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qdkNyD;rS ausmfjrifh\vufxJu om;a&tdwfudkjrifojzifh ]tppfyJ? a[m'g usKyfom;a&tdwfuav;yg} [k
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Z0e

8

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Z0e

9

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Z0e

10

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Z0e

11

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Z0e

12

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Z0e

13

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Z0e

14

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Z0e

15

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Z0e

16

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Z0e

17

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Z0e

18

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Z0e

19

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Z0e

20

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Z0e

21

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Z0e

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Z0e

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Z0e

24

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Z0e

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Z0e

26

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Z0e

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aomif;usef;yHkudk Mum;odxm;&aom uRefawmfhrSm xdyfeDonfaeYcif;ü bmrQzrf;pm;jcif;rjyK[k ajymqdk
Muapumrl xdkae&modkYa&mufwdkif; MuufoD;xrdayawmh\/ odkYjzpfapumrl xdkvrf;onf ausmif;odkY
oGm;&ef teD;qHk;vrf;jzpfaeav&m tjcm;vrf;rS auGYa&Smifí roGm;vdkbJ ausmif;wufausmif;qif;onfh
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]uJ . . rif;wkdY MuufoD;xMuao;ovm;}

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Z0e

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rdojzifh t½Iyft&Sif;jzpfcJh&m *syefvufonf;cGmrcH&atmif tawmfBudK;pm;í tvGwf½Hk;cJh&awmh\/
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pD&ifcsuf csufvkdufavawmh\/
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&av\/
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vkdif;awGESifh jzpfívmav\/

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&rnfvJ[k apmifhpm;aeNyD;? bmrQajymvkdaom trlt&mudkrawGYonfESifh ]taz uRefawmfjyefOD;r,f?
ppfrxGufcif wpfacgufawmh vmOD;r,f} [k ajymajymqdkqdkESifhyif xvdkufav\/
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awmfvSefa&;udpöBuD;acsmacsm armarmeJY atmifjrifygapuGm}
uRefawmhfrSm odef;xDBuD;aygufNyD;umrS aiGxkwf&ufra&mufrD BudK;rdefYay;cH&oluJhodkY zl;pmzuf
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rcsifhr&JcHpm;&if; tbdk;BuD;xHrS xGufvmcJhayawmhonf/
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wufcJhav\/
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jzpfvmrdav\/
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þae&mwGif uRefawmf\trlt&mudk waphwapmif;acsmif;ajrmif;tuJcwfaeonfh wpfOD;wpfa,muf
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*syefudkyJ jyefcscsifcs&vdrfhr,f? tJ'g OD;wpfa,mufwnf; odzdkYygyJ? uRefawmfwdkYvm&jcif;u 'De,fudk
umuG,fzdkYyJ}

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]aMomf . . ppftajctaeu tawmfqdk;aerSudk;}
]qdk;w,fvdkY qdkr,fqdkvJqdkEkdifygw,f? tck uRefawmfwdkY 'Dvdkvm&jcif;[m 'De,ftwGufwm0efusvdkY
wpfcsufckwf? ESpfcsufjywftaeeJY vmjcif;jzpfwmrdkY ppfom;wpfa,muf vmNyD;aewJhtaersKd;
vlrodapcsifbl;cifAs? aemufNyD; uRefawmfhtrnfudkvJ armifatmif'ifvdkY rac:bJ MuGufeDvdkY ac:apcsif
ygw,f}
]OD;awmhjzifh? armifatmif? tJav . . armifMuGufeDa&mufvmwm tm;wufrdwmyJ? tumtuG,ftwGuf
trsm;BuD; tm;udk;&wmaygh}
xdktcdkufwGif umzDESifhpm;zG,faomufzG,frsm;udk apmapmu awGY&aom yHkqdk;rBuD;o,f,lvmum
pm;yGJay:ü csav\/ ,ckürl uRefawmfhrSm yHkqdk;rBuD;udk rMunfh&JbJ r&dSawmhacs/ pdwfxJwGif rwkwfESifh
ouFmuif;aeNyD jzpfay\/
]uJ . . orD;? rkefYawGxyfNyD; ,lcJhygOD;? cyfrsm;rsm;av;vkyfrSaygh}
OD;pHrif;u yHkqdk;rBuD;udk orD;[k ac:oHMum;vkdufaomtcg uRefawmfhrSm vefYíoGm;rdjyefav\/
OD;pHrif;rSm orD;ESpfa,muf&dSNyD; apmapmuorD;rSm rwkwfr[kwfbJ? þyHkqdk;rBuD;omvQif rwkwf
jzpfaeava&mhovm;? apmapmuorD;udk pmzwf&efac:pOfu rwkwf[lí xnfhNyD; ac:rSac:ava&mhvm;?
orD;[líac:onfudk toHom,monfhtwGuf rwkwf[k ac:vkdufouJYodkY pdwfxJu xifrdjcif;ayavm
[k tlaMumifaMumifjzpfaerdum OD;pHrif;rsufESmudk Munfhvkduf? yHkqdk;rBuD;rsufESmudk MunfhvdkufESifh
Munfhrdav\/
uRefawmf\ OD;aESmufMum;rSm Munfvif&Tifvef;ae&mu xlylívmjyefav&m 'DyHkqdk;rBuD;om
rwkwfjzpf&ifawmh igawmhjzifhacsmufyJ[k ylyif&jyefvsuf OD;pHrif;tm; b,folb,f0gjzpfMuonfudk
zGifhíar;awmhrnfjyKvkdufrdav\/
xkdaemufrS
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½dkif;ys&ma&mufaernfudk
jyefvnfqifjcifrdpOf ]uJ . . armifatmifMuGuf . . tJav . . armifMuGufeD aumfzD ylwkef;aomufvkduf?
rkefYawGvJ pm;a[h} [k OD;pHrif;uajym&m [efvkyfraeEkdifawmhyJ &ifxJu xMuGvmaom tylvHk;udk
rkefYrsKdí zdEdSyfcs&avawmh\/
]rzGm;oufaum . . vmav}
OD;pHrif;ZeD;onf uRefawmfwkdY pm;yGJodkYa&mufvmNyD; ]uJ . . armif? tm;remeJY udk,fhaqG udk,fhrsKd;tdrfvdk
oabmxm;NyD; pm;p&m&dSwmpm;? aomufp&m&dSwmaomuf a[m'DrkefYuav;,lvkdufygOD;} [k
ajymajymqdkqkd pm;yGJwGif 0ifxdkifNyD; bDpuGwfxnfhxm;aom yef;uefudk vSrf;í ay;vkdufav\/
uRefawmfrSm awGY&cgprSmyif þrQ uRefawmfhtay:ü pdwfapwemaumif;vSaom tbkd;BuD;ESifh
tr,fBuD;udk a,mu©rawmf&ef toifh&dSaomfvnf; yHkqdk;rBuD;ESifhpyfí awmf&rnfudkrl 0efav;aerday\/
xdktcdkufwGuf yHkqdk;rBuD;jyefí 0ifvmNyD; aemufxyf,lvmaom rkefYrsm;udk csay;av\/
]orD;wdkYaum vufzuf&nfaomufNyD;NyDvm;} [k ar;av\/
][kwfuJh . . uRefrwdkY aemufaz;rSmyJ aomufaeMuw,f}
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,cktBudrfwGif ryHkqdk;\toHrSm Muufvnfvdrfí jzpfñ§pfxkwf&onfh toHrsKd;xGufvmav\/
ryHkqdk;xGufoGm;onfhtcgrS a':zGm;oufu ]ta':wdkYrSm orD;ESpfa,muf&dSw,f? orD;qdkayr,fhvJ
wpfa,mufu wlr? wpfa,mufu orD;? ESpfa,mufpvHk;udkorD;&if;vkdyJ cspfae&w,f} [k ajymípum;
rqHk;rDyif ][kwfygNyD? tckrs ydkNyD;aocsmaeygNyD? 'gBuD;rS orD;tppfygyJ} [k pdwfESvHk;udk 'Hk;'Hk;csvdkufrd
av\/
]wlruav;u taztar r&dS&SmvdkY ta':wdkYuyJ i,fi,fuwnf;u Munhf½IvmcJh&w,f? rwkwfqdkwmu
ta':horD;t&if;? wlr trnfuawmh r0ufwJh}
þwGif uRefawmfhrSm jyóemwpfck wdk;vmjyefavawmhonf/ xdkjyóemum; r0ufESifhrwkwf[laom
pum;ESpfvHk;t& (0uf) ESifh (wkwf) b,foif;u ydkNyD;0aom t"dyÜm,f&dSoenf;[laom jyóemyif
jzpfay\/
uRefawmf\OD;aESmufrSm ajcmufuyfaeNyDjzpf&m b,folu rwkwf? b,folu r0uf[lí rqHk;jzwf
EdkifawmhbJ ]tckvmwmu} [k tqHk;rowfaompum;jzifh ar;cGef;aMumif;ar;vkdufum w&m;olBuD;\
trdefYudkapmifhaeaom vlowfrIw&m;cH\ rsufESmrsKd;jzifh r0ufjzpfygap? r0ufjzpfygapbk&m;[k
qkawmif;&if; a':zGm;ouf\ pum;udkem;axmifav&m ]tJ'gu . . ta':wlruG} [k
Mum;vkduf&onfwGif xDaygufaMumif; a&'D,dku toHvTifhcsufMum;&aomfvnf; ½kwfw&uf
r,HkEkdifouJhodkY&dSum ]r0ufqdkwmvm;} [k xyfar;í [kwfaMumif;odumrS xrckefrdatmif
renf;[efaqmif&NyD;vQif ][kwfom;yJ? ighudk,fu twm? 0ufqdkwm ydkNyD;0 ydkNyD;½kyfqdk;wmaygh? tvum;
tajcmufwdkuf ighpdwfxJu ylaewm} [k awG;NyD;? pdwfxJrSmyif NyHK;ae&av\/ rwkwfESifhr0uftwGuf
pdwfxJrSmyl&jcif;udk þrQavmuf½dk;r,fzGJYae&jcif;rSm uRefawmfESifh r0ufwdkY\ a&pufqHkMuzdkYta&;wGif
tjcm;cspfolrsm;uJhodkY toufpGefY&jcif;? ylaqG;& ESdyfpufaESmuf,SufcH&jcif;rsKd;r&dSbJ ylyifaomuqdkí
þrQavmufom tckduftwefYuav;twGif; jzpfvkduf&jcif;udkyif xif&Sm;apvdkíjzpfay\/ uRefawmf\
tcspfZmwftdrfZmwfuGufudk jyefajymif;íMunfhvkdufrnfqdkvQif rwkwfudk &&eftwGuf uRefawmfhrSm
ukorif;uJhodkYvnf; qif;&JcHírydk;cJh&? rmw*FuJhodkYvnf; r,foHkaygufpD oDcsif;jzifh ajcqif;í
xdkifoydwf? vufeufrqifh? yOöoDcuJhodkYvnf; aAvk0apmif;ukdifí ra*:cJh&bJ zcifBuD;uyif
vrf;jzL;atmif tqifoifh yGJawmfcif;xm;onfvnf; wpfcsuf . . /
awmfvSefa&; ppfxGuf&rnfhtwGuf a&pufqHkzdkYta&; c&D;uGma0;OD;rnf[k rSef;qae&onfhtxJrSmyif
zl;pma&;ewfuyif tvdkwltvdkygjzpfum rwkwfESifh reD; eD;&atmif þae&modkY ydkYaqmifcJhonfvnf;
wpfzHk . . /
a,mu©ravmif;ESpfOD;uvnf; vlrjrifcifuxuf vludkjrifrS omívkdvm;aeonfudk awGY&jcif;uvnf;
wpfenf; . . /
rwkwfudk jrifvkduf&onfESifhyif ol\trlt&muav;udku uRefawmfhtay:wGif vmyg . . vmyg
rMunf&JY oDcsif;ESifh ac:ae ouJhodkY wpfoG,f . . /
uRefawmf\ta&;rSm vufaq;í yGJawmftkyfEdIuf½HkrQ vG,fvG,fululacsmacsmarmarm tqifajyNyD;
jzpfaeav&m r0ufESifhrwkwf pdwf½Iyfvdkuf&onfh tuGufuav;wpfuGufrQomvQif ylyifaomu

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jzpf&onfrSvGJí uRefawmf\tcspfZmwfvrf;pOfrSm
pHwifavmufp&mjzpfayawmh\/

tvGefw&m

acsmarmvSygayonf[k

urÇmrS

rwkwftay:wGif uRefawmf\cspftifudk txl;0dwm¦ tus,fcsJYjyae&efrvdkawmhay/ uRefawmhfbufu
wpf0ufaocsmoavmuf rwkwfbufuvnf; uRefawmfhrsufESmuav;MunfhMunhfNyD; NyHK;pdNyHK;pdESifh
EHk;csnfhcsnfh jzpfaeonfudk txift&Sm;awGYae&ayonf/
eHeufa&csKd;rnfqdkvQif rwkwfudk,fwkdif a&arT;qyfjym? rsufESmokwfy0gwdkYudk tqifoifh,lvmay;NyD;
olYrsufESmuav;rSmvnf; csKdíomaeawmhonf/
eHeufpm pm;csdefwGuf a,mu©ravmif;BuD;ESpfa,muf? orD;ESpfa,muf? uRefawmfwdkY ig;OD;om;
rsufESmpHknD pm;aeMuonfhtxJu tbdk;BuD;? tr,fBuD;awG avmuGufaumif;ovdk rwkwfuvnf;
]udkatmif'if pm;av . . tm;remygeJY} [k uRefawmf &Sufudk;&Sufuef; jzpfrae&atmif oluyif pwifí
pum;ajymygonf/
uRefawmfhtm; ukdatmif'ifvdkY ac:vkdufonfudk OD;pHrif;Mum;vQif ]orD;? aemufudk udkatmif'ifvkdYrac:eJY}
[k qdkvkdufojzifh udkudk vdkY tac:cdkif;rvm;[k uRefawmfhpdwfwGif xifrdNyD; rwkwfuvnf;
tbdk;BuD;oifjyay;rnfh ac:yHkac:enf;udk iHharQmfaepOf OD;pHrif;u qufvufí . .
]udkMuGufeDvdkYac:} [k ajymvdkufrS uRefawmfhrSm uRefawmfajymxm;onfh pum;udkowd&NyD;
txiftjrifvGJrdonfudk &,fcsifrdonfxuf yHkqdk;r r0ufrSm tdtd . . tdtd ESifh 0ufoHxGufaeatmif
&,fvsuf rwkwfrl NyHK;aeonfudk awGY&av\/
]r0ufuawmh 'DvdkyJuGJY? tifrweft&,foefw,f? armifatmif'if&JY}
]aMomf . . rzGm;oufES,f . . ? armifMuGufeDac:ygvdkY tckyJ usKyfajymaew,f}
]bmjzpfvkdY udkMuGufeDjzpf&wmvJ
ar;vdkufav\/

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]udkMuGufeD pdwfqdk;aeygOD;r,f}
]pdwfrqdk;ygbl; rcifwkwf&JY? tJ'gi,femrnfrdkY ydkNyD;oabmusygw,f} [k uRefawmfu 0ifíajymvkduf&m
rcifwkwfu rsufvHk;uav; rcdkYw½dkYapmif;iJhMunfhNyD; ]BuHBuHzefzef udkatmif . . MuGuf . . tJav . .
udkMuGufeD&,f} [k ajym&if; [uf[ufyufyuf &,fav\/
xdkodkY [uf[ufyufyuf &,foHuav;udku uRefawmhftzdkYrSm rcifwkwfudk cspfNyD;&if;cspfp&muav;
jzpfaeayawmh\/
þodkYvQif aysmfvkdYrqHk;? a*:vdkYrqHk;aom aeYuav;onf wpfaeukefcJhNyD; nbufodkY ul;ajymif;
vmcJhav\/

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uRefawmfESifh a,mu©ravmif;BuD;wdkYonf nOD;ü axG&mav;yg; pum;vufqHkusaeMu&mu teD;odkY
rcifwkwfa&mufvmNyD;vQif ]tdyf&m jyifNyD;NyD? tar . .} [k taMumif;Mum;av\/
]uJ . . armifatmif? tJav . . armifMuGufeDvJ c&D;yef;vmwmrdkY apmapmtdyfayawmh}
][kwfuJh . . uRefawmfh tdyf&mvdyfuav;ygygw,f}
]armifMuGufeD tdyf&mvdyfudk aeygap? ta':wdkY tay:xyfrSm arGY&mjcifaxmif tm;vkH;toifhjyifxm;w,f?
tdyf½HkyJ}
uRefawmhftzdkYrSm a,mu©rtdrfwuf om;rufozG,f rsufESmi,fqdkonfhpum;rSm rrSefawmhbJ
{&mrrsufESmBuD;aeonfudk awGY&ojzifh ]w,fvJ[kwfvdkufyguvm;} [k auseyfNyD;&if;auseyfjcif;
jzpfrdum yxraeY\tjzpf tcef;wpfudk Zmwfodrf;&ef tdyfcef;&dS&modkY xvmcJh&av\/
tdyf&mxJodkY 0ifrnfjyKNyD;rS a,mu©ravmif;BuD;rsm; uRefawmfhtm; cspfNyD;&if; wdk;cspfaprnfhtBuHwpfck&dSí
toHus,fus,fjzifh ]Moumo . . Moumo} [k [efvkyfNyD; bk&m;&dScdk;arwåmawG tpGrf;ukef
ydkYypfvdkufawmh\/ xkdaemufrS tdyf&mxJodkY a&muf&dScJhav\/
tdyf&mrSm jcifaxmif? tdyf&mcif;? acgif;pGyfrSpí tm;vHk; 'dkbDusp topfpufpufjzpfav&m
vwfqwfoefY&Sif;aom oif;&eHYuav;rSm cif;jyefYwGif uvdvsuf&dSaomaMumifh ]tdpufnufanmwJh
zJarGY&may:0,f} [laom oDcsif;udk pdwfwGif;uqdkrdí yDwdBuD;jzpfvsuf ]aMomf . . rcifwkwf . . rcifwkwf
. . ? olYvufuav;awGeJY cif;xm;wJh tdyf&may:wGiftawG;vHk;jzifh NyHK;NyHK;BuD; tdyfaysmfrdavawmhownf;/
aeYcif;ü pdwfxJüwpfpHkwpf&m pGJvrf;rI&dSvQif ntdyf&mxJwGif tdyfrufwwfonf[k avmu
"mwfq&mBuD;rsm; ajymavh&dSonfh pum;omrSefcJhvQif xdknu uRefawmfhtzdkYrSm rcifwkwfESifh a&TvnfETJí
tcspfyGJcif;onfh r*Fvmtdyfrufaumif;udk ruf&rnftrSefyifjzpfayonf/ xdkodkYrufvkduf&vQif
wlESpfudk,feD;&onfh t&omuav;udk vufawGYr[kwfapumrl ]wu,fvdkyJuG} [k ajymMuovdk
yPmrtcspf t&omuav;udk cHpm;&vdrfhrnf/ xdkodkYrufvkdufvQif aumif;avpG/ odkYaomf xdktdyfrufrsKd;
rruf&ay/
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qdkaom pum;ESifhtnD tdyfrufxJrSmyif wpfudk,fvHk;EkysKdoGm;um ]a[mvD;a'; . . a[mvD;a';} [lí
0rf;ajrmuf&Tifvef;pGm [pfatmfvsuf oDwif;uRwf ausmif;ydwfvkdufonfhtwGuf uRefawmfESifh
rmrufvwpf ac: armifarmif0if;wkdYvnfyif;zufí aysmf&TifpGm ausmif;ay:rSm qif;ajy;vmMuonfudk
jyefítdyfrufrufrdav\/
tdyfrufrSm wu,fyif ,kwåd&dSae&um; rEkd;Mum;aomuRefawmf\pdwfxJwGif uRefawmfhudk,fudk wu,fyif
ausmif;om;uav;jzpfae onf[k xifrdawmhonf/
uRefawmfESifhrmrufwdkYonf pmtkyfvG,ftdwfrsm;udk ezl;csdwfí ausmay:rSqGJum vrf;wpfavQmufvHk;udk
abmvHk;tjzpfuef&if; tdrfodkY jyefvmcJhMuav\/
xdkodkY uef&if;uef&if;yif tdrfjyefvrf;&dS bk&m;ysufBuD;udk ausmfvGefvmNyD; xdyfeDo&JBuD;pdk;pHonfh
wkdifikwfBuD;teD;odkY a&mufvmMuav\/
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]a[h . . wpfcsDyef;MuOD;pdkY}
rmrufonf ajymajymqdkqdk a&SYut&ifoGm;NyD; wdkifikwfBuD;udk a&zsef;r*Fvmobif qif,ifavawmh\/
tpueOD;wGif ed'gef;ysKd;cJhonfhtwdkif; uRefawmfwdkYrSm þwdkifikwfBuD;udk awGY&vQif xHk;pHtwdkif;
EIwfrquf&raeEkdifatmif
]a&puf}
ygvmMuonfhtwdkif;
uRefawmfvnf;
rqdkif;rwG
rmruf\vrf;pOfvdkufum yef;yifpdkufovdk a&Trdk;aiGrdk; oGef;NzKd;vdkufpOfyif . .
tdyfaysmfaeaom uRefawmf\ aygifay:wGif a&aEG;ylavmif;vkdufovdk ylceJ? &dSrf;ceJjzpfum
tdyf&mrSvefYEkd;NyD; uav;rsm;tdyf&mxJ ao;ygovdk BuD;awmif;BuD;rjzpfumrS tdyfrufESifha&mNyD;
wu,fhudkyif r*Fvma&T>yefrS a&oGefrd&ufom; jzpfaeonfudk wpfydkif;wpfpBuD;ESifh awGYae&um
þtajctaea&mufcgrS wpfydkif;wpfpjzwfxm;í r&Ekdifatmif wm;r&? qD;r&jzpfvsuf rcifwkwf
vufuav;ESifh cif;xm;aom jzLazG;ysHYoif;aeonfhtdyf&may:wGif Mumyl? MumnD§? Mumig;rnfa&mpyfaom
taemwwftdkifBuD; ay:xGef;oGm;avawmh\/
aygifay:ü &Sdrf;ceJjzpfoGm;aom tylonf em;xifem;&if;udk wufvmNyD; ][dkuf . . aomufusKd;awmh
enf;NyD} [k awG;rdum rsufvHk;jyL; rdav\/
cufNyD? reufus&if rcifwkwftdyf&mudk vmí&Sif;vQif xif;ceJaeaom ao;uGufBuD;udk awGYoGm;
awmhrnf/ tdyf&mxJü ao;ygaom owdkYom;udk b,ftysKd? b,funmu arwåmawmfrQEkdifyghrnfenf;/
tdyf&may:rS þtrSwftom;BuD;aysmufatmif tb,fyHk azsmufzsuf&ygrnfenf;/
þae&mwGif uRefawmfonf ]BuHKao;w,f . . yHkaqG;AsmxkMuG,f . . b,fa&S;uH . . pDrHzefvmw,f . .}
[k [pfatmfíom idkcsifrdygawmhonf/
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uscgrS uvJhpm;acs wdkifikwf/
uRefawmfhrSm tpdkudkajcmufatmif vkyfzkdYudk tBuHxkwf&awmh\/ eHeufrdk;vif;írS rajcmufvQif
wpftdrfom;vHk;tm; uRefawmf\rsufESmudkjy0Hhrnfr[kwfawmhay/ txl;ojzifh rcifwkwfudk ydkí&ifrqdkif0Hh
jzpf&avawmhrnf/ uRefawmf\tcspfZmwfvrf;rSmvnf; &yfwef;odkYa&muf&awmhrnf/
odkYjzpfí uRefawmfhrSm udk,hftrIudk udk,fr&GHEkdifbJ tdyf&mcif;udkcGmí pdk&TJaeonfhtpdwftydkif;udk vufESifh
udkifí tkef;EkdYn§pfouJhodkY n§pfcsvkduf&m arGY&mrSmrl xyfípdk&TJoGm;vsuf tdyf&mcif;rSmrl pdkNrJpdkaeav&m
,yfcyfay;vQif ajcmufíoGm;aumif;oGm;rnfvm;[k cg;rS vHkcsnfudkcRwfum vHkcsnfjzifh ,yfcwfay;&
jyefav\/ wpfcef;vHk; arSmifrnf;aeíomvQif uRefawmfhrSm þuJhodkY vkyf0Hhayawmhonf/ rD;vif;
aecJhygrl pGyfus,ftusÐ0wfvsuf atmufydkif;wGifAvmjzpfNyD; ezl;rSaZmacR;jyefum ikwfwkwfxdkifNyD;
,yfcwfaeaom uRefawmf\ jzpftifrSm idktm;xuf &,ftm;oefp&mBuD;yif/
uRefawmhfrSm vufyef;usatmif ,yfcwfygaomfvnf; tenf;i,fajcmufaoGY½HkrQom ajcmufí cyfxyfxyf?
cyfxdkif;xkdif;jzpfaeao;onfudk awGY&onfjyif arGY&mudkprf;vkdufaomtcg ao;uGufrSm at;pufpufBuD;
jzpfvsuf b,fenf;ESifhrS ajcmufaoGYatmifvkyfí r&onfudk awGY&dS&um; þwGifrS pdwftysufBuD;ysufum
arGY&may:wGif vHkcsnfrygbJ arsmufxkdif xdkifvsuf ypfírdIifrdavawmh\/
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59

odkYaomf þuJhodkY aeírjzpfao;? rdk;vif;bufodkY ul;vmNyDjzpf&um; wpfpHkwpfckudk jyKvkyfzdkY&ef tjrefqHk;
qHk;jzwf&awmhrnfjzpfay\/ þwGif tBuHwpfck&vmjyefum vHkcsnfudkjyef0wfNyD; jcifaxmifxJrSxGufí
acgif;&if;em;üxm;aom uRefawmf\ppfvG,ftdwfudk arSmifxJüprf;í &Sm&jyef\/
vG,ftdwfxJwGif a&arT;wpfykvif;aqmif,lvmcJh&m arGY&may:wGif a&arT;ykvif;zdwfouJhodkY wpfykvif;vHk;
avmif;csvdkufvQif tpdkcsif;wlí a&arT;aMumifhpdkonf[lívnf; xifrSwf&rnfhjyif usifi,feYHudk a&arT;eHY
vTr;fzHk;oGm;rnf[k awG;rdonfhtavsmuf vG,ftdwfxJrS a&arT;ykvif;EdIuf? tdyf&mjyefcif;? pdkaeonfh
tuGufudk vufESifhprf;NyD;xdkae&mwpf0dkufudk a&arT;wpfykvif;vHk; arSmufoGefum zsef;vdkufav\/
xdkodkYjyKvkyf&mwGif uRefawmfxifouJhodkY usifi,feHYudk a&arT;eHYESifhrzHk;bJ teHYESpfrsKd;pvHk;a&mrdum
uRefawmf\wpfoufwGif wpfcgrQ rawGYbl;aom pl;0g;nD§arT;onfh teYHqdk;BuD;wpfrsKd; xGufay:vmvsuf
tjcm;olrsm;um; rnfodkYjzpfrnfrod uRefawmfyifvQif atmf*vDqefum ysKdYtefcsifvmavawmh\/
uRefawmhfrSm wpfudk,fvHk;xlylvsuf ezl;rSmaZmacR;rsm;onf qD;uif;avmufBuD;rm;pGm wNzdKifNzdKif
,dkpD;aeMuawmh\/ uRefawmhftzdkYrSm tjcm;enf;vrf;BuH&mr&awmhNyD/ eHeufrdk;rvif;rD rnfolrQrodatmif
xdktdrfrSvpfí ajy;&efomvQif wpfvrf;wnf;om&dSawmh\/
odkYESifh uRefawmfvnf; uRefawmf\ypönf;rsm;udk arSmifxJüprf;oyfxkwfydk;um &Sm&av\/
wpfcgrQra&mufbl;aomtdrfwGif arSmifxJürSef;ívrf;avQmuf&onfrSm rvG,fulvSay/ ajcuvnf;
prf;prf;? vufuvnf;prf;prf;jzifh rSef;rSef;NyD;avQmufcJh&m uRefawmf\aemufem;rS cRwfceJtoH
Mum;vdkuf&ojzifh em;xifem;&if;BuD;oGm;um tom&yfaevkduf&avao;\/
cPMumrQ ajcqufívSrf;vdkufpOf touf&dSaomowå0gwpfcku
zrf;qGJvkdufNyD; pl;0g;aomtoHjzifh ]olcdk;ygawmh} [k [pfvdkufav\/

uRefawmf\vHkcsnfudk

qwfceJ

uRefawmfhrS vdyfjymvGifhpifoGm;rwwfjzpfrdawmh\/ atmfvdkufonfhtoHrSm r0uf\toHjzpfae&um;
vlrdívefY&onfhtxJwGif ol\ toHaMumifh ydkívefYrdav\/
][Jh . . [Jh . . b,frvJolcdk;? udkpHrif;xygOD;? atmufxyfu olawmfwdkY? Mumzl;wdkY Ekd;Mu&JYvm;? olcdk;wJh .
. olcdk;wJh . . b,frvJ "m; . . "m; . . rD;cGufxGef; . . rD;cGufxGef;} paom toHrsm; qlnHoGm;NyD;aemuf
rD;rsm;vif;í vlrsm;0dkif;vmum uRefawmfESifh uRefawmfhvHkcsnfqGJxm;aom r0ufwdkYudkawGY&í tm;vHk;
tHhtm;oifhaeMuav\/
][Jh . . b,fES,f . . bmjzpfMuwmwkef;}
]uRefr vloHMum;vdkY zrf;qGJvdkufwmyJ? udkMuGufeD wydkwyg;oGm;rvdkY qif;rSef;rodbJ}
]jzpfrSjzpf&avw,f? armifMuGufeDuvJ xr,fqdk&if toHuav; bmuav; jyKa&maygh? aeygOD;?
armifMuGufeDu txkyftydk;awG bmawG vG,fvdkYyguvm;? b,fvkdvJuGJY}

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]uRef . . uRefawmf . . OD;udkajymwJh awmfvSefa&;udpöeJY ta&;wBuD; pcef;wpfae&m oGm;p&mudkarhNyD;
wa&;Ekd;rS owd&vdkY OD;wkdYudkvJ tdyfa&;ysufaerSmpdk;vdkY rEdI;awmhbJ xGufoGm;rvdkYyg} [k ½kwfw&uf
tBuH&í ajzvdkufav\/
]olajymwm bmudpövJ udkpHrif;&JY}
]olYudpöudkawmh usKyfodygw,fav? 'gudkxm;ygOD;? armifMuGufeDuvJ bmtm;emp&m&dSvJuG,f? EId;a&maygh?
oGm;p&m&dSwmvJ oGm;ayghuG,f? ajymxm;&if tazmfuav;ac:oGm;zdkY pDpOfay;&raygh}
þwGif uRefawmf\ tcspfZmwfvrf;um; qHk;cef;odkY
rcifwkwfwdkY\ezl;pmum; þrQom uHqHkayawmhonf/

a&mufcJhygawmhonf/

uRefawmfESifh

xdktcsdefrSpí uRefawmfvnf; rcifwkwfudk ,aeYtxd rawGY&awmhay/ þtjzpfuav;omvQif
uRefawmhftzdkY awG;awG;NyD; aqG;p&mjzpfawmhonf/ þodkYaqG;&onfxuf rcifwkwfpdwfxJwGif
uRefawmfhtm; Adkvfatmif'if[líwpfrsKd;? udkMuGufeD[líwpfrsKd;? awmfvSefa&;ol&Jaumif;BuD; Adkvfao;yef;
[lí wpfrsKd; trsKd;rsKd;rarhEkdifjzpfaernfudk awG;rdwkdif; i,fpOfu uRefawmfausmif;oGm;&m vrf;ab;&dS
wdkifikwfBuD;udk pdwftemBuD; emrdawmhownf;/
/
aMu;rHkr*¾Zif;? Ekd0ifbm? 1951/

Z0e

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aav
vSu
Summ;;BBu
uD;D;jjrreefjfjrreefafax
xmmiif f

awmuf . . awmuf . . awmuf . . [k cGmaqmifhíeif;vmaom av'Dcif½SL;zdeyfoHudkMum;&ojzifh
OD;½dk;azonf zwfaeaomowif;pmudk zwfíMunfhvdkuf&m ausmif;rSjyefvmaomarMunfudk awGY&av\/
arMunfonf cHkjrifhzdeyfuav;udk cyfrSefrSefeif;um tdrftwGif;odkY0ifoGm;av&m OD;½dk;azonf arMunf\
oGm;vmyHkESifhwuG t0wftpm;udk ajcqHk;acgif;qHk;MunfhNyD;vQif wpfpHkwpf&m pdwftdkufaom trlt&mjzifh
oufjyif;½SL½dIufrdav\/
OD;½dk;azonf acwfopfBuD;xJwGif arG;zGm;BuD;jyif;vmaom orD;ysKdwpfa,mufudk t*FvdyfpmoifBum;
ay;&onfhtwGuf ausmif;p&dwf? t0wftpm;p&dwf? auR;arG;&onfhp&dwf? toHk;tjzKef;p&dwfwdkYrSm
rdrd\yifpifvcudk 0g;rsKdaeonfhtwGuf pdwfrcsrf;romjzpfrdum xdkwm0efBuD;onf tb,ftcgrS
at;ygrnfenf;[k awG;Munfhrdav\/ xdkodkYawG;vdkuf&mwGif orD;jzpfolvif&rS rdrd\vufxJu
uRwfvGwfum wm0efNidrf;awmhrSmyJ[k ESvHk;jyKrdayawmh\/
odkYjzpfonfh tm;avsmfnDpGm orD;jzpfoltm; a,musfm;jrefjref&ygapawmh[k pdwfxJuqkawmif;rdvsuf
acwfumv ynmwwfuav;rsm;\ ,Ofaus;aomxHk;pHt& arMunfESifhtwl tdrfodkYrMumcPvdkufygí
vmwwfMuaom a,musfm;ysKduav;rsm;udk OD;½dk;azonf rnfonfhtcgrQ rESpfoufaomtrlt&mudk
rjyacs/ rdrdwm0efudk xrf;&GufMurnfh omoemh0efxrf;yk*¾dKvfuav;rsm;[k todtrSwfjyKcJhav\/
odkY&mwGif rdrdarQmfvifhaomtajctaeodkYra&mufrDuyif arMunfonf wpfa,mufNyD;wpfa,muf cGmNyJypf
vkdufojzifh OD;½dk;azrS tawmfpdwfysufrday\/ odkYaomfNim;vnf; arMunfrSm ydk;yef;rnfholr&Sm;bJ
wpfa,mufESifhcGmNyJvQif aemufwpfa,mufay:vmojzifh OD;½dk;azrSm arQmfvifhcsufrukefbJ &dSav
ao;awmh\/
wwd,rdÜ . . oHk;a,mufajrmufaom &nf;pm;ESifh cGmNyJNyD;onfhaemuf? wpfaeYaomnaewGif arMunfonf
pwkw¦ajrmuf&nf;pm; wpfa,mufESifh tdrfa&SYcef;wGif pum;ajymvsuf&dSonfudk OD;½dk;az awGY&dS&av\/
OD;½dk;azonf rdrd\orufavmif;\ toGiftjyif? t*Fg½kyftqif;udkMunfhrd&mwGif rdrd\orD;ESifh
a&SYoGm;aemufvdkufnDrnfhol jzpfonf[k qHk;jzwfrdav\/ xdka,musfm;ysKduav;rSm ½kyf&nfoefYjyefYvsuf
aumif;rGefpGm 0wfpm;qif,ifNyD;vQif w0if;0if;ajymifvufaeaom pdefvufpGyf0wfqifxmm;onfudk
awGY&aomaMumifh ¤if;ESifh&vQif rdrd\orD;rSm at;at;csrf;csrf;ae&ayvdrfhrnf[k awG;awm0rf;ajrmuf&if;
tdrfa&SYcef;odkY xGufvmav\/
]azaz . . a[m'DrSm? uRefrrdwfaqG udkwifjrifhqdkwm} [k arMunfuajymojzifh OD;½dk;azu
orufavmif;udkMunfhí NyHK;um wifjrifhuvnf; a,mu©ravmif;udk NyHK;íMunfhav\/
OD;½dk;azrSm orufavmif;udk txl;oabmusum &J&Jwif;wif;aexdkifajymqdk0Hhap&ef acwårQ &if;&if;EDS;EDS;
pum;ajymqdkNyD;aemuf rdrd\aiGpD;u&ufbl;udk xkwfíwnfav\/
xkdaemuf OD;½dk;az xoGm;aomtcg arMunfu . .
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]udkudkYudk 'DaiGpD;u&ufbl;wnfwm udkudkYtay:rSm azaz tefrwefta&;,laMumif; jywmyJ? azaz[m . .
awmf½Hkwef½Hkta&;pdkuf&rnfhvlavmufjzihf b,fawmhrS 'DpD;u&ufbl;eJYrwnfbl;} [k wifjrifhtm;
ajymjyav\/
wifjrifhonf tvGefauseyfoGm;um pD;u&ufwpfvdyfñdSí aomufav\/ pD;u&ufrSm tvGefaomufí
aumif;ojzifh aemufxyfwpfvdyfñdSíaomufav\/ pD;u&ufav;vdyfavmufukefaomtcg OD;½dk;azonf
ESajrmívmav\/ ]'Dtaumif . . ighaq;vdyfudkaomufaumif;vdkYyJ rxwmvm;? pum;ajymvdkYyJ
rukefEkdifwJhtwGuf rxao;wmvm;} [k OD;½dk;az\pdwfwGifawG;rdNyD;rS ][,f'Daumif ighorD;r&cif
vmufom ighpD;u&ufawGaomuf&rSmyg? ighorD;,lNyD;wJhaemuf ighwm0efat;awmhraygh? 'gaemufqHk;
ukef&wmyJ? ukefygap} [k apwemjy|mef;vdkufav\/
odkYtm;jzihf wifjrifhonf OD;½dk;az\pD;u&ufrsm;udk naewdkif;tm;&yg;& rSefrSefBuD;wG,fíae&av\/
pD;u&ufrsm;udk arMunfudk,fwdkif,líay;? arMunfudk,fwdkif rD;ñdSíay;ojzifh wifjrifhrSm tvGefpnf;pdrf
awGYaeavawmh\/ OD;½dk;azonf rdrd\pD;u&ufrsm;udk wGefYwdkívmaomfvnf; ]wifjrifhrSm arMunfudk
pGJonfxuf pD;u&ufrsm;udk pGJrufí vmaeava&mhovm;} [k atmufarhum pD;u&ufrsm;udk
0Sufxm;vQif aemifudkrvmbJaeí orD;ESifhvrf;jywfoGm;rnfudkpdk;&drfum wifjrifh\pD;u&ufzdk;udk
rdrdtukefcHí ae&avawmh\/
xdkodkYvQif pD;u&ufESpfq,fhav;bl; ukefajrmufonfhaeYodkYa&mufonfhwkdifatmif wifjrifhonf rdrdtm;
arMunfudk awmif;&rf;,lygrnf[laom pum;udkvnf;rajymao;? arMunfuvnf; wifjrifhESifh
vufxyfzdkY&ef rylqmao;bJ&Sdonfhjyif wifjrifhonf pD;u&ufESifhyifrNyD;awmhbJ naewdkif; tjyef
rdk;csKyfum wpfcgwpf&H rdrdESifhtwlxrif;pm;yGJwGif 0ifíEIdufaeonfudk awGY&jyefav\/ odkYjzpfí
OD;½dk;azonf wifjrifhudkMunfh&onfrSm a&S;uESifhrwlbJ uRJaygufuav;vdk0NzdK;vmonf[k xifjrifrd
aomfvnf; orufavmif;wpfa,mufjzpfonfhtwGuf apwemrysufEkdifbJ arMunfu wifjrifhtm;
naewkdif; xrif;pm;&efac:jcif;udk rwm;jrpfbJ &dSacsawmh\/
wifjrifhonf rdk;csKyfatmifae½HkrQru nOfheufatmifaeaomtajctaeodkY qdkufa&mufvmNyD;vQif vQyfppf
"mwfrD;rDwmudk nwdkif;jzKef;íaeavawmh\/ OD;½dk;azrS cgwdkif;rDwmc vpOf 3d-*JcefY ay;aecJh&mrS ,ckrl
7d-12J9ydkif;ay;&aomaMumifh pdwfwdkívmav\/
OD;½dk;az\pdwfxJwGif acwfumvom;orD;udk t*Fvdyfpmoif&jcif;rSm ausmif;aep&dwf? t0wftpm;p&dwf?
auR;arG;p&dwf? toHk;p&dwfomru &nf;pm;p&dwfygaxmufyHhae&onfudk awGY&aomaMumifh jrefjref
udpöwHk;atmif rnfodkYvkyf&ygrnfenf;[k tBuHxkwfav\/ xdkodkYtBuHxkwfae&mwGif arMunfESifh
wifjrifhwkdY jrefjrefnm;ap&ef jyKvkyfjcif;rSwpfyg;? tjcm;pdwful;ír&bJ&dSojzifh jrefjrefnm;ap&ef
tb,fvkyf&ygrnfenf;[k enf;vrf;&Sm&jyefav\/
xdkodkYpdwful;rdojzifh twif; orufzrf;&aumif;rnfvm;[k pOf;pm;rdNyD;rS tu,fí orufzrf;írdvQif
ususeevufxyfay;OD;rSjzpfrnfjzpfav&m vufxyfrnfhtwGuf ukefus&rnfudk awG;rdaomaMumifh
aiGukefenf;rnfhenf;udk pdwful;av\/ xdkodkYpdwful;&wGif acwfumvtavsmuf cdk;&mvdkufajy;
Mujcif;onf aiGukefoufomaom enf;vrf;yifjzpfonfudk tBuH&ojzifh ¤if;wdkYESpfa,muf cdk;&m
vkdufajy;atmif rnfuJhodkY vIHYaqmf&ygrnfenf;[k pdwful;xkwf&jyefav\/

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wpfnwGif tdrfa&SYvrf;ay:rS uav;rsm; oDcsif;qdkoGm;MuoHudkMum;í em;pkdufaxmifvdkuf&m ]OD;½dk;az . .
[dk;[kd;[dk; . . rdk;xdatmif avSum;BuD;jrefjrefaxmif} [líMum;vkduf&ojzifh rdrdtwGufjzpfay:vmaom
twdwfwabmif[k ESvHk;jyKum 0rf;omrdNyD;vQif arMunftdyfaom tcef;jywif;aygufudk avSum;axmifí
ay;vdkufvQif b,fenf;ESifhrqdk wifjrifhonfcdk;ajy;awmhrnf[k ,lqNyD;vQif aemufwpfaeYwGif
tdrfeD;csif;bk&m;vlBuD;wpfOD;tdrfrS avSum;BuD;udk oGm;íiSm;av\/
]bmrsm;ta&;odyfBuD;vdkY avSum;vmNyD; iSm;&wmvJAs? OD;½dk;az} [k ar;onfudk OD;½dk;azrSm tajz&cuf
ojzihf ]ajymrjzpfwJhudpö &dSaevdkYAsm? aemufawmh od&ygapr,f} [k ajymav\/
]usKyfavSum;awmh rusKd;apeJYaemf . . usKd;&ifavsmf&r,f}
]pdwfcsyg? rusKd;ap&ygbl;? usKd;&ifavsmfyghr,f} [k ajymNyD;vQif OD;½dk;azonf avSum;BuD;udk udk,fwdkif
xrf;í,lvmNyD;vQif arMunftdyfaomtcef;\tjyifjywif;aygufwnfhwnfhwGif axmifxm; vkdufav\/
]azaz 'DavSum;BuD; b,fuiSm;vmovJ}
][dkbuftdrfu OD;bdk;aomifqDu}
]bmvkyfzdkYvJ azaz&JY}
]avSum;qdkwm ta&;udpö&dS&if wuf&qif;&wmaygh}
]tck bmudpörSr&dSbJ bmvkyfzdkYvJ}
]tckudpör&dSayr,fh? vdkvdkr,fr,f aemifudkudpö&dS&if oHk;zdkYaygh} [kajymvdkufojzifh arMunfrSm awG;ír&bJ
NyHK;rdav\/
OD;½dk;az avSum;iSm;vmonfrSm ckESpf&ufajrmufaomaeYodkY a&mufvmonfhwdkifatmif arMunfESifh
wifjrifhwdkYonf xdkavSum;udktoHk;rjyKojzifh OD;½dk;azrSm 'gavmufawmift&ovm;[k ESpfa,mufpvHk;
tay:wGif a'goxGufrdum ¤if;wdkYtwGuf tb,fyHkBuH&rnfenf; [k rdIifawGcsrdav\/
xdktcgrS OD;½dk;azonf rdrdwpfa,mufwnf;BuHírjzpfEdkif? bk&m;vlBuD;OD;bdk;aomifudk tusKd;taMumif;
zGifh[ajymqdkí wdkifyifrSjzpfawmhrnf[k pdwfydkif;jzwfum OD;bdk;aomiftm; wdkifyifav\/
]aMomf . . cifAsm;avSum;iSm;wm? 'DtwGufudk; [m; . . [m; . . [m; . .[m; . . orD;
vifhaemufvdkufajy;atmif vkyfzdkY[m ckacwfrSm omNyD;vG,faeao;w,f? cifAsm;orD;udkvmNyD;
aemufydk;aewJh oli,fudk tckvdk MunfMunfjzLjzL vufoifhcHaeorQ vmNyD; cifAsm;pD;u&ufawG?
xrif;awG? "mwfrD;tm;awG oHk;jzKef;aerSmyJ? tckvdkvGwfvGwfvyfvyfcspfae&wJhaemuf? bmvkyfzdkY
vdkao;vJ? b,fawmhrS cdk;zdkYpdwful;MurSmr[kwfbl;? tckae wpfa,mufESifhwpfa,muf rawGY&atmif
Muyfrwfxm;NyD; [dkoli,fvJ tdrfrvm&atmif vkyfvdkuf&if wpfa,mufESifhwpfa,mufrawGY&wJhtwGuf
raeEdkifbJ awGYEdkifwJh enf;vrf;udk&SmMuawmhrSmyJ? 'Denf;[m cdk;&mvdkufajy;apwJhenf;yJ} [k ajymjyvdkuf&m
OD;½dk;azrSm rsm;pGmauseyfNyD; jyefvmum tdrfodkYa&mufaomtcg orD;udkqlylav\/

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]eifwdkY acwfumvom;orD;awG[m rdbudktifrweft&SufcGJw,f? a,musfm;uav;eJY yl;wGJNyD;
oGm;[,fvm[,feJYwif tm;r&ao;bl;? tdrfwdkif&ma&muf ac:vmvdkufao;w,f? tckMunfhprf;?
tdrfeD;yg;csif;awG ar;aighukefNyD? igodyf&Sufw,f? eifeJYvdkufvmwJhtaumifawGuvJ tdrfOD;cef;u
pwdkifeJYxdkifNyD; ae½Hkruao;bl;? ighpD;u&ufawGvJaomuf xrif;pm;yGJvJ0ifEIduf? "mwfrD;vJjzKef;
vdkufao;w,f? 'DrsufESmawG igrMunfhcsifbl;? 'DtaumifrsLd;awG b,fawmhrS ac:rvmeJY? aemifudkawGY&if
tukefowfypfr,f? apmfapmfum;um; tdrfudkrsm; vmNyD; . . [if; . . } tp&dSojzifh wpfnaevHk;
qlylBudrf;armif;aepOf wifjrifha&mufvmNyD; tdrfay:odkYwufrnftjyKwGif qlyloHudkMum;&ojzifh jyefí
vSnfhoGm;av\/
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wydefydefjzpfíaeum rIdifíaeonfudkawGY&av\/
oHk;av;&ufcefYMumaomtcg OD;½dk;azrSm pdwfylyefrdjyefav\/ rdrd\qlylwm;jrpfjcif;aMumifh wifjrifhrvm
awmhbJ rdrdajymqdkrdorQpum;awGom tzwfwifí aeava&mhovm;[k awG;awmum OD;bdk;aomifESifh
wdkifyifrdonfrSm vlaygif;rSm;aeNyD[k pdwfnpfrdavawmh\/
odkY&mwGif ajcmuf&ufajrmufaomnwGif orD;tcef;rS wdk;wdk;wdwfwdwfajymoHMum;&ojzifh tompdkufí
em;axmifvdkuf&m wifjrifha&mufaeonfudkMum;od&ojzifh xívufcarmif;cwfcsif rdavawmh\/
]uJ . . MunfMunf? jrefjrefvkyfyg? MunfMunfwdkYazazEkd;awmhr,f? Ekd;&if cufukefawmhrSmyJ?
'DavSum;uyJqif;yg} [k ajymoHMum;&ojzifh OD;½dk;azonf tvGef0rf;om;um acsmacsmarmarmatmufodkY
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wdk;} [k ajymojzifh q&mBuD;onf NidrfíoGm;NyD;vSnfhMunfhvdkuf&m bodef;udkjrif&ojzifh
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vG,fulaomvufeufr[kwf[k ,lqum pm;yGJudkvSnfhajy;&if; pm;yGJay:&dS i½kwfaumif;ykvif;udk
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ajymvkdufonfwGif vS&DrSm 0rf;omvHk;qdkYoGm;um

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uHxl;u rat;jrifh\cg;udkjyefí xdk;vkdufojzihf ESpfOD;om;auseyf&TifNyHK;pGm &,farmrdMuNyD;rS jAKef;ceJ
rsufvHk;jyL;oGm;Muum a&ajrmif;xJodkY xdk;qif;vkqq
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vkdufMuav\/ xdkYaemufrS &,farmjcif;udk jyefíqufMujyefav\/

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]oef;wpfaxmif} odkY vkdufygcJhav\/
uHxl;a&muf&dSvmonfhtcsdefü rat;jrifh\zcif OD;bdk;ajAmhtjyifodkY xGufaecdkufjzpfí olESifhrawGY&bJ
OD;bdk;ajAmh\ZeD; rif;uawmfBuD;ESifhBuD;BuD;? a':a': aqGrsKd;awmfol? uyf&yfpm;aomufum [dwf[efxkwf
aeMuonfh rdef;rom;wpfpkwdkYudk awGY&av\/ rat;jrifhu uHxl;\ tusKd;taMumif;udkajymjyojzifh
wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; od&dSMuNyD;aemuf uHxl;aexdkif&eftcef;odkY uHxl;üygvmaom ypönf;rsm;udk ydkYapav\/
uHxl;rD;&xm;qdkufaomtcsdefrSm tawmfyifaESmifhaES;aeaomaMumifh npmpm;aomufMu&ef tcsdefeD;uyf
aeojzifh pum;pjrnfajymaezdkY tcsdefrsm;pGm r&dSawmhonfjzpfí uHxl; a&csKd;&efxGufoGm;av\/
a&csKd;NyD; 0wfqif&eft0wftpm;rsm;udk toifhxkwfNyD;xm;cJhav&m uHxl;a&csKd;NyD;í ol\tcef;xJodkY
0ifvmaomtcg &SyftusÐay:odkY tarG;zGm;zGm;ESifhaMumifxGm;BuD;wpfaumif wufíaeonfudkawGY&av\/
uHxl;onf aumvdyfausmif;om;b0uwnf;upNyD; t0wftpm;ay:wGif tawmfyifta&;,lol
wpfa,mufjzpf&um; toifh0wf&efacgufxm;aom aumfacsmtajymifwdkuf yif;rif;jyef&SyftusÐ &ifbwf
ay:wGif aMumifwufíaeonfudkawGY&ojzifh a'gorTefaompdwfjzifh MuufaoaoíaeNyD;rS ][Jh . .
aMumif} [k armif;vkdufav\/ odkY&mwGif xkdaMumifonf uHxl;\[pfatmfjcif;udk oDcsif;qdkjyonf[k
xifívm;rod? ]anmif . . anmif} [k atmfvdkufum tusÐay:wGif aA'ifwGufaeaomaMumifh
ydkrdkía'gyGNyD;vsifjrefpGmajy;vmum aMumif\ukyfudk ta&jym;rSqGJqkyfíudkifrvdkuf&m aMumifonf
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armif;wufjzifhqGJovkd aMumifudktomqGJvmNyD; teD;&dSjywif;aygufrS tjyifodkYypfcsvdkufav\/
aMumifrSm avxJwGif uRrf;oHk;av;ywfypfusoGm;&m tdrfab;wGifaxmifhwpfaxmifhrS xGufay:í
avQmufvmaom cHhcHhnm;nm;&dSonfh vlBuD;wpfa,muf\ukyfay:odkY wnfhwnfhcsnf; usa&mufav\/
aMumifonf xdkvlBuD;tm; ukwfzJhum usDpm;vdkufava&mhovm;rod/ ][ . . [ . . eifhtaruvTm; . . }
[k vefYzswfa&&GwfaomtoHonf tdrfay:odkYysHwufNyD; uHxl;\em;xJodkYwpfvHk;csif; 0ifa&mufvm
av\/
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zcif OD;bdk;ajAmhtay:odkY aMumifusoGm;onfudk awGY&av\/
xdktcdkufwGuf tcef;csif;uyfaeaom jywif;aygufwpfckrS acgif;wpfvHk;jyLxGufvmum ]bmjzpfwmvJ?
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jyefí0ifoGm;av\/

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uHxl;onf tbdk;BuD;auseyfoGm;atmif awmif;yefrSyJ[k ,lqum ]'DrSm} [k ac:vdkufav\/ OD;bdk;ajAmh
onf t&yfudk;rsufESmudk vSnfhywfíMunfhNyD; ]b,frSmvJ[} [k ar;í uHxl;u ]'DrSm} [k xyfrHqdkvkdufrS
uHxl;\rsufESmESifh qHkrdav\/
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&dSaeav\/ OD;bdk;ajAmhu uHxl;\ rsufESmudk wuJuJt&dyfMunfhaeav\/ xdkodkYMunhfaeojzifh uHxl;rSm
aphaphrMunhf&JbJ ab;odkYvTJíMunfhjyef&m rsufESmayguf qdk;vSaom ta':? BuD;BuD;ESifh rif;uawmfwdkYudk
awGYae&ojzifh tae&usyfaeav\/ odkY&mwGif rat;jrifhESifh pm;yGJatmufwGif 'l;csif;awhae&onfudk
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pum;azmazmoDoDajymvdkufrnf[k &nf&G,fcsufjzifh ]rSefygw,f . . tifrwefrSyJ omom,m,m
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vnfNyD;ypf&&if wpfaeYudk q,faumifxufrenf;&rSmyJ} ajymvdkuf&m uHxl;pum;ppOfu pum;BuD;
pum;us,f ygVdygXfom;ESifhMum;&í rif;uawmfBuD;\pdwfxJwGif csD;rGef;awmhrnfjyKae&mu iSufypfzdkY
aumif;onf[k ajymvdkufonfudk Mum;&jcif;jzifh wd&pämefuav;? iSufuav;rsm;udk ESpfoufwwfol
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Ak'¨bmomw&m;awmfeJYqdkawmh ol&mar&d, [kwfaygif . . ygPmwdygwuH xdkufraebl;vm;? 'Dvdk

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pdwfxm;rsKd;&dSwJhvludkvJ a':a':trkef;qHk;yJ} [k ajymvkdufojzifh uHxl;rSm yg;pyfr[EkdifbJ &dSoGm;av\/
xdktcdkufwGif OD;bdk;ajAmhonf xrif;pm;yGJrS xoGm;NyD;vQif tcef;wHcg;0odkYoGm;í &yfum ][Jh . . orD;?
tjrifh} [k ac:vkduf&m rat;jrifhonf ]&uf(pf)? ygyg} [k xl;&if; tem;odkYuyfoGm;av\/
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uHxl;rSm acsmufusíaeavawmh\/ OD;bdk;ajAmhESifh tayguftvrf;wnfhawmhrnf r[kwfonfudkodí
rif;uawmfBuD;ESifhtvGrf;oifhatmif ajym&rSmuvnf; iSufypfzdkYaumif;onfqdkaom pum;udk tpjyKrd
ojzifh puwnf;u taESmifhtoGm;rvGwfaomaMumifh rif;uawmfBuD;uvnf; a&iHkEIwfydwfíaeojzifh
uHxl;rSm xrif;pm;NyD;aomtcgwGif vlBuD;awGESifh pum;ajymp&mr&dSbJ jzpfaeav\/

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OD;bdk;ajAmhtm;rdrdtay:wGif txiftjrifvGJonfukdajyaysmuf&ef pum;ajymrnfBuHygaomfvnf; ajymzdkY&ef
tcsufudkr&bJ rdrdtem;wGif w0J0J&pfum ]bmqdkifvdkYaMumifudk ypfcs&wmvJ} [lívnf;aumif;? ]b,fvkd
vlpm;rsKd;vJ rodygbl;} [lívnf;aumif; rMum;wMum;a&&Gwfíaeojzifh omítusyfawGYaeNyD;aemuf
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t[Gwf . . t[Gwf . .} ESifh bk&m;&dScdk;&if; acsmif;qdk;aeoHrsm;udk Mum;&ojzihf pum;ajymzdkY&ef
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,cif rdrdyifcsvdkufaom tarG;pkwfzGm;ESifhaMumifBuD;udk awGY&av\/ odkYawGY&jcif;tm;jzifh þaMumif
aMumifh abmufusukefMu&onf[k &efNidK;zGYJum pm;yGJay:u iSufaysmcGHudk vSrf;í,lvdkufNyD;vQif BuD;BuD;?
a':a':? rif;uawmfwdkYtvpfwGif aMumifudktpmauR;ovdkvkyfNyD; yg;pyfxJodkY iSufaysmcGHqdkYum ]atmfOD;
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qdkjyD; xGufoGm;ojzifh uHxl;rSm yg;pyfta[mif;om;ESifh usef&pfav\/
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pum;a&mazma&m vkyfOD;rSyJ[k ESvHk;ydkufum acG;erf;rwwf rsufESmcsKdaoG;um rdef;rBuD;awGpkxdkif&modkY
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ojzifh ]uGd} ceJ jrnfoH Mum;vkduf&av\/ odkYjzpfí tbkd;BuD;aygufívmOD;rnfav[k ½kwfw&uf
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]anmif . .} [laom toHudk Mum;&ojzifh MuufoD;xíoGm;um ycHk;xJodkY acgif;ykí0ifoGm;NyD;vQif
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axmufNyD; tBudKtMum;rusef vdkufvHMunhfav\/ xdkaemuf acG;wpfaumif? aMumifwpfNrD;rSr&dS[k
pdwfcs&aomtcgrS av;zufoGm;&mrSxvkduf&m rdrdtdyf&rnfhckwifay:wGif tarG;zGm;zGm;ESifh acG;eufBuD;
wpfaumif tNrdKifhom;0yfíaeonfudk awGY&av\/ acG;onf uHxl;udkjrifí qwfceJ&yfvdkuf&m
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Z0e

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Z0e

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Z0e

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Z0e

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Z0e

99

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Z0e

100

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Z0e

101

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Z0e

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Z0e

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cspfwwfw,fqdkwm ajymNyD;ygaum r[kwfvm;? tckvkd toufpGefYNyD; ieDBuD;udk toufu,fcGifh&wmudkyJ
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wifar&Donf ieDBuD;udkayGYydkuf&if; ausmuav;udkoyfum ]eDeD tifrwefqdk;w,f? tckvdk u,fhr,fhol
r&dS&if vdrfhusNyD; raoaybl;vm;} [k aMumifuav;udk qHk;rovdkvdk? wifOD;tm; ajymovdkvdkESifh
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Z0e

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pdwful;aygufwdkif;? aygufwkdif;ay:vmaomtBuHudk wifOD; rBudKufvSao;acs/ n§yfaMumif;ay;xm;onfh
twdkif;r[kwfbJ tcsKd;vGJvQiftusKd;enf;um &&dSxm;NyD;onfh rsufESmyGifhvif;rIuav;yif jyefvnf
aysmufysufoGm;rnfudk BudKwifíowdxm;ae&av\/
&uftenf;i,fMumanmif;cJhavNyD/ aemufxyf wpfpHkwpfckvkyfjyzdkY&ef tcsdefawmfaeayNyD/ ,ckxuf
&ufMumoGm;vQif wifar&D\ ajymif;nGwfaompdwfonf rD;a0;csdyfyrm jzpfoGm;rnfudk wifOD;awG;rd
avonf/ odkYaomf xda&mufrnf[k pdwfcsavmufonfh enf;y&d,m,fopfudk awG;ír&/ odkYawG;í
r&onfhaemufqHk;wGif vufawGYatmifjrifNyD;om; enf;y&d,m,fudkyif xyfrHí toHk;cs&ef pdwfydkif;jzwf
avonf/ okdYaomf ieDBuD;onf opfyifay:odkY aemufxyfwufonfudk rawGY&ojzifh wifOD;twGuf
tcufBuHKíaeavonf/
]ig; . . ig;}
vrf;ay:rS atmfvkdufonfh ig;onf\[pfoHonf wifOD;tm; tzdk;wefvSaom tBuHwpfckyGifhvif;
oGm;apav\/ ]ig;aMumfrBudKuf aMumifrdkuf} [laom pum;yHkonf wifOD;\OD;acgif;xJodkY 0ifoGm;av\/
]vmygOD;AsKdY} [k tajy;tvTm;ac:um wifOD;onf ig;wpfaumifudk aps;rqpfbJ 0,fvkdufNyD;aemuf
jrESif;tm; taMumfcdkif;vkdufav\/
aemufaeYeHeuf t½kPfwufomomavmufwGif wifOD;onf tdyf&mrSxNyD;vQif ig;aMumfwpfaumifudk
oHwpfacsmif;? wlwpfvufESifh jcHxJodkYqif;cJhav\/ wifOD;onf wpfpHkwpfckaom &mZ0wfrIudk
usL;vGef&ef MuHpnfaeoluJhodkY rdrdudk vlolav;yg;jrifoGm;rnfudk pdk;&drfonfh trlt&m ay:vGifvsuf&dS\/
odkYaomf rdrdrSwpfyg; rnfonfhvl&dyfrQ rawGY&/
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wifOD;onf ig;aMumfudk opfyifay:wGif oH½dkufícsdwfxm;&ef wufav\/ odkYaomf omrefcsdwfxm;½HkESifh
rjzpf? ig;eHYudkom&apí ig;udkrjrifap&atmif csdwfxm;EdkifygrS rdrd\tBuHrSmydyd&d&d&Sdrnfudk awG;í
&Guftkyfaumif;onfh tudkif;wpfckodkY a&mufatmifwuf&av\/
wifOD;onf ususee ig;udkoH½dkufcJhNyD;vQif wludkcg;Mum;xdk;í qif;vmcJh&m opfyifatmufqHk;cGMum;odkY
ta&mufwGif wifar&D\tdrfzufrS wHcg;zGifhoHMum;vkduf&NyD; jcHxJodkY wifar&Dqif;vmonfudk
awGY&av\/
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wifOD;onf ½kwfw&uftMuHxkwfum NyHK;&,faomrsufESmjzifh ]uRefawmfvm; . . reufapmapm
usef;rma&;avhusifhaewm} [k ajzvkduf\/
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Z0e

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]'gaemufqHk;ay: tar&duefavhusifhenf;yJ? reufvrf;avQmufwm[m tanmif;omajyw,f? opfyifwuf
wm[m udk,fvuf? ajcaxmuf? wpfudk,fvHk;&dSwJh taMumtjcifawGyg oefpGrf;apwJh avhusifhenf;yJ}
]'DvdkyJ tNrJavhusifhovm;}
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]rvdkygbl; . . atmufqHk;tudkif;avmufygyJ} [k ajymNyD;aemuf wifOD;onf opfyifay:rSqif;cJhav\/
atmufodkYa&mufaomtcg wifOD;onf wifar&DESifh pum;pjywfí roGm;ap&ef ajym&efpum;udk&Smav\/
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awmhraebl;? qmOD;rSmyJ [laomtawG;jzifh wifOD;rSm pdwfajz&av\/
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AsKdif;wpftkyfusvmum udGuGduGuGESifh qlnHaeMuav\/ wifOD;pdwfxJwGif ig;aMumfudk AsKdif;rsm;
qdwfaygufpm;Muí ukefvQifjzifhcufawmhrSmyJ tenf;qHk;ig;eHYuav;&atmif oH½dkufxm;onfhae&m&dS
tpdwftydkif;uav;avmufawmhusef&pfygap[k usdwfíqkawmif;&if; eHeufu t½kPfwufavmuf xcJh&
ojzihf tdyfidkufidkuf&dSum jcHxJ&dS yufvufukvm;xkdifwGifvSJ&if; arS;rdSef;íaerdav\/
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]uRefawmfhudk ac:ovm;}
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cuf&csnf&JY}

Z0e

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wifOD;rSm rD;xdk;ípufEId;ay;ae&ef rvdkawmhacs/ rdrdaxmifxm;onfhtaygufudk ieDBuD;0ifíwkd;acsNyD[k
0rf;ajrmufpGmjzifh opfyifay: odkY zswfzswfvwfvwfwufí vkdufav\/ ieDBuD;rSm ig;teHY&xm;ojzihf
,cifwpfacgufuuJhodkY wifOD;aemufodkY tomwMunfrvkdufvdkbJ jiif;qeftmcHaeonfhtwGuf
wifOD;rSm tukwftzJhcHum r&t& Zdukyf zrf;NyD;ac:cJh&av\/
wifOD;onf wifar&DwdkY jcHbufodkYqif;NyD; 'kw,rÜd ieDBuD;udk qufo&jyefav\/
]aus;Zl;wifvkdYrqHk;ygbl;&Sif? b,fvkdqyf&rSef;awmif rpOf;pm;wwfygbl;} [k qdk&mu wifar&Donf
wifOD;\vufudkMunfhrdum ][,f . . aoG;awGpdkYaeygvm;? odyfemoGm;ovm;[if} [k pdk;&drfwBuD;
ar;av\/
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tcufyJ? aeOD; . . aeOD;? uRefr y½kwfqD oGm;NyD; ,lvdkufOD;r,f}
wifar&Donf ysmysmovJ tdrfxJodkY0ifajy;oGm;NyD; y½kwfqDESifh t0wfpnf;uav;wpfvdyf ,lvmav\/
]enf;enf;awmh pyfrSmyJ? pyfwmu ta&;rBuD;bl;? temusufzdkYvdkw,f} [k wifar&Duajymqdk&if;
wifOD;vufudk y½kwfqDESifhodyfíqkyfe,fum t0wfpnf;íay;av&m wifOD;rSm wifar&D\El;nHhaom
tawGYtxdcHpm;&onfudk yDwdjzpfvsuf ]ieDBuD;eJYaemf . . ighudk cyfrsm;rsm;uav; ukwfvkdufa&maygh} [k
awmifhwvdkufrdav\/
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rSm *½kjyKrdyHkr&ojzifh rdrdtMuHudkr&dyfrd[k wifOD;awG;\/ ig;aMumf\wm0efrSm ausyGefaeNyDjzpfí
AsKdif;pm;vdkY ukefcsifukefygap rvdkawmhbl;[k wifOD; pdwfwGif ylyifrI r&dSawmhacs/
xkdtcdkufwGuf zkwfceJ ig;aMumfBuD; jyKwfusvmav\/ wifar&Donf usvmaom t&m0w¦Kudk
aumuf,lMunfhum tHhtm;oifhaom trlt&mjzifh ][if . . ig;aMumfBuD;ygvm;} [lí yg;pyfrS
toHxGufoGm;rdav\/
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tif;xJtdkifxJu

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wifOD;onf tlaMumifaMumifjzpfvsuf ]'guawmh tif; . . tJ . .} ESifh jzpfaeavawmh\/
]&Sif . . bmrSzHk;r,frMuHeJY uRefrodw,f? reufu &Sif . . 'Dopfyifay:wufwm 'Dig;aMumfBuD;
wufcsdwfwm r[kwfvm;? nmr,fvdkYawmhrMuHeJY? &Sifhcg;Mum;u wlBuD;udkjrifvkduf&uwnf;u
&Sifavhusifhcef;,laew,fqdkwmr[kwfrSef; uRefrodw,f? &Sif ieDBuD;udk opfyifay:rwuf? wufatmif
MuHwmr[kwfvm;}

Z0e

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wifOD;rSm pHkaxmufarmifpH&Sm;vuf0,fodkY a&mufaeaom w&m;cHuJhodkY ajy;rvGwfrSef;odojzifh ]&D . .
&DajymwJhtwkdif; trSefygyJ} [k 0efcHvkdufav\/
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wifOD;rSm rdrdtMuHawGay:ukefNyDjzpfí wifar&D\ rESpfNrdKYrIudk cH&ayOD;awmhrnf[k &GYHrdav\/ odkYaomf
wifar&Dtm; tm;&yg;& &,fí aeavawmhonf/
wifOD;rSm rpOf;pm;wwfatmif jzpfoGm;av\/ wifar&Du &,farm&if; ][dkrSmMunfhprf;} [k qdkojzifh
wifar&Djy&modkY Munhfvkduf&m rdrdwdkYtvpfwGif opfyifay:odkYwufajy;NyD; ig;Muif;wpfaumifudk udkufí
qif;vmaom ieDBuD;udkawGY&av\/ wifOD;rSm rsufvHk;jyL;oGm;av\/
][m . . 'gawmh uRefawmfr[kwfbl;? uRefawmfwifxm;wm wpfaumifwnf;&,f}
wifar&Donf toHrsm;xGufatmif &,fvkdufjyefav\/
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xdktcgrS wifOD;rSm bmaMumifheHeufapmapm wifar&D tdyf&mxESifhaeonfudk &dyfrdum . .
]'Dvdkqdk&if armifhtMuHuawmif aemufusaeao;w,f} [k ajymNyD; wifar&DESifha&mí [uf[uf
yufyufBuD; &,farmvdkufavawmh ownf;/
/

wdkif;&if;ar*sme,f? Mo*kwf? 1951/

Z0e

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v
vlplpGrGrf;f;aau
ummiif;f;

uefwdkrift&yf&dS us,f0ef;aom NcH0if;BuD;wpfckxJodkY wuúpDum;wpfpif;onf cyfrSefrSef armif;ESif
0ifa&mufíoGm;um oyf&yfcHhnm;aom tdrfBuD;\qif0ifatmufwGif &yfvdkufav\/ um;xJwGif
vkdufygvmaom toufESpfq,fhig;ESpfcefY&dS a,musfm;ysKdonf rdrda&mufvmonfudk 0rf;omtm;&
BudKqdk&ef ajy;ívmrnfavm[k wpfOD;wpfa,mufaomoludk arQmfvifhonfhtrlt&mjzifh tdrfwGif;odkY
vSrf;Munfhvkduf&m rdrdarQmfvifhol ay:rvmbJ tckdif;tapa,musfm;BuD;wpfa,mufxGufvmonfudk
awGY&ojzifh rsm;pGmpdwfysuftm;avsmhpGmESifh um;ay:rS qif;av\/
tapcHa,musfm;onf csKdNyHK;&TifysaomrsufESmxm;jzifh ]tvdk udkausmfpdefyguvm;} [k qdkNyD;rS þuJhodkY
&if;ESD;pGm ta&mw0ifrac:tyfonf udk owd&[efjzifh ][m . . q&m . . b,fwkef;uvmovJ} [k
a,mifa,mifrSm;rSm; ar;vdkufrdav\/
]tckvmvdkY tcka&mufwmayghuGJY? rjrifbl;vm;}
][kwfuJh . . q&m? jrifygw,f q&m}
]igvmr,fqdkwm aqGaqGwdkY rajymbl;vm;}
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ausmfpdef\om;a&tdwfudk qGJí,lvdkufav\/ ausmfpdefvnf; um;cay;cJhNyD;aemuf tapcHa,musfm;ESifh
twl,SOfí tdrfxJodkY0ifcJhav\/
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[k ar;vdkufav\/
]rodbl;q&m? {nfhonfwpfa,mufyJ}

Z0e

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]touf b,favmuf&dSNyDvJ}
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ausmfpdefrSm rsufvHk;NyL;íoGm;av\/ taMumif;rlum; rdrda&muf&dSvmjcif;rSm cifaqGESifhawGY&ef tm;xm;í
vmcJhjcif;jzpf&m cifaqGudk ½kwfw&ufrawGY&ojzifh tarmqdkYoGm;um a,musfm;wpfa,mufESifh xGufoGm;
onf[k od&jcif;jzifh tHhtm;oifhoGm;&mu xkda,musfm;rSm rdrdESifh &G,fwlwef;wljzpfonf[k od&jyefonfh
twGuf omíyifrsufjzLqdkufíoGm;NyD;vQif tdrfxJodkYa&mufonfESifh wpfNydKifeuf {nfhcef;wGif;&dSqdkzm
ay:wGif ajcypfvufypf zifaqmifhíxdkifvkdufrdav\/
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awG;rdum xdktaMumif;aMumifh blwm½HkodkYBudKqdk&ef vlrvTwfjcif;jzpfonf[k pOf;pm;rdav\/ odkYjzpfí
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av\/ xdkaemufrS a&mufvdkY&dSrSjzifh taMumif;pHkudkod&efpHkprf;OD;rnf/ rdrdta&;vnf; xdktaMumif;
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