You are on page 1of 2


English literature: The Jacobean Era, Cromwell, and the Restoration





Homework Help




History & Gov't


Science & Health

Encyclopedia > Literature and the Arts > Literature in English > English Literature,
20th cent. to the Present

Day in History

Enter search term

Calendar & Holidays



The Fifty States


English literature

Place Finder

The Jacobean Era, Cromwell, and the Restoration

Elizabethan literature generally reflects the exuberant self-confidence of a nation expanding its powers, increasing its
wealth, and thus keeping at bay its serious social and religious problems. Disillusion and pessimism followed,
however, during the unstable reign of James I (160325). The 17th cent. was to be a time of great upheaval
revolution and regicide, restoration of the monarchy, and, finally, the victory of Parliament, landed Protestantism, and
the moneyed interests.
Jacobean literature begins with the drama, including some of Shakespeare's greatest, and darkest, plays. The
dominant literary figure of James's reign was Ben Jonson, whose varied and dramatic works followed classical
models and were enriched by his worldly, peculiarly English wit. His satiric dramas, notably the great Volpone
(1606), all take a cynical view of human nature. Also cynical were the horrific revenge tragedies of John Ford, Thomas
Middleton, Cyril Tourneur, and John Webster (the best poet of this grim genre). Novelty was in great demand, and the
possibilities of plot and genre were exploited almost to exhaustion. Still, many excellent plays were written by men
such as George Chapman, the masters of comedy Thomas Dekker and Philip Massinger, and the team of Francis
Beaumont and John Fletcher. Drama continued to flourish until the closing of the theaters at the onset of the English
Revolution in 1642.

Periodic Table
Conversion Tool
Year by Year

The foremost poets of the Jacobean era, Ben Jonson and John Donne, are regarded as the originators of two diverse
poetic traditionsthe Cavalier and the metaphysical (see Cavalier poets and metaphysical poets). Jonson and Donne
shared not only a common fund of literary resources, but also a dryness of wit and precision of expression. Donne's
poetry is distinctive for its passionate intellection, Jonson's for its classicism and urbane guidance of passion.
Although George Herbert and Donne were the principal metaphysical poets, the meditative religious poets Henry
Vaughan and Thomas Traherne were also influenced by Donne, as were Abraham Cowley and Richard Crashaw. The
greatest of the Cavalier poets was the sensuously lyrical Robert Herrick. Such other Cavaliers as Thomas Carew, Sir
John Suckling, and Richard Lovelace were lyricists in the elegant Jonsonian tradition, though their lyricism turned
political during the English Revolution. Although ranked with the metaphysical poets, the highly individual Andrew
Marvell partook of the traditions of both Donne and Jonson.
Among the leading prose writers of the Jacobean period were the translators who produced the classic King James
Version of the Bible (1611) and the divines Lancelot Andrewes, Jeremy Taylor, and John Donne. The work of Francis
Bacon helped shape philosophical and scientific method. Robert Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) offers a
varied, virtually encyclopedic view of the moral and intellectual preoccupations of the 17th cent. Like Burton, Sir
Thomas Browne sought to reconcile the mysteries of religion with the newer mysteries of science. Izaak Walton,
author of The Compleat Angler (1653), produced a number of graceful biographies of prominent writers. Thomas
Hobbes wrote the most influential political treatise of the age, Leviathan (1651).
The Jacobean era's most fiery and eloquent author of political tracts (many in defense of Cromwell's government, of
which he was a member) was also one of the greatest of all English poets, John Milton. His Paradise Lost (1667) is a
Christian epic of encompassing scope. In Milton the literary and philosophical heritage of the Renaissance merged
with Protestant political and moral conviction.
With the restoration of the English monarchy in the person of Charles II, literary tastes widened. The lifting of Puritan
restrictions and the reassembling of the court led to a relaxation of restraints, both moral and stylistic, embodied in
such figures as the Earl of Rochester. Restoration comedy reveals both the influence of French farce (the English
court spent its exile in France) and of Jacobean comedy. It generously fed the public's appetite for broad satire, high
style, and a licentiousness that justified the worst Puritan imaginings. Such dramatists as Sir George Etherege,
William Wycherley, and William Congreve created superbly polished high comedy. Sparkling but not quite so brilliant
were the plays of George Farquhar, Thomas Shadwell, and Sir John Vanbrugh.
John Dryden began as a playwright but became the foremost poet and critic of his time. His greatest works are
satirical narrative poems, notably Absalom and Achitophel (1681), in which prominent contemporary figures are
unmistakably and devastatingly portrayed. Another satiric poet of the period was Samuel Butler, whose Hudibras
(1663) satirizes Puritanism together with all the intellectual pretensions of the time. During the Restoration
Puritanism or, more generally, the Dissenting tradition, remained vital. The most important Dissenting literary work
was John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1675), an allegorical prose narrative that is considered a forerunner of the
novel. Lively and illuminating glimpses of Restoration manners and mores are provided by the diaries of Samuel
Pepys and John Evelyn.
Sections in this article:
The Tudors and the Elizabethan Age
The Jacobean Era, Cromwell, and the Restoration
The Eighteenth Century
The Romantic Period
The Victorian Age
The Early Twentieth Century
The Postwar Era to the Present
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

More on English literature The Jacobean Era Cromwell and the Restoration from Infoplease:
English literature: The Jacobean Era, Cromwell, and the Restoration - The Jacobean Era, Cromwell, and the
Restoration Elizabethan literature generally reflects the ...
See more Encyclopedia articles on: English Literature, 20th cent. to the Present



English literature: The Jacobean Era, Cromwell, and the Restoration

See more Encyclopedia articles on: English Literature, 20th cent. to the Present

Popular Areas

Infoplease Tools
50 States
Country Profiles
Homework Center

Spelling Checker
Distance Calculator
Periodic Table

Place Finder
Conversion Tool
Perpetual Calendar

Family Education Network

About Infoplease ,

Funbrain Jr. - Preschool & Pre-K

Funbrain - K-8 Games for Kids
Poptropica - Virtual World for Kids
FamilyEducation - Parenting Advice
TeacherVision - Teacher Resources

Part of Family Education Network


Terms of Use



Link to Us

Site Map

Advertise with


Updated 10/2013

20002015 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease