You are on page 1of 70

23/12/2014

Regulatory Impact Analysis

Shamsul Ridzuan Idris


Cluster for Governance and
Public Policy Studies
INTAN Bukit Kiara
shamsul@intanbk.intan.my
All content on this document is the property of the National Institute of Public Administration
(INTAN), Malaysia.
Unauthorized copying is not permitted.

Long Term Effect of Policy Making

Source:
Fertility and Population Policy: the Singapore Experience (2003),
Mui Teng Yap, Institute of Public Policy, Singapore

Government Intervention in Population Policy

Source: Singapores Population Policy, Slideshare, Scaree-w

Singapores Population Policy


Control population
growth
Stop at 2 policy
Financial disincentives

Other measures

Reasons for decline in birth


rate:
- Success of govt policies
- Social factors
- Economic factors

Encourage Population
growth
Graduate Mothers
Scheme

Three or More if You can


afford it
Pro-family measures
Attracting Foreign talent

Impact of decline in birth


rate
- Unattractive to MNCs
- Defence
- Ageing population
Source: Singapores Population Policy, Slideshare, Scaree-w

Prepare for an ageing


population
Senior citizens as
assets
Many Helping Hands
approach

Reasons for ageing


population
- Post-war baby boom
- Declining birth rate
- Longer lifespans

Impact of ageing population:


- Strain on working population
- Reduction in competitiveness
- Increased demand for healthcare
& social services
- Smaller security forces

Public Feedback on Marriage and


Parenthood Survey

POLICY CYCLE
Policy
identification

Policy

Policy

Evaluation

Formulation

Policy
Implementation

What is Regulation?
Key instrument used by the
Government to achieve various policy
objectives
Compliance is mandatory
Sets out principles, rules or conditions
that govern the behavior of citizens and
organization
Example: law, permit, licence, tax,
administrative procedures etc.

Documents on Best Practice Regulation


Reference should be made to the government circular on
National Policy on the Development and Implementation of
Regulations issued by the Chief Secretary to the
Government of Malaysia on 15 July 2013 (Pekeliling Am
Bilangan 1 Tahun 2013)

http://ris.mpc. gov.my

National Policy on the


Development and
Implementation of
Regulations
Provides a systematic
guideline based on best
practices adopted from other
countries

Best Practice Regulation


Handbook
Tool to facilitate the implementation of
Best Practice Regulation system and
provides detailed guidance for the
implementation.

Quick Reference
Best Practice Regulation
Handbook
Summarised version of Best
Practice Regulation

Trend in RIA adoption across OECD


countries (1974-2012)

10

Improvement in the Rule-making Process


(Existing Rule-making Process in Malaysia)
Flow
Design or
Review

Ministry

Review
Legislation

Decisionmaking

Decisionmaking

AGC

Cabinet

Parliament

Enforce
Ministry

Comply
Business

Provide feedback on recommendations

Provide recommendations &


monitoring implementation

Advocacy Role
(PEMUDAH)

Analyse existing regulations

MPC task in the ecosystem is to provide service


for collaborative innovation

AGC: Attorney-Generals Chambers ; R: Rules and Regulations;

11

Improvement in the Rule-making Process


(Quality Regulatory Management System)
Flow

Facilitate to
ensure
regulators
fulfill adequacy
criteria
Design or
Automatic
Review

Ministry

Draft Law

Decisionmaking

AGC

Cabinet

Decisionmaking
Parliament

Enforce
Ministry

Comply
Business

Provide feedback on recommendations

Provide recommendations &


monitoring implementation

Advocacy Role
(PEMUDAH)

Analyse existing regulations

MPC to continue providing service for


collaborative innovation
JPPN - Advisory Role
Train the regulators
& assessor

Accountability audit of
quality assurance

AGC: Attorney-Generals Chambers ; R: Rules and Regulations;

Guidance material, benchmarks


& best practices repository
Proposed new role by NDPC (Secretariat: MPC)

12

Policy Formulation: Using RIA


Step 1: Problem definition the issues that give rise
to the need for action.
Step 2: Objectives desired policy objectives
Step 3: Options regulatory and non-regulatory
options that may feasibly achieve the
objectives
Step 4: Impact assessment costs and benefits of
the options for consumers, businesses,
government and the community
Step 5: Consultation statement
Step 6: Conclusion and recommended option
Step 7: Implementation and review strategy
13

Why is identifying the problem


important?
Identifying the nature and extent of the
problem is a threshold question in the
policy process
If the nature and extent of the problem are
correctly identified, you can focus on:

What needs to change


The magnitude of required changes
Potential feasible solutions
14

How do we see
a problem

15

A real example Children being poisoned by


eating pills from bottles they find in their homes

Problem as defined by regulators:


It is too easy for children to open medicine bottles.

Regulatory solution proposed:


Design bottle caps that are hard to open (technological
solution)
Incentives:
Many users of medicines (older people) do not close
bottles because they cant get the tops off. Parents feel
less need to take precautions about storing medicines
away from their children because the caps are "childproof."
Result: Child poisonings INCREASED

16

A real example continued Children being poisoned


by eating pills from bottles they find in their homes

Real problem:
How can we reduce access to medicines by
children?

Better solutions:

Change behavior and technology.


Label bottles with child warnings.
Put bottles on higher shelves.
Design caps with directions so that people who can
read can open them easily.
17

Presenting the problem

Is the problem correctly defined?

The problem to be solved should be precisely stated,


giving clear evidence of its nature and magnitude, and
explaining why it has arisen (identifying the incentives
of affected entities) (OECD Recommendation)

Key requirements:
Present evidence on the magnitude (scale and scope) of
the problem
Identify affected parties and stakeholders
Identify the relevant rationale for government intervention
Assess the risks associated with non-intervention
18

Problem Definition
Participants role:
Identify various causes of the problem (from own
understanding or based on existing policy papers/
literature)
Agree on a definition of the ultimate problem
The magic formula:
Problem X occurs because of Y

19

Ishikawa Cause and Effect Diagram

Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-89) of Tokyo's Mushasi Institute

The M's
Machine (Equipment)
Method (Process)
Man Power (People / physical
labor)
Material
Mother Nature (Environment)
Management (Policies)
Measurement (Inspection)
Maintenance
Marketing (Promotion)

The P's (Service Industry)


Plant/Place
Process
People
Policies
Procedures
Price
Promotion
Product
The S's (Service Industry)
Surroundings
Supplies
Systems
Skills
21

Common pitfalls
Stating the solution rather than the problem
Symptom vs. Problem
Too broadly defined problem that does not
directly link with preferred option
Lack of quantification or evidence that a
problem exists
Lack of transparency
Not explaining the residual problem

22

Key messages
Defining the problem is the most important part
of the RIA
A variety of evidence can be presented to
demonstrate that a problem exists
Importance of quantitative data if available to
demonstrate how large the problem is
The problem should be narrowly defined in terms
of its specific causes, in order to be targeted by
the preferred option
23

Training Case Study

Read the case study provided


Discuss with person next to you and record your
responses to the prompt questions (5 minutes)

Obesity: Disease of the new


millennium
ACCORDING to Prof Dr Mohd Ismail Noor,
president of the Malaysian Association for the Study
of Obesity (MASO), obesity, dubbed as the disease
of the new millennium, constitutes the most
important public health problem we face today.
24

Training Case Study

Prof Dr Mohd Ismail has revealed that the epidemiology of obesity in developing societies based on
population estimates of BMI is very disturbing, judging from the rapid increase in prevalence of
overweight and obesity in both adult and children (both in developed and developing Asian countries)
in the last two or more decades.
The latest figures from WHO has revealed some 1.6 billion adults are overweight and 400 million
obese. In Malaysia, about 43% adults, some 20% adolescents and 26% of primary school children
are either overweight or obese.
According to him, rapid and sustained economic growth, modernisation, urbanisation plus the
globalisation of food markets, and significantly less physical activity in all sectors have fuelled the
obesity epidemic.
At the total population level, a high prevalence of obesity results from a complex interaction between
an inherited metabolic predisposition to fatness and changes in the populations lifestyle, ie higher
energy intake and reduced physical activity, that tend to accompany economic development.
From an individuals perspective, obesity can result from a minor energy imbalance between energy
intake and expenditure, leading to a gradual, but persistent, weight gain over a considerable period.
Prof Mohd Ismail says that based on recent findings, links between under nutrition and obesity
appear to be strong, both occurring together and in the same low income households in many parts
of Asia, including Malaysia. These reports have enormous significance to developing societies
emerging from poverty and continuing to bear the double burden of both forms of malnutrition in
their populations.
It has often been argued that prevention rather than treatment is the way to go in combating the rising
obesity epidemic. However, it is becoming more apparent that the traditional approach appears to
have failed in producing the desired effect, judging from the increasing trend in prevalence of obesity
within the last decades.

25

Unfortunately, obesity has not been high on the public health agenda in developing countries as the
prevalence, defined as BMI>30, appeared very low while governments focused on eradicating undernutrition.
Furthermore, actions to act decisively to help combat the increasing prevalence of obesity globally
and in Malaysia has been few and overall rather uncoordinated.
According to Prof Dr Mohd Ismail, unless we can make policy makers and professionals alike
understand the threat obesity poses and the urgency to implement possible solutions now, the
natural course would be an obesity epidemic among Malaysians that will continue to grow beyond
control in the coming decades.
The Malaysian Association for the Study of Obesity (MASO) is a healthcare professional organisation
established in 1994, whose members comprise mainly of Nutritionists, dieticians, clinical
psychologists, endocrinologists, medical doctors and other related health professionals.
MASO strives to enhance the understanding of obesity, including causes, manifestations, prevention
and management principles through various local and international collaborative studies.
So, the early years will be appropriate for young adults, parents-to-be, and parents with infants and
young children. The aim is to help create awareness on infant and childcare so that the experience
will not be too traumatic.
There will also be activities that encourage younger adults to look after their health, such as healthy
and balanced meals for a healthier life, looking after the body, and even family health and planning.
The middle years explore issues that are becoming more prevalent in modern society. So be
prepared for tips on how to eat healthy and stay in shape, or how to get back into shape. There will
also be a deluge of information on the modern scourges of society, such as heart disease, diabetes,
high blood pressure and so on.
The golden years will look at ageing issues, and how we can cope and prepare better for such
eventualities. The Star, Wednesday March 28, 2012

26

Problem: Poor health outcomes due to increasing obesity in


Malaysia
Primary
Reason

Secondary Reason

Tertiary Reason

Higher
1 calorie
intake
More frequent eating
People eat too heavily at night
Culture' - socialising in the evening focuses on
food (football and food outlet)
Increasing stress levels
Heavy workload - increased working hours
Family conflict

27

Problem: Poor health outcomes due to increasing obesity in


Malaysia
Primary
Reason

Secondary Reason

Tertiary Reason

2 Not Enough
Exercise
Lack of time to
exercise
Too much time spend in traffic jam
Lack of awareness on benefit of exercise
Technology savvy
Stay indoors / spending too much time using
tech gadget
28

Specify desired objectives


The objectives should state the intent of the proposed
regulatory action in concrete terms and relate this to the
broader policy of the agency or government
(Best Practice Regulation Handbook)

Specify objectives in relation to the identified problem


State the outcomes (goals) to be achieved rather than
the means of achievement (the strategy)
Consistent with, or contribute to the Governments
strategic policy aims
Objectives should be SMART: specific, measurable,
achievable, realistic/relevant, time dependant
29

Objectives

Q: The goals the Malaysian Government is


trying to achieve by improving health
outcomes for Malaysians are . . . . . ?

Q: If obesity (or NCDs) was reduced the


outcomes for children, families, businesses,
the health system, government would be . .
. . .?
30

Objectives
1. Lower per capita consumption of fats and sugars

2. Reduced incidence of diabetes


3. Increased awareness about the importance of healthy
diet and exercise

4. Reduction in obesity related health expenditure


5. Increased participation in exercise

31

Assessing Option
Why options are important
What are the benefits of discussing and
evaluating options in a RIA process?

32

Range of Options

A range of options that may constitute feasible means for


achieving the desired objectives must be analyzed to ensure the
most effective and efficient option is chosen.
Range of options include:
Regulatory
Explicit regulation
Co-regulation
Quasi regulation
Non Regulatory
Self regulation
No regulation
No regulation

No action (relying on market based on existing laws)


33

Regulatory
Explicit
regulation

Regulation spelled out in existing legislative instruments

Examples: Primary legislation : Price control and anti profiteering Act, 2011 to set fair prices
Subordinate legislation: EIA under Environmental Quality Act 1974

Co-regulation

Industry self-developed and administered arrangements


with government legislative backing

Examples: Certification of Completion and Compliance (CCC) for building permits issued by
professionals (architect/engineer)

Quasi
regulation

Rules or arrangements where government influence businesses


to comply but do not form explicit government regulation

Examples: Codes of practice developed, Guidance notes (e.g Schedule plan for fuel transportation to
service stations), Industry government agreements , Accreditation schemes

34

Non Regulatory
Self
regulation

Industry rules & codes of conduct with enforcement solely by


industry; Should be one of the first options considered within RIA
framework

Examples: Standard (e.g ISO, GMP, IMP) , market-based instruments taxes, subsidies,
tradable permits, Pre-market assessment schemes, Others - Service charters, performance
audits, quality assurance schemes (licensing, listing, QCC)

No
regulation

No regulation issued but actions are based on proactive


initiative of interested parties

Examples: Information and education campaigns on global warming- Earth Hour

35

Option/s for further


analysis

Components

Option 0:

Do Nothing

Option 1: Tax

Tax junk foods

Option 2: Regulate
production

Limit fat/sugar content in foods - regulate


production
Increase the import duty on fats and oils

Option 3: Campaign

National exercise campaign / competition


36
36

Comfort

Very good

OK

Poor

Safety

6.7L per 100km

5.9L per 100km

0L per 100km

OK

Good

Very good

RM27,900

RM73,900

RM450

Colour

Grey

White

Red

Body type

Hatch

Sedan

Bicycle

Fuel efficiency
Reliability
Price

37

Impact Assessment
Malaysias Best Practice Regulation
Handbook on RIA requires . . .

Both the costs and benefits of regulatory and non


regulatory options are described
Potential positive and negative economic, environmental,
and social impacts of the options are summarised
The likely distribution of impacts across various affected
parties, sectors of the economy, and regions of Malaysia,
is discussed.
A cost-benefit statement summarising the quantifiable and
non-quantifiable costs and benefits is included
38

METHODS OF ASSESSMENT

Cost and Benefits


o Cost/Benefits Analysis (CBA)
o Break-even analysis (BEA)
o Multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

39

COSTS BENEFITS ANALYSIS


COSTS

Quantifiable costs
Direct
Indirect
Initial/Start up
Sustainment
Procurement
Non Quantifiable
costs
Life/Safety/Health
Perception/Image
Opportunity
Risk/Uncertainty
Political

BENEFITS

The total of
quantifiable and nonquantifiable benefits

Quantifiable benefits
Cost Savings
Cost Avoidances

Non-quantifiable
benefits
Greater capability
Faster availability
Better quality
Improved morale
Other?

BENEFITS MUST BALANCE OR OUTWEIGH COSTS


40

Example Of Common
Regulatory Costs
AFFECTED GROUP

EXAMPLES OF COSTS

Business

Paper burden or administrative costs to


businesses associated with complying with and/ or
reporting on particular regulatory requirements;
Licence fees or other charges levied by
government;
Changes likely to be required in production,
transportation and marketing procedures;
Shifts to alternative sources of supply of inputs;
Higher input prices; and
Restricted access to markets.

Consumers

Higher prices for goods and services resulting from


restrictions on competition;
Reduced utility (quality, choice etc) of goods and
services; and
Delays in the introduction of goods to the
marketplace and/or restrictions in product availability.

41

Example Of Common
Regulatory Costs
AFFECTED GROUP

EXAMPLES OF COSTS

Community and/or the


environment

Environmental degradation or pollution;


Reduction in health and safety;
Undesirable redistribution of income and wealth;
and
Lower employment levels or economic growth.

Government

The costs of developing the regulation;


Running education campaigns/providing
information;
Administration of licensing/inspection services;
Collection and collation of business information;
and
Enforcement costs, including the costs of litigation.

42

Example Of Common
Regulatory Benefits

Improvements in product and service quality;


Availability of a wider range of products and services;
Reductions in costs or prices of products and services;
Reductions in accidents and improvements in public
health and safety;
Improvements in environment;
Reductions in compliance costs for business and
administrative costs for government; and
Improvements in the information available to business,
the workforce, consumers or the government.
43

Alternate assessment approaches

Good data

Costs valued

Benefits valued

Cost beneft analyss


total benefits less
costs over life of
regulation
break-even analysis
benefits required
for the option to
break-even.

Good data

Costs valued
?
Benefits valued ?

multi-criteria analysis
non-monetized
assessment of
costs and benefits

Good data

Costs valued

Benefits valued

Full
CBA

BEA
MCA
44

Option/s for
Components
further analysis
Option 0
Do Nothing

Option 1: Tax

Option 2:
Regulate
production

Option 3:
Campaign

Tax junk foods

Costs

Benefits

Government: Greater medical


expenses due to higher victim
of obese
Government: Administrative
Increase tax income
cost in implementing junk
food tax
Consumer: Increase in junk
food prices
Government: R&D costs

Limit fat/sugar
contents in foods
regulate production Supplier: Production costs
Increase the import
duty on fats and
oils
National exercise
Government: Promotion costs
campaign/ competition
Campaign management
Personal BMI card to
costs
all obese
Medical check-up and
facilities

Reduce incidence of
NCD

Healthier citizen

Reduce incidence of
NCD
Reduce health cost
45

THE GENERAL CRITERIA FOR


EVALUATING POLICY
Effectiveness
The extent to which
options achieve the
objectives
of
the
proposal

Efficiency
The extent to which
objectives can be
achieved for a given
level of resources/at
least cost (costeffectiveness)

Adapted from European Commission "Impact Assessment Guidelines"

Coherence
The extent to which
options are coherent
with the overarching
objectives of policy,
and the extent to
which they are likely to
limit trade-offs across
the economic, social,
and
environmental
domain.

46

Option/s for further


analysis

Components

Option 0:

Do Nothing

Option 1: Tax

Tax junk foods

Option 2: Regulate
production

Limit fat/sugar content in foods - regulate


production
Increase the import duty on fats and oils

Option 3: Campaign

National exercise campaign / competition


47
47

PUBLIC NOTICE AND


COMMENT

CIRCULAR OF
REGULATORY
PROPOSAL

Policy that involve large scale of people (wide spectrum)


Used mainstream communication media

Policy that affect certain identified stakeholders


Circular send to selected identified stakeholders
Normally in written feedback but oral feedback also being considered

Meeting with
interested parties

Seminars

Web forums
PUBLIC HEARING

ADVISORY BODIES

INFORMAL
CONSULTATION OF
FOCUS GROUP

Policy that affect certain geographical stakeholders


Forum arranged to get verbal comments from selected stakeholders
Complemented by public notice and comment

Commonly used to gather professional and expert advice and information


Commonly used at early stage of the regulatory process

All forms of discretionary, ad hoc, and non-standardised contacts between


regulators and interest groups to gather information
Normally occurred prior to formal consultation

Source : Modified from The Evaluation of Regulatory Policy in OECD Countries, Nick Malyshev, 2002, Pg14-16.
*Surat Pekeliling Am Bil.2 Thn. 2012 - Seranta Awam Atas Talian Bagi Sebarang Cadangan Atau Pindaan Undang-undang

48

Public Survey

Interviews

Online Public
Engagement

48

APPROACHES

TOOLS & APPROPRIATENESS

Consultation Tool Appropriateness & Approaches

Technique: Stakeholder Mapping


Step 1: Start with a "long list" of stakeholders

Knowledge of differences allows you to target


information & validation needs

Step 2: Prepare an Influence-Impact Matrix to


target stakeholders by

degree impacted by proposal (concerned or


implicated)
degree of influence over proposal

Step3: Identify where capacity building is needed


for effective stakeholder participation.
Highlight "gaps" in identified stakeholders.
49

Long list" of stakeholders

Dalaman

Mempunyai Hubungan

Luaran

http://www.professionalacademy.com/

50

Stakeholder Influence Impact Matrix

51

More Influence

Influential
(useful for
decision &
opinion
formulation)

Mandatory
(most critical
group)

Less Impact

More Impact

Limited (least
priority
stakeholder)

Adequately
informed (need
empowerment)

Low Influence

52

More
Influence

NGOs

Media

Less
Impacted
Upon

Approach = online
public engagement,
forum

Public

Approach = Seminar,
roadshows, Online
public engagement

Government-KPDNKK/
MOF/IRB

Industry players/
Manufacturers
Importers

Approach = Dialogue,
Lab, Interview

Consumers

Local Food Producers


(SME)

Training Centre
(Gymnasium)/ Health
Consultant

Approach = online
public engagement

Less
Influence

53

More
Impacted
Upon

Active vs Passive Consultation

ACTIVE
CONSULTATION

PASSIVE
CONSULTATION

Advisory groups,
committees, public
hearings,
Informal consultation
Panel & focus tests
Peer reviews
Surveys

Circulation for
comment, notice and
comment,
Notice and
Comments (Prepublication)
Internet publication

Other aspects: Consultation Tactics


Targeted consultation
Structured to link information needs with
particular stakeholders

Multilayered consultation
Minimum and consistent standards
Allow flexible adaptation for more detailed
information

Mixed consultation
Combination of mixed consultation
methods

Inter-agencies Consultation

If the proposed regulation affects other agencies,


inter-agencies consultation should be carried out.

Example 1:
The abolishment of VISA ON ARRIVAL, KDN is the
implementing agency, MOHE, MITI, MOTour, MOHR
will be affected. Inter-agencies consultation should be
carried out
Example 2:
All agencies involved (Local Authorities, BOMBA,
JKR, TNB, JPS, SYABAS, IWK etc.) in issuance of
construction permits will be consulted with setting up
56
of56 One Stop Centre

Surat Pekeliling Am
Bilangan 2 Tahun 2012
Seranta Awam Atas
Talian
(Online Public
Engagement)
bagi Sebarang
Cadangan Baru atau
Pindaan UndangUndang
57

What are Conclusion &


Recommendations?
Conclusion & Recommendations are prepared by
Regulators for the Overseeing Body to evaluate
quality of assessment prior to final decision by the
Decision Makers
Conclusion: available options based on evidence and
impact analysis
Recommendation: the best option supported by the
preceding analysis and comparison with other options
provided

Rationale
To allow the decision maker to choose the best
option that best suits the objectives

58
58

Conclusion & Recommendation


This section should include a clear statement identifying the preferred option based
on the impact analysis.
The recommendation for the selection of this option must be supported by the
preceding analysis and a comparison with other options provided.
It must be demonstrated that the selected option adequately meets the objectives for
the proposed action in the best overall manner and is consistent with the National
Policy on the Development and Implementation of Regulations.
The costs and benefits of this option for all the affected groups should be identified.
Impact
A. Quantified Impacts (RM per year)
Benefits by stakeholder group
Costs by stakeholder group
Net Benefits
B. Quantified Impacts (Non-monetary, per year)
Positive Impacts stakeholder group
Negative Impacts stakeholder group
C. Qualitative Impacts
List of qualitative impacts (positive and negative) by stakeholder.

59

What are Implementation and


Review Strategy?

A coordinated and effective mechanism or action


plan to ensure the regulation could be
implemented and enforced.

A proper plans and strategies are crucially important


to ensure the planned regulation success
60

Example of action plan to implement the regulation:

Capacity building for parties involved in


implementation, including enforcement.

Retain and train personnel with expertise or


educational qualifications for conducting training
and awareness program

Communicate with effected parties.

Awareness programs to explain the importance of


the respective regulation.

Educate the effected groups of how to comply with


the regulation.

61

Strategy to detect and handle noncompliance (review)

Set effective mechanism of how to detect and


enforce the non-compliances:
Register the effected groups
Licensing to perform activities

Establish steps to be taken for non-compliance:


Advice (or warning)
penalty (e.g. fine, imprisonment)
sanction

Make sure that all required resources, especially


human resource are sufficient.
Coordination and networking with the relevant
parties (e.g. police in the case of enforcement)

62

Burdens in the implementation

Insufficient fund allocated for the


implementing agencies.
This is issue is quite difficult to solve as the fund is controlled by
the Treasury
For the autonomous agencies that generate income, they
should set aside certain amount

Insufficient and inexperienced workforce


Plan the recruitment according to the needs
Regular training in relevant fields

Influence from the other parties


Establish a good rapport with the relevant parties

63

No.
1

Stage

Strategy / Program

Promote this new policy o


tax junk foods

o
o
o

Road Show/Awareness
Ministries/Agencies
NGOs
Manufacturers/Importers
Flyers
Advertisement
Readiness - Grace period of
one year

Responsible
Ministry of Finance (MOF);
MOH, MOE, KBS, KPWKM
and KPDNKK

FOMCA, CAP

Implement tax junk foods

o Flat 5% tax imposed

MOF, IRB

Enforce the tax junk foods

o
o

Ministry of Domestic Trade,


Cooperatives and
Consumerism (KPDNKK)

o
4

64

Monitor the effectiveness o


and impact of the tax junk
foods

Clear labeling at packaging


Clear guidelines and price
monitoring exercise on all
goods
Standard of Procedures
(SOP) for manufacturers
and suppliers
Check for non-compliancesanction, ban or fine
Reviewing process to be
held quarterly

MOF, MOH, MOE, KBS,


KPWKM and KPDNKK
FOMCA, CAP

Example: Regulatory Impact Analysis


Masalah: Kemalangan di tempat kerja berlaku disebabkan oleh penggunaan jentera
berbahaya yang tidak selamat
Objektif:
1. Mencegah kemalangan yang disebabkan oleh penggunaan jentera berbahaya
yang tidak selamat
2. Meningkatkan kesedaran di kalangan majikan dan pekerja termasuk orang awam
di dalam penggunaan jentera berbahaya
3. Meningkatkan pengeluaran industri dan menyumbang kepada produkviti negara
4. Mengurangkan bayaran pampasan akibat kemalangan yang disebabkan jentera
berbahaya
5. Memastikan keselamatan, kesihatan dan persekitaran terjamin
Option
1

Do Nothing

Mengadakan program pendidikan dan kesedaran.

Menggalakan peraturan kendiri dikalangan majikan.


Mengawal selia rekabentuk, pembinaan, pengubahsuaian,
baik pulih, penyelenggaraan dan pengendalian jentera
berbahaya.

Policy Cycle
Policy
identification

Problem
Identification
Setting Objective
Consultation

Review

Policy

Policy

Evaluation

Formulation
Assessing Option
Impact Assessment

Implementation
Strategy

Policy
Implementation
66

www.vcec.vic.gov.au

RIS Portal

h t t p : / / r i s . m p c . g o v. m y

Our Way Forward


Government now put emphasis on:
Public engagement in making policy

Issues on governance
Comparing with Best Practices RIA OECD
A credible public officer to manage all
government policies
69

Thank You
Shamsul Ridzuan Idris
Cluster for Public Policy and Governance
INTAN Bukit Kiara

shamsul@intanbk.intan.my
DL: 0320847290
H/P: 0193337600

70