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THE LAW ON PUBLIC

OFFICERS
AND ELECTION LAW
Prof. Jesusa Arellano-Aguda
I. The Law on Public Officers
A. Concepts and Principles:
Office and Public Officers
1. Definitions
a. Mechem, Floyed, 1890
b. Admin Code of 1987
c. RPC, Art. 203

Public

2. Purpose & Nature


a. Public Office, as a Public Trust
b. Public Office, not Property
c. Public Office, not a Contract
d. Security of Tenure in Public
Office as property for purposes of
due process
- National Land Titles and
Deeds
Registration
Administration vs. CSC:
e. Distinctions
3.
4.
5.
-

Elements
Creation of Public Office
Kinds/Classifications
Secretary of DOTC vs. Mabalot
(2002):
Preclaro
vs.
Sandiganbayan
(1995):
Maniego vs. People (1951):
Laurel vs. Desierto (2002):
Fernandez vs. Sto. Tomas (1995):
Segovia vs. Noel (1925):
Dario vs. Mison (1989):
Mathay vs. CA (1999):

B. Eligibility and Qualifications


1. Definitions
2. Nature of Right to hold Public Office
3. Power of Congress to Prescribe
Qualifications
4. Restrictions and Construction
5. General
and
Particular
Qualifications
- Labo, Jr. vs. Comelec (1992):
- Frivaldo vs. Comelec (1996):
- Bengzon vs. HRET (2001):
- Mercado vs. Manzano (1999):
- Romualdez-Marcos vs. Comelec
(1995):

6. Disqualifications
a. General Disqualifications
b. Specific Disqualifications
- CLU vs. Exec. Sec. (1991):
- Rodriguez
vs.
Comelec
(1996):
- Lecaroz vs. Sandiganbayan
(1999):
- Dela Cruz vs. Comm. On Audit
(2001):
- Flores vs. Drilon (1993):
- Abeto vs. Garceza (1995)
- Rabe vs. Flores (1997):
- Debulgado vs. CSC (1994):
- CSC vs. Dacoycoy (1999):
- Liban vs. Gordon (2009):
C. Acquisition of Right or Title to
Office
1. Appointment
- Luego vs. CSC (1986):
- Regis vs. Osmea (1991):
- Achacoso vs. Macaraig (1991):
- Prov. Of CamSur vs. CA (1995):
- Gloria vs. De Guzman (1995):
- PLM vs. IAC (1985):
- Marohombsar vs. Alonto (1991):
- Matibag v. Benipayo (2002):
- Padilla vs. CSC (2003):
- CSC vs. Dela Cruz (2004):
- CSC vs. Darangina (2007):
- (x) Corpuz vs. CA (1998):
- Lapinid vs. CSC (1991):
- Gen.
Manager,
PPA
vs.
Monserate (2002):
a.
-

Appointment by the President


Sarmiento vs. Mison (1987):
Calderon vs. Carale (1992):
De Castro vs. JBC (2010):
Aytona vs. Castillo (1962):

b. Appointment under Civil Service


Qualification Standards
- Juco vs. NLRC (1997):
- EIIB vs. CA (1998):
- Chua vs. CSC (1992):
- Cuevas vs. Bacal (2000):
- PAGCOR vs. Rilloraza (2001):
- Luego vs. CSC (1986):
- Aquino vs. CSC (1992):
- Delos Santos vs. Mallare
(1950):
- Tria vs. Sto. Tomas (1991):
- Laurel vs. CSC (1991):

(x) Grio vs. CSC (1991):


Tomali vs. CSC (1994):
Obiasca vs. Basallote (2010):

2. De Facto Officership
a. Definitions
b. Elements
- Dimaandal vs. COA (1998):
- Menzon vs. Padilla (1991):
- Malaluan vs. Comelec (1996):
- Flores vs. Drilon (1993):
- Torres vs. Ribo (1948):
- Tuanda vs. Sandiganbayan
(1995):
- Monroy vs. CA (1967):
- CLU vs. Exec. Sec. (1991):
- Gen. Mgr. PPA vs. Monserate
(2002):
3.
-

Remedy to Question Title


Tarrosa vs. Singson (1994):
Mendoza vs. Allas (1999):
Romualdez vs. CSC (1993):

Bitonio vs. COA (2004):


Dela
Victoria
vs.
Burgos
(1995):
Monroy vs. CA (1967):

d. Rights under the Civil Service


Law & the Rules under the
Admin Code of 1987
e. Personnel Actions
i.
Promotion
- Panis vs. CSC (1994):
- Divinagracia vs. Sto. Tomas
(1995):
- Santiago, Jr. vs. CSC
(1989):
- Abila vs. CSC (1991):
- Medenilla vs. CSC (1991):
- Lustero vs. CSC (1991):
ii.

Transfer
People vs. Reyes (1995):
Vinzons-Chato vs.
Natividad (1995):
Vinzons-Chato vs.
Zenorosa (2000):
Cuevas vs. Bacal (2000):

Detail
Republic vs. CA (1990):

4. By Election
D. Powers, Duties, and Responsibilities
of Public Officers
1. Powers & Duties
a. Source of Power and Authority
b. Construction of Power and Duties
c. Delegation of Power
- Torres vs. Ribo (1948):
d.
e.
-

Scope of Power and Authority


Specific Duties
Rabe vs. Flores (1997):
Morfe vs. Mutuc (1968):
PAGC vs. Pleyto (2011):

iii.
iv.
v.

f. Norms of Conduct
- Samson vs. Restrivera (2011):
2. Rights and Privileges
a. Right to Office
- Baybay Water District vs.
Comm. On Audit (2002):
- Rodrigo vs. Sandiganbayan
(1999):
- (x) Tejada vs. Domingo (1992):
- Santos vs. CA (2000):
b. Security of Tenure
c. Right to Compensation
- GSIS vs. CSC (1995):

vi.
f.
-

Reassignment
Fernandez vs. Sto. Tomas
(1995):
Teotico vs. Agda (1991):
Cario vs. Daoas (2002):
Pastor vs. City of Pasig
(2002):
Reinstatement
Cristobal vs. Melchor
(1977):
Sabello vs. DECS (1989):
Monsanto vs. Factoran
(1989):
Cabagnot vs. CSC (1993):
Gloria vs. De Guzman
(1995):
Reemployment

Right to Self-Organization
TUPAS vs. NHA (1989):
SSS vs. CA (1989):
Bangalisan vs. CA (1997):
Lopez vs. CA (1992):

People vs. Jalosjos (2000):

g. Other
Rights
(Leaves
of
Absences,
GSIS
Retirement,
Insurance)
- Borromeo vs. CSC (1991):
- Vital-Gozon vs. CA (1992):
- Mancenido vs. CA (2000):
- Santos vs. CA (2000):
- Cena vs. CSC (1992):
- Rabor vs. CSC (1995):
- GSIS vs. COA (2004):
- Neri vs. Senate (2008):
3. Liabilities
a. In General RA 6713
b. Administrative Liability
c. Civil Liability
d. Criminal Liability
- Palma vs. Graciano (1956):
- Cojuangco vs. CA (1999):
- Tecson
vs.
Sandiganbayan
(1999):
- Ocampo vs. OMB (2000):
- Rodrigo vs. Sandiganbayan
(1999):

Lacson vs Exec. Sec. (1999):


Garcia
vs.
Sandiganbayan
(2005):

4. Disabilities & Inhibitions


a. Under the Constitution
b. Under existing laws
E. Termination of Official Relations
1. Expiration of Term
2. Retirement
3. Death or Permanent Disability
4. Resignation
5. Acceptance of Incompatible Office
6. Abandonment of Office
7. Prescription of Right to Office
8. Removal
9. Impeachment
10.Abolition of Office
11.Termination through Reorganization
12.Conviction of Crime
13.Recall
14.Disciplinary Measures