You are on page 1of 80

Strengthening the Operation &

Maintenance Sector for Servicing


Decentralized Urban Sanitation
Infrastructure in Bangalore, India

Landscape Report

Submitted to:

September 25, 2014

Submitted by:

Market Landscape Draft Report

Contents
1.

Sanitation Landscape & Introduction to Decentralized Sanitation Infrastructure.........5


1.1 Sanitation overview.................................................................................................. 5
1.2 Decentralised Sanitation Infrastructure....................................................................8
1.2.1
1.3

Decentralised Sanitation Infrastructure in the urban context..........................8

Sanitation value chain........................................................................................... 9

1.3.1

User interface................................................................................................ 10

1.3.2

Collection and Storage.................................................................................. 11

1.3.3

Conveyance................................................................................................... 11

1.3.4

Treatment...................................................................................................... 11

1.3.5

Reuse and Disposal....................................................................................... 12

1.4 Overview of Sewage Treatment market in India......................................................13


2.

Decentralized Sanitation Infrastructure (DSI) - Bangalore.........................................14


2.1

State of Sanitation Infrastructure........................................................................14

2.2 UI Infrastructure Overview...................................................................................... 17


2.3 UI Operations and Maintenance overview...............................................................20
2.3.1 Best practices for Operations and Maintenance of UI infrastructure.................21
2.4 DSI (Sans UI) Infrastructure Overview.....................................................................22
2.4.1 Storage............................................................................................................. 22
2.4.2 Transport........................................................................................................... 24
2.4.3 Treatment.......................................................................................................... 25
2.5 DSI (Sans UI) Operations and Maintenance Overview.............................................26
2.5.1. Storage............................................................................................................ 26
2.5.2 Transport........................................................................................................... 27
2.5.3 Treatment.......................................................................................................... 27
3.

Market Assessment for DSI &M Services....................................................................28


3.1 Market segment classification.................................................................................28
3.1.1 Residential........................................................................................................ 30
3.1.2 Commercial....................................................................................................... 31
3.1.3 Institutional....................................................................................................... 32
3.1.4 Public Utilities................................................................................................... 33
3.1.5 Small and Medium Enterprises.........................................................................34
3.2 Methodology for Market Assessment......................................................................34
3.2.1 Hypotheses Design........................................................................................... 34
1

Market Landscape Draft Report

3.2.2 Market Prioritization.......................................................................................... 35


3.2.3 Market Assessment Report............................................................................... 35
3.3 Demand Side Assessment (UI)................................................................................ 35
3.3.1 User segmentation based on type of UI usage.................................................35
3.3.2 UI operation and maintenance services............................................................37
3.3.3 Factors influencing UI operation and maintenance...........................................39
3.3.4 Differentiated UI Maintenance Service..............................................................41
3.3.5 Preferred user segments for Differentiated services - UI..................................43
3.4

Demand Side Assessment (DSI sans UI)..............................................................44

3.4.1

DSI market size assessment..........................................................................44

3.3.2 Factors influencing DSI Adoption.......................................................................46


3.3.3 DSI Operations and Maintenance......................................................................50
3.3.4

Preferred Market for DSI Installation..............................................................52

3.3.5

DSI O&M status in preferred markets............................................................53

3.5

Supply Side Assessment...................................................................................... 54

3.5.1

Overview of O&M Service Providers..............................................................54

3.5.2

Analysis of UI service providers.....................................................................55

3.5.3 Analysis of DSI (Active & Passive) service providers.........................................57


4.

Identification and Analysis of O&M Gaps...................................................................59


4.1 UI O&M Gaps Overview........................................................................................... 59
4.1.1 Methodology..................................................................................................... 59
4.1.2 O&M Gaps Identified......................................................................................... 60
4.1.3 Analysis of Gaps................................................................................................ 61
4.2 DSI O&M Gaps Overview......................................................................................... 62
4.2.1 Methodology..................................................................................................... 62
4.2.2 DSI Gaps Identified........................................................................................... 63
4.2.3 Analysis of Gap................................................................................................. 64
4.3 Conclusion and Next Steps..................................................................................... 67

Figures
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:

Water Cycle and Human Intervention..................................................................7


Typical Sanitation Value Chain.............................................................................9
Wastewater Treatment Trends Urban Centres.................................................13
Sewerage Layout............................................................................................... 14
BBMP Coverage Area......................................................................................... 16
Sewage Treatment Capacity and Utilization......................................................17
User Interface Classification..............................................................................19
% Household by type of sewerage storage and disposal...................................23
Technologies and Reuse.................................................................................... 26
2

Market Landscape Draft Report

Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

10:
11:
12:
13:
14:
15:
16:

Market Segmentation...................................................................................... 28
Types of Sewage Flow (Across value chain).....................................................29
UI Market Segment....................................................................................... 36
UI Status Public Toilet.................................................................................... 39
Market Segments Water Requirement..........................................................48
UI Service Gap Methodology............................................................................59
DSI Service Gap Assessment Methodology......................................................62

Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table

1 : Cost of water and sewage treatment in India......................................................6


2: Sewage Flow- Residential.................................................................................... 31
3: Sewage Flow- Commercial................................................................................. 32
4: Sewage Flow- Institutional.................................................................................. 33
5: Sewage Flow-Public Utility.................................................................................. 33
6: Sewage Flow-SME............................................................................................... 34
7 : Framework for UI Market Segment Selection.....................................................44
8: DSI Market Size................................................................................................... 44
9: Legal Mandates- Consent for Establishment.......................................................46
10: Categorization of Establishments (KSPCB)........................................................47
11: Market Segments- Water requirements.............................................................48
12: DSI Evaluation Framework Scale.......................................................................53
13: UI Gaps............................................................................................................. 60
14: DSI Gaps........................................................................................................... 63

Abbreviations
AMC
ASP
BBMP
BDA
BEL
BIA
BIAPPA
BMGF
BMP
BOD
BWSSB
CAACO
CAGR
COD
CPCB
CPHEEO
CWSS
DEWAT
DSI

Annual Maintenance Contract


Activated Sludge Process
Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palika
Bangalore Development Authority
Bharat Electronics Limited
Bangalore International Airport
Bangalore International Airport Area Planning Authority
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Bengaluru Mahanagara Palika
Biological Oxygen Demand
Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board
Chemo Autotrophic Activated Carbon Oxidation
Compound Annual Growth Rate
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Central Pollution Control Board
Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization
Combined Water Supply Scheme
Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems
Decentralised Sanitation Infrastructures
3

Market Landscape Draft Report

EIA
EWHS
FBBR
HVAC
INR
KHB
KLD
KSPCB
LPCD
MBBR
MBR
MLD
NGO
O&M
RAS
RWA
SAFF
SBR
SME
SSS
STP
STPI
TSS
UASB
UGD
UI
VIP
WSUP
mg/L

Environment Impact Assessment


Economically Weaker Sections Housing Scheme
Fixed Bed Biofilm Reactor
Heating ,Ventilation and Air Conditioning
Indian Rupee
Karnataka Housing Board
Kilo Liters per day
Karnataka State Pollution Control Board
Liters per capita per day
Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor
Membrane Bio Reactor
million litres per day
Non-Government Organization
Operations and Maintenance
Restroom Association, Singapore
Residential Welfare Association
Submerged Aerated Fixed Film Reactor
Sequential Batch Reactor
Small Medium Enterprise
Simplified Sewerage System
Sewage Treatment Plants
Software Technology Parks of India
Total suspended solids
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor
Underground Drain
User Interface
Ventilated Improved Pit
Water and Sanitation for Urban Poor
Milligram per liter

Market Landscape Draft Report

1. Sanitation Landscape & Introduction to Decentralized


Sanitation Infrastructure
1.1 Sanitation overview
Sanitation is defined as the safe management and disposal of human excreta,
and it involves water supply, drainage, and solid management. Some of the
challenges involved in sanitation are broken infrastructure, low service
coverage & usage, and weak institutional arrangements. Affordability, space
constraints and low priority for sanitation are typical clauses for defective
infrastructure facilities. Faults or gaps in sanitation coverage can include
inconvenient,

unhygienic

and

unpleasant

sanitation

facilities,

lack

of

provisions for waste water treatment, and inadequate operations and


maintenance. Weak institutional arrangements pose challenges in achieving
desired sanitation coverage outcomes. Issues such as inconsistent funds, lack
of accountability among different institutions and limited technical expertise
often arise from institutional gaps.
The World Health Organization (WHO) observes that 80 per cent of the
diseases are caused by polluted water, mostly a result of inadequate
sanitation and sewage disposal methods. This is due to both lack of
sensitization and lack of adequate supporting infrastructure in the country.
The transition of the Indian economy from a developing to developed nation
throws up twin problems of insufficient infrastructure and rising population.
The urban population in India has jumped from 25.8 million in 1901 to about
387 million (estimated) in 20111, and the number of urban poor has increased
by 34.4 per cent from 1973 to 20042, creating an immense pressure on the
water and sanitation infrastructure. India has more than 31 per cent of its
population living in urban areas, in comparison with 45 per cent in China, 54
1 http://www.idfc.com/pdf/report/2011/Chp-21-The-Economics-of-Municipal-SewageWater-Recycling.pdf. [Accessed 15 September 2014].
2 NSSO Report No. 508, (2004-05)
5

Market Landscape Draft Report

per cent in Indonesia, 78 per cent in Mexico, and 87 per cent in Brazil. 4861
cities and towns in India, lack even a partial sewerage network. The High
Powered Expert Committee estimates that the per capita investment required
for water, sewage and storm water sector at INR 13,329 and INR 840 annually
for operations and maintenance.3 The natural water resources (both ground
and surface water) are scarce and their effective utilization is not enough for
the growing population of India, resulting in a shortage of water supply and
sewage overload. Public services have not been able to keep pace with rapid
urbanization.

The

coverage

of

basic

amenities

such

as

solid

waste

management, sewage treatment and clean water supply is very poor. This is
more pronounced in cities that have expanded beyond municipalities. Many of
the new urban agglomerations continue to remain under rural administrations
and do not have the requisite capacity to handle the sewage.
To complement the rising urban population, cities need to expand water and
wastewater networks. Under JNNURM, there are more than 201 projects
undertaken for sewerage for an overall cost of INR 17,826 crore. Centralised
networks are very cost intensive to construct), operate and maintain (Figure
1). According to estimation, treating of 1 MLD of sewage waste cost
approximately INR 1 crore through a centralised treatment system excluding
the land cost.4 If not sufficiently maintained, leakages lead to a loss of
valuable resources and cause public nuisance and health issues. Urban
settlements are thus, the main point source of pollution

Necessitated

Table 1 : Cost of water and sewage treatment in India


Per

capita

cost

Per

capita

O&M

Total

expenditure

3 India Urban Infrastructure and Services


4 Reinvent, Recycle, Reuse - Toolkit on Decentralized Wastewater Management by Suresh Kumar
Rohilla, Deblina Dwivedi (CSE)

5 (UNESCO, et al.2004).
6

Market Landscape Draft Report


(INR)
Sewage
Item
Average

(INR)

4704
286
Economics of sewage collection, transportation and
INR in crore per MLD
INR in crore per Km
cost
of 3.336
-

needed

(INR

in

Crores)
2,42,688
treatment
Per capita (INR)
4000

comprehensive
sewage
including

project,
collection

network
and treatment plant
Building underground

0.741.25

sewage systems
Sewage
treatment

0.301.00

360800

plant
Sewage

0.80

network-

pumping stations and


mains
Source: Excreta Matter by Sunita Narain, CSE, New Delhi, 2012

Figure 1: Water Cycle and Human Intervention

Market Landscape Draft Report


Source: Healthy waterways 2011

by the lack of sewerage systems , rising cost and decreasing availability of


water in the state of Karnataka, Karnataka State Pollution Control Board
(KSPCB) mandated in 2006 that Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) be built and
operated in individual residential complexes having fifty or more dwellings, or
generating 50 m3/day or more of sewage and the treated water quality shall
meet stringent Urban Reuse Standards and also reused for toilets flushing,
for car washing, and for irrigation use within the campus 6. This step towards
decentralised infrastructure in a state like Karnataka, which gets it fresh water
from a source ~120 Km away, aims at recycling the water locally, decreasing
cost of living in its cities, reducing the dependability on centralized systems,
and attaining sustainability in urban water management.
A STP designed for a particular quantity of sewage will deliver satisfactory
quality of treated water typically for 10-15 years. However, the pre requisites
for lasting its complete lifecycle are optimum design and engineering and
vital O&M services. As most of the decentralised STPs are modular and their
design values have been tested over a period of many years, the life of the
STP is mostly dependent on its O&M.
To study the ground reality of these decentralised STPs and the connected
components from the sanitation value chain the Landscape study was
conducted under the project titled Strengthening the operation and
maintenance sector for servicing decentralised urban sanitation infrastructure
in Karnataka funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). The
project aims to support improved operation and maintenance services for
decentralised sanitation infrastructure in one city of Karnataka and thus
impact on the improvement of public health and preservation of water
resources.

6 Kodavasal 2011
8

Market Landscape Draft Report

1.2 Decentralised Sanitation Infrastructure


Sustainable management of water and sanitation involves a closed loop
approach where the water and nutrients are recycled at the point of
use/discharge. The hardware used to manage wastewater is known as
sanitation infrastructure and they comprise of all the technical equipment
needed for safe use and handling of wastewater across the sanitation value
chain.
This chapter will showcase the importance of decentralised sanitation
infrastructure in urban India, from the view point of both its necessity as well
as its utility value. It also brings forward the various forms of Decentralised
Sanitation Infrastructures (DSI), enumerated according to their position in the
sanitation value chain.
1.2.1 Decentralised Sanitation Infrastructure in the urban context
While

on

site

operations

are

more

suitable

for

low

density

areas,

comparatively lower water consumption, and if ground conditions are suitable


for water absorption without affecting aquifer, off site infrastructure is useful
when the population density is high and fall is sufficient to carry solids
through sewer lines. Urban centres in India comprising Class I cities and Class
II towns having population of more than 50,000 (accounting for more than 70
per cent of the total urban population) generates 38,254 million litres per day
(MLD) of wastewater. The municipal STPs existing in these urban centres
treats only about 11,787 MLD, which is only 31 per cent of the total
wastewater generated by them7. In another study by Central Pollution Control
Board (CPCB), its shown that of the total 269 centralised STPs in India only
231 are operational. And these 231 STPs together, are only able to cater to
21 per cent of the total sewage generated in the country. Thus, CPCB is
promoting decentralised STPs to cater to the huge volume of untreated
7 http://www.idfc.com/pdf/report/2011/Chp-21-The-Economics-of-Municipal-SewageWater-Recycling.pdf. [Accessed 15 September 2014].
9

Market Landscape Draft Report

wastewater. One of the most important benefits is availability of wastewater


for reuse, as millions of small-scale farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of
developing countries depend on wastewater or wastewater polluted water
sources to irrigate high-value edible crops for urban markets, often because
they have no alternate sources of water for irrigation. Implementation of DSI
is usually popular at small municipal areas with no sewer systems, newly
developed suburban areas of large cities and newly developed industrial
townships etc.

1.3

Sanitation value chain

A value chain approach to sanitation is used to evaluate how the human


waste and excreta can be used to retrieve the useful by products and
eliminate the harmful/useless elements. The sanitation value chain consists
of five important steps: user interface, collection and storage, conveyance,
treatment, reuse and disposal.
Figure 2: Typical Sanitation Value Chain

10

Market Landscape Draft Report

Source: Sanitation issues and practices in India by Tryambakesh Shukla, Amit Kumar, Deobrat Kumar,
Students of Urban Planning at Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway School of
Planning and Architecture, Delhi

1.3.1 User interface


The infrastructure with which the user interacts with, i.e., the type of toilet,
pedestal, pan, or urinal is known as User Interface (UI). The UI infrastructure
must guarantee that human excreta are hygienically separated from human
contact to prevent exposure to faecal contamination. There are two main
types of interfaces: dry technologies that operate without water; and waterbased technologies that need a regular supply of water to properly function.
Different User Interface technologies generate different output products. This
influences the subsequent components of value chain. Some of the examples
of user interface infrastructure are as follows
11

Market Landscape Draft Report

a) Urinals
b) Pour Flush Toilets
c) Cistern Flush Toilets
d) Wash-basins(?)
1.3.2 Collection and Storage
The technologies that collect and store the products generated at the UI.
These technologies are specifically designed for collection and storage. They
also provide some degree of treatment, depending on the duration of storage
and other performance influencing conditions. The treatment provided by
storage technologies is usually passive (e.g., requiring no energy input). Some
of the passive technologies are
a) Single Pit
b) Single Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP)
c) Double Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP)
d) Twin Pits for Pour Flush
e) Septic Tank
1.3.3 Conveyance
The technologies in this section deal with the products generated at the User
Interface or onsite Collection and Storage/Treatment technology by removing
and/or transporting them to a subsequent components of sanitation value
chain. They are either sewer-based technologies or container-based motorized
emptying and transport technologies.
a) Motorized Emptying and Transport
12

Market Landscape Draft Report

b) Simplified Sewer
c) Conventional Gravity Sewer
1.3.4 Treatment
This part of value chain consists of the treatment technologies generally
appropriate for the treatment of the wastewater generated at the UI, and for
the treatment of sludge. The treatment technologies vary from as small as for
individual households to systems for large user groups (i.e., from semicentralized applications at the neighbour-hood level to centralized, city level
applications). They are designed to accommodate increased volumes of flow
and provide, in most cases, improved removal of nutrients, organics and
pathogens, especially when compared with storage technologies.
a) DEWATS
b) Trickling Filter
c) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB)
d) Activated Sludge Process (ASP)
e) Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)
f) Submerged Aerated Fixed Film Reactor (SAFF)
g) Chemo Autotrophic Activated Carbon Oxidation (CAACO)
h) EADOX
i) Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR)
j) Sludge Drying Beds
k) Filter Press
13

Market Landscape Draft Report

l) Biogas Reactor
1.3.5 Reuse and Disposal
This section presents the different technologies and methods with which
products are ultimately returned to the environment, either as useful
resources or as no-risk or reduced-risk materials. If there is an end-use for the
output products, they can be applied or used. Otherwise, they should be
disposed of in ways that are least harmful to the public and the environment.
a) Application of Sludge
b) Irrigation
c) Soak Pit
d) Leach Field
e) Water Disposal/Groundwater Recharge
f) Surface Disposal and Storage
g) Biogas Combustion

1.4 Overview of Sewage Treatment market in India


As highlighted in Section 1.1, the total sewage generated in the urban centers
(Class I and II8) is estimated at 38,254 million liters per day (MLD) and only
11,787 MLD is treated, resulting in an untreated gap of 69 per cent. The Central
Pollution Control Board study (2005) observes that most of the 234 Centralized
Sewage Water Treatment plants (STPs) operating in the country, were built from
1978-79 onwards and are present in very few cities (less than 5 per cent of the
8 Population size-class: Class I: 100,000 and above; Class II: 50,000 to 99,999; Class III: 20,000 to
49,999; Class IV: 10,000 to 19,999; Class V: 5,000 to 9,999 and Class VI: Less than 5,000 persons;

14

Market Landscape Draft Report

total cities). Over 59.5 per cent of STPs by installed capacity use Activated Sludge
Process (ASP), followed by Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket technology with
coverage of 26 per cent. The trend over the past decade indicates that both Class
I and Class II cities process less than 50 per cent of their wastewater as shown
below:
Figure 3: Wastewater Treatment Trends Urban Centres
Class I
Cities

Class II
Cities

In MLD

Source:Status of Wastewater Generation and Treatment In India. Bhardwaj, Rajendra M, 2005

The overall market of sewage treatment technologies is very fragmented in India;


almost half of the market share is held by small and mid-sized domestic players.
Though the centralized STPs installed in the cities have optimum capacity to treat
the total sewage generated, they often do not operate at their maximum capacity
because of the absence of user connections to the central sewer line or due to
technological failures arising out of inadequate operations and maintenance.
India has an overall water and waste water market of over $4 Billion 9. In terms of
industry revenue, the wastewater treatment market in India is expected to grow
9 Water and Wastewater management - market, drivers, growth, future potential,
technologies, business opportunities - Altprofits.com.2014.[ONLINE]Availableat:
http://www.altprofits.com/ref/ct/ctv/water_and_wastewater_management.html. [Accessed
23 September 2014].
15

Market Landscape Draft Report

at a CAGR of 15 per cent until 2018.

10

Although majority of the waste water

treatment plant market share is currently held by centralized plants, increasing


urbanization, high cost of sewage networks, and mandates related to treat
wastewater and usage for non-potable purpose by large residential and
commercial establishments are driving the installation of decentralized treatment
plants.

2. Decentralized Sanitation Infrastructure (DSI) - Bangalore


2.1 State of Sanitation Infrastructure
The city of Bangalore has seen an unprecedented rise in its population in the last
two decades, with more than 47 per cent population growth in the period of
2001-2011. Most of the expansion has been in the outer areas adjoining the core
of the city. In 2007, the coverage area of the BMP was increased from 526 sq.kms
to 800 sq.kms and renamed as Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palika (BBMP). The
nodal

agency

responsible

for

Sanitation

Infrastructure

development

and

maintenance for the city is the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board
(BWSSB). The sewerage layout and expansion by BWSSB is indicated in the
diagram below:
Figure 4 : Sewerage Layout

10 India Waste Water Treatment Plants Market Forecast and Opportunities, 2018,
Abstract [ONLINE], Available at: http://www.techsciresearch.com/2255 .[Accessed 12
September 2014]
16

Market Landscape Draft Report

Sewerage Layout (in Kms)

7910

3610

4058

2003

2013 2014 (Planned)

Sewer layout

Source: BWSSB Presentation- Reuse and Recycle, Mr.P.N. Ravindra (EE, BWSSB)

The number of households connected to the sewerage network in Bangalore


increased from 157,000 in 1991 to 344,000 in 2001. According to the Bangalore
City Development Plan (CDP) 2015, 40 per cent of the BMP area or 70 per cent of
the BMP population is covered by sewerage facilities. The city currently faces
challenges with untreated wastewater entering lakes and water tanks due to lack
of infrastructure of the existing sewerage network and also due to enforcement
issues, thereby causing pollution. Often covered storm water drains are used for
sewage disposal, which can also result in a dysfunctional sewerage system. The
exponential increase in layouts of the sewer line is attributed to the expansion of
jurisdiction area under BWSSB (addition of 8 ULBs and 110 Villages) and
population growth. Bangalore city generates more than 1000 MLD of sewage per
day. To process the same, BWSSB has built fourteen centralized sewage
treatment plants, whose overall capacity has increased from 418 MLD in 2003 to
721 MLD in 2013, a rise of 73 per cent. Most of the treatment plants use
Activated Sludge Process (ASP) and aeration. The expansion plan of the BWSSB is
to increase capacity to 1060 MLD by 2015 to meet the citys requirements. The
central STPs also have an overall tertiary treatment capacity of 73 MLD, which
17

Market Landscape Draft Report

treats water to desired characteristics for reuse in various domestic, commercial


and industrial applications. BWSSB incurs a cost of INR 10-12 per KL for
processing the waste water and sells at a premium, at INR 15-23 per KL to the
industries. Most of the tertiary treated water is supplied to industries such as BIA,
BEL, Railways and Arvind Mills. For optimum use of the proposed additional
capacity of the central STPs, all the sewer lines in the city need to be connected
to the plants.
For the purpose of this study, BBMP has been divided into three zones: Core Area
(erstwhile BMP), eight ULBs and 110 villages (refer Figure 4). The service delivery
of sanitation infrastructure by BWSSB is best in the core area. The sanitation
facilities in the ULBs, which are now part of BBMP, are being developed under the
Cauvery Water Supply Scheme CWSS Stage IV, Phase II. The 110 villages have
poor infrastructure for sanitation and are not connected to the underground
drainage (UGD). According to Census, 19 per cent of households have Septic
tanks and pits in Bangalore, most of which are in the outskirts of the core BMP
area, where UGD coverage is low. More than 300 service providers, handle
septage from the septic tanks and pits in the city. The sanitation scenario across
zones is as follows:
Figure 5: BBMP Coverage Area

18

Market Landscape Draft Report

Source: Bangalore CDP 2015

Complementing the Centralized Treatment Plants, there is a strong presence of


decentralized STPs in Bangalore city. According to a treated wastewater study by
Times11, there are 612 decentralized wastewater treatment plants, highest
number among any city in India, which operate at 75 per cent of their designated
capacity, as against the centralized plants, which operate at 63.5 per cent of
their capacity (refer Figure 5). The active treatment systems are more prevalent
in the residential sector, hospitality industry, hospitals, and IT Parks, whereas
most of the passive treatment systems are prevalent in residential properties and
educational institutions in the outer zones. The treated water is primarily used for
non-potable purposes such as gardening, cooling, floor washing, vehicle washing,
and construction.
11 Treated Wastewater goes down the drain [ONLINE] Available at:
http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Scripting/ArticleWin.asp?
From=Archive&Source=Page&Skin=TOINEW&BaseHref=TOIBG/2013/09/13&PageLabel=
2&EntityId=Ar00201&ViewMode=HTML [Accessed 12 September 2014]
19

Market Landscape Draft Report

Figure 6 : Sewage Treatment Capacity and Utilization

Source: Potential of STPs in Bangalore, Presentation by VC Kumar

2.2 UI Infrastructure Overview


User interface refers to the infrastructure through which the user comes in
contact and gets access to sanitation system12. Census data shows that the
country with more than 1.2 billion population has failed to provide adequate toilet
facilities to its citizens. According to the census data 2011, 53.1 per cent of the
households in India do not have a toilet, out of which 18.6 per cent reside in
urban areas.13 The urban sanitation amenities have failed to keep pace with
growing infrastructure and expansion. Among all the metropolitan cities of India,
Bangalore has seen tremendous expansion with respect to infrastructure
development and urbanization. The city also ranks high in comparison to other
cities when it comes to providing basic amenities like toilets and sewerage
connection. Around 94 per cent of Bangalores citizens have access to toilet
facilities within their premises, of which 72 per cent have their toilets connected
to the centralized sewer system. The need and opportunity for toilet operations
12 (Elizabeth Tilley, n.d.)
13 Census data 2011 and 2001
20

Market Landscape Draft Report

and maintenance varies across different user segments, based on the various
factors such as usage pattern, footfall etc.

The scope for differentiated

operations and maintenance (O&M) services is limited to some user segments.


The potential for these services have been evaluated further in this report. These
services can be provided in addition to the regular services that currently exist for
maintenance of UI infrastructure.
The maintenance opportunity with Public toilets is quite large in Bangalore city.
The city has a daily floating population of around 20 per cent 14 and their
sanitation needs is mostly catered through the public toilet infrastructure
installed by BBMP or other NGOs such as Infosys Foundation, and Sulabh
International. Studies show that the city does not have enough public toilet
infrastructures to cater to the growing demands and needs of floating population.
At present, the deficit is estimated at 15000 public toilets (Anon., 2013) 15. The
city has 594 public toilets, out of which many have become defunct due to lack of
maintenance or ownership. The majority of the public and community toilets are
in the core zones. Many of the public toilets across Bangalore are not in a useable
condition and can have potential health risk to the users such as risks of
infections. Therefore public toilet maintenance services have high potential in
Bangalore.16
The existing UI infrastructure in Bangalore city has been studied to evaluate the
potential for O&M services across user segments. Toilet infrastructure is part of
the user interface (UI) and come in different types - pedestal, pan or urinals through which faecal matter enters the sanitation value chain. For the purpose of
this study, the UI Infrastructure is divided into four types as shown in the figure
below, based on usage pattern and ownership. A UI infrastructure generally
14 Bangalore One: Government to business services, Govt. of Karnataka available at:
https://www.bangaloreone.gov.in/public/GovtoBussiLinks.aspx
15 http://indiasanitationportal.org/18258
16 Intellecap primary research
21

Market Landscape Draft Report

comprises of at least one water closet, urinal and wash basin. In majority of the
cases the cost of O&M depends upon either the frequency of use or on area of
the toilet block.
Figure 7: User Interface Classification

Source: Intellecap Analysis

The details of the classification are as follows:

Public toilets: According to the Code of Practice on Environmental Health


2013, toilets within premises which the general public has free access to,
regardless of payment/ non-payment, are classified as public toilets. The
general public is free to access these toilets without having to be a
resident, student, staff, member or a guest.17

Private toilets: Toilets used by members of a single household or staff in


an office or by users who have some relatedness to each other are
classified as private toilets. For these toilets the use is restricted to patrons
of the service provider or by the building management18. (Anon., 2013)

17 Code of Practice on Environmental Health 2013 by National Environment Agency,


SIngapore
22

Market Landscape Draft Report

Community toilets: According to the WSUP (Water & Sanitation for Urban
Poor) programme, toilets shared by a group of households in a community
are characterized as community toilets. In some cases each household will
have a key to one of the toilets within a block: this may be one toilet per
household or one toilet for a group of households. Communal toilets may be
owned by the group of households

Institutional Toilets: Toilets that are privately owned and are installed in
malls, hotels, hospitals, educational institutes, IT parks and industries
constitute institutional toilets. These toilets are freely accessible to users
which

share

some

form

of

relatedness

with

each

other

(as

visitors/patrons/students etc.).

2.3 UI Operations and Maintenance overview


Lack of awareness regarding health hazards originating from malfunctioning UI
and low priority for sanitation are among the major reasons for unsatisfactory
maintenance of toilets by users/ owners. In developed nations such as Singapore
and Britain, the sensitization and awareness regarding the importance of proper
maintenance of toilet infrastructure is high. Singapore has an association
Restroom Association, which works towards improvement of public health and
hygiene through awareness creation and standards setting for the state of public
toilets in the city state. This body provides a platform to the people of Singapore
to rate toilets based upon the user perception and status of operation and
maintenance. One of the successful flagship programs by the Restroom
Association for rating public toilets on a scale of 1 to 5 in Singapore is the Happy
Toilet Programme19 - an innovative program that encourages adoption of best
practices in toilet maintenance. The rating is based on five criteria - design,
cleanliness, maintenance, effectiveness and satisfaction. Through this rating
18 A guide to better public toilet design and maintenance, Restroom Association,
Singapore
19 RAS Newsletter September 2012
23

Market Landscape Draft Report

mechanism, the service providers get brand visibility among users and the public
toilets are maintained according to best practices. Such initiatives help in
creating awareness and sensitization among users. Similarly, the British Toilet
Association in Britain provides best practice standards for O&M of public toilets.
In India, apart from the standards of National Building Code 2005 that prescribes
the ratio of toilets to users, there exists no legislation or guidelines for
maintenance of toilet infrastructure. For the factories or industrial areas, Factories
Act 1961 has provisions for availability of toilets infrastructure within a factorys
premises, but it does not specify any standards for O&M of the infrastructure.
Drawing from the best practices followed for UI maintenance across the world,
the viability for providing similar standard UI maintenance services was assessed
for users across Bangalore. The city has an informal market for UI maintenance
services which is catered by small and medium sized service providers. The lack
of any benchmark guidelines for UI infrastructure maintenance services results in
variable standard of services by the service providers. However, both users as
well as existing service providers are willing to adopt the best practices standards
if they have a value addition to the existing status of UI infrastructure
maintenance.

Therefore

Bangalore

has

the

potential

for

improved

UI

infrastructure maintenance services that are aligned to the best practices


followed across the world.20
2.3.1 Best practices for Operations and Maintenance of UI infrastructure
Based on the best practices standards across the world, the operation and
maintenance of UI infrastructure can be divided into 2 parts - regular services
(periodic cleaning) and on demand services.
Regular O&M service in UI Infrastructure

20 Primary research with user segments and UI service providers


24

Market Landscape Draft Report

Regular O&M services are carried out daily in order to keep the UI infrastructure
in useable conditions. According to the British Toilet Association and Restroom
Association Singapore, the following constitute regular O&M services for UI
infrastructure
1. Emptying and cleaning of dustbin with hygienic disposal of waste contents
2. Providing plastic lining to all the dustbins
3. Washing and cleaning with cleaning agents of all wash basin, taps, mirror,
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

sanitary fitting etc


Cleaning and sanitising all urinals, toilets, bowls, toilets seats etc
Thorough cleaning of floor with cleaning agents
Replenishing toilet paper, soaps, towels and other necessary toiletries
Replacement of electrical fittings as and when necessary
Checking and repairing minor plumbing issues like leakages , blockages etc
Ensuring that the restroom is always in tidy condition with every area
completely dried

Though the standards listed are applicable to public, community and institutional
UI infrastructure, they can be extended as benchmarks for private toilets as well.
Periodic cleaning and maintenance of UI infrastructure
Periodic cleaning and maintenance services are over and above the regular
services that have some value proposition for the user. These services might be
provided on a weekly, fortnightly or monthly basis depending upon the
requirement of the client. For ths purpose of this study, these services are
referred to as differentiated services for O&M of UI infrastructure.
The scope for differentiated services in UI infrastructure across Bangalore will be
assessed for each user segment. Though a large number of service providers
cater to the demand for regular O&M services, there are very few service
providers providing a differentiated service for UI O&M.

2.4 DSI (Sans UI) Infrastructure Overview


The decentralized sanitation infrastructure overview lays out the state of
infrastructure across the value chain storage, transport, and treatment. The
25

Market Landscape Draft Report

Manual on Sewarage and Sewage Treatement outlined by the Ministry of Urban


Development (MoUD) and Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering
Organization (CPHEEO) provide guidelines on sanitation infrastructure. The
market dynamics for DSI infrastructure across these components of the value
chain are different from the user interface infrastructure, and hence have been
analyzed in separate sections.
2.4.1 Storage
Storage systems are required in sanitation infrastructure for collection, storage
and partial-treatment of sewerage in the case of having no provision for
immediate disposal. The various types of storage infrastructure available are
storage tank/ container, single pit, single and double ventilated improved pit,
twin pits for pour flush, composting chamber, and septic tanks.

Most of the

storage systems in Bangalore are pits and septic tanks, largely used as a
substitute to UGD.
The pits are one of the least expensive storage systems to construct. Based on
the depth of the pit and the user characteristics, the operations and maintenance
of the pits differ from one another. Pits result in low levels in BOD and pathogen.
Census 2011 estimates that there are 325,175 households that have improved
pits and 5581 households that have open pits in the city.
A septic tank generally consists of two watertight chambers that can collect and
store wastewater, most of the treatment takes place in the first chamber. Settling
and anaerobic processes reduce the solids and organics in the first chamber, and
remove 50-60 per cent of biological load in the wastewater. The design of a septic
tank depends on metrics such as the number of users; the amount of water used
per capita, average annual temperature, pumping frequency, and characteristics
of wastewater generated. MoUD and CPHEEO manual recommends septic tank
construction to follow the following guidelines outlined - IS 2470 (Part 1,2):1985,
IS 9872:1981. There are more than 169,046 septic tanks in Bangalore city. Capital
26

Market Landscape Draft Report

costs to build a septic tank are also low, but higher than building pits. Though a
conventional septic tank can be costly, but cheaper models can be made from
prefabricated plastics or concrete rings. Capital costs range from INR 6,000 INR
15,000.
Figure 8: % Household by type of sewerage storage and disposal

Source: Census 2011

2.4.2 Transport
The transport technologies are used to move/transport the products/residues
from an onsite to a subsequent offsite treatment, use or disposal technology.
These are of various types: Jerry can, manual emptying and transport, motorized
emptying and transport, simplified sewer systems (SSS), conventional gravity
sewers, and sewer discharge stations. Bangalore uses mostly motorized or
manual emptying and transport technologies along with SSS and conventional
gravity sewers.
Manual emptying has advantages where the material is solid and a vacuum or a
pump cant be used. This can function as a low cost and effective solution for
onsite21. Though this mechanism has the potential for job and income generation,
21 Offsite system consists of a sewer line and a centralized treatment plant. On-site
systems do not transport sewage and treat at site.
27

Market Landscape Draft Report

the activities have significant health hazards and are closely guided by the
Manual Scavenging Act. This technology is time consuming and can result in
spilling. The motorized emptying and transport infrastructure refers to a cesspool
vehicle or a vehicle equipped with motorized pump and a storage tank that can
empty and transport sludge, septage and raw faecal matter. They can be
classified into four types:

22

1. Conventional septic tank: Truck


2. Narrow wheel base truck: Same as the above, except that it is narrower and
can access smaller and narrow lanes
3. Trailer Mounted desludger: This is attached to a separate vehicle
4. UN-HABITAT Vacutug: Advanced machines, used for emptying pit latrines
primarily
In case the material that needs to be pumped is very dense, there is a necessity
to thin the solids so that it can flow easily. There are around 300+ cesspool
vehicles operating in Bangalore. The cesspool vehicles generally have capacities
ranging from 3-5 KLD, whereas the regular tankers used for storage after
pumping have capacity ranging from 12 24 KLD. The cost of a used truck is INR
400,000 and a new one costs INR 1,700,000. The vehicles charge the users INR
500 3000 for their services to the users depending on whether they are
emptying a soak pit, septic tank or collecting sludge from a treatment plant. The
trucks are charged INR 20 50 per m 3 for sludge disposal at the designated
BWSSB sewage treatment plants.
2.4.3 Treatment
Treatment is one of the most crucial parts of the sanitation value chain. Based on
the extent to which sewage is treated, treatment can be classified into four
categories
1. Preliminary: This includes only screening and grit removal of wastewater
2. Primary: Plain sedimentation; It can reduce polluting load by significant amount
3. Secondary: A biological process
22 http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/Urban_Sanitation.pdf
28

Market Landscape Draft Report

4. Tertiary: Specific pollutants are removed (Nitrogen/ Phosphorous)


Treatment systems can be also broadly classified into passive and active. The
preference for a particular type of treatment technology is mostly governed by
the characteristics and quantity of wastewater, required characteristics of treated
waste water, reuse of waste water, sludge handling, space availability, and
electricity source availability. Passive systems use position to transport the
wastewater generated. The energy required for treatment processes is drawn
from wastewater or the wastewater constituents utilized by organisms or from
the environment. Some of the technologies are Septic Tanks, DEWATS, waste
stabilization ponds, and duckweed ponds. The passive technologies are better
suited where land is available easily and there is scarcity of electricity. Active
systems on the other hand, use external energy sources for transport, treatments
and movement. Some of the examples are ASP, SBR, FBBR, MBBR technologies.
On an average, the cost of STP plant of the following capacities is as follows: 25
KLD - INR 1,500,000, 50 KLD - 3,500,000 and 75 KLD - 4,000,000. More than 50
per cent of the Decentralized installations in Bangalore use ASP, followed by SBR,
which represents more than 30 per cent of the installations 23. The ASP installed
capacity ranges from 5 KLD to 4120 KLD, while SBR capacities range from 10 KLD
to 1400 KLD.24 Both these technologies are partly automated and can be
designed to meet specific output quality criterion. The preference for SBR is
driven by the space savings attained over ASP by 33-50 per cent, lesser
manpower costs, and saving in power to the tune of 35-45 per cent w.r.t a
conventional ASP.25 One of the other, SBR has the added advantage that it can
treat sewage water to the level mandated by BWSSB for discharge. Overall,
depending on individual technology, the capital cost and the operational costs of

23 CDD BORDA Analysis


24 CDD BORDA Analysis
25 The Economics of Municipal Sewage Waste Recycling [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.idfc.com/pdf/report/2011/Chp-21-The-Economics-of-Municipal-Sewage-WaterRecycling.pdf. [Accessed 15 September 2014].
29

Market Landscape Draft Report

treatments vary significantly although there is usually an inverse correlation


between the unit cost and incremental project capacity.
Figure 9: Technologies and Reuse

High-End Industrial Reuse


(Reverse Osmosis, Demineralization)
Ultra
Filtration
Chlorinat

Low-End Industrial Use(BOD<5, COD<50, TSS<10, N<10, P<1) ion +


Tertiary Treatment +
Nutrient Removal +
Chlorination

Chlorinat
ion

Pressure
Sand

Secondary Discharge Standards


(BOD<20, COD<250, TSS<30)

SBR
ASP
MBR
(BOD<5 ,COD<50 ,TSS<10 ,N<10 ,P<1)
(BOD<30 ,COD<250 ,TSS<30-50 ,N~45 , P~5)
(BOD<5 ,COD<50 ,TSS<1) (N<10 , P<1)*

Sewage Water(BOD: 110-400, COD: 250 -1000, TSS: 100 - 350, N: 20-85, P: 4-15)
Source: Economics of Municipal Sewage Water Recycling, IDFC, 2011

2.5 DSI (Sans UI) Operations and Maintenance Overview


2.5.1. Storage
Though there are large number of onsite septic tank and pit installations, not
enough attention is given to maintenance of the infrastructure and safe disposal
of septage. If septage is disposed in open areas/ water bodies, it can have
significant health and environmental implications. Pit maintenance costs are
significantly higher than their building costs but lower compare to any other
storage technology. Although there is no need for daily maintenance for pits,
there is a need for desludging when they are full, following which the pit can be
reused. Septic tank maintenance requires checks to ensure that the chambers
30

Market Landscape Draft Report

are watertight and the levels of scum and sludge are not exceeding the stipulated
value. The sludge removal from a septic tank is carried out by using a
mechanized pumping machine or a cesspool vehicle (i.e. Honey suckers). It does
not require any electricity and has moderate operating costs. Infrequent
desludging can result in overflowing of septage and clogged pipelines. National
Building Code of India states that septic tank cleaning should be carried every
year.
2.5.2 Transport
Maintenance of transport equipment is an important requirement for smooth
functioning of DSI infrastructure. Lack of preventive maintenance can lead to
frequent breakdowns, costlier repairs and lead to stagnation of septage / sludge
onsite. The operating costs of the technology are largely dependent on distance
between the collection and the discharge points. The fuel costs per month per
vehicle ranges from INR 12,000 INR 30,000. Maintenance costs over a year vary
from INR 5,000 INR 10,000, depending on the age and current condition of the
vehicle. Maintenance of simplified sewer systems should be regular and requires
plumbing or occasional flushes to remove any blockages. MoUD and CPHEEO
manual outlines general requirements for suction machines for cleaning sewers IS 13496:1992. Inspection chambers must be periodically emptied to prevent grit
overflowing into the system. Grease/Grit traps also need to be cleaned at regular
intervals to avoid clogging of fat and grease. Based on a report on Indian urban
infrastructure and services26, the collection operations and maintenance costs are
on an average INR 3.30 per KL.
2.5.3 Treatment
Majority of operational costs of an active sewage treatment plant is that of
electricity charges followed by the manpower required to operate the plant.
Electricity charges depend on the type of electro mechanical components used,
26 Estimating Investment Requirements for Urban Infrastructure Services, HPEC 2011,
MOUD
31

Market Landscape Draft Report

hours of operation, and per unit cost in a state. They typically vary between INR
600 INR 1500 per day. Manpower costs, consumables and other miscellaneous
costs result in typically INR 3 Lakhs INR 12 Lakhs per annum depending on the
type of technology used, hours of operation of the treatment plant, breadth and
quality of maintenance services offered, turnaround times in case of breakdown,
and quality of consumables. On an average the O&M costs for a STP of 50 KLD
and below is 1.5 paise per litre of sewage treated and for STP of 75 KLD and
above is 1.2 paise per litre.

3. Market Assessment for DSI &M Services


3.1 Market segment classification
To evaluate the gaps and opportunities for decentralized sanitation operations
and maintenance, the user segments for DSI have been defined based on a
classification of the establishment (refer Figure 9). This enables drawing out a
clear outline of the characteristics which influence the requirement for DSI; type
of DSI installed/used, choice of technology for DSI, and breadth of O&M costs for
DSI. In the following sections, the UI Market and DSI Market have been evaluated
separately owing to difference in market drivers.
Figure 10: Market Segmentation

32

Market Landscape Draft Report

The sewage flow patterns are varied as seen in Figure 11, with different patterns
applicable to different customer segments. For each user sub segment, the
number and color legends help identify the type of sewage flow prevalent across
the value chain.
Figure 11: Types of Sewage Flow (Across value chain)

33

Market Landscape Draft Report

3.1.1 Residential
Bangalore city has doubled its population twice in the period of eight years 27. The
CAGR for the residential building segment which includes apartments, gated
communities, and villas was 15 per cent28 during the period of 2008-11. Majority
of its growth is in the newly developed areas of Greater Bangalore where the
underground sewerage coverage is lower than the core area (earlier referred to
as BMP). According to CPHEEO, fresh water consumption per person per day is
135 150 litres per day and out of the total water used by an individual in a
household, 75 to 80 per cent emerges as sewage. Given the population of
Bangalore is 8.5 million, total sewage generated from this segment is
approximately 900 MLD, which is almost 90 per cent of the total waste water
generated in the city (1000 MLD). The grey water in this user segment originates
from the laundry, sink and the shower and the black water comes from toilets,
27 Sewage's a much bigger problem than water supply | Latest News & Updates at Daily
News & Analysis. 2014. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.dnaindia.com/bangalore/report-sewages-a-much-bigger-problem-than-watersupply-1812453. [Accessed 12 September 2014].
28 Vestian Global Bangalore Residential Report. [ONLINE] Available at
http://www.vestianglobal.com/pdf/Bangalore_Residential_Report_May_2012.pdf.
[Accessed 12 September 2014]
34

Market Landscape Draft Report

dishwashers and sinks with food waste disposers. The residential segment is
spread across Bangalore city. There are several institutional bodies influencing
sanitation

infrastructure

for

this

user

segment,

including

the

Bangalore

Development Authority (BDA), Karnataka Housing Board (KHB), Bruhat Bangalore


Mahanagar Palike (BBMP), Anekal Planning Authority, Bangalore International
Airport Area Planning Authority (BIAPPA), Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage
Board (BWSSB), and Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB). Consent for
establishment29 for buildings as laid down by KSPCB is required for any residential
construction which has a built up area of more than 20,000 sq mt in a non-UGD
connected area or a dwelling that has more than 50 apartments. These norms
mandate

that

establishments

treat

the

sewage

water

to

the

required

specifications, post which the treated water can either be re-used for
landscaping, toilet flushing, car and common area washes or discharged into the
sewer line. The sewage flow is characterized by the prevalence of decentralized
sanitation infrastructure or connection to the main sewer line. This segment is
further divided into sub segments such as Slums, EWHS, Gated Communities /
Villas / Layouts, Independent Apartments and Individual houses. The socio
economic status, drivers for decentralized sanitation adoption, influence of water
unavailability

and

underground

drainage

systems,

key

influencers

for

administration vary across these sub segments.


Table 2: Sewage Flow- Residential
Sub Segment

Type of Sewage Flow


(For Index, see Figure 11)

Slums
EWHS
Gated
Communities/Villas/

1A

1A

1B

1B

Layouts
29 For further details, refer to the Legal and Institution section of the report
35

Market Landscape Draft Report

Independent
Apartments
Individual Houses

1A

1B

1A

3.1.2 Commercial
Bangalore is one of the biggest metros in India and is also the IT capital of the
country. It is one of the megacities where the middle class is expanding rapidly.
The commercial footprint is increasing with the increase in population and is
spread across the city. This segment has been reclassified into sub segments,
which

have

infrastructure.

different

attributes

pertaining

to

decentralized

sanitation

Sub segments such as IT Parks, larger size shopping malls,

cinema Halls/ theatres, and other commercial complexes mostly generate black
water. The city attracts a lot of tourists as well as business travelers, which has
resulted in a booming hospitality segment. Hotels and private clubs have
significant sewage discharge, consisting of both grey and black water.
Some of the supporting institutional bodies for this segment influencing
sanitation infrastructure are BDA, BBMP, Anekal Planning Authority, BWSSB, STPI
and KSPCB. Consent for establishment and operation 30 for IT Parks, Shopping
Malls, Hotels and Private clubs requires the establishments to treat the sewage
water to the required specifications, post which the treated water can either be re
used for landscaping; flush water in toilets, and common area washes, or
discharged into the sewer line. Especially IT Parks and Hotels have a very high
requirement of fresh/ treated water each day, for landscaping, HVAC (Cooling
towers) and toilet flushing. The sewage flow is characterized by the prevalence of
decentralized sanitation infrastructure or connection to the main sewer line. The
following diagram illustrates alternate ways of sewage flow in this segment:
Table 3: Sewage Flow- Commercial
Sub Segment

Type of Sewage Flow

30 For further details, refer to the Legal and Institution section of the report
36

Market Landscape Draft Report

(For Index, see Figure 11)


IT Parks
Hospitality
Malls/ Local Markets

1B

1B

1B

1B

Private Clubs

Cinema Halls/ Theatre

3.1.3 Institutional
The support ecosystem required for a city to function smoothly and effectively is
provided by different institutional establishments. Bangalore is expanding rapidly
with

respect

to

the

number

of

institutional

establishments

existing

to

complement the urban population growth. This segment can be divided into sub
segments such as Educational Institutions (Schools, Colleges, and Universities),
Hospitals

(Government

Private),

Orphanages/

Care

centers

and

Office

Complexes (Government / Private).


Some of the supporting institutional bodies for this segment influencing
sanitation infrastructure are BDA, BBMP, Anekal Planning Authority, BWSSB, and
KSPCB. According to the KSPCB norms, the hospitals are mandated to treat their
sewage, except the bio medical waste. They differ from each other with regards
to the requirements for fresh water for operations, preference for decentralized
sanitation infrastructure if there is no UGD and the socio economic positioning.
They mostly generate both grey and black water. Depending on the sub segment
and the zone they are in, the sewage can flow in the following alternate ways:
Table 4: Sewage Flow- Institutional
Sub Segment

Type of Sewage Flow


(For Index, see Figure 11)

Educational Institute

1B

3
37

Market Landscape Draft Report

Hospitals
Prison

1B

1B

1B

Government Offices

Orphanages/

Care

Centers

3.1.4 Public Utilities


The public utilities in Bangalore are spread across the city and form the backbone
of daily operations in the city. The sub segments within the public utility are Bus
Stands, Railway Station, Airports, Religious Places, Recreational Parks and local
markets. They are spread across Bangalore. They usually generate black water.
Some of the supporting institutional bodies for this segment influencing
sanitation infrastructure are BDA, BBMP, BIAPPA, BWSSB, and KSPCB.
Table 5: Sewage Flow-Public Utility
Sub Segment

Type of Sewage Flow


(For Index, see Figure 11)

Bus Stand
Religious Places
Recreational Parks
Railway Station

1A

1B

1A

1B

3.1.5 Small and Medium Enterprises


The industrial hubs/ clusters employ a large workforce, which generate a
significant amount of sewage. This segment is mandated to install effluent
treatment plants (ETP) to treat the industrial wastewater generated, but
depending on the size and quantity of sewage generated, they can also fall under
the ambit of KSPCB regulations to install a STP. They are mostly located in the
38

Market Landscape Draft Report

periphery of the city. They consist of manufacturing, processing and other types
of small industry units. Depending on the size and type of industry they have
different quantum of water requirements for their operations.
Table 6: Sewage Flow-SME
Sub Segment

Type of Sewage Flow


(For Index, see Figure 11)

Industrial Hub

1A

1B

3.2 Methodology for Market Assessment


The objective of the market assessment is to evaluate both the demand and
supply side and determine the enablers and inhibitors of operations and
maintenance of Decentralized Sanitation Infrastructure (DSI) in Bangalore. The
methodology presented below highlights the tools and approaches used to
choose metrics for evaluation and the analysis drawn from them.
3.2.1 Hypotheses Design
The market assessment study was preceded by a hypothesis design phase,
through which the primary objective was to create the framework for market
prioritization and design the primary and secondary studies based on the
hypothesis drawn out. Extensive literature reviews were carried out to identify
the dynamics of decentralized sanitation infrastructure in Bangalore and the key
stakeholders and decision makers across the value chain. A plan was drawn out
to engage the key players such as government agencies, sanitation experts, DSI
users,

and

service

providers.

Questionnaires

were

designed

to

capture

information relevant for the study and to fill in gaps identified during the
secondary research.
3.2.2 Market Prioritization
A market segmentation matrix was drawn to identify key market segments and
draw differentiation amongst them based on key attributes. Metrics were
39

Market Landscape Draft Report

identified to evaluate the key market segments for DSI adoption and favorable for
uptake of Operations and Maintenance (O&M) services. Interviews were
conducted with a large pool of users spread across the eight zones of Bangalore,
service providers catering to different technologies/ users/ service levels,
sanitation experts across the value chain, and Government stakeholders and
decision makers. At end of this phase, key market segments for further deep dive
into their Operations and Maintenance gaps were identified.
3.2.3 Market Assessment Report
The O&M gaps were identified for the preferred market segments and the supply
side was assessed in this phase to complete the landscape study of decentralized
sanitation market in Bangalore.

3.3 Demand Side Assessment (UI)


3.3.1 User segmentation based on type of UI usage
User segmentation for UI infrastructure has been done based upon the type of
infrastructure used as shown in Figure 7 The rationale behind considering the
usage pattern for the study is that it aligns with the type of service delivery. It is
observed through field surveys and interviews with service providers that UI
infrastructures which have high frequency of use and are used by unrelated users
will require a high frequency of services and different service packages. It is also
perceived that the behavioural aspect with respect to usage also differs based
upon the ownership of UI infrastructure. Therefore, considering these two factors
the user segments have been classified under 4 UI Infrastructure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Private toilet users


Community toilet users
Institutional toilets users
Public toilet users
Figure 12: UI Market Segment

40

Market Landscape Draft Report

41

Market Landscape Draft Report

Private Toilets: Private toilets are those toilets which are used by member of
single household or staff of single office or users which have some relatedness to
each other. Ownership is highest in the private toilet user segment. The users of
these toilets have a high degree of relatedness among them. The number of
users per toilet is not very high in this segment. The toilets are either maintained
by users themselves or by a maid or a private staff. This segment includes
Individual houses, apartments, Gated Community/villas/layout, orphanages,
Government offices and Private offices. Compared to other user segments the
Operation and Maintenance requirements are not high in this segment, but users
tend to prefer quality maintenance services.
Community toilets: Community toilets are found in low income residential
areas or in hybrid locations serving regular and transient users. Users for
community toilets are primarily slum dwellers, or residents of Economically
Weaker Housing Scheme colonies who are not able to afford individual toilet
within their premises. Community toilets are sometimes provided by a
government or an NGO for a particular community or a resident of a particular
area. They may also be built jointly by the members of the community or resident
of a particular area in order to resolve their sanitation related issues. In the
majority of cases, the relatedness among the users is less than the case of
private toilet users but higher than institutional and public toilet users. Users may
either have a monthly pass to use the community toilet or may have a Pay Per
Use mechanism for using it.

42

Market Landscape Draft Report

Institutional toilets: Institutional toilets are most prevalent in user segments


such as hotels, hospitals, IT parks, educational institutes, private clubs etc. The
user and the owner for institutional toilets are not always the same. The toilet
facility in these segments is operated and maintained by the owner or
management of the institution for the convenience of the users who may be
regular (e.g. educational institutes) or transient (e.g. Hospitals) in nature. Unlike
public and community toilets there is no fee for toilet use. The frequency and the
number of toilet infrastructure are higher than private and community toilets but
lower than that of public toilets.
Public toilets: Public toilets usually cater to the need for sanitation facilities
among the transient/ floating population. These are usually found in Railways,
Bus stands, Local Markets, Mall/Commercial complexes, Restaurants & bars,
Religious places, Recreational Parks. Majority of these toilets are owned and
maintained by government authorities. However in some cases like mall,
restaurants

and

religious

places

these

facilities

are

maintained

by

the

owner/management of the respective premises. The frequency of usage in public


toilets is relatively high and the users are transient and unrelated in nature. The
usage for public toilets may be free or pay per use.
3.3.2 UI operation and maintenance services
Status of UI infrastructure O&M
The status of UI infrastructure maintenance differs significantly based on the type
of UI infrastructure. Service gaps are relatively higher in case of public toilets and
community toilets as compared to other UI infrastructure, indicating the low
quality of service rendered. In case of private toilets, service gaps exist in
government offices where the toilets are relatively less maintained. The
institutional toilets are well maintained. Some of the issues that were observed
by the users and field staff are as follows:

43

Market Landscape Draft Report

Lack of functional sanitary fittings Most of the public toilets had


defunct taps, flush, wash basin etc. In some cases the sanitary fittings were
not present for use. In case of government offices also issue of malfunction

of flush was observed.


Presence of odour and leakages The presence of foul odour was the
most common observation across public toilets irrespective of location and
authority responsible for its maintenance. This is one of the clear indicators
for lack of requisite maintenance services across this segment. Leakages
due to mal functioning of sanitary fittings

were also a common

phenomenon.
Lack of water availability In case of some public toilet the water was
not available at all or might be available in some toilets in a block.
Disconnection of BWSSB line due to non-depositing the water cess was the

main reason for non-availability of water in the UI infrastructure block.


Lack of toiletries In most cases except for availability of soap for hand
washing none of the other toiletries like tissue paper, towel, hand dryer etc.

was available for users.


Stains and cobweb Due to use of poor quality consumable and less
frequent operation and maintenance services, the stains and cobweb were
very common observation across public toilets.

All these issues are indicative of non-existence of requisite operation and


maintenance services in UI infrastructure. However these issues are not present
across all the segments. Even in case of public toilets, all the toilets existing in
Malls and big restaurants have high quality maintenance. Hence only the public
toilets existing in public utility areas have high potential for regular and well as
differentiated operation and maintenance services. However in case of private
toilets, differentiated UI operation and maintenance services may have potential
demand in future.

44

Market Landscape Draft Report

Figure 13: UI Status Public Toilet

45

Market Landscape Draft Report

3.3.3 Factors influencing UI operation and maintenance


Key factors influencing UI operation and maintenance services are ratio of
number of users per toilets, willingness to pay for O&M services and existing
status of UI maintenance. Factors like type of users and frequency of use also are
some relevant factors influencing operation and maintenance of UI infrastructure.
The market size for current UI installations is difficult to assess as there is no
information available across Bangalore. The factors discussed below influence the
demand for operation and maintenance service in UI infrastructure:
1. Ratio of number of toilets to users- There exist a negative correlation
between the ratio of toilet to number of users and demand for UI infrastructure
services. If one UI infrastructure is available for larger number of users, the
rate of usage will be high; hence it will require higher level of maintenance
and frequent services than those UI infrastructures where ratio is high. The
national building code 2005 mandates construction of UI infrastructure based
upon the users in the premises.

The ratio ranges from as high as 1:7 in

hospitals to as low as 1:400 in hotels and private clubs. The building code
does not provide a ratio for number of toilets in case of residential
infrastructure

i.e.

apartments,

individual

houses,

villas

and

gated

communities. Therefore in private toilet user segments (except Government/


private offices) it is assumed that each residential unit comprises of 1
household with 431 members having one UI infrastructure. The frequency of
services in the public toilets is determined by considering number of users per
toilet and frequency of use per toilet taken together. The ratio is lowest in case
of public toilets and highest in case of private toilets.

31 Population of Bangalore/Number of household (Census 2011)


46

Market Landscape Draft Report

2. Willingness to pay- Users willingness to pay for improved operation and


maintenance service in UI infrastructure is a crucial determinant for level of
operation and maintenance. Willingness to pay of a consumer is influenced by
several other factors discussed below:
Customer paying capacity This refers to economic status of the
customers availing the UI operations and maintenance. The economically
weaker section may have high demand for UI infrastructure maintenance
services but they cannot afford improved services due to their low paying
capacity for such services unless there is government or other institutional
funding support available. IT parks prefer to have regular high standard
maintenance services and can also afford the same. Paying capacity varies
across segments with lowest in case of community toilet users, low to
moderate in private and public toilet users and moderate to high in case of
institutional toilet users.

Branding and visibility-. Branding and visibility are important to certain


segment of users, and they can associate high quality maintenance
services delivering the same. For commercial segments like Mall, Hotels, IT
parks etc. it is one of the key driving affecting their willingness to pay for
improved UI infrastructure maintenance services. For such segments,
highly maintained UI infrastructure is also associated with their reputation.
The institutional segment has strong focus on branding, while it does not
influence willingness to pay for private toilet, community toilet and public
toilet user segments.

47

Market Landscape Draft Report

3. Status

of

UI

infrastructure

maintenance

Current

status

of

UI

infrastructure maintenance drives the demand for future UI maintenance


services. In case the existing status of maintenance is poor, the potential of
providing improved Operation and maintenance service is high. The status of
UI infrastructure was assessed through factors like existence of foul odour,
leakage and stains, frequency of cleaning, quality of consumables used for
cleaning and availability of toiletries. The UI infrastructure maintenance status
across Bangalore differs across the user segments. It is poorly maintained in
case of Public toilets and community toilets, moderately maintained in private
toilets while highly maintained in case of institutional toilets. In 2012, out of
504 public toilets 88 toilets were malfunction due to lack of maintenance. 32
Hence these infrastructures pose an opportunity of providing improved
operation and maintenance services.
4. Type of users- The UI infrastructure user may be regular or transient. Regular
users are those who use the same UI infrastructure on daily basis. These users
are more conscious towards the UI usage as well as its maintenance.
Therefore these users are more mindful with respect to cleaning and
maintenance of UI infrastructure within their premises. Hence they themselves
ensure proper maintenance of UI infrastructure. On the other hand transient
users are those who occasionally use same UI infrastructure more than twice.
These users may or may not be sensitive towards proper usage and
maintenance of UI infrastructure. Considering this fact it is assumed that the
toilets used by transient users relative require higher level of maintenance as
compared to those used by regular users. The regular users are more
prevalent in private toilets while transient users are more prevalent in case of
public toilets. However the demand for operation and maintenance will also be
high in case the frequency of use in case of regular users is relatively high.

32 (Nair, 2012)
48

Market Landscape Draft Report

5. Frequency of use per day Irrespective of the type of user segments, the
demand for operation and maintenance services in UI infrastructure has high
relatedness with the frequency of usage. The UI infrastructure with high
frequency of use will require frequent cleaning services, hence will require
high maintenance.
3.3.4 Differentiated UI Maintenance Service
As already defined in section 2.3, Differentiated UI Maintenance services are
provided over and above the regular services and have value proposition for the
user. An analogy can be drawn between the differentiated UI maintenance
services and use of Harpic in toilets. At present in India, Harpic usage level is 3-4
times a month in addition to regular usage of cleaning agents like phenyl and
acids. Harpic positioned itself as a product that can add value to the toilets
through germ cleaning and high level of sanitation. Consumers prefer to use
Harpic only to provide add on cleaning and maintenance component to their
toilets. This value proposition should be the aim of differentiated services in case
of UI maintenance as well.
Some of the differentiated services mentioned as best practices by British toilet
Association are as follows

Hot water cleaning with cleansing agent for all ledges, sills, doors, wall and

frames
Removal of cobwebs at all levels. Dust removal around light fittings,

ceiling corners and windows


Removal of stains and deposits from walls and ceilings
Deep Cleans to be provided once every month or quarterly
o Steam or jet cleaning
o Toilet and bowls-Descaling and removal of deposits from internal and
external parts like flushing rim, toilet seat, seat covers, hinges, traps
etc
o Urinals-Descaling, cleaning and removal of deposits from all part of
the urinals
49

Market Landscape Draft Report

o Repair and refitting of electrical fitting ,Wash basins, sinks, taps and
miscellaneous

units

including

gullies,

open

channels,

soap

dispensers, troughs etc.


o Descaling cleaning and removal of all the deposits from floor and
entire restroom area
o Mechanical scrubbing of floor through mechanised equipment
Among all the services mentioned above only few are currently provided in
Bangalore. The service package pertaining to UI Maintenance may offer these
differentiated services across the prioritised market segments.
Case for Differentiated services for UI maintenance
In Bangalore the market for differentiated services is very niche. There are
limited service providers who provide these services in some user
segments. The private toilets user segments have the largest market share
for demanding differentiated services. The other type of user segments are
still untapped by service providers. This is primarily because they either
have high quality of regular services or lack of awareness for differentiated
services. The public toilets across Bangalore are a significant market for the
differentiated

services

given

the

desired

level

of

services

these

infrastructure need and their current status.


3.3.5 Preferred user segments for Differentiated services - UI
A framework with set of metrics is used to assess the potential market segments
for differentiated services. The user segments were evaluated through two lenses
1. Demand for operation and maintenance services and 2.Market attractiveness
of differentiated services across user segments. Through the first lens the gap in
the operation and maintenance of UI infrastructure is assessed and through the
second lens the viability and scope of differentiated services across the user
segments is evaluated. The metrics considered for assessing the preferred
market segment are as follows:

50

Market Landscape Draft Report

Ratio of number of toilet to users - The ratio indicates quantum of operation


and maintenance services required in UI infrastructure. Higher the number of
users per toilet higher will be demand for operation and maintenance services.
Willingness to pay This metric assesses the amount the users are willing to
pay for the operation and maintenance services. This metric is a function of
capacity to pay and significance of branding and visibility to the user segment.
This will determine what quality of service will be affordable for the segment.
Status of UI infrastructure maintenance- This is one of the most crucial
metric influencing the demand for standard operation and maintenance practices
across user segments. In case the UI infrastructure is poorly maintained the
scope for providing O&M services will be relatively high as compared to that UI
infrastructure which is well maintained.
Viability of differentiated services This metric assesses the scope for
differentiated services based upon the existing kind of services across user
segments.
All these metrics were assigned weightages and each market segments was
scored across all the metrics. Finally the weighted score was considered to derive
the preferred user segments. The scale used for the framework is as follows:
Table 7 : Framework for UI Market Segment Selection

Scores
Weigh
Parameters
Ratio of no. of toilet

ts

1:200

infrastructure to users

to

1:100 to

1:50 to

1:10 to

25%

1:400

1:200

1:100

1:50

< 1:10

25%
25%

High
Low

Medium
Medium

Low
High

25%

High

Medium

Low

Willingness to pay
Status of UI maintenance
Viability of differentiated
UI O&M services

51

Market Landscape Draft Report

Based upon the above framework Public toilet (except for those which are
located in railway station and bus stands) and private toilets (except for
those which are located in private offices) are the preferred market for
differentiated operation and maintenance services for UI infrastructure.

3.4 Demand Side Assessment (DSI sans UI)


3.4.1 DSI market size assessment
To gauge the size of the market, it is crucial to understand the quantum of each
market sub segment present in Bangalore and the average capacity of
decentralized treatment (Active and Passive) used. The market segmentation is
shown in Figure 6 . The magnitude of market size is a driving factor to assess the
preferred market for decentralized sanitation operations and maintenance. The
viability of such services will be influenced by the scale of uptake.
Attractive Market Segments Based on Market Size

Table 8: DSI Market Size


Market

Market Sub

Number of

Average DSI

Segment

Segment
Notified & Non

Establishments
590

Capacity
50-100 Cubic Feet Pit

Notified Slum
Villas / Gated

Villas 230

600 KLD

communities/Layouts
Economically weaker

Layouts - 575
< 100

50-100 Cubic Feet Pit

colonies
Stand Alone

>> 1000

>100 Cubic Feet Pit

Apartments
Individual houses
IT Parks
Hospitality

>> 1000
> 38
895 (Includes B&B,

165 KLD
<= 50 Cubic Feet Pit
380 KLD
204 KLD

Residential

Commercial

section housing

Lodges)

52

Market Landscape Draft Report

Public Utilities

Institutions

SME

Mall/ Local Markets

Mall 25

150 KLD

Private Clubs
Cinema Halls/

BDA Complex - 11
300
264

140 KLD
50-100 Cubic Feet Pit

Theatres
Bus Stand
Religious Places
Recreational Parks
Railway Stations
Educational

43
317 (Major)
1101 (BBMP/BDA Parks)
3
1131

N.A
50 Cubic Feet Pit
N.A
N.A
105 KLD

Institutions
Hospitals
Prison
Government Offices
Orphanages, Care

216
2
176
82

175 KLD
Not Available

Centers
Industry Hub

11

90 KLD

N.A

From the table above, it can be observed that the Villas/ Gated Communities/
Layouts, Stand Alone Apartments, and Individual Houses in the residential sector
are lucrative with respect to market size. In 2012, more than 33,000 residential
units were bought and in the first half of 2013, more than 26,000 residential units
were sold, indicating the growing segment33. In the commercial segment, the
Hospitality sector along with the private clubs is attractive due to the number of
establishments in Bangalore, and on the other hand, IT Parks because of very
high average DSI installed capacity. Though the number of Cinema Halls and
Recreational Parks are significant in number, but the overall DSI installation
capacity is smaller.
3.3.2 Factors influencing DSI Adoption
Adoption of decentralized sanitation infrastructure by user segments as opposed
to centralized infrastructure is driven by a variety of factors. They are a
combination of legal mandates, requirement for treated water, and availability of
UGD.

33 Vestian Global Bangalore Residential Report. [ONLINE] Available at


http://www.vestianglobal.com/pdf/Bangalore_Residential_Report_May_2012.pdf.
[Accessed 12 September 2014]
53

Market Landscape Draft Report

1. Legal Mandates and Funds Available


Some market segments have government budget allocated for sanitation, which
can influence the solutions adopted by them. Those market segments are slums,
EWHS,

Malls/

Local

Markets,

Bus

Stands,

Railway

Stations,

Educational

Institutions, Prison, and Government Offices.


KSPCB has outlined regulations and classified different market segments based
on the category of consent they belong to. This is determined by the quality of
discharge expected from a certain type of industry. Government of India has
amended the EIA notification in 2004, post which construction projects are
included under its purview. Currently across the market segments the following
are regulated by the KSPCB:
Table 9: Legal Mandates- Consent for Establishment
Market Segments

Category requiring consent

Other Institutional
Authorities

Commercial Buildings (Hotels,

Built up area > 20,000 sq.m

Commercial Complexes)
in sewered area
Commercial Buildings in non

Built up area > 2,000 sq.m

sewered area
Institutional Buildings

Built up area > 10,000 sq.m

(Educational Institutes,
Hospitals, Prison)

BWSSB, BBMP,

Townships and Area

Total area >= 50 Hectare

Development Project

OR Built up Area >= 1,50,000

Municipality

sq. m

Residential Units in sewered

Built up area > 20,000 sq.m

area
Residential Units in non

> 50 units or Built up area >

sewered area

5,000 sq.m

54

Market Landscape Draft Report

These regulations as cited above drive the uptake of decentralized sewage


treatment plants to treat waste water to the desired quality norms as mandated
by KSPCB before discharge.
Table 10: Categorization of Establishments (KSPCB)
Market Segment
Hotels

Red Category
Three Star and

Orange Category
Less than three star

Green Category
Less than 20 bed

Above

OR More than 20 but

rooms or banquet

OR More than 100

less than 100 rooms

hall or with minimum

rooms

floor area of 100 sq.


mt or a restaurant
with a minimum

Industrial Hubs/ SEZ


Commercial Complex

All
-

(Non sewered area)


Office Complex/

seater capacity of 36
Built up area <
20,000 sq mt and

Banks

has STP
Built up area <
20,000 sq mt and

(Non sewered area)


Educational

has STP
All

Institutions
Residential Blocks

All

The categorization of the market segment governs the consent fee paid by the
user (Depending on the capital investment) and the below sitting guidelines for
Orange and Green categories.
2. Requirement for water
Market segments differ in the attribute of requirement for water. The segments
which have a high water usage and are mostly located in water deficient localities
in Bangalore, are driven to adopt Decentralized Sanitation system which can
either fulfill or complement the quantity of water required for daily operations.
High
LOW
Medium
Segments
Water Requirement
SlumsFigure 14: Market
Villas/Gated
Community
IT Parks
Hospitality
EWHS
Standalone apartments
Individual Houses
Religious Places
Private Clubs
Recreational Parks
Cinema Halls/ Theatres
Prison
Bus Stands
Government Offices
Railway Station
Educational Institutes
Orphanages/ Care centre
Malls/ Local Markets
Hospitals
Industry Hubs

55

Market Landscape Draft Report

Table 11: Market Segments- Water requirements


Market

Market Sub

Water Utility

Segment

Segment
Notified &

Low

Non Notified

Domestic purposes and

Slum

water consumption in
both kitchen and toilets is

Residenti

Probability of concentration
in water deficit area
1. Water connection available for
most notified slums
2. Non notified slums have higher
probability of water deficit

Villas / Gated

low
Medium

Most of the gated communities

communities/

Landscape, and domestic

and villas are found in the outer

Layouts

use (Including flushing)

periphery of Bangalore which has

EWHS

Low

lower ground water


Spread across Bangalore

al

Domestic purposes and


water consumption in
both kitchen and toilets is

Commerci

Stand Alone

low
Medium

Apartments

Landscape, and domestic

Individual

use (Including flushing)


Low

houses

Domestic use (Including

IT Parks

flushing)
High

al

Spread across Bangalore

Spread across Bangalore

East and South Bangalore

Large landscapes, cooling


Hospitality

towers and flushing


High

Most of the 3 star and above are

Large landscapes, cooling

located in the core Bangalore

towers, flushing, cleaning,

Zone

kitchen and laundry,


Mall/ Local

swimming pool
Medium

Malls are concentrated in the

Markets

Toilet flushing, cleaning,

core zone

56

Market Landscape Draft Report

Private Clubs

Cooling towers
High
Large landscapes, cooling
towers, flushing, cleaning,
kitchen and laundry,

Public
Utilities

Cinema Halls/

swimming pool
Low

Theatres

Water is required for

Bus Stand

flushing and cleaning


Low

Spread across Bangalore

Religious

Flushing
Medium

Spread across Bangalore

Places

Flushing and religious

Recreational

activities
High

Spread across Bangalore

Parks
Railway

Large landscapes
High

Spread across Bangalore

Stations

Track and wagon

Spread across Bangalore

cleaning, toilet flushing,


refilling at stations, Steam
Educational

Generation
High (With residential)

Institutions

Low (W/o residential)

Spread across Bangalore

Flushing, cleaning,
Hospitals

laboratories, landscaping
High

Major hospitals located in the

Flushing, cleaning,

core area

laboratories, landscaping,
Institution
s

SME

Prison

medical procedures
Medium
Flushing, cleaning,

Government

landscaping
Medium

Offices

Flushing, cleaning,

Orphanages,

landscaping
Medium

Care Centers

Flushing and other

Industry Hub

domestic use
High

Spread across Bangalore

Spread across Bangalore

East and North Bangalore

Flushing and industrial


procedures

57

Market Landscape Draft Report

3. Availability of UGD
UGD availability is a driving factor for installations across the sanitation value
chain. Absence of UGD results in users opting for either active or passive sewage
treatment plants with or without simple sewer networks depending on the
requirements for each sub segment.
3.3.3 DSI Operations and Maintenance
The crux of efficient infrastructure lies in operations and maintenance. The
decentralized sanitation facilities are owned/ managed by Builders/ Resident
Welfare Associations/ Home owners in the residential segment, by Software
Technology Parks of India/ Electronic City Industry Association in the software
Parks, and other commercial property owners in the commercial segment. The
DSI in public utilities are managed by different government bodies, which are
responsible for its upkeep, and the DSI in the institutional segment is managed
privately. The variability in the type of owners of DSI, render the breadth of
spends incurred for operations and maintenance.
Transport
Disposal is one the most crucial components in the DSI value chain. Disposal is
done through Manual/ Automatic machines, which remove the sludge from onsite.
BWSSB has designated two of the central STP where this collected sludge can be
disposed, but in practice many service providers empty the sludge into lakes and
open land, if not reused for agriculture. The pump trucks or cesspool vehicles
require constant attention to prevent breakdowns. The ring connecting the air
vent pipe used for desludging to the vehicle is one of the parts which require
frequent replacement. The service providers spend INR 5,000 INR 10,000 per
vehicle annually on maintenance depending on the age and frequency of use.
Treatment
Active Sewage Treatment Plant
58

Market Landscape Draft Report

Type of technology and capacity do not have a very high influence on the O&M
spends because a large proportion (Almost more than 60-70 per cent) of the
costs incurred by the service providers is manpower costs, which does not differ
across technologies. Although the type of technology does play a role in
determining the recurring electricity charges (if any) which can be as high as IN
1500 per day. Typically a maintenance contract is signed with a service provider,
who can either be the original supplier of the equipment or chosen through a
tender process. The AMC can be with or without consumables, no correlation was
found between market segments and the choice of type of AMC. Operations
entail Personnel Management, Inventory Management, Work Management and
Audit.
1.

Work Management involves carrying out operations as outlined in O&M

2.

manuals and scheduling maintenance (Corrective, Preventive, Predictive)


Personnel management involves ensuring availability of trained / skilled
manpower for the stipulated duration. In adherence with the Labor laws,

3.

three shifts are mandated to operate a STP running 24 hours


Spare parts and consumable inventory management is a crucial part of

4.

operations which assist in smooth operations and minimal downtime


Audits are required to check the health of the STP and effluent quality
conforming to prescribed norms by KSPCB/ BWSSB

Maintenance on ground is mostly corrective in nature for most of the installations.


The requirement for skilled labor is dependent on the type of technology. DSI in
Apartments, Gated Communities (Owner/ RWA) and IT Parks have been found to
spend higher on annual maintenance contracts (Average of INR 600,000) and
they also demand higher quality of service. On the other hand, Hospitals, Hotels,
Private Clubs and Educational Institutions spend lesser on AMC (Range of INR
300,000 INR 600,000) and demand moderate quality of services.
Passive Sewage Treatment Plant
59

Market Landscape Draft Report

Market

segments

such

as

slums,

EWHS,

individual

households,

smaller

apartments, and commercial complexes in areas without underground drainage


opt for passive sewage treatments such as Septic Tanks, DEWATS. Maintenance of
the septic tanks is crucial, as failure can lead to sewage percolating into
groundwater, high repair costs and the reduced life of the equipment. It is
important to measure the scum and sludge layers and the level to which the
septic tank is full to schedule septage removal. DEWATS on the other hand
requires labor intensive routine maintenance which involves checks on water
flow, weeding of planted bed filter, removal of grease, and desludging.
3.3.4 Preferred Market for DSI Installation
The approach to find the most lucrative market segment to roll out O&M services
is through evaluation of a set of metrics. These metrics help to determine both
the market size and market potential for DSI operations and maintenance
services. The following are the metrics:
1.

Number of establishments: The number of establishment units for each

2.

market segment is indicative of the potential of the size of the market


DSI Average Capacity (Treatment) : The average capacity installed
represents the quantum of water treated and reflects on size of each DSI unit

3.

within a segment
Average spends on O&M: This metric determines willingness and paying

4.

capacity by analyzing the breadth of current spend for each user segment.
Legal mandate to treat water & Availability of Government Funding:
A legal mandate to treat water is one of the most crucial factors influencing
DSI installations and availability of government funding ensures uptake of

5.

services.
Water usage pattern: Use of treated water to substitute unavailability of
water for an user segment is a driving factor

Based on these metrics, each market segment is scored and the weighted score
is calculated based on the weights assigned to each metric. The scale used for
the framework is as below:
60

Market Landscape Draft Report

Table 12: DSI Evaluation Framework Scale

Parameters

Market Size

>1000

Scale
3

500-

300-

1000

500
100

100-300
0-100 KLD

300 KLD

KLD -

/ Large or

1
<100

Average Treatment

>500

- 500

300

advanced

Smaller

Capacity/Unit
Legal Mandate for DSI
Availability of Govt

KLD
Yes

KLD
-

KLD
-

septic tank
-

Septic tank
No

Budget
Lack of water

Yes
Very

Mediu

No

availability
Spend levels on

High
>6

High
3-6

m
1-3

Low

Very Low

O&M(p.a)

Lakhs

Lakhs

Lakhs

5,000 - 1 Lakh

<5,000

Based on the above framework, the following preferred segments were identified

Villas/

Gated

communities,

Standalone

Apartments,

IT

Parks,

Hospitality, Private clubs, Educational Institutions and Hospitals


3.3.5 DSI O&M status in preferred markets
Based on the observations made from primary some of the issues identified in
the market segments are as follows:
1. Influents contain high amount of solid waste which obstructs the feeding
pipes, and damage the mechanical screen through which the sewage passes.
This is more prevalent in the Hospitality segment.
2. Lack of trained personnel to operate the sewage treatment plants. Skilled
professionals have only been found in STPs operated in the large IT Parks
3. Most sewage treatment plants do not have comprehensive O&M manual, or
the manual is not followed to ensure desired quantity of treated effluent
4. Improper sludge handling results in clogging and foul smell
5. Frequent rusting/damage of iron accessories in the STP which leads to
leakage
6. Absence of backup power for STP results in flooding, foul smell and untreated
sewage

61

Market Landscape Draft Report

7. Choked / Rusted simple sewer systems obstruct flow of sewage to STP/ septic
tanks/ pits
8. Effluent quality does not match the parameters prescribed by BWSSB and
KSPCB. Audit is also not shared back with operators to enable required
corrective measures
9. Loud noise from the STP components can exceed stipulated levels allowed
10. Improper chemicals infiltrating the septic tank which reduce the
effectiveness of treatment
11. Scheduling of pumping out septage from septic tank is unorganized

3.5 Supply Side Assessment


3.5.1 Overview of O&M Service Providers
O&M service providers across the sanitation value chain are different in their
business approaches. The entry barrier to this market is low due to absence of
regulation, lack of awareness among user segments and a fragmented market
with no player with majority market share. Across the sanitation value chain,
small service providers have been mushrooming who do not have requisite
management and technical expertise to run their business.

However the STP

O&M service providers are relatively organized and formal as compared to service
providers dealing with UI maintenance services and septage management. They
are required to maintain certain set of standard while providing services across
the user segments. The service providers for septage handling and management
are mostly entrepreneurs who carry out business activities without any formal set
up and are not regulated. Even the UI infrastructure operation and maintenance
service providers are unorganized and fragmented. The services vary from
bundled services like facility management services to standalone service like one
time toilet cleaning. Customer loyalty is low.
3.5.2 Analysis of UI service providers
Market for UI maintenance services has few organized player and mostly small
unorganized operators. Small and medium player with few clients dominate the
62

Market Landscape Draft Report

overall market. Currently there exist 200-300 players catering to this market
across Bangalore. The UI infrastructure maintenance service may be provided in
the form of bundled services by a facility management service provider or a
standalone service by toilet cleaning service provider. Very few facility
management service providers undertake standalone toilet cleaning services. The
growth in office complexes and commercial infrastructure has created huge
opportunities for bundled services by facility management services in Bangalore.
As per the latest industry estimate the market size for the Facility management
services is close to 8,000 Crores 34 across India. The service providers catering to
operation and maintenance services in UI infrastructure can be classified as
following
1.

Facility Management service providers They primarily provide bundled


services across the user segments. The housekeeping services include toilet
cleaning and maintenance services within it. ISS world, Cushman and
Wakefield, Knight Frank India, Duster Total solution services private limited
are some of the leading Indian players who also have presence in Bangalore.
The bigger players mostly serve the high end user segments like IT parks,
Private hospitals, Gated communities, Mall etc. The small and medium facility
management companies like V3 Facility management services, Lakshmi
enterprises,

Om

Sri

Cleaning

services

cater

to

the

housekeeping

requirements of restaurant chain, bus stands, commercial complexes and


private offices. Most of the facility management companies have an AMC
with their client. The cost differs according to the area of the premises (Rs. 46 per sq ft) and number of staff employed whose salaries range from Rs. 10K12K. The AMC may be with consumable or without consumables. The staff
salary is the major driver of cost in their business. All the bigger players have
branches across India but the small and medium player have single office in
Bangalore. These players do not have franchise across Bangalore. These
34 (Ltd, n.d.)
63

Market Landscape Draft Report

service providers are more prominent in institutional toilet user segments


and some of the Public toilet user segments like Mall and restaurants.

64

Market Landscape Draft Report

2.

Bundled/ Unbundled service providers- Some of the service providers do


not offer AMC services but provide bundled services across Bangalore.
Bundled services mean periodic total cleaning solutions like office cleaning,
house cleaning, move in move out, after event cleaning etc . The toilet
cleaning services are included within these services. These are offered as
one time service by the service providers. The maid in case of residential
segments and in house staff in hospitals and hotels also provide bundled
services. Though these are not facility management service providers per se.
Some of the companies like Jack on Block, Holpro pvt ltd, VSS, Anz dirt buster
provide both bundled as well and unbundled services. These kind of
bundled/unbundled services are more prominent in residential segments i.e.
the private toilet user segment, as compared to other user segment. Most of
the institutional toilet user segments prefer to have facility management
services or in house bundled services. In case of public toilets apart from
restaurants none of the other user segments prefer to have one time total
cleaning services.

3.

One

time

differentiated

toilet

cleaning

service

providers

Differentiated toilet cleaning services are provided by majorly unorganised


small players. Some of these service providers which provide bundled
services also provide differentiated toilet cleaning services. However the
market for these services is limited to residential segment i.e. private toilet
user segment. Most of the service providers who are offering this service
opinionated that this service has potential to grow in future. But in spite of
growth potential these services will be limited to private toilet user segment
only. This is because institutional toilets user segments are already having
high quality facility management services at their disposal. For any user
segment bundled services regular or one time, are much more economical
than availing standalone UI infrastructure cleaning services.

65

Market Landscape Draft Report

4.

Government/NGO

service

providers-

BBMP

is

responsible

for

maintenance of 587 public toilets across Bangalore. In most cases BBMP built
the public toilet, which is now maintained by BBMP staff or NGOs like Sulabh
International. Sulabh International also builds its own public and community
toilets and maintains it. The services that Sulabh international provides in
public and community toilets are standalone services for toilet cleaning. In
case of railway station also NGO undertake the maintenance of public toilets.
The revenue model for these toilets is different from the other service
providers. In case of these public toilets the user is charged a minimal
amount unlike other public toilets where toilet use is free of cost.
3.5.3 Analysis of DSI (Active & Passive) service providers
Bangalore has one of the highest footprints of decentralized sewage treatment
plants and has service ecosystem to provide the required operations and
maintenance. The type of service providers for DSI range from completely
unorganized to highly professional, and cater to a variety of market segments.
The service levels differ based on the cost of services incurred by the user.
STP O&M Service Providers
Niche markets which demand very high quality of O&M services are catered by
global or pan India based service providers. Except decentralized STP, their client
list typically includes Municipal STPs as well. Some of them currently have
operations and maintenance contracts for cumulative capacities of more than
100 MLD across India. They are conversant with most of the latest technologies
(Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary treatments) available and are equipped to
service the same, they have a large share by the volume of wastewater they
operate and treat. These service providers also offer one time maintenance or
repair services, given the strong technological know how they possess. Their
service range lies across water treatment, effluent treatment, solid waste
management except sewage treatment. Ion Exchange, Wabag, Voltas, Thermax,
66

Market Landscape Draft Report

Daksha Greentech International, Marcuras Water Treatement, Nviro, Sigma


Technologies, Eco water solution technologies, and Fontus Water Ltd are some of
the leading Indian players, with some of them having presence in Bangalore. The
differentiated services offered by them comprise stringent audits to ensure
desired effluent quality, trained personnel, least downtime, high quality of
consumables, and provision of comprehensive O&M manual and preventive
maintenance schedules. Their AMC charges are almost double of the other
suppliers and service contracts stretch over more than a year. In Bangalore, IT
Parks, Large corporate offices, and premium residential apartments opt for these
service providers.
Mid-sized service providers offer quality service for standard technologies. They
occupy a large proportion of market share by number. They provide trained
supervisors but often have untrained operators. Some of the prominent players in
Bangalore are Seamak Hi Tech, Eco Paradigm, CDD, Maxwell Enviro, and Oxytona
technologies.

Most

of

their

clients

are

hospitals,

large

hotels,

gated

communities/villas.
The barrier to entry for new companies offering operations and maintenance of
STPs is low, because of the lack of awareness among different user segment
regarding maintenance standards which should be demanded as part of the AMC.
This has led to establishment of numerous small companies offering low quality
O&M services, most of which have presence only in the city/ state. Most of these
companies have been started by supervisors earlier employed by the large or
mid-size companies.

Smaller apartments, educational institutions, and price

sensitive hotels opt for such service providers, who mainly provide manpower for
running STPs but do not necessarily have the required competence to maintain
the equipment.
Septage/ Sludge Removal Service Providers
Sludge from a STP or septage from the septic tanks/ pits is removed by Cesspool
vehicle suppliers or other tanker operators. Most of these companies are run by
entrepreneurs who do not have formal profit and loss statements and are not
67

Market Landscape Draft Report

acknowledged by concerned authorities. There are over 300+ suppliers of such


kind in Bangalore. The quality of service provided is very basic with only a
handful opting to improve service levels. They usually have three to four
customers each day, which rises to eight during monsoons. Their fixed costs
include capital costs, equipment costs, salary costs (INR 3,000 13,000) and any
other overhead costs. The variable costs are fuel costs (INR 12,000 INR 30,000
per vehicle per month), yearly maintenance cost (INR 5,000 INR 30,000), cost of
legal disposal (INR 8-12 per 1KL). This business is dominantly an informal sector.
Some of the prominent service providers are Payo Nidhi Enviro, Venkateshwara
cleaners, First creative services, Super High Tech sewage cleaners etc. Payo Nidhi
Enviro is one of the BWWSB registered service operators, which has the authority
to empty their collection into designated central STP facilities.

68

Market Landscape Draft Report

4. Identification and Analysis of O&M Gaps


4.1 UI O&M Gaps Overview
The gaps in maintenance and operations for user interface (i.e. toilets) have
been assessed and outlined in this section. This assessment is based on
methodology that combines the market assessment of gaps and opportunities in
UI O&M along with the technical assessment and evaluation of the policy
landscape. The gaps in O&M services are primarily found in the public and
community toilets. Public toilets are not a profitable business in India, and
availability of adequate trained manpower for operations is a challenge. They
require relatively high maintenance, as the frequency of use is high and users
either belong to economic weaker section of society (as in case of community
toilet) or are transient in nature (as in case of public toilet). Both types of users
have a common behavioural aspect of not giving priority to best toilet usage
practices. For public toilets (except for Malls and restaurants), the service
providers are either NGOs or BBMPs own staff. Community toilets are majorly
served by NGOs. Even one time differentiated service can improve and impact
the existing condition.
In case of private toilets, there are no glaring gaps in maintenance but it can be
a potential market for differentiated services because users are willing to pay for
value addition to their regular services. The toilets in the institutional segment
are well maintained by the facility management service providers.
4.1.1 Methodology
The O&M gap analysis for User Interface is carried out through a combination of
technical, market and institution analysis. The methodology is outlined in Figure
25.
Figure 15: UI Service Gap Methodology

69

Market Landscape Draft Report

4.1.2 O&M Gaps Identified


Through the landscape study, the following gaps in the sanitation value chain
sector in Bangalore city have been identified:
Table 13: UI Gaps

S.No

Gaps Identified

.
1

Poor

community toilets
Differentiated services

maintenance

Part of value chain


of

Public
across

and User interface


private User interface

toilets
Poor maintenance of public and community toilets: The UI infrastructures (i.e.
toilets) suffer from poor maintenance in case of public and community toilets.
Public and community toilets have issues such as lack of sanitary fittings,
malfunctioning or defunct flushes, lack of toiletries, and non-availability of water.
In case of Private Toilets there were no gaps identified except for lack of available
70

Market Landscape Draft Report

man power providing high standard cleaning services in the toilet block. There is
a growing trend among private toilet users towards using one time differentiated
UI maintenance services to keep their toilets in good condition.
4.1.3 Analysis of Gaps
Poor maintenance of Public and community toiletsThe gap in maintenance of public toilets and community toilets exist because of
the following reasons:

Lack of adequate manpower for a toilet block - BBMP is the nodal


agency responsible for maintenance of public toilets across segments like local
markets and recreational parks. Private owner take care of maintenance of
public toilets in other segments like religious places, railways, bus stand, malls
and restaurants. In case of the BBMP maintained toilets, the service provider is
either its own staff or NGOs like Sulabh international. Both these service
providers lack the requisite man power. A typical toilet block with 10 toilets
requires at least two cleaners who can provide regular cleaning services.
However due to the low profit margins, most of the service providers are not
able to recover costs and cutting manpower. The situation is similar in the bus
stand and railway stations. In the case of community toilets, service providers
such as Sulabh international are faced with the challenge of supplying
adequate man power for the maintenance of community toilets. The scenario
across Mall and restaurants is relative better as their toilets are maintained
either by facility management service providers or by in-house staff.

Lack of training- Even though the public toilets cleaning do not require any
skilled staff, there is still a need for training in basic practices that needs to be
followed in order to keep the toilets in well maintained condition. None of the
service providers existing in the market currently provide in-house training to
their staff. Nor do they have a manual for the kind of services that needs to be
provided or any guidelines for frequency of services in a toilet block. Hence,
the staff does not follow any set procedures in conducting toilet maintenance.
71

Market Landscape Draft Report

Lack of awareness and sensitization In case of public toilets the users


are transient while in case of community toilets the users are regular but they
usually belong to low income communities. Both type of users are either
unaware or are not sensitized towards basic practices like pouring or flushing
after use, proper disposal of any waste like sanitary napkins, used paper
soaps, and toilet paper etc. This leads to poor hygienic conditions across
public and community toilets.

Lack of funds/finances- The business of public toilet maintenance is high


cost with low returns. Being labour intensive, the salary of the staff is the
major driver for cost. Currently there exist no subsidies or public funds which
can be used for the public toilet maintenance. The same is the condition with
the community toilets were the users do not have paying capacity to maintain
the toilets according to requisite standards.

Differentiated services across private toilets


Though gaps in private toilet maintenance are not recognized by user segments,
awareness and sensitization can create a niche market for differentiated
maintenance services (Described in section 2.3.1) which can showcase tangible
additional value to the user. Primarily such user segments preference is driven
out of convenience and lack of satisfaction from the existing/ alternate services.

4.2 DSI O&M Gaps Overview


4.2.1 Methodology
The O&M gap analysis for Decentralized Sanitation Infrastructure (DSI) is carried
out through combination of technical, market and institution analysis. The
methodology is outlined in Figure 27 below.
Figure 16: DSI Service Gap Assessment Methodology

72

Market Landscape Draft Report

4.2.2 DSI Gaps Identified


The landscape assessment has helped identify Operation and Maintenance gaps
across the DSI value chain which may require intervention in terms of service
improvement packages. The Intervention may be in form of capacity building and
training, regulatory intervention on part of government authorities, and providing
innovative solution/support to address the gaps. The gaps identified are
mentioned below:
Table 14: DSI Gaps

73

Market Landscape Draft Report

S.
No.
1
2
3

Gaps Identified

Part of value chain

Availability of skilled and trained operators Treatment


Ideal sludge handling technology in STP
Treatment
Desludging
and
jetting
of
septic Storage

and

4
5

tanks/pits / sewer system


transportation
Availability of excess treated wastewater
Disposal
Inadequate
Septage
management
/ Transportation

and

treatment
Disposal
Lack of Standard Operating Procedures in Treatment

7
8

local languages
Lack of awareness among users
AMC for Passive Systems (DEWATS, Life+)

Treatment
Treatment

4.2.3 Analysis of Gap


1. Unskilled and untrained operators:

The variance in skills required for

O&M services for different STP technologies is low. The practice across the
service industry is to hire skilled and knowledgeable supervisors, but
untrained operators. Low wages for operators and lack of formal training
results in high attrition and frequent job switching between service providers.
Operators currently do not have enough incentive to invest their time in
getting trained and do not perceive training as a value addition to their
employability. Also, they do not view this as a long term career choice,
because of the stigma around sewage and sludge handling and potential
health hazards. All the above factors come together resulting in a major gap in
availability of skilled personnel for O&M of STPs. A structured training program
for the operators will lead to their better employability and enhanced financial
benefits.

74

Market Landscape Draft Report

2. Ideal sludge handling technology in STP - Currently most of the sludge


handling technologies are inefficient and not suitable for STPs. Some of the
prominent technologies used are sludge drying beds, filter press and
centrifuge. The sludge drying bed is more effective, but it requires large
space. Users prefer this technology in case they use the tertiary treated water
for purpose other than landscaping, such as flushing, cooling, car washing
etc. Centrifuge requires relatively high maintenance and, hence, higher
recurring expenses. Filter press is the most commonly used sludge handing
technology, especially in the residential and SME segments. The pre requites
for efficient functioning of the filter press is that the sludge should be solid
and inorganic in nature. In case of organic waste, the filter press is redundant
as it allows the waste to pass through it with treated waste water. Filter press
is more suitable for Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs), but are used in STPs to
fulfil mandatory guidelines for having a sludge treating mechanism in the
plant. Users segments install filter press equipment for its spatial and cost
advantages. Installing a suitable sludge handling technique will ensure odour
free STP and optimum characteristics of treated water.
3. Desludging and jetting of septic tanks/pits / sewer system Users face
scheduling issues with pits and septic tank cleaning. The challenge to
correctly estimate the time at which the cleaning service will be required and
the immediate non-availability of such services result in inconvenience for
users. There are health implications of overflowing septage when the cleaning
is not done on time. In addition, the service providers catering to desludging
and jetting of septic tanks/ pits and sewer systems are part of an unorganized
sector which is scattered and fragmented. Users find it challenging to source
service providers and have no means to judge the credibility or the service
levels offered by each of them. Addressing this gap is a probable business
opportunity given the scale of the market and the need for consolidation into
an organized market.

75

Market Landscape Draft Report

4. Availability of excess treated wastewater - This is not an issue related to


operation and maintenance. Due to zero water discharge guidelines,
management and utilization of excess treated water is an issue faced across
all the user segments. Even if the treated water is used for flushing,
landscaping and other domestic purposes, there is still a need to dispose of at
least 25% to 40% of treated water even though regulations do not permit
discharge of treated water outside the boundaries of the users facilities. This
gap could be addressed through a policy recommendation on recharging
groundwater and water bodies with treated water. The zero discharge
guidelines are also not aligned with the

provisions of the Environment

Protection Act and Rules, which permit disposal of treated water of a specified
quality into inland surface waters such as rivers, lakes, nallahs etc.( 20/30
standards i.e. 20 mg/L BOD and 30 mg/L TSS in treated domestic sewage)35
5. Inadequate Septage management / treatment- Due to lack of regulatory
norms regarding discharge of septage, most of the cesspool vehicle service
providers discharge the sludge in open land and water bodies such as tanks,
lakes and rivers, which is responsible for land and water pollution. The
scientifically designed cesspool vehicles are very costly, and hence service
providers buy fabricated/modified vehicles which do not have both suction
and jetting capabilities. These vehicles are not fully equipped to handle all
types of sludge. Though BWSSB allows registered service providers to dispose
sludge in their designated central STPs for a fixed charge, there are only few
organized and registered service providers in the market currently and hence
there is a need for private sludge treatment facilities.

35 (Kodavasal, 2011)
76

Market Landscape Draft Report

6. Lack of Standard Operating Procedures in local languages: Ideally all


service providers should equip their supervisors and operators with manuals
that outline and describe the standard operations and maintenance
procedures to be performed on site. The absence of such O&M manuals in the
local languages, best understood by the unskilled operators; hamper the
usability of these reference documents. This characteristic of the O&M
manual has been found across all types of STPs. As a consequence, operators
use their own judgement while operating and maintaining the plant, resulting
in reduced operational efficiencies and leading to technical glitches. The
manual is especially relevant during emergencies or equipment breakdown,
but without a local language version, the document is not useful for the
operators and maintenance staff. This gap is not recognized by the users
directly, because once the AMC is signed with the service providers, they are
liable to ensure smooth functioning of the STP. Addressing this issue can
result in better O&M services and will also advance benchmarking service
quality levels based on adherence to manuals.

77

Market Landscape Draft Report

7. Lack of awareness among users User awareness is crucial for uptake


and maintenance of DSI. It ranges from understanding the requirement for
type of DSI, regular audit checks on effluent, need for trained operators for
O&M, and potential issues which can arise from change in input sewage
characteristics. In the residential segment, in most cases, the developers
save space and costs by building an STP which is under designed and placed
in the lower basements. Users are not aware of potential challenges from
such STPs and hence do not enquire regarding the same while purchasing a
property. During the course of operations, user knowledge is extremely crucial
to determine the quality of AMC a service provider will draft and deliver. Users
unaware of the effect of influx of oil, grease, and other chemical substances
on active and passive STPs , find themselves spending more on plant
maintenance without being appraised of the reason. Informed users demand
for trained operators, adherence to operations manuals, and stringent audit
of effluents, resulting in prevention of frequent breakdowns and sustained
plant operations through its life.
8. AMC for Passive Systems (DEWATS, Life+) There are many service
providers who install passive systems like DEWATS, PREFAB, Life+ across the
user segments. However none of them currently provide AMCs for these
passive systems. The services in passive systems are majorly provided on
demand by the local plumbers. These passive systems may not require high
level of monitoring like the active technologies but they require maintenance
for efficient working.

4.3 Conclusion and Next Steps


In the next phase, viability of a service gap to be converted into a service
package will be evaluated by understanding the priority for the users to address
the gaps and their willingness to pay for the same. Service offerings will be
designed based on further user and service provider consultation. The business
model for an effective service package will be developed, which will include the
78

Market Landscape Draft Report

operational plan, financial plan, and marketing plan. In case services require
capacity building, training programs will be identified to either complement
existing services or for new service packages designed.

79