# OLAP cube

are derived from the dimension tables.
m
Ti

Products

e

2 Hierarchy

Cities

The elements of a dimension can be organized as a
hierarchy,[4] a set of parent-child relationships, typically
where a parent member summarizes its children. Parent
elements can further be aggregated as the children of another parent.[5]
For example May 2005’s parent is Second Quarter 2005
which is in turn the child of Year 2005. Similarly cities
are the children of regions; products roll into product
groups and individual expense items into types of expenditure.

An example of an OLAP cube

An OLAP cube is an array of data understood in terms 3 Operations
of its 0 or more dimensions. OLAP is an acronym
for online analytical processing.[1] OLAP is a computer- Conceiving data as a cube with hierarchical dimensions
based technique for analyzing business data in the search leads to conceptually straightforward operations to facilifor business intelligence.[2]
tate analysis. Aligning the data content with a familiar visualization enhances analyst learning and productivity.[5]
The user-initiated process of navigating by calling for
1 Terminology
page displays interactively, through the speciﬁcation of
slices via rotations and drill down/up is sometimes called
A cube can be considered a multi-dimensional general- “slice and dice”. Common operations include slice and
ization of a two- or three-dimensional spreadsheet. For dice, drill down, roll up, and pivot.
example, a company might wish to summarize ﬁnancial
data by product, by time-period, and by city to compare
actual and budget expenses. Product, time, city and scenario (actual and budget) are the data’s dimensions.[3]
Cube is a shortcut for multidimensional dataset, given that
data can have an arbitrary number of dimensions. The
term hypercube is sometimes used, especially for data
with more than three dimensions.
OLAP slicing

Slicer is a term for a dimension which is held constant for all cells so that multidimensional information Slice is the act of picking a rectangular subset of a cube by
can be shown in a two dimensional physical space of a choosing a single value for one of its dimensions, creatspreadsheet or pivot table.
ing a new cube with one fewer dimension.[5] The picture
Each cell of the cube holds a number that represents some shows a slicing operation: The sales ﬁgures of all sales
measure of the business, such as sales, proﬁts, expenses, regions and all product categories of the company in the
budget and forecast.
year 2004 are “sliced” out of the data cube.
OLAP data is typically stored in a star schema or
snowﬂake schema in a relational data warehouse or in a
special-purpose data management system. Measures are
derived from the records in the fact table and dimensions

Dice: The dice operation produces a subcube by allowing the analyst to pick speciﬁc values of multiple
dimensions.[6] The picture shows a dicing operation: The
new cube shows the sales ﬁgures of a limited number of
1

Y. Z ) triple product categories. an OLAP cube is[8] an abstract representation of a projection of an RDBMS relation. so to speak. totals along a hierarchy or applying a set of formulas such as “proﬁt = sales . although the two are conceptually similar).[5] The picture shows a drill-down operation: The analyst moves from the summary category “Outdoor-Schutzausrüstung” to see the sales ﬁgures for the individual products. f : (X. Y. g : (X. OLAP dicing the attributes X. Given a relation of order N. \$B2 itself included. Y ) → W populate the individual cells dimension. values of Y populate column \$A. giving another perspective on the data.Y.[5] 5 See also • Comparison of OLAP Servers • Business intelligence • Data mining • Data Mining Extensions OLAP pivoting • Data warehouse • Data mart Pivot allows an analyst to rotate the cube in space to see its various faces. The motivation[8] behind OLAP displays harks back to the cross-tabbed report paradigm of 1980s DBMS. perhaps a slice of the triadic functional representation for a given Z value of interest. while the W value into which each ( X. which may suppress a primary key.expenses”. For example. the time and region dimensions cover maps corresponds to the data element that populates each the same range as before. The summarization rule might be computing “southeast of” \$B2. Characterizing this as a function. but still have some semantic signiﬁcance. consider a projection that subtends X. and Z correspond to the axes of the cube. cell of the cube.Y) → W OLAP Drill-up and drill-down Drill Down/Up allows the user to navigate among levels of data ranging from the most summarized (up) to the most detailed (down). where values of X populate row \$1. and Z as the key and W as the residual attribute. • Online analytical processing (OLAP) • Pivot Table • Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) • XML for Analysis . it is more practical to project “slices” of the data cube (we say project in the classic vector analytic sense of dimensional reduction. Y. cities could be arranged vertically and products horizontally while viewing data for a particular quarter. Insofar as two-dimensional output devices cannot readily characterize three dimensions. Pivoting could replace products with time periods to see data across time for a single product.Z) → W.2 5 SEE ALSO 4 Mathematical deﬁnition In database theory.[5][7] • Fast Analysis of Shared Multidimensional Information The picture shows a pivoting operation: The whole cube is rotated. The resulting spreadsheet-style display. not in the SQL sense. and Roll-up: A roll-up involves summarizing the data along a values of g : ( X.

Answers. “Data Cube: A Relational Aggregation Operator Generalizing Group-By. Retrieved 2008-03-18.A Research-Oriented Bibliography”. CRC Press. [8] Gray. IEEE. [3] “Cybertec releases OLAP cubes for PostgreSQL”. Adam. Andrew. Business Intelligence for Telecommunications. Bosworth. 12th International Conference on Data Engineering.3 6 References [1] “Just What Are Cubes Anyway? (A Painless Introduction to OLAP Technology)". Retrieved 2008-03-17. University of Alberta. 294 pp. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 1999. Layman. Council. Retrieved 2008-03-18. Jim.microsoft. “Data Warehousing and OLAP . Lorentz Center. pp. Msdn. • The RDF Data Cube Vocabulary . and Sub-Totals”. Retrieved 2008-03-05. [2] Deepak Pareek (2007). Priahesh. 1995. ISBN 0-84938792-2. Retrieved 2008-03-05. The OLAP [6] “Glossary of Data Mining Terms”. pp. PostgreSQL. Proc. 152–159.com. Retrieved 2008-03-05. [4] “Oracle9i Data Warehousing Guide hierarchy”. Retrieved 2008-11-09. [5] “OLAP and OLAP Server Deﬁnitions”. Retrieved 2012-07-25. 2006-10-02.com. [7] “Computer Encyclopedia: multidimensional views”. Cross-Tab. 7 External links • Daniel Lemire (December 2007). Hamid (1995-11-18).