- E3. a Simple Proof of Menger's Theorem
- AoPS Community 9
- ERF.pdf
- 7 Interpreting Data Graphs and Charts 1
- Algorithm One 003
- sec3.pdf
- A Structural Approach to Model General is at Ion of an Urban Street
- ESE Time Table Nov - Dec 2016
- mechani-informatics-6th
- Vilokanam Autumn 2014
- Robot Lab Path Planning
- A minimal spanning tree algorithm for distribution networks configuration
- On Harmonious Coloring of M(L<sub>n</sub>) and C(L<sub>n</sub>)
- Barbell Graph -- From Wolfram MathWorld
- 1324981_636166846851254123
- Note Taking Strategies
- pipeline project
- A Generalized Code for Computing Cyclic Redundancy Check
- Discrete Algebra
- Height, Depth and Level of a Tree
- sudoku
- Artificial Intelligence Lab Final
- problem solving powerpoint
- 01 a
- Majorization and Karamata Inequality
- CVEN 4402 - Workshop - Week 7
- 15h
- Lesson 3.2 Introduction to Polynomial Functions.pdf
- AO Algorithm
- Differentiability on R 2
- Internet
- SANAYSAY
- TNHS
- 8arts Gr 10 Lm - Qtr3 (8 Apr 2015)
- Russian
- FEU Survives UST
- Jose Rizal
- 232752828 Blacklily Charm
- France
- Virtual World
- P.S. Im Pregnant
- Doc2
- Wishing Star
- Talumpati
- Anyo Ng Tula
- doc3
- Hired Girlfriend, Hired Mommy 1
- Captured
- 146284362-HIS-MAID-txt
- Science
- krusada
- gg
- Ito Na Ba Ang Ating Bansa
- you won_t hear me cry.TXT
- Jose Rizal
- 99434809 Free Fifty Shades Darker PDF Download
- Dddd
- Terrorist PDF
- Ito Na Ba Ang Ating Bansa

A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they

represent. The bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally. A vertical bar chart is sometimes called a

column bar chart.

A bar graph is a chart that uses either horizontal or vertical bars to show comparisons among categories.

One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a

discrete value. Some bar graphs present bars clustered in groups of more than one (grouped bar graphs),

and others show the bars divided into subparts to show cumulate effect (stacked bar graphs).

History

The first bar graph appeared in the 1786 book The Commercial and Political Atlas, by William Playfair

(1759-1823). Playfair was a pioneer in the use of graphical displays and wrote extensively about them.

[citation needed]

This bar chart by William Playfair from 1786 showed the "Exports and Imports of Scotland to and from

different parts for one Year from Christmas 1780 to Christmas 1781."

Usage

Bar charts have a discrete range. Bar charts are usually scaled so that all the data can fit on the chart.

Bars on the chart may be arranged in any order. Bar charts arranged from highest to lowest incidence are

called Pareto charts. Normally, bars showing frequency will be arranged in chronological (time) sequence.

Grouped bar graph usually present the information in the same order in each grouping. Stacked bar graphs

present the information in the same sequence on each bar.

Bar graphs charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data.[1] Categorical data is a grouping of

data into discrete groups, such as months of the year, age group, shoe sizes, and animals. These

categories are usually qualitative. In a column bar chart, the categories appear along the horizontal axis;

the height of the bar corresponds to the value of each category.

Bar graphs can also be used for more complex comparisons of data with grouped bar charts and stacked

bar charts.[1] In a grouped bar chart, for each categorical group there are two or more bars. These bars

are color-coded to represent a particular grouping. For example, a business owner with two stores might

make a grouped bar chart with different colored bars to represent each store: the horizontal axis would

show the months of the year and the vertical axis would show the revenue. Alternatively, a stacked bar

chart could be used. The stacked bar chart stacks bars that represent different groups on top of each other.

The height of the resulting bar shows the combined result of the groups. However, stacked bar charts are

not suited to datasets where some groups have negative values. In such cases, grouped bar charts are

preferable.

A bar graph is very useful for recording discrete data. Bar graphs also look a lot like a histogram, which

record continuous data. The difference is not that bar graphs (can) have spaces between columns and

histograms don't (have to) have spaces, the difference is the type of data that each represent. For more on

the difference, please see this description from shodor.org

Line graph

In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, the line graph of an undirected graph G is another graph

L(G) that represents the adjacencies between edges of G. The name line graph comes from a paper by

Harary & Norman (1960) although both Whitney (1932) and Krausz (1943) used the construction before

this.[1] Other terms used for the line graph include the covering graph, the derivative, the edge-to-vertex

dual, the conjugate, the representative graph, and the ϑ-obrazom,[1] as well as the edge graph, the

interchange graph, the adjoint graph, and the derived graph.[2]

Hassler Whitney (1932) proved that with one exceptional case the structure of a connected graph G can be

recovered completely from its line graph.[3] Many other properties of line graphs follow by translating the

properties of the underlying graph from vertices into edges, and by Whitney's theorem the same

translation can also be done in the other direction. Line graphs are claw-free, and the line graphs of

bipartite graphs are perfect. Line graphs can be characterized by nine forbidden subgraphs, and can be

recognized in linear time.

Various generalizations of line graphs have also been studied, including the line graphs of line graphs, line

graphs of multigraphs, line graphs of hypergraphs, and line graphs of weighted graphs.

- E3. a Simple Proof of Menger's TheoremUploaded byKamal Azmi
- AoPS Community 9Uploaded bysayan paul
- ERF.pdfUploaded byJay Neil Gapuz
- 7 Interpreting Data Graphs and Charts 1Uploaded bysanchita22
- Algorithm One 003Uploaded byBrian Beckman
- sec3.pdfUploaded byRaouf Bouchouk
- A Structural Approach to Model General is at Ion of an Urban StreetUploaded byDfdfgsdfg Sdfgsdfg
- ESE Time Table Nov - Dec 2016Uploaded byEr Vaibhav Nyati
- mechani-informatics-6thUploaded byvanopi
- Vilokanam Autumn 2014Uploaded byVaishnav Gangavarapu
- Robot Lab Path PlanningUploaded byKevin Carvalho
- A minimal spanning tree algorithm for distribution networks configurationUploaded bypanggah
- On Harmonious Coloring of M(L<sub>n</sub>) and C(L<sub>n</sub>)Uploaded byTI Journals Publishing
- Barbell Graph -- From Wolfram MathWorldUploaded byZainul Anwar
- 1324981_636166846851254123Uploaded bySaurabh Kumar Sharma
- Note Taking StrategiesUploaded byAbidah Sarajul Haq
- pipeline projectUploaded byapi-302654497
- A Generalized Code for Computing Cyclic Redundancy CheckUploaded byBùi Thanh Xuân
- Discrete AlgebraUploaded byRavindra Joshi
- Height, Depth and Level of a TreeUploaded byTamilselvi
- sudokuUploaded byAndrelobin
- Artificial Intelligence Lab FinalUploaded byMuhammad Mahadi Hasan
- problem solving powerpointUploaded byapi-360964158
- 01 aUploaded byJose Mitchell
- Majorization and Karamata InequalityUploaded byngquvu
- CVEN 4402 - Workshop - Week 7Uploaded byzhunshean
- 15hUploaded bySyed Raheel Adeel
- Lesson 3.2 Introduction to Polynomial Functions.pdfUploaded bymomathtchr
- AO AlgorithmUploaded byVijayalakshmi Vengattaramane
- Differentiability on R 2Uploaded bylusienopop

- InternetUploaded byShy Manzano
- SANAYSAYUploaded byShy Manzano
- TNHSUploaded byShy Manzano
- 8arts Gr 10 Lm - Qtr3 (8 Apr 2015)Uploaded byShy Manzano
- RussianUploaded byShy Manzano
- FEU Survives USTUploaded byShy Manzano
- Jose RizalUploaded byShy Manzano
- 232752828 Blacklily CharmUploaded byShy Manzano
- FranceUploaded byShy Manzano
- Virtual WorldUploaded byShy Manzano
- P.S. Im PregnantUploaded byShy Manzano
- Doc2Uploaded byShy Manzano
- Wishing StarUploaded byShy Manzano
- TalumpatiUploaded byShy Manzano
- Anyo Ng TulaUploaded byShy Manzano
- doc3Uploaded byShy Manzano
- Hired Girlfriend, Hired Mommy 1Uploaded byShy Manzano
- CapturedUploaded byShy Manzano
- 146284362-HIS-MAID-txtUploaded byShy Manzano
- ScienceUploaded byShy Manzano
- krusadaUploaded byShy Manzano
- ggUploaded byShy Manzano
- Ito Na Ba Ang Ating BansaUploaded byShy Manzano
- you won_t hear me cry.TXTUploaded byShy Manzano
- Jose RizalUploaded byShy Manzano
- 99434809 Free Fifty Shades Darker PDF DownloadUploaded byShy Manzano
- DdddUploaded byShy Manzano
- Terrorist PDFUploaded byShy Manzano
- Ito Na Ba Ang Ating BansaUploaded byShy Manzano