards but leave the pattern blocks in the middle of each table. I will ask the students how they think pattern blocks can be used to make a model. A brief discussion will occur, and then we will work specific problems using the overhead projector. For example, one question may be: How many make a ? I will ask each student to find

these shapes and see if they can use the pattern blocks to answer it. I will model these questions on the overhead for the students to reference, and we will continue to work additional examples. To assess student learning, I will direct the students’ attention to one mode of formative assessment: the essential question. Instead of having an oral discussion, I will ask the students to complete a Ticket Out the Door, which correlates with the essential question. The Ticket Out the Door will have one of two questions on it for the student to use the pattern blocks and answer it. The questions will be similar to the examples we worked using the overhead. An example may be: How may make a ? This will allow me to determine two things: if the students

used the manipulatives correctly and if they understood that smaller different shapes could form larger shapes. Technology Various forms of technology will be incorporated throughout this unit. The CD player, the computer, a video camera, and the overhead projector will serve as instructional tools that will enhance student learning. The CD player will be utilized during this unit for two purposes. The first purpose directly relates to the lesson on day one, in that a math jingle will be played to introduce the lesson on solid figures. The CD player will also be used throughout the five-day unit to play music while the students are working. The computer will be used to show a video from the Brain Pop Junior website about plane shapes. Demonstrating to the first grade students

that the computer is extremely useful, for other things than just Accelerated Reader, will serve as a good lesson for the students to learn. Another important form of technology that will be utilized during this unit is the operation of a video camera. The lesson on Plane Shapes will be videoed for my own personal reflection as well as to meet the student teaching requirements as one supervisor observation. The final form of technology to integrate will be the overhead projector. This will be used specifically for day five’s lesson; however, it may also be incorporated for additional purposes.

Instructional Decision-Making

Decision/Situation I – Day Two Lesson on Faces and Vertices On day two of my instructional unit on Solid Figures and Plane Shapes, the topic of the lesson was sorting and classifying solid figures by the number of faces and vertices. Two new vocabulary words were introduced to the students: faces and vertex (vertices). The previous day’s lesson was identifying six different solid figures by name, sorting, and classifying them by properties. The students did a wonderful job at recognizing and recalling the names of the figures. I asked the students how they knew this information, and they said they learned it in Kindergarten. Based on the students’ understanding of the lesson on day one, I assumed that they would grasp the concept of faces and vertices relatively easily. However, seeing the blank expression on some of the student’s faces during the lesson gave me an indication that I needed to re-teach this lesson. Another indication was confirmed when I was checking the daily math handout (one mode of formative assessment) that went along with Lesson 15.2. The majority of the students were extremely confused about how to count and identify the number of faces and vertices found on the six solid figures. On the following day, a new plan to re-teach this lesson on faces and vertices was put into action. My mentor teacher had a large container filled with 3-dimensional wooden blocks, and I dumped these out into the middle of the rug in the classroom. I also wrote the two vocabulary words on the white board for the students to see. I asked all of the students to join me on the rug and sit around the blocks. We briefly talked about why the lesson was confusing on the previous day, and the consensus was that the students did not have their own blocks to hold in their hands. I began the lesson by re-introducing the two vocabulary words and having the students, as a group, repeat the words after me. I asked each student to select a wooden block from the pile and hold it in his/her hands. I explained that the word face meant the flat surface on the figure,

and I asked each student to feel this on his/her block. Then, I had the students select another wooden block and repeat this process. Once each student clearly understood what the word meant, I asked each student to count the faces of his/her figure and show me the number using their fingers. By simply looking around the circle, I could easily observe which students understood this concept and which ones did not. I repeated this same process for re-teaching the vocabulary word vertex (vertices). Although a few of the higher achievers in the group grasped this concept on the first day, I did not see any harm in having them participate in this re-teaching lesson. It would allow them extra practice and further, deeper understanding of the concept. For the students who were confused, I thought this new lesson would improve their progress toward learning goal one because they could count the faces and vertices on the actual solid figure. When the students do not have access to these solid figure manipulatives, they have to use abstract thought by picturing what the object looks like in their mind. This type of abstract thinking appears to be developmentally inappropriate for this group of first grade students. Decision/Situation II – Access to Manipulatives for Post-Test When reviewing the results of the pre-test, questions three and four were missed by 67% of the students in the class. These two questions specifically asked about the faces and vertices of solid figures. On this pre-test, the solid figures appear flat on the paper, thus requiring the students to picture this solid figure in their mind and count the faces and/or vertices abstractly. The same multiple-choice test will be used for the post-test of this instructional unit. Based on the confusion experienced by the students during the lesson on faces and vertices, I will give the students access to solid figure manipulatives. These six solid figures: sphere, cone, cylinder,

cube, rectangular prism, and pyramid will be placed on a tray and set in front of each student during the administration of the post-test. Each student will have the opportunity to access these manipulatives, if they choose to do so, but the administrator of the post-test will not push the use of these solid figures. This instructional decision to have manipulatives available during the post-test is an acceptable procedure, in that current educators are allowed to use manipulatives during formal achievement testing. Decision/Situation III – Math Journals The creation and maintenance of math journals was the first mode of formative assessment within my assessment plan for this instructional unit. Vocabulary development was a critical component to the understanding and achievement of the three learning goals. Thirteen vocabulary words were introduced throughout this unit, and my initial plan was to the have the students write the definition and draw a picture for each word. I quickly realized two things: 1) this was asking too much of the students and 2) it was an “expensive” activity. On day one, the six vocabulary words that were introduced were the names of the six solid figures. It was both doubtful and unsuitable to think that these first grade students could copy the definitions and draw pictures of all six solid figures in one class period. I realized that this initial thought was developmentally inappropriate, and it would turn into an “expensive” activity. An “expensive” activity is one in which the majority of the time is spent doing monotonous, repetitive work and little or no learning takes place. If I would have asked the students to copy the definitions and draw pictures for all six solid figures, some learning may have occurred. However, the majority of the time would have been spent simply copying down the words written on the board. Based on these two realizations, I altered the way the math journals were used. Instead of copying definitions, I broadened the journal topics. For example, after we addressed learning

goal one on solid figures, I had the students write a journal entry about solid figures. I wrote this journal prompt on the board: My favorite solid shape is ________________. The students had to fill in the blank with one of the six solid figures we talked about and then write another sentence about the figure. This minor adjustment allowed me to assess much more than simply reading the definition that the students would have originally wrote. I could easily see if each student knew what a solid figure was and how he/she related it to everyday objects. Here are some examples of the student responses: 1) My favorite solid shape is a cone because you can eat ice cream out of it. 2) My favorite solid shape is a sphere. Balls are fun to play with. 3) My favorite solid shape is a rectangular prism because you can get a pet like a hamster and you can put it in. These journal entry examples will be included in the Appendix of this teacher work sample. Broadening the use of these math journals enhanced student progress toward learning goals one and two because the students had to use higher-order thinking skills. Instead of simply recalling the definition of a vocabulary word, the students had to recall the definition and apply it to real situations.

Analysis of Student Learning
Whole Class Performance The same ten-question multiple choice test was administered for both the pre- and posttest of this instructional unit on Solid Figures and Plane Shapes. The test addressed the three specific learning goals identified earlier in the unit: questions one through four met learning goal one on solid figures, questions five through eight met learning goal two on plane shapes, and questions nine and ten met learning goal three on making a model. The class average on the pretest was 65%, and it was based on this score that a detailed five-day instructional plan was created. The specific modes of formative assessment were implemented to specifically target the learning goals and to improve this average pre-test score. Indeed, the specific planning and implementation paid off because the class average on the post-test reached 95%. This is only a broad overview of the whole group success experienced by the students, and the data will now be broken down by the whole group mastery of each learning goal.
Whole Class Results
120% Percentage of Correct Responses 100% 94% 80% 77% 60% 52% 40% 20% 0% LG 1 LG 2 LG 3 Class Average Learning Goals 64% 65% Pre-test Post-test

99%

93%

95%

Learning Goal 1: This learning goal required student understanding of identifying, comparing, sorting, and classifying solid figures. Based on the pre-assessment, this appeared to be the hardest concept for the students to grasp, with a class average of 52%. Mastery of this learning goal rose to 94% on the post-test though, revealing that the instruction delivered during this unit was successful and effective. Many strategies were incorporated during the two main lessons on solid figures to ensure understanding. Manipulatives and re-teaching efforts were a few of the strategies that were beneficial to the students, which were clearly revealed in the post-test average score. Learning Goal 2: Data from the pre-assessment revealed that student understanding of this learning goal was the strongest of the three, with an overall average score of 77%. The students were required to answer questions about identifying, comparing, sorting and classifying plane shapes. This average score was relatively high for a pre-assessment, probably because the students thoroughly covered plane shapes (circle, triangle, square, rectangle) during Kindergarten. Based on this score, plane shapes were not as heavily emphasized during this instructional unit. Instead additional time was spent on focusing on the all aspects of solid figures. This instructional decision turned out successfully, in that, the post-test class average was 99% for learning goal two. Basically, 19 students gave correct responses to questions 5-8 (four questions), and one student gave three out of four correct responses. Learning Goal 3: The pre-assessment scores for learning goal 3, on making a model, revealed that about 64% of the class understood this problem solving strategy. Based on this score, detailed instruction and pattern block manipulatives were utilized during the unit to teach this concept to the students. The students participated in this hands-on experience, and the class average was 93% on the post-assessment test. Although this was the lowest post-test average,

compared to the other two learning goals, the score still improved by 29% from the pre-test.

Solid Figures and Plane Shapes
Pre-Test Results
LG 1
Ques. 1-4

Post-Test Results
Total LG 1
Ques. 1-4

LG 2

LG 3

LG 2

LG 3

Total

Ques. 5-8 Ques. 9-10

Ques. 5-8 Ques. 9-10

# of Correct Responses for Each Learning Goal
*Student 1 **Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student 13 Student 14 Student 15 Student 16 Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student 20 Student 21 2 3 2 2 4 2 4 2 0 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 4 3 3 2 0 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 1 4 4 3 3 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 1 0 2 2 2 1 0 50 = 5/10 90 = 9/10 60 = 6/10 70 = 7/10 90 = 9/10 70 = 7/10 90 = 9/10 70 = 7/10 30 = 3/10 70 = 7/10 30 = 3/10 50 = 5/10 60 = 6/10 100 = 10/10 60 = 6/10 20 = 2/10 100 = 10/10 90 = 9/10 80 = 8/10 60 = 6/10 20 = 2/10

# of Correct Responses for Each Learning Goal
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 90 = 9/10 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 90 = 9/10 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 80 = 8/10 100 = 10/10 80 = 8/10 90 = 9/10 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 N/A 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 100 = 10/10 80 = 8/10

* The students highlighted in yellow are the female students that participated in this instructional unit. ** The students in white are the male students that participated in this instructional unit.

Subgroup Performance The group characteristic that I chose to analyze for this instructional unit was the student performance of males versus females. These gender subgroups were of interest because of the stereotypical notion that boys perform better in math than girls do. Due to the learning environment in which I am placed, I was interested to see if this notion would be accurate. Mathematics is one of the two main subjects emphasized at Fairmont in first grade and is enjoyed equally by both the male and female students. The pre-assessment results showed that

female students scored lower in all areas of this instructional unit, except for learning goal 2 on plane shapes. However, the tides turned when the post-assessment results were revealed because the female students scored higher on all three learning goals as well as the overall average. The following data reveals the differences in male and female performance, regarding the specific learning goals on both the pre- and post-assessment tests. • • • • Learning Goal 1: Males scored 4% higher than females on the pre-assessment test, and females only scored 1% higher on the post-assessment test. Learning Goal 2: Females scored 5% higher than males on the pre-assessment test, but only 2% higher on the post-assessment test. Learning Goal 3: Males scored 17% higher than females on the pre-assessment test, and females scored 3% higher on the post-assessment test. Subgroup Average: Males only scored 3% higher on the pre-assessment average, and females only scored 2% higher on the post-assessment average.
Subgroup PRE-TEST Results
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 1 0% 0% LG 1 LG 2 LG 3 Subgroup Average 50% 54% 55% 80% 75% 72% 63% 66% Girls Boys

Subgroup POST-TEST Results
1 02% 1 00% 98% 96% 94% 92% 90% 88% 86% LG 1 LG 2 LG 3 Subgroup Average 94% 93% 94% 91 % 1 00% 98% 97% 95% Girls Boys

Based on the analyzed data of the pre- and post-assessment, these gender subgroups performed similarly in all areas of this instructional unit, with one exception: the males outperformed the female students on learning goal 3 of the pre-assessment. However, regardless of the specific percentages, the most important goal was confirmed when the data analysis revealed that every student who participated in this instructional unit demonstrated improvement. Individual Performances I chose to analyze two male students who demonstrated opposite levels of performance throughout this instructional unit. Student 5 is one of the highest achieving students in the class, while Student 21 exhibits a lower academic ability. These performance levels were reflected on the pre-assessment results: Student 5 answered 9 out 10 questions correctly for a score of 90%, while Student 21 answered 2 out of 10 questions correctly for a score of 20%. Individually, Student 5 answered all four questions for learning goal one correctly, three out of four questions for learning goal two correctly, and both questions for learning goal three correctly. In contrast, Student 21 answered zero out of four questions for learning goal one correctly, two out of four questions correctly for learning goal two, and zero questions correctly for learning goal three. When the pre-assessment results were analyzed, differing levels of student performance were carefully considered. The spectrum of learners with the lower abilities like Student 21 to

the students with higher abilities like Student 5 were taken into consideration before planning out the instructional unit. A number of strategies were intentionally incorporated into the unit to meet the diversified needs of the students in this sample. More specifically, these needs of these two types of students served as prime examples of how to develop the modes of formative assessment. Two of the three modes (math journals and essential questions) could easily be modified, for easier, average, or harder instruction. Adaptations were made for the daily math handouts (another mode), in that; Student 21 and other students like him received additional oneon-one instruction and additional time to complete the assignment. The benefits of incorporating these varying strategies into this instructional unit were revealed when the post-assessment results were analyzed. Student 5 received a perfect score, mastering all three learning goals at a level of 100%. Student 21 answered eight out of ten questions correctly for a score of 80%, in contrast to the 20% he originally made on the preassessment. Although Student 21 exhibited greater improvement from the pre- to post-test results, successful learning occurred because both students showed improvement of the mastery of one or more learning goals for this instructional unit.

Individual Student Results
120 Pre-Test/Post-Test Scores 100 80 60 40 20 0
St ud e St nt 1 ud e St nt 2 ud e St nt 3 ud e St nt 4 ud e St nt 5 ud e St nt 6 ud e St nt 7 ud e St nt 8 ud St en ud t 9 e St nt 1 ud 0 e St nt 1 ud 1 e St nt 1 ud 2 e St nt 1 ud 3 e St nt 1 ud 4 e St nt 1 ud 5 e St nt 1 ud 6 e St nt 1 ud 7 e St nt 1 ud 8 e St nt 1 ud 9 e St nt 2 ud 0 en t2 1
60 50 50 100 90 90 100 100 100 90 100 90 90 80 70 70 70 70 60 60 60 80 100 100 90 100100100 100 100 100 100 90 80 80 100 100

Pre-Test Post-Test
20

30

30

Students

Reflection and Self-Evaluation
The students were most successful in the mastery of learning goal two, in which the students identified, compared, sorted and classified plane shapes (circles, squares, triangles, rectangles). As a whole group, 99% of the students were successful in achieving the objectives of this learning goal. I attribute this success to the prior knowledge that was established during the students’ Kindergarten year of school or possibly earlier. The students could easily identify these basic shapes and suggest examples of everyday objects. The students brought these shapes to life by thinking of things that were unique to them, thus making a solid learning connection. For example, one student may think of the pizza he likes to eat as an example of a circle, while

another student may think of the hula-hoop she plays with as an example of a circle. I also attribute this success to the instructional activity we completed regarding this learning goal. The students created a shape mobile when they were learning about plane shapes on solid figures. Having this hands-on, visually stimulating activity allowed the individual needs of learners to be met. The students were able to see what the lesson was about, hear what the lesson was about, and experience what the lesson was about. Also, the students were more likely to internalize what they learned because they created something that was special to them and representative of their hard work. The students were least successful regarding learning goal three; however, as a class they still demonstrated mastery of this learning goal at 93%. The students learned how to use the problem solving strategy, make a model, to solve problems. I do not feel the students were unsuccessful at achieving the actual learning goal; however, my instruction could have been delivered more specifically. For this lesson, pattern block manipulatives were used to demonstrate how to make a model. I allowed the students time to explore the manipulatives first and then work various pattern block designs. To assess whether the students achieved the learning goal, an example problem would be to use this problem solving strategy to determine how many triangles make a diamond. The students were required to draw this model and record the correct number. I feel that too much of our instructional time was spent utilizing the manipulatives to work the different designs versus using the manipulatives to make a model for problems like the one mentioned above. Another possible reason for the lower achievement of 93%, compared to the other learning goals, was the amount of time we spent on this strategy. One class period was devoted to teaching the objective of this learning goal, while two days were devoted to teach learning goal one and two days for learning goal two.

I have been actively involved in every single step of this teacher work sample process, from the selection of the topic, to planning, to implementing, to teaching, and finally to reflecting on the success my students experienced. Along this journey, I have set high expectations and goals for myself both personally and professionally, and I plan to follow through with both of these. However, my professional goals are of interest in relation to what I learned from my teacher work sample. My first professional goal regards my future career as an educator. It will be in my best interest to join and maintain membership to professional organizations that support the growth, development, and lifelong learning of specific subject areas. For example, my teacher work sample was a mathematical instructional unit for first graders, specifically focusing on Solid Figures and Plane Shapes. To enhance both my knowledge of the subject area as well as the effectiveness of my instruction, being a member of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) could have provided me with additional skills and resources. Seeking out the specific steps involved in joining, applying for membership, and being actively involved in organizations such as NCTM will both provide meaningful and beneficial opportunities for my future students and myself. My second professional goal relates specifically to the use of manipulatives in teaching mathematics. Professionally, I am a firm believer in the value manipulatives can add to a lesson, and I was able to witness this first hand during my instructional unit. Manipulatives like solid figures, plane shape cutouts, and pattern blocks were incorporated almost everyday to enhance the students’ learning experience. As a future teacher, I plan on using manipulatives both frequently within my instruction and long-term because research has shown this to ensure gains in student achievement. However, to ensure the effectiveness of manipulatives on student

learning, I must guide the students into making a connection between the manipulatives and the concept or skill being taught. If I cannot effectively do this as a teacher, the value of the manipulatives are worthless because the students will not learn from them but view them as toys.

References
Brain POP Jr. Video Clip on Plane Shapes http://www.brainpopjr.com/math/geometry/planeshapes/ Harcourt Math Tennessee Edition, Teacher Edition, Volume 2, 2005. Chapter 15 – Solid Figures and Plane Shapes Murphy, Stuart J. Circus Shapes. HarperTrophy, 1998. Shape Mobile Idea - http://www.dltk-kids.com/crafts/miscellaneous/mstarmobile.html Tennessee Department of Education Website, Curriculum Standards http://www.state.tn.us/education/ci/standards/ Tennessee Department of Education Website, Johnson City Report Card 2006 http://www.k-12.state.tn.us/rptcrd06/school3.asp?S=9010015 U.S. Census Bureau – State and County Quick Facts

http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/47/4738320.html Yates, Gene. The Snake Shape Book. Kidsbooks Early Learning, 2006.

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