TEACHERS

WITH UT
BORDERS

S

Teacher Education for Community
Development: Haiti
Photo Credit: Courtesy of 10x10 and Girl Rising

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A Letter to our Haitian Colleagues
Teacher Education for Community Development: Haiti (TECD) is a collaboration between the Organization
of American States: Department of Education, Culture and Human Development (OAS) and Teachers
Without Borders (TWB). It is distinguished by its special focus:
Its target population: Haitian educators who, at present, possess insufficient teacher professional
development and who reside primarily in rural areas;
It’s emphasis on local support: The engagement of mentors, peers, community resources, and
affiliations in order to ensure a virtuous cycle of continuous improvement;
It’s direct connection to teaching practice: A curriculum designed around thoughtful discussion and
active, practical, and immediate classroom application.
We all want children to be creative, community-minded, academically competent, optimistic, and
confident in their ability to shape their future. Unfortunately, very few teacher education programs make
the effort to apply these very same aspirations to the practical induction and ongoing professional
development of teachers. This program seeks to align the two and so synthesizes time-honored teaching
traditions, the power of culture, with proven contemporary research into what works in classrooms.
The content that follows can stand alone or work in a modular fashion. At the same time, no single
teacher guide such as ours can serve the multitude of challenges Haiti faces or substitute for a wellconceived vision for teacher professional development. It was designed to be shaped, crafted, and
interpreted – just as a ceramic artist shapes clay, a poet crafts words, or a dancer interprets music – by the
very community of teachers that interacts with it. It honors the teaching profession by focusing attention
on children.
Teachers Without Borders holds enormous respect for the pride, joy, and intelligence of the Haitian people.
We worked with volunteer Haitian teachers prior to the earthquake and created a program connecting
earthquake science with safety afterwards. Time after time, we witnessed your commitment to learning.

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We wish to nurture that commitment, and so:
At the same time, no one can become a teacher simply by attending a few courses or workshops or
reading through the content. It takes practice in classrooms with mentors, colleagues, and partners. It can
only take root in talented individuals and inspired institutions. It works best when connected to a larger
picture that connects
people, content, networks,
Teachers Without Borders shall provide The Organization of American States
and social change. Only
unrestricted access to our entire catalogue of content and teacher
then may we accelerate
professional development resources.
change and sustain our
momentum.
The Teacher Education for Community Development Initiative is yours as well. Paired and integrated with
our other courses and vetted content already available in French and Kréyòl, TECD is a powerful tool for
mentors and teachers.
We plan to augment TECD with online and face-to-face workshops run by Haitian mentors. We shall ensure
that this content is made accessible in through Canvas Instructure (a free online course platform), Scribd (a
free online library), and CK-12 (a free online textbook website). We also hope to develop a radio show: “The
Voice of Haitian Teachers,” to popularize quality teacher development and to dignify the profession.
I wish thank a Haitian teacher, Mr. Fenel Pierre, a Fulbright scholar and dedicated professional, who has
engaged the hearts and minds of teachers throughout Haiti in 16 workshops reaching over 300 teacher
leaders this past year alone.
Of course, none of this would be possible were it not for the vision and convening power of passionate
leaders at The Organization of American States.
Let us all keep growing and learning for today’s generation and many more to come.
My warmest regards,

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Dr. Fred Mednick
Founder, Teachers Without Borders
Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins University

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Table of Contents
Course 1: Planning for Student Success........................................................6
Course 2: Inclusive Classrooms...................................................................17
Course 3: Student Engagement for Success.................................................26
Course 4: Effective Assessment and Evaluation...........................................46
Course 5: Teacher Leaders as Community Agents of Change.....................57
Additional Teachers Without Borders Courses & Resources..........................70
Example Workshop Plan in French................................................................71
Grille D’Evaluation........................................................................................73

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Program Structure
Each “course” or learning module contains the following components:

Objectives based upon quality teaching practices

Central questions that frame the learning path that follows

Learning “paths” comprised of readings, discussion, activities, and demonstrations

Student-centered lessons to promote meaningful learning

Practice in the safety of a community of fellow teacher learners

A means by which teachers can measure impacts and make improvements

What follows is merely an outline for teachers and mentors, including a wealth of Teachers Without Borders
resources you can use to customize your curriculum to meet the context, culture, and communities you
serve in Haiti.

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Course 1: Planning for Student Success
INTRODUCTION
The best teachers amongst us
subjects and compassionate
know, not just know about,

these children says it
The best teachers
include three
engaging the
and the heart (2) a way
guiding learning, and
out: by ensuring that
students have learned
level, deeper learning,
our courses are about.

are passionate about their
toward children. They truly
their students. They track each
student’s progress. Where
possible, they personalize the
curriculum. They teach with joy.
The expression on the faces of
all:
amongst us create lessons that
components: (1) a way in: by
imagination, the head, the hands,
through: by fostering inquiry,
assessing skills, and (3) B a way
what s/he has taught and what
prepares students for the next
and beyond. That is what all of

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Objective
This module will guide the trainer to engage trainee teachers in different activities to grow their awareness
about the roles and responsibilities of a teacher in creating responsible citizens committed to society, and
promoting social inclusion. Throughout the whole session, getting engaged in group work, pair work,
presentation and self-reflection, trainee teachers will be able to demonstrate and practice how to create a
participatory, democratic and inclusive environment in the classroom and will realize the importance of a
student-centered approach of teaching for meaningful learning which they will be able to apply in their own
teaching. Participants will:

Plan student-centered lessons to promote meaningful learning.

Incorporate students’ competencies and skills in lesson planning.

Foster a participatory, democratic, and inclusive environment in the classroom through
exemplary preparation and planning

The central question is this: How can we plan and organize our lessons in order to create effective
and efficient teaching and learning?
WARM-UP ACTIVITY: WHO AM I? WHO ARE YOU? WHO ARE WE? (20 MINUTES)
Introduce yourself first by telling your name, how long you are in teaching profession and why you have
chosen this profession. Then tell the trainee teachers to introduce themselves and to talk about why they
have chosen this career. Tell them to think aloud about a precious moment for them during their teaching
practice and why it was so precious and to share it with the class.
[Instructions for the Facilitator]: Tell the trainees to form groups with 3 to 4 members in each.
Discuss the following ground rules to form and work in a group:

Form groups with mixed gender.

Don’t form groups with your friends.

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Everybody will have active participation during group discussion.

Everyone needs to have a unique and active role during group work, e.g. one person will write
the chart, another will paste it on the wall/board and another person will present it to the class etc.

During different group works everyone should take turn to present.

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ACTIVITY: WHAT IS AN EFFECTIVE TEACHER? (60 MINUTES)
Goal: Discussion of what makes teachers effective.
The InterAgency Network for Education in Emergencies offers great teaching materials, whether one is
working in an emergency setting or not. Here is an exercise from one of their manuals:
[Notes for the Facilitator]: Draw these pictures on the board. Ask the participants which teacher they are:

Give the students time to think. Don’t interrupt and lecture. If this feels too abstract, give them some
suggestions: Ask the group how they have learned to teach. Do they assume that the child knows nothing
or do they build on what the child already has? Allow the discussion from this question. Many teachers will
say that the child knows nothing and that is their job to teach the child. Ask if this is really so. What do they
do if they discover that the child already knows the content of the lesson?
Only when you can see that the students are really struggling, then get the discussion going with a
statement like this:
“The ‘water pot’ teacher is one who assumes that they have all the knowledge and they are there to ‘fill the
student’. Because most of us are trained to pass on ‘content’, it very often feels that this is both true and
right. However, we are only one part of the child’s learning. Children learn from their families, their friends
and their society.
To use this ‘water pot’ method can be very tiring. As a teacher you must be very sure that you know
everything and never make a mistake. You must be ready with the learning that the child needs (because

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you cannot keep pouring water if the pot is full can you?) This type of teacher is not suited for teaching
peace education as this philosophy can lead to arrogance and the abuse of power. This type of teaching
means that the learner will always be reliant on a teacher to tell them what to think and what to know. They
can never become independent thinkers.
The ‘helping the flowers’ teacher understands that there are other teachers in the life of the child. These
teachers also understand that their role is to help the child learn and eventually to learn independently. This
is an easier and more rewarding way to teach as the learning belongs to the child. You are not expected to
know everything – you are expected to help children learn things that they need to know.”
We believe education cannot be a spectator sport and so we focus on “helping the flowers.” Excellent
lessons do just that. They find a way in, work their way through, and ensure that there is a way out to the
next level. Let’s go deeper ourselves.
Characteristics of Excellent Teaching
If you look back to your school life and reflect about your teachers, you will find good teachers had many
special qualities. Here is what research consistently says about the aspects of great teaching. Great
teachers…

Focus on the students, not you. You are not an expert in charge of giving students the “pill” of
knowledge. It does not work that way. In planning your lessons, think of what the students will do,
how they will discover, engage with, and use information, not how you will perform.

Focus on who your students are. As the saying goes, “It's who you know.” The word
“education” comes from the Latin word educare meaning “to grow and to rear.” That is what you
are doing. The teachers and parents who know their children best are the most effective. There is
a big difference between just knowing about a child, and truly knowing him or her. You have to
know your students in order to understand how they learn.

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Make it safe. We cannot think when we are frightened. Your classroom and environment must be
free of intimidation. As we have stressed in our course policies, striking a child destroys the spirit.
Many times, that strike is an emotional one. We can strike a child when we make an intimidating
remark that destroys a child's willingness to learn. Never embarrass a child in public.

Show – Don't Tell. There are many dimensions to this. Telling is “top down.” Showing is “bottom
up.” That's the theme here. In terms of teaching, show students where they are going, what they
need to accomplish. Then show them how to get there. Provide examples. Model it. Use it. Make it
clear and real what it is they need to know in order to get there. Are you teaching physics? Then
show them the principle at work; show them the dynamics; get them to figure out “how and why.”
Critical thinking is not about showing and repeating. That’s memorization. It’s about showing a
way.

Break it down, but don't break it apart. Great teachers make the unfamiliar familiar again.
Sometimes a concept is overwhelming. If that is the case, start with the foundation and work your
way up. People need to understand the story – where it starts, where it is headed, and what it will
look like in the end. It is important, then, to make things clear enough in small chunks, so that
people can put together the pieces of the puzzle. That’s the key. They are the ones that will
assemble that puzzle.

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Tell the truth. Many teachers believe that if they don't have all the answers, they're worthless.
No one has all the answers. If you answer a student with “I don't know,” perhaps you can also
extend it to “Let's find out.” Guide your students to become collaborators in their own learning and
co-explorers, with you, in the classroom. Invite them to be subject matter experts. Students need
authenticity, not awe. That’s critical thinking.

Make it human. In designing curriculum, find out what makes people relate to it. Mathematics
was invented for a reason, so describe a problem it can solve – a real one. That builds critical
thinking.

Questions are as good as answers. Good questions inspire critical thinking. A Nobel Peace
Prize winner once reported that, most days after school, he would return home to sit near his
mother at the kitchen table. She recalls that she never asked him, “How did you do?” or “What
grade did you get?” Instead, his mother asked him, “Did you ask any good questions today?”
Questions open up possibilities. They require answers, but good answers raise even more
questions. Instead of being a vicious cycle, it’s a virtuous cycle. Critical thinking through good
questions builds more critical thinking and better questions.

Give students an opportunity to teach. A critical thinker does not just remain in her/his head.
We often write to learn, not just learn to write. You are learning to teach. At the same time, both
you and your students should teach in order to learn. Allow opportunities for students to become
experts in an area and to share their expertise. Provide chances for older or more competent
students to tutor younger or less competent ones.

Think about how athletic coaches and artists work. The coach demonstrates what she
knows, explains the rules, gives the student an opportunity to practice, provides feedback, and
puts the student into real-life situations. So should a teacher. The artist assembles materials,
conceives of the piece, works at it in stages, and collects the work for critique. So should the
teacher. The athletic coach and the artist are non-traditional teachers, and they have a great deal

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to offer all of us. Their techniques are the key to many students who would otherwise not grasp
the material from traditional lectures or handouts.
ACTIVITY: CIRCLE AND DOT (60 MINUTES)

Materials: chairs and enough room for teachers to gather in small groups; poster-board and markers.
Gather in groups of 4-5 for the following activity in which teachers identify themselves using a simple circle
and a dot: Take a look at the image below:

Ask students to draw their own circle that represents their classroom or future classroom
(examples are the light blue circles, above)

Place a dot anywhere that represents you: the teacher (dark blue dots, above)

Above are examples of are four possibilities: a dot on the bottom edge, in the center, near the top,
and outside the circle:

Try to draw just one circle and make one dot.

Reflect: Now ask yourself, why did I put my dot there?
Share and Discuss: Please share your circle with others (in an open and honest way). You might also
want to discuss the following questions:

For you, what is the goal of teaching?

What do you believe in when you teach?

What kind of person do you want to be when you teach?

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Why did you become (or wish to become) a teacher?

Present: Select one person to sum up the discussion with the entire group of teachers, using the poster
board.
PLANNING LESSONS: A WAY IN, A WAY THROUGH, AND A WAY OUT

A Way In
Teachers are able to determine what students know in order to build curiosity and readiness to embrace
new concepts. The key is to generate new ideas to problems, make connections, and organize their thinking
into a logical pattern.

How do you find out what students know?

What can you do to get students interested in the subject?

What activities can enable students to explore the issue?

How can students determine the difference between what they know and what they can know?

What do I want students to learn?

What do I want them to understand and be able to do at the end of class?

What are the most important concepts, ideas, or skills I want students to be able to grasp and
apply?

If I ran out of time, what should not be omitted? Why?

Which ones could I skip if pressed for time?

A Way Through
Teachers help students to focus their attention in order to study the subject more deeply. Teachers introduce
concepts, processes, and skills while learners explain what they know so that they may test their
assumptions.

How can the students build upon what they already know?

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How do students monitor their learning?

How do students prove their competence at new levels?

How do students solve problems with new knowledge?

Keep an eye on your time. Include timing in the plan itself. The smooth running of your lesson
depends to some extent on proper timing.

Think about transitions from one activity to another. Make certain that students are not confused

Include variety if things are not working the way you have planned.

Check for understanding all along the way. When we talk about assessment, we will show you
how.

A Way Out

Think about a relay race where one racer hands the baton to the other. The one handing off the
baton must look ahead to see where he/she is going, look behind to see when and how to hand off
the baton, and extend his/her hand just in time. The one receiving the baton needs only to look
ahead. S/he has to run to catch up. If the runners are too fast or too slow, the whole team suffers.
That is why we have to talk with each other.

We not only have to plan that way, we have to make certain that our students can run the race,
too, so that they can move ahead or catch up if they are falling behind. The key here is this:
when you are designing your way in, think about:

What do I want them to take away from this particular lesson?

How might this lesson prepare students to take the next step?
ACTIVITY: BUILDING A LESSON PLAN (60-90 MINUTES)

In groups of 2, students can pick one lesson they are already teaching or create a new lesson using the
following basic outline: a way in, a way through, and a way out.

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Teachers will each present a portion their lesson plan to the entire group as if they were teaching
the class

Teachers will then provide feedback on the lesson

Teachers presenting the lesson will have a chance to comment on the feedback

Please include the following in your lesson plan:

NAME of the LESSON

TIME for the LESSON

THREE OBJECTIVES of the LESSON (What you want them to learn)

SKILLS to REINFORCE or INTRODUCE

A WAY IN: Introduction and Activities

ASSESSMENT of STUDENT LEARNING

CONNECTION to the NEXT LESSON

For Your Planning
For a way in, you might start with a question or activity to determine your students’ knowledge of the
subject or their attitudes toward it. You could take a simple poll: “How many of you have heard of X? Raise
your hand if you have.” You can also gather background information from your students prior to class by
sending students an electronic survey or asking them to write comments on index cards. This additional
information can help shape your introduction, learning activities, etc. When you have an idea of the
students’ familiarity with the topic, you will also have a sense of what to focus on.

Develop a creative introduction to the topic to stimulate interest and encourage thinking. You can
use a variety of approaches to engage students (e.g., personal anecdote, historical event,

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thought-provoking dilemma, real-world example, short video clip, practical application, probing
question, etc.).

Consider the following questions when planning your way in:

How will I check whether students know anything about the topic or have any preconceived
notions about it?

What are some commonly held ideas (or possibly misconceptions) about this topic that students
might be familiar with or might espouse?

What will I do to introduce the topic?

For a way through, prepare several different ways of explaining the material (real-life examples, analogies,
visuals, etc.) to catch the attention of more students and appeal to different learning styles. As you plan
your examples and activities, estimate how much time you will spend on each. Build in time for extended
explanation or discussion, but also be prepared to move on quickly to different applications or problems,
and to identify strategies that check for understanding. These questions would help you design the learning
activities you will use:

What will I do to explain the topic?

What will I do to illustrate the topic in a different way?

How can I engage students in the topic?

What are some relevant real-life examples, analogies, or situations that can help students
understand the topic?

What will students need to do to help them understand the topic better?

For a way out, you will need to think about what students have learned and how they can apply it to the
next stage of their learning. The important thing is to keep asking yourself, how do you know that students
are learning? Think about specific questions you can ask students in order to check for understanding, write
them down, and then paraphrase them so that you are prepared to ask the questions in different ways. Try
to predict the answers your questions will generate. Decide on whether you want students to respond orally

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or in writing. To help with this: ask yourself these questions:

What questions will I ask students to check for understanding?

What will I have students do to demonstrate that they are following?

Going back to my list of learning objectives, what activity can I have students do to check whether
each of those has been accomplished?

Effective Use of Time
An important strategy that will also help you with time management is to anticipate students’ questions.
When planning your lesson, decide what kinds of questions will be productive for discussion and what
questions might sidetrack the class. Think about and decide on the balance between covering content
(accomplishing your learning objectives) and ensuring that students understand.
Go over the material covered in class by summarizing the main points of the lesson. You can do this in
creative ways by creating games. By paying attention as you go, you will not be surprised later. Conclude
the lesson not only by summarizing the main points, but also by previewing the next lesson. How does the
topic relate to the one that’s coming? This preview will spur students’ interest and help them connect the
different ideas within a larger context.
It is important to be realistic about time. We may not be able to cover all of the many points we had
planned to cover. A list of ten learning objectives is not realistic, so narrow down your list to the two or three
key concepts, ideas, or skills you want students to learn. Instructors also agree that they often need to
adjust their lesson plan during class depending on what the students need. Great teachers make decisions
on the spot and adjust their lesson plans as needed.
Having additional examples or alternative activities will also allow you to be flexible. A realistic timeline will
reflect your flexibility and readiness to adapt to the specific classroom environment. Here are some
strategies for creating a realistic timeline:

Estimate how much time each of the activities will take, then plan some extra time for each

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When you prepare your lesson plan, next to each activity indicate how much time you expect it
will take

Plan a few minutes at the end of class to answer any remaining questions and to sum up key
points

Plan an extra activity or discussion question in case you have time left

Be flexible – be ready to adjust your lesson plan to students’ needs and focus on what seems to be
more productive rather than sticking to your original plan
BRIEF ACTIVITY: DISCUSSION ON BUILDING AND PRESENTING A LESSON PLAN
(20 MINUTES)

After lessons have been presented, ask students to reflect as a group on the challenges and new insights
they have gained. Ask them to recall the circles and dot exercise. Did it help?
CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENTS
We will explore this issue in greater detail throughout our time together. We will talk about learning styles,
multiple intelligences, and personalized instruction. For now, we are just introducing the subject of planning
for inclusiveness.
The classroom should be a beehive of activity. Students should be engaged in problem solving activities.
John Dewey once said, 'the only time we think is when we're given a problem'.

Arrange the Physical Space
What a classroom looks like has been shown to be very important and influences learning. You may be
teaching in a tiny space, full of desks and chairs or none at all. You may not have heat for the cold days or a
fan for the hot ones. The space matters a great deal. The classroom space matters a great deal, and so we
should plan accordingly. Most important: the feeling of including everyone should be matched by a room
that feels inviting and is set up for learning.

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Below are several suggestions teachers and schools can use to arrange the physical space of a classroom in
order to facilitate inclusion:

Place Student Desks in Groups
Put desks in small groups (2-4 desks per group) so that all students have opportunities for cooperative
learning, collaboration and discussion. As well, place the teacher’s desk on the periphery of the classroom.
Teachers in an inclusive class rarely sit down during their day and don’t need their desk getting in the way!

Provide Centers and Meeting Spots
Centers appeal to various learning styles but they must also be accessible and open. As well, the materials
and manipulative at each center must be appropriate and stored where all students can reach them. Placing
books on a high shelf is limiting for a smaller student or one who is in a wheelchair. Create one area of the
classroom where the students can come together to have discussions, develop social skills, and participate
in large group activities. This space must have enough room for all the students to gather.

Classroom Decor
An inclusive classroom needs to be decorated in a way that does not create distraction. Too many bright
colors, posters, clutter and furniture can easily distract the most focused child!

Safety/Emergency Preparedness
Ensure adequate space for all students to move safely around the room. Clear bulky items, stabilize
furniture, tape down wires and cables, and place signs/symbols around the room that point out exit/entry
ways in case of emergency.
ACTIVITY: THE PHYSICAL CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT (60 MINUTES)
How can you make your physical space inviting for students? Is there enough light, air, and color? Do
students feel noticed? Is it boring? Frightening? Is there enough room for physically disabled students?
Can blind students “see,” by being able to participate? Can hard-of-hearing students “hear” by being able
to participate?

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ACTIVITY: SELF-REFLECTION (40 MINUTES)

What are your impressions about what you have learned so far? Feel free to write, draw, dance,
act out, or sing what you have learned or the feeling you have gained

How did you feel about this teaching approach?

Do you have more tools on how to create a physical space in your classroom so that your students
can learn?
Please share your answer with your colleagues

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Course 2: Inclusive Classrooms
INTRODUCTION
Inclusive classrooms build peace,
confidence, and hope. Inclusive
classrooms are what students
remember long after they have left
school. In an inclusive classroom,
a child is noticed, encouraged,
academically challenged, and
needed. If you as teachers take
away only two concepts from this
course (inclusive classrooms and
critical thinking), it will be a
success beyond all measure. We
also strongly encourage teacher
mentors to consult the many
tested ideas of inclusive
classrooms in UNESCO’s free
download: “Changing Teaching
Practices: Using Curriculum
Differentiation to Respond to
Students’ Diversity.”

Objectives

Show how to promote greater positive relationships and interactions in the classroom in order to
build safe environments for learning

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Know how to respond to individual student needs and establish a healthy rapport with students
WARM-UP ACTIVITY: YOUR STRENGTHS FOR THE WORLD TO SEE (20 MINUTES)

Teachers will form pairs with the person beside him/her and interview each other. The goal is to find the
good (even the great!) in everyone and share that goodness (and greatness) with the rest of the class.
The point of this warm-up activity is simple, but very, very important: we are asking you to go deeper than
simply being nice and praising others. Students who sense empty praise often feel cheated. Find out more
than just if someone is good. Find out how, where, and when.
It goes even deeper than that. When people look back at their education and express sorrow or anger, it is
often because they were publicly humiliated. That humiliation cuts deep. When our dignity is gone it is
impossible to learn. If a child does something wrong, s/he must learn why and learn how to ensure that
their behavior improves. That conversation between teacher and student should be done privately. Specific
praise, however, should be done publicly.
We want you to practice it in pairs. Here are some tips for getting that conversation going:

Describe a time in which you made a positive difference in another person’s life

What skill do you have that others may not know about?

What is your strongest quality as a person? A friend? A partner?

When you are interview the other person, make your own observations about what the person said and how
s/he said it. Listen very, very carefully.
When you are finished interviewing the person:

Reflect on what you heard and let the other person know s/he was heard. An example would be:
“You know how to cook Calalou. Can you show me how?”

Ask the person interviewed how they felt when they heard about their good qualities from another
person. Did they feel happy or sad?

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Likewise when you appreciate any of the good work of your students or provide positive feedback,
they feel encouraged and become positively motivated and inspired.
WHAT IS AN INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENT?

An inclusive learning environment is one in which all those participating feel able to actively engage, feel
safe and feel welcome. An inclusive learning environment also acknowledges and celebrates difference as a
part of everyday life. We discussed this in Course 1. We are going to go deeper in Course 2.

Safe Environments
All students come to situations where they may struggle. Children in inclusive classrooms realize that this is
a natural part of learning. Asking for help is expected and encouraged. Teachers model how they handle
their own challenges in a professional manner. When they do, children see models of adults who have the
skills to embrace difficulties solve problems. They are taught to pay attention to their own needs for support
and to their own learning styles (which we will study later). In safe classrooms, with and without disabilities
come to recognize their differences, yet also learn how to respect and honor all their peers.

Communication
In inclusive classrooms, individuals have the opportunity to learn how to communicate with individuals who
may communicate in non-traditional ways. In addition, students have access to multiple ways of expressing
themselves and understanding others.

Sign Language
Some children with disabilities need other forms of communication than the more common oral or
writing/reading literate exchanges within classrooms.
Many individuals, who have significant communication difficulties, use alternative means of communication,
such as switches, sign language, facilitated communication, picture exchange, communication picture cards,
and Braille.
Again, teachers themselves can grow in their knowledge and expertise with using these different forms of
communication. For those teachers who are not familiar with these forms of communication, they can

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benefit from observing such interactions between those who do and they could learn to use them.

Collaboration
Collaboration plays a key role in inclusive classrooms. Students are taught and encouraged to work
together and support one another. In addition to students working together, teachers must also find ways
to work with other professionals and educators, to meet the needs of all children. When students with more
complex needs are included in a general education classroom, teachers can communicate with different
health care organizations who are providing supports for special need kids with Assistive Technology,
experts or therapists that have been determined essential to a child’s learning.
Inclusive classrooms create opportunities where all students can at one point or another, be given the role
of a leader or supporter. Conversely, all students can and should be supported based upon specific needs to
a particular situation. This reciprocal process of collaboration fosters an awareness and understanding of
the diversity that exists within the classroom as well as in the broader community. In a community of
learners, students are encouraged to work together and discover ways to support one another.

Building an Inclusive Culture
An inclusive culture starts from the premise that everyone in the school – students, educators,
administrators, support staff and parents – should feel that they belong, realize their potential, and
contribute to the life of the school. In an inclusive culture, diverse experiences, perspectives and gifts are
seen to enrich the school community.
Achieving an inclusive school culture goes beyond making a decision to run a workshop on bullying, put in a
ramp, or offer diversity training to staff. It is more than just developing a value statement that talks about
inclusion. An inclusive school culture requires a shift in the attitudes of all the stakeholders as well as the
development of policies and practices that reinforce inclusive behaviour. Real inclusion is about actions, not
just words.
An inclusive culture is based on the philosophy that the whole school shares in the responsibility for

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inclusion. A real culture of inclusion cannot be brought about unless everyone embraces it.
Creating an inclusive school culture is critical because our schools act as mirrors of the larger community.
There is a great opportunity to teach students, early in their development as citizens, about the importance
and value of inclusion. They will learn behaviour that will ultimately help nurture truly inclusive
communities. It also provides an opportunity for parents to learn through their children about the
importance of belonging, acceptance and community.
In an inclusive school culture diversity is embraced, learning supports are available and properly utilized,
and flexible learning experiences focus on the individual student. There is an innovative and creative
environment and a collaborative approach is taken. At the heart of inclusion is committed leadership and a
shared direction.

Classroom Management
Classroom management builds inclusion, but we must be clear that classroom management and
discipline are not the same thing. In fact, they can even be opposites. Classroom management makes
learning possible. It is organized, feels safe, lessons are clear and interesting, the teacher is engaged,
and learning is taking place. Think of classroom management as learning management – managing how
and when and where students learn.
Discipline is necessary, but more for more individuals than the class. In other words, students should
discipline themselves and police behavior in the classroom. When that happens, teachers do not have
to yell or punish. A well-managed class is disciplined from the inside. A well-managed class engages
students because they know it is a place for work. Imposing discipline by the teacher may be effective
in the short term, but it often fails.
Here are FOUR factors that often contribute to out-of-control classrooms:



The
The
The
The

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teacher
teacher
teacher
teacher

does not know the subject
does not care
is not organized
has not provided a learning environment and structure

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Here are some tips about classroom management that will make your life a lot easier and the classroom
much more enjoyable:

Create classroom rules with the students and phrase them in positive terms. Instead of “don’t talk
when others are talking,” try: “Be respectful of others.” If students have helped create the rules,
then they will help to enforce them

Keep your rules short. Too many rules is confusing

Team them how to enforce the rules. When unacceptable behavior happens, students need to be
reminded of the rules they set

Use a normal voice; never shout

When you want students’ attention, practice going to one place and doing one thing, like raising a
finger or standing on one foot. Speak only when students are ready. One effective practice is to
introduce a rhythm like clapping your hands to a special beat, then having students repeat it to
you, indicating that they see and hear you and it is time to work. You can also do a call and
response: you say part of a phrase, and the other students say another part. Other teachers say,
“Give me 5!” and raise their hands. The students then raise their hands when they are ready.

Be Sensitive to Individual Differences

One essential characteristic of effective teaching is that it has to be responsive to the individual
needs of students. There are simply too many differences among students for a teacher to be able
to teach all of them the same thing at the same time.

Teachers who alter instructions to accommodate individual differences send the message that they
want to reach all of their students all of the time.

Create a Safe Climate for Participation

Teachers can foster a safe climate by insuring that they never ridicule a student's questions or
remarks. It takes only one or two instances of "That's a stupid comment. Haven't you prepared for

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class?" to discourage participation.

You can disagree with a student without attacking him or her personally (e.g., "As I see it ....").
Remember always to dignify learners' responses by restating their valid points or crediting the
thoughtfulness of their contributions.

When Discipline is Necessary

Sometimes even good management does not work. You must confront students who attack other
students. (e.g., "John, state what you think rather than attacking another student.").

When you confront students who treat their classmates disrespectfully, you model for your
students’ proper classroom etiquette. Your students will take you more seriously if they know you
enforce the rules you include in your syllabus.

One way to encourage participation is to reinforce appropriate student behavior both verbally and
non-verbally.

Make frequent eye contact with your students. Move around the room often and offer words of
praise such as "good" or "interesting" to students who are participating. Refer to student
contributions in your remarks with phrases such as "As Bronte said..." or "Would anyone like to
respond to Joe's point?" Write student responses on the board, a flipchart, or a transparency, and
include them in your handouts as often as possible to acknowledge contributions. Use student
points in your remarks (e.g., "As Emmanuel pointed out...").
ACTIVITY: YOUR TURN (60 MINUTES)

Materials: Magazine, poster-board, scissors, glue, markers

Bring in magazines and ask students to work silently, in groups, to cut out pictures that create a
story of a well-managed classroom. Be creative! Give the students 15 minutes to complete this
exercise

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[For the Facilitator]: Remember to make certain that the teachers are working quietly at first. This
is a chance to demonstrate classroom management!

After the 15 minutes have passed, ask the groups to assemble one set of classroom rules from the
pictures. They have to decide the grade level they are working on, first. Some young children will
not understand abstract rules, so by deciding on the grade level first, the groups will be able to set
the rules at an appropriate level.

Ask the groups to report on their classroom rules

Begin a discussion about what they learned from each other, what challenges they face, and what
they can implement in the classrooms tomorrow.

If time, discuss the following: “What leadership role you can play to create an inclusive school
community involving your students and why it is important?”
ACTIVITY: FIRST DAY (60 MINUTES)

If you want a classroom where students come to work diligently, you need to begin teaching the content the
first day of class. Let the first day set the tone for the rest of the semester. Let the first class set the tone for
the weeks to follow by enlisting student interest, inviting their participation, and beginning to build a sense
of community.
In groups, read the following tips on building a positive learning environment and come up with creative
ideas to make them come alive in your classroom. For example:

A game to learn your students’ names from the first day…this is the key to establishing
relationships and puts you well on your way to a great culture!

A way to begin every class so that students feel welcome and can get to work right away. This
could be your announcements, student announcements, a riddle, a big question, or a current

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event. Be creative!

Find a way to hear everyone’s "voice in the room.” You can do this asking: "Share what you recall
from our last class meeting;" "Share with a partner what you found most difficult to understand in
today’s reading;" "In groups of three, share how you might use what we learned outside the
classroom.”

Encourage your students to interact with you and each other, rather than just you
o

Ask for student input frequently. Here are a few ideas: Ask students to close their eyes and
raise the number of fingers that represent the number of things they got out of today's
lesson. You’ll get immediate feedback on your effectiveness, and they’ll know that you care
about what they think!

o

Ask your students to quickly pull out a half sheet of paper and share with you…"What went
well today...Is there anything you think I should change?"

o

Provide closure with every lesson. For example:


"Next time we will…"
"Please read…."
"Share one new thing you learned today…"
BULLYING

Our goal is to implement and modify varied strategies to ensure respect among students. Bullying is a form
of aggressive behaviour that is intentional, hurtful, (physical and psychological), and/or threatening. It is
mistreatment that is:

The mistreatment must be hurtful (physical or psychological).

The mistreatment is threatening. The individual fears harms. Fear their safety.

The mistreatment must occur more than once. However, some disagree with this. They say one
very hurtful event is enough to label it bullying.

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What Does Bullying Look Like?

Hitting, slapping, elbowing, shouldering (slamming someone with your shoulder)

Shoving, kicking, restraining, or pinching in a hurtful or embarrassing way

Taking, stealing, damaging or defacing belongings or other property

Name-calling, insulting remarks, and put-downs

Repeated teasing, gossiping, spreading nasty and malicious rumors

Harassment, threats, intimidation, and hurtful graffiti

Destroying and manipulating relationships (turning your best friend against you)

Destroying status within a peer group or excluding, rejecting, or isolating others

Destroying reputations with lies and whispering behind someone’s back

Humiliating older students in a mixed-grade classroom

Negative body language (facial expressions, turning your back to someone)

Threatening gestures, taunting, pestering, insulting remarks and gestures

Glares and dirty looks, nasty jokes, notes passed around, anonymous notes

Hate petitions (promising to hate someone)

Cyber bullying: negative text messages on cell phones, e-mail, or voice-mail messages, Web
pages, and so on direct and indirect forms of bullying often occur together. All of these behaviors
can be interrelated.

What Happens to Children who are Victims of Bullying?

Bullied children can experience negative physical, school, and mental health issues such as:

Depression and anxiety

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Increased feelings of sadness and loneliness

Changes in sleep and eating patterns

Loss of interest in activities they used to enjoy. These issues may persist into adulthood.

Health complaints

Decreased academic achievement and school participation. They are more likely to miss, skip, or
drop out of school.
ACTIVITY: BULLYING TESTIMONY AND RESPONSE (60 MINUTES)

[Note to Facilitators]: This may be an emotional meeting, but it is important to express oneself. You may
choose to do this in smaller groups or with the entire gathering of teachers.

Part One: Testimony
Ask teachers to describe bullying in their school or to themselves as children – what happened, what
teachers and school directors did, and how they reacted.

Part Two: Response
A young girl named Molita writes: “This is my bullying story. I am slow in school and overweight, but I've
been trying to do my best. Since 4th grade, my classmates make fun of me for my strange behavior and my
weight. Kids talk behind my back, and make fun of me on almost a daily basis. Almost every night, I cry
myself to sleep because of this, and it's just incredibly painful. I want to talk to people, but it's hard to
muster up the courage. My teachers don’t seem to care. My parents want me to be stronger. I don’t know
what to do.”

Thinking about Molita, yourself, or any of the students in your school, discuss the following
question: “What role you can play to motivate and engage your students to make a safe and bully
free school community?”

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Encourage students to form a club to grow awareness against bullying.

Students can involve teachers and parents in that club.

Students can stand beside the student who is being bullied etc.

Now using chart paper to make a diagram of your points to make it visual.

Each group will present their chart to the class.

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Course 3: Student Engagement for Success
INTRODUCTION
We will be working on key concepts in
teaching that make learning enjoyable:
1. Using Multiple
Intelligences in order to
reach students with different
teaching styles
2. Engaging students in
Cooperative Learning
strategies
3. Project-Based Learning in
classrooms and in the
community
WARM-UP ACTIVITY: (15
MINUTES)
Form groups with 3-4 members and to
think about their childhood when they went to school to recall what types of teaching methods their
teachers used in the class and which ones they liked most and which ones they did not and why. They will
also discuss which teaching method helped them to learn more and to remember the content for a longer
period of time. After group discussion they will share their opinion with the class.

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MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

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Smart people
what makes
Are they simply
information in a
more information?
remember what
early age?

impress us, but we do not always know
them so smart. Were they born that way?
quicker? Do their brains process
more efficient way? Can their brains hold
Are they just skilled at memorizing or
they read? Was it that they were taught at an

Scientists are
especially because of new

Most people view intelligence as a quantity, but over the past 40 years, this view has changed to
view intelligence as more of a quality than quantity. Thanks to Howard Gardner at Harvard
University, we now view our intelligence as a fixed thing. An enormous body of evidence supports
the fact that our brains stretch and grow, that they respond to a good education and stimulation,
and that multiple ways of teaching to different intelligences works.

So, we hope that you no longer ask if your students are smart, but how they are smart!

This difference in thinking provides huge opportunities for teachers, who have long seen that there
are many types of intelligence, not just one. We are going to learn about them so that we can

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exploring this issue with great intensity these days,
abilities to scan brains using medical imaging devices.

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apply them in our classrooms, learn more about how our students learn, and design lessons
accordingly.

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Eight Intelligences and Growing

The picture that begins this section (above) shows eight intelligences. The first two are ones that
have been typically valued in schools; the next three are usually associated with the arts; and the
final two are what we call "personal intelligences." Here is a description of each:

Linguistic intelligence is about being word smart: sensitivity to spoken and written language,
the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This
intelligence relies upon language to express oneself. Writers, poets, lawyers, and speakers are
among those that have high linguistic intelligence.

Logical-mathematical intelligence is about being number smart: this kind of intelligence
consists of being able to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and
investigate issues scientifically. This intelligence allows one to detect patterns and think logically.
This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.

Musical intelligence is about being sound and music smart. It involves skill in the performance,
composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It recognizes musical pitch, tones, and
rhythms. Musical intelligence is close to linguistic intelligence.

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is about being movement smart. It entails the potential of
using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental
abilities to coordinate bodily movements.

Spatial intelligence is about being picture smart. It involves the potential to recognize and use
the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. It is the ability to recognize shapes and
patterns, know one’s way around an unfamiliar town, visualize objects from different angles, and
notice fine details.

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Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to understand oneself and to appreciate one's feelings,
fears and motivations. It allows one to regulate oneself and to solve problems by paying attention
to what we think and feel.

Interpersonal intelligence is about being people smart. It is also the capacity to understand the
intentions, motivations, and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with
others.

Natural intelligence is about being nature smart, not necessarily “naturally” smart. It is about a
special awareness and observation skills helpful to understanding and organizing patterns in
nature. It allows people not only to classify problems, but also to see them as part of a bigger
picture.

Everyone one of us has all these intelligences. They rarely operate independently. If we teach
well, we can grow them all or help a struggling learner gain greater understanding by approaching
learning through his or her strength.

If you are able to use the Internet, here is a link to a tool to help you learn more about multiple
intelligences by examining your own: http://lessonsforhope.org/survey/index.asp. Click on the link.
Read the screen that comes up, especially the directions under the title "Create Your Own
Intelligence Profile" and click on the button at the bottom of that screen that says "Begin."

In this interactive activity, you will see that each person has all of the intelligences in varying
degrees. This is intended to be a fun exercise - answer the questions to the best of your ability. At
the end of the activity, a unique "Multiple Intelligence Snowflake" will be generated. The results
are not absolute indicators of intelligence - they are simply meant to give you the opportunity to
learn more about your unique combination of intelligences.

Examples

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Logical/mathematical: Enjoys working with numbers, doing experiments

Teaching tip: Use "science thinking": Ask students to identify scientific principles in areas other
than science.

Fun activity (grades 4-6): Find three random things (for example, a blade of grass, the word
"long," and the process "jumping") and ask your students to invent an object that uses all three.

Fun activity (grades 6-8): Ask students to reinvent or improve upon the designs of everyday
objects.

Visual/spatial: Enjoys drawing and painting

Teaching tip: Use colors as visual cues: Use a variety of colors of chalk and markers when writing
in front of the class. Students can use different colored markers to "color code" materials they are
studying.

Fun activity (grades 4-6): Draw an unusual shape and have each student include it in a drawing
of his or her own.

Fun activity (grades 6-8): Play drawing games such as Pictionary or Win, Lose or Draw. Have
students make rapid drawings to capture key points being discussed in a class lesson.

Naturalist: Enjoys studying things in nature, such as rocks, dinosaurs, insects, plants

Teaching tip: Noticing patterns: Encourage students to form their own systems for sorting and
categorizing information.

Fun activity (grades 4-6): Show pictures of various animals or plants and ask students to figure
out what they have in common.

Fun activity (grades 6-8): Given certain basic guiding principles, ask students to describe an
animal, ecosystem, or other natural entity. To stimulate creativity, the entity need not exist at
present, but should be theoretically imaginable.

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Bodily/kinesthetic: Enjoys dancing, crafts, or sports

Teaching tip: Classroom theater: Students can act out the material to be learned through roleplaying.

Fun activity (grades 4-6): Ask students what they like to eat for lunch – and have them act out
the answers in a game of charades.

Fun activity (grades 6-8): Use the human body as a "map" for learning new information in
different subjects. In geography, the body might represent one part of the world. If the head is
_____(x country), then where is ____(y country_?

Musical/Rhythmic: Enjoys listening to music

Teaching tip: Create discographies: Supplement bibliographies with lists of recorded music
relating to class material. Also, as part of a homework assignment, have students select music
that best demonstrates lesson themes.

Fun activity (grades 4-6): Play unusual or difficult-to-recognize sounds and ask students to
imagine what they might be.

Fun activity (grades 6-8): Some students can more easily memorize information if they listen to a
teacher's lesson against a musical background. Baroque and classical music can be particularly
effective.

Interpersonal: Enjoys giving advice to friends who have problems

Teaching tip: Peer sharing: Set up a class "buddy system" so students can share and develop
ideas with the same person over a period of time.

Fun activity (grades 4-6): Make learning a fun and cooperative effort with class-made board
games. Using file folders, markers, dice, and small game pieces, the information to be learned can
be placed on squares of a winding road or on separate cards.

Fun activity (grades 6-8): Ask students to think of the results of unlikely events. For example,

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"What if all of us could feel each other's feelings?"
Intrapersonal: Enjoys being by himself and thinking

Teaching tip: Personal connections: To make learning more directly relevant, make connections
between class material and students' lives. To spark discussion, ask: "How many of you have
ever…" Or "Can you tell about a time when you…"

Fun activity (grades 4-6): Start individual or class scrapbooks for remembering special events.

Fun activity (grades 6-8): Provide opportunities for setting goals and charting progress toward
these goals. Goals may be short-term ("List three things you'd like to learn today") or long-term
("What do you want to be doing ten years from now?").

Verbal/linguistic: Enjoys storytelling, reading books

Teaching tip: Tape recording: To help students clarify their thinking, have them use a tape
recorder to talk out loud about a problem or project. Recordings can also be used as a writing tool.

Fun activity (grades 4-6): Have students think of as many things as possible that share a certain
property, such as things that are round (sun, balloons, a squashed soda can), and encourage
creative answers.

Fun activity (grades 6-8): Invent nicknames for well-known people that capture features that
make the individuals unique.

A New Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence

Different from intrapersonal or interpersonal intelligence, emotional intelligence is about being
feeling smart. It is the capacity to regulate our behavior, manage our moods, react appropriately,
motivate oneself, deal with self-doubt, and recognize the feelings in others. The key ingredients for
this understanding are: confidence, curiosity, intentionality, self-control, relatedness, capacity to
communicate, and ability to cooperate. Some also call this resilience – or the ability to cope with
setbacks.

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ACTIVITY 1 OF 3: PLANNING FOR MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES (60 MINUTES)

Materials: Anything – art supplies, sports equipment, building blocks – for teachers to use in
planning a lesson

Understanding the concepts of Multiple Intelligences provides us with multiple ways to teach,
rather than one. It also provides educators with a model for organizing and reflecting on
curriculum, assessment, and teaching practices. In turn, many educators have developed new
approaches that might better meet the needs of the range of learners in their classrooms. Multiple
intelligences allows us: (a) to plan our lessons in a way that can meet the needs of diverse
students (b) to respect the arts as a way to reach more students (c) to provide more choice in the
curriculum, and (d) to help us learn how and if students are learning

Now that you have an understanding of Multiple Intelligences, it's time to plan how to implement
the idea, for just one day, in the form of one lesson plan to be used in your classroom. But let’s
plan it first.

In groups, discuss the lessons you currently teach and which one might fit as a candidate for
introducing Multiple Intelligences. It could be a specific lesson in math, social studies, literature,
etc. Go one by one so that everyone gets a chance to talk about their lessons.

Brainstorm together what intelligence(s) might work for each person’s lesson

Present it to the class by demonstrating the intelligence(s) you are using. It will be fun! Some
of you will sing, dance, build…

Then, list the intelligence that will be your central focus for that one lesson. Why did you choose
that intelligence?
ACTIVITY 2 OF 3: MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES IN YOUR CLASSROOM (ONE HOUR)

Introduce to your classroom at least one intelligence you have not used before. Discuss your choice
and your ideas for implementing that intelligence in the lesson with colleagues. Provide their

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feedback - a short summary of their reactions, questions, level of engagement, ideas/activities they
sparked for you.

Before you start, take a look a list of the general characteristics of students who exhibit strengths
in each of the intelligences.

Multiple Intelligences

Overview

Verbal-Linguistic - The capacity to learn through
words


Learns from the spoken and written word, in
many forms; reads, comprehends, and summarizes
effectively

Logical-Mathematical - The capacity for strong
reasoning, as well as the use of numbers and
the recognition of abstract patterns


Learns through using objects and moving them
about, time, cause and effect; solves problems
logically; understands patterns and relationships
and makes educated guesses; can handle diverse
skills such as advanced math, and represent them
in graphic form; works with models; gathers
evidence; builds strong arguments.

Visual-Spatial - The ability to visualize objects
and spatial dimensions, and create internal
images and pictures

Body-Kinesthetic - The wisdom of the body and
the ability to control physical motion

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Learns by seeing and observing - shapes, faces,
colors; uses detail in visual images; learns through
visual media; enjoys doodling, drawing; makes
three-dimensional objects and moves them around;
sees forms where others do not; enjoys abstractions
and subtle patterns.

Learns through touching and moving;

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developed coordination and timing; participation
and involvement; role-plays. Engages in games,
assembles objects; acts. Sensitive to physical
environment; dexterity and balance; creates new
forms that move.
Musical-Rhythmic - The ability to recognize tonal
patterns, sounds, as well as a sensitivity to
rhythms and beats


Learns through sound; eager to discuss music
and its meaning; sings and plays an instrument;
improvises and interprets


Learns through interactions, social
relationships; perceives feelings, thoughts,
motivations of others; collaborates; influences
Interpersonal - The capacity for person-to-person
opinions; understands in verbal and non-verbal
communications and relationships
ways; takes in diverse points of view; mediates,
organizes, develops new social processes and
methods.

Intrapersonal - The spiritual, inner states of
being, self-reflection, and awareness


Learns through range of personal emotions;
finds outlets for feelings; identifies and pursues
personal goals; curious about big questions;
manages to learn through on-going attempts at
gathering in ideas; insightful; empowers others.

ACTIVITY 3 OF 3: REFLECTIONS ON YOUR NEW LESSON (60 MINUTES)
[Notes for the Facilitator]: Ask students to discuss their experience of implementing Multiple Intelligences in
their classroom. Was it easy? Frustrating? What seemed to work? Were the students busy? Surprised?
Confused? Happy? Engaged?

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CREATIVE LESSON PLANNING EXAMPLES

English Language Learners
Students in groups of 4-5 describe past and present abilities written on a set of cards handed out to them
randomly OR demonstrate what they knew, know now, or want to know.
1. First, they have to use multiple intelligences to demonstrate (or act out) what it says on the card
(or the ability they wish to show.
2. Second, they have to describe the card or their ability English. The group can help coach the
person so that they learn from and with each other.
Examples include: Speak more than three languages can tell a joke in English lose weight easily; juggle;
drive a truck; play a musical instrument; run 100 meters in less than 13 seconds;

Geometry: Shapes
The purpose is to rearrange the two cut shapes to fit into every pattern on this page. The skill is to develop
spatial awareness (or intelligence)

Imagine you are a box manufacturer and you want to ship boxes flattened out.

How many possible shapes of 6 squares could be folded into a box?

Using a square pattern and graph paper, make as many designs as possible. (Trace 6 adjoining
squares in a pattern you decide upon.)

Cut out your pattern and fold to see if you can make a box of each in order to check your work.

Botany: Grow a Plant
Learn about gardens and grow your own plants at the same time. Use this fun lesson plan to teach garden
science. Your students will enjoy learning about different types of plants as well as how to look after their
own garden when they have finished making them.

Talk to the students about the type of flowers and plants they might see in the spring and summer

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time. Let the kids know that today they will be making plants for their very own summer garden to
take home and look after.

What do garden plants need to survive? Sunlight, nutrients, water, etc. Why?

In your classroom set up a range of different plants (the type will depend on your location, budget
and the season).

Allow the children to fill a container with dirt before moving around the class making sure the
students have done this part of the activity correctly. After adding seeds, let the children know that
they must make sure they label all their plants so they remember which is which

For further activities you can let the students decorate their containers or name their plants.

After finishing, the children back together and explain how they can look after their plants when they take
them back home.

Separate the plants into pots with holes in them.

Put the plants in a sunny place and remember to water them every two or three days.

When the plant is healthy and strong you can plant it in your garden.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING

[Notes for the Facilitator]: Ask students to recall the sessions in this program and ask them how they felt
working collaboratively with their classmates. Did they enjoy it? Did they learn more? If the session was
delivered using the lecture method did they enjoy that more or less and why?
Cooperative Learning is an entire field of student in teacher professional development. It has been
proven to be effective for all types of students, including academically gifted, mainstream students and
English language learners (ELLs) because it promotes learning and fosters respect and friendships
among diverse groups of students. In fact, the more diversity in a team, the higher the benefits for
each student. Peers learn to depend on each other in a positive way for a variety of learning tasks.
In one of our training sessions, teachers came up with a formula to define cooperative learning:

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Cooperative Learning:
Divides the work among learners according to their various skills
Adds to the knowledge each already possessed
Subtracts their stress and failure in having to present in front of a large group, and
Multiplies the change of everyone’s success
Students typically work in small teams. This way, they can break into pairs for some activities, and
then get back together in teams very quickly for others. It is important, however, to establish
classroom norms and protocols that guide students to:

Contribute to their learning

Stay focused

Help and encourage each other

Solve problems

Give and accept feedback from peers

Five Steps for Cooperative Learning
No matter what the setting is, properly designing and implementing cooperative learning involves 5
key steps. Following these steps is critical to ensuring that the five key elements that differentiate
cooperative learning from simply putting students into groups are met.
1. Pre-Instructional Planning: prior planning helps to establish the specific cooperative learning
technique to be used and lays the foundation for effective group work. Plan out how groups will
be formed and structure how the members will interact with each other.
2. Introduce the Activity to the Students: students need to get their "marching orders."
Explain the academic task to them and what the criteria are for success. Then structure the
cooperative aspects of their work with special attention to the components of positive
interdependence and individual accountability. Set up time limits and allow for clarifying
questions.

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3. Monitor and Intervene: this is where you let the groups run while you circulate through the
room to collect observation data, see whether they understand the assignment, give immediate
feedback and praise for working together. If a group is having problems, you can intervene to
help them get on the right track.
4. Assessment: some informal assessment is already done while you are monitoring the groups
during the exercise. Along the way, ask for feedback from students. Once the project is finished,
both the instructor and the group should evaluate it
5. Process: group processing involves asking the groups to rate their own performance and set
goals for themselves to improve their cooperative work.

Cooperative Learning Strategies
There are some popular strategies that can be used with all students to learn in all subjects. Most of
these strategies are especially effective in teams of four:
1. Round Robin: present a category (such as "Names of Animals") for discussion. Have students
take turns going around the group and naming items that fit the category.
2. Roundtable: present a category (such as words that begin with "b"). Have students take turns
writing one word at a time.
3. Write Around: for writing or summarization, give a sentence starter. Ask all students in each
team to finish that sentence. Then, they pass their paper to the right, read the one they
received, and add a sentence to that one. After a few rounds, four great stories or summaries
emerge. Give children time to add a conclusion and/or edit their favorite one to share with the
class.
4. Numbered Heads Together: ask students to number off in their teams from one to four.
Announce a question and a time limit. Students put their heads together to come up with an
answer. Call a number and ask all students with that number to stand and answer the question.
Recognize correct responses and elaborate through rich discussions.

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5. Team Jigsaw: assign each student in a team one fourth of a page to read from any text (for
example, a social studies text), or one fourth of a topic to investigate or memorize. Each student
completes his or her assignment and then help others to put together a team product by
contributing a piece of the puzzle.
6. Tea Party: students form two concentric circles or two lines facing each other. You ask a
question (on any content) and students discuss the answer with the student facing them. After
one minute, the outside circle or one line moves to the right so that students have new partners.
Then pose a second question for them to discuss. Continue with five or more questions. For a
little variation, students can write questions on cards to review for a test through this "Tea Party"
method.
7. Think-Pair-Share: In this method, the instructor poses a question. Students are given some
time (varying depending on the question) to think about their answer. They then find a partner
and they each share what they thought of on their own (individual accountability). They then
work together to come up with an answer that benefits from both of their individual responses.
Finally, the pairs share their answers with other pairs, in larger groups or with the entire class.
8. Circle the Sage: In this technique the instructor starts by polling students to see who has
special knowledge to share that is relevant to what the teacher wants the students to learn. For
example, if the students are learning about foreign countries, the teacher might poll to see who
has traveled outside of the country. If the students are learning about dividing fractions, the
teacher might ask which students were able to solve the hardest dividing fractions problem from
the homework the night before. The students with the special knowledge are referred to as the
sages and are given a group of students (all from different teams) to talk through their special
knowledge. When the students feel that they have learned the information that the sage has to
impart they return to their original teams. They each explain what they learned from their sages
and work together to address discrepancies and to form a common answer.
9. Three-Step Interview: In this technique, students are also placed in teams. In the first step
students choose a partner and interview them with clarifying questions about the lesson. Next,

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the partners reverse the roles. Finally, the responses are shared with the full team.
10.
Round Robin Brainstorming: To achieve this the class is broken into groups that are
ideally 4 to 6 students and one person is designated as the recorder. The instructor poses a
question that does not simply have one answer and students are given "think time" to think
about how they will answer. Next students share their responses, within their group, in a round
robin style (taking turns, until each member has had a turn). The recorder writes down all of the
answers.
11.
Three-Minute Review: In this activity the instructor, at any point during classroom
activities, stops and gives teams three minutes to both review what has happened up to that point
in the class and to ask and answer each other's clarifying questions.
12.
Numbered Heads Together: Each member of a team is given a number. The instructor
poses various questions and the groups work together to answer them. Then the instructor
randomly chooses a number to call. Each person with that number, from each group, then
answers the question.
13.
Teach Pair Solo: This is the opposite of the Think-Pair-Share. First students work on
problems as a team. They then keep working on similar problems, but with just a partner and
finally on their own. The goal of this is that the group provides scaffolding for students to work
together to solve problems beyond their ability. Then, with practice, they will be able to work on
the problem on their own.
After each Cooperative Learning activity, you will want to debrief with the children by asking questions
such as: What did you learn from this activity? How did you feel working with your teammates? If we
do this again, how will you improve working together?

Using Pairs to Introduce Cooperative Learning
A simple way to start Cooperative Learning is to begin with pairs instead of whole teams. Two students
can learn to work effectively on activities such as the following:

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1. Assign a math worksheet and ask students to work in pairs.
2. One of the students does the first problem while the second acts as a coach.
3. Then, students switch roles for the second problem.
4. When they finish the second problem, they get together with another pair and check answers.
5. When both pairs have agreed on the answers, ask them to shake hands and continue working in
pairs on the next two problems.
Literature circles of in groups of four or six are also a great way to get students working in teams. You
can follow these steps:
1. Have sets of four books available.
2. Let students choose their own book.
3. Form teams based on students' choices of books.
4. Encourage readers to use notes and discussion questions to analyze their books.
5. Have teams conduct discussions about the book.
6. Facilitate further discussion with the whole class on each of the books.
7. Have teams share what they read with the whole class.
8. For the next literature circles, students select new books.
ACTIVITY: PLAN A COOPERATIVE LEARNING LESSON (60 MINUTES)

In groups, discuss the lessons you currently teach and a possible candidate for cooperative
learning. It could be a specific lesson in math, social studies, literature, etc. Go one by one so that
everyone gets a chance to talk about their lessons

Brainstorm together what cooperative learning techniques might work for each person’s lesson

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Present it to the class by demonstrating the cooperative learning teaching technique or plan you
are using. It will be fun! Some of you will sing, dance, build, and more

At the end of their presentation, ask them randomly how they felt about using collaborative and
student-centered strategies when it was demonstrated in the class, and if they would like to use
this method in their own teaching. Why or why not?

Affinity Mapping teaches students to work together to solve problems by grouping like-minded
concepts together, setting priorities, and evaluating next steps. It takes brainstorming to a new
level by providing organization and pattern to ideas generated by groups.

ACTIVITY: COOPERATIVE LEARNING through AFFINITY MAPPING (60-90 MINUTES)

Materials: A room with tables to enable conversation; note paper, sticky-notes or index cards
1. Please form smaller groups of 4-6 people per table.
2. Tell teachers that they will be
table a pressing problem in their
on one.
3. Tell them that this pressing problem needs
question, such as: How can we decrease
absent from school? or…How can we
students choose more healthy food? The
sophisticated as the teacher thinks the

brainstorming at each
communities and decide
to be stated in the form of a
the number of students
make certain that
questions can be as
teachers can handle.

Rules for brainstorming:

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Criticizing others idea is NOT encouraged.

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The ideas and thoughts are FREE. The
it is.
Quantity is important: The more
chances of finding solutions.

wilder you think, the better
ideas, the better the

4. Brainstorm for five minutes only
a. One person at a time at each table,
please put out one of your
ideas to address the central question.
b. The rest of them at a table, please add ideas
c. Each table is responsible now for categorizing your own notes in 3 – 4 groups or themes
(NOT MORE!)
d. Start to group them together under those themes and create a label for the 3-4
e.
Do this until you have exhausted all the ideas and have grouped them together

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5. Each group presents their labels and themes to address the question
6. The entire group gathers. Each person is given three stickers and can use them to vote on the
solution that they would agree would work best.
A DIFFERENT VERSION: THE TEN SEED TECHNIQUE
A different version of affinity mapping is The Ten Seed Technique used
by development people around the world.
Each group is given the ten seeds and asked to consider them to
represent the entire population of people affected by a pressing issue
under study. T
hey are then asked to move the seeds around into groups representing
various issues and dimensions of the problem.

Example: Participatory Community Wide Needs Assessment.
Assumed Knowledge: The community has agreed that a Community-wide needs assessment will be
beneficial.
Anticipated Difficulties/Problems

Information may not be well received due to cultural differences between workshop leaders and
participants.

Community members may be resistant to behavioral changes.

Strong personalities may dominate workshops.

Stakeholders with vested interest may want a needs assessment favorable to them.

Solutions

It is important that the promoter is from the same culture and speaks the same language as the
participants.

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Drawings and illustrations should be appropriate for and familiar to the community members.

Strong personalities may be able to be reasoned with in order to understand the importance of the
participatory process, given projects that will occupy them, or taken aside for a key person
interview.

Stakeholders with vested interest may be taken aside for a key person interview.

Useful Internet Links: This lesson plan has adapted information from The Ten Seed
Technique by Ravi Jayakaran and CARE’s Household Livelihood Security Assessments. A Toolkit for
Practitioners.

Materials

About 15 drawings of community needs traditionally identified by community members.

Large sheets of newsprint.

Colored pens or marker pens.

Sticky tape.

Colored markers.

Seeds for voting

How-To Card

Brief Summary of Lesson:

Activity 1. Introductions. Ice Breaker: Sing a song or play a game.

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Statement of Purpose: Tell the participants what they’ll be able to do as a result of the lesson.

Guided Practice:

Activity 2. Open discussions about community need and prioritizing a list of problems and needs.

Activity 3. Discovering underlying causes to problems and needs.

Activity 4. Discovering solutions.

Notes

Active participation can be enabled by giving everyone an equal chance to share views. For
example, two groups might be formed out of the community – one of women and one of men – so
that women can feel comfortable participating in the discussion.

Sometimes it may be necessary to “filter out” the over dominating people in the group, so that
others can participate.

It is almost mandatory that the facilitators carrying out the 10 seed technique listen with a
positive attitude. This essentially means being open to new perspectives and ideas without preassumptions.

Ideas for Drawings

Low income; poverty

Not enough seed to plant

Poor irrigation

Many diseases

Bad road to community

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Lack of education among villagers

No school

No access information and training on improved agricultural methods

Unsustainable environmental practices

Lack of potable water
PROJECT-BASED LEARNING

In project-based learning, students are usually given a general question to answer, a concrete problem to
solve, or an in-depth issue to explore. Project-based learning requires students to use skills—such as
researching, writing, interviewing, collaborating, or public speaking—to produce various work products.
Unlike tests, homework assignments, and other more traditional forms of academic coursework, a project
may take several weeks or months, or it may even unfold over the course of a semester or year.
Project-based learning experiences confront real-world problems and issues and require students to
investigate and analyze the reasons behind a problem, as well as a possible solution. For this reason,
project-based learning may be called inquiry-based learning or learning by doing,
Teachers may encourage students to choose specific topics that interest or inspire them, such as projects
related to their personal interests or career aspirations. For example, a typical project may begin with an
open-ended question such as: “How can our school serve healthier school meals?” In these cases,
students may be given the opportunity to address the question by proposing a project that reflects their
interests. For example, a student interested in farming may explore the creation of a school garden that
produces food and doubles as a learning opportunity for students, while another student may choose to
research health concerns related to specific food items served in the cafeteria, and then create posters or
a video to raise awareness among students and staff in the school.

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In many cases, adult mentors, advisers, or experts from the local community—such as scientists, elected
officials, or business leaders—may be involved in the design of project-based experiences, mentor
students throughout the process, or participate on panels that review and evaluate the final projects in
collaboration with teachers.
The following are a few representative examples of the kinds of arguments typically made by advocates of
project-based learning:
1. Project-based learning gives students a more “integrated” understanding of the concepts and
knowledge they learn, while also equipping them with practical skills they can apply throughout
their lives.
2. Project-based learning mirrors the real-world situations students will encounter after they leave
school, it can provide stronger and more relevant preparation for college and work. Student not
only acquire important knowledge and skills, they also learn how to research complex issues, solve
problems, develop plans, manage time, organize their work, collaborate with others, and
persevere and overcome challenges.
3. It reflects the ways in which today’s students learn. It can improve student engagement in school,
increase their interest in what is being taught, strengthen their motivation to learn, and make
learning experiences more relevant and meaningful.
4. Since project-based learning represents a more flexible approach to instruction, it allows teachers
to tailor assignments and projects for students with a diverse variety of interests, career
aspirations, learning styles, abilities, and personal backgrounds.
5. This approach allows teachers and students to address multiple learning standards simultaneously.
Rather than only meeting math standards in math classes and science standards in science
classes, students can work progressively toward demonstrating proficiency in a variety of
standards while working on a single project or series of projects.

Using Cooperative Learning Strategies for Project-Based Learning in the Classroom

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1. Create groups of 4-5 students in which each person has a role. The teacher describes each role
(below), and either the teacher or the group assigns a responsibility/role to each member of the
group:

Instruction Reader - Reads the written instructions out loud to his/her group.

Time-Keeper - Periodically, tells the group how much time is left for the activity.

Scribe - Takes notes and writes down each person's response.

Includer - Actively encourages each person to share his/her ideas in the discussion.

Reporter - Organizes the presentation and in many cases shares the group consensus.

2. Each group is given a project or creates the idea for one.

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The group decides how it will provide a response to the assignment by demonstrating: a)
what the event is (crime in the neighborhood, new school being built, etc.); b) why they
think it may be occurring; c) what the current plan is for dealing with the problem; d)
advantages and disadvantages of that plan and why; and e) what they would do, and why it
is better than another plan.

Each student in the group is given the task of exploring all of the issues above (a-e). Those
responses are shared within their group. The Includer makes sure each person's voice is
heard and encourages every member of the group to participate. The Recorder writes down
all of their responses.

Each group reaches a consensus on the response to present to the other groups.

The group decides how the information will be presented.

The group makes a presentation. The Reporter might present the consensus, or set it up so
that several people in the group present.

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The group conducts an evaluation of performance.
ACTIVITY: PROJECT-BASED LEARNING PLANNING DISCUSSION (30 MINUTES)

[Note to Facilitator]: Choose a pressing issue in the community, but one that can be realistically
accomplished in a relatively short period of time. How might Cooperative Learning ensure academic
excellence AND get students out of their seats?
SERVICE LEARNING IS ACADEMICS IN THE WORLD OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM
Service learning helps students to boost their civic engagement and take the initiative to strengthen their
community with the added attraction of being connected to learning goals. Service learning is not the same
thing as community service, though both are valuable. Service learning has a method that connects what
one learns IN school to service OUTSIDE of school.
Teachers Without Borders’ most successful program connects earthquake science and safety, and was
conducted in Haiti after the earthquake. Here, students learn the Science, Technology, Engineering, and
Mathematics (STEM) of earthquakes, as well as create earthquake preparedness plans. It teaches science,
engages children, and serves the community. In short, service learning is a win-win. Of course, on a larger
scale, that is what Teachers Without Borders is all about – the service of teaching on a global scale.
As you can see, service learning is a blend of multiple intelligences, cooperative learning, and project-based
learning. On a small scale, it connects the heart with the head and outsiders to help insiders (teachers,
students) learn. We often forget that an engineer working on a water project in one’s community may not
only have much to teach, but much to offer in working with students to help ensure their community’s water
is clean.
Service Learning success stories have six characteristics in common:
1. The service-learning project must be meaningful. Participants have to feel needed
2. The service-learning project must be connected to what you are teaching. Outside mentors
working with your classroom need to know which skills you want to reinforce

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3. It must foster leadership through collaboration. In other words, you will have to watch
carefully how students are approaching the work. The best projects allow students to develop
different kinds of leadership where everyone feels counted
4. It must give students time for reflection about what they learned and show how they learned it.
Students should maintain a journal to keep track or record of what they did each week on that
project, e.g. how many hours they worked there, with how many people they talked to, etc. They
should also feel free to express the challenges they encountered and how they attempted to
overcome them
5. The community must take give the project the dignity and value it deserves
6.

Ample time should be given to demonstrations of what they have done and celebration for
their efforts. Students can showcase their work at a special celebration at school or at a
community center
ACTIVITY: CONNECTING SERVICE AND LEARNING (60 MINUTES)

[For the Facilitator]: Engage teachers in connecting their classroom curriculum to community issues. It
does not have to be huge societal concern

Materials: poster-board (2 pieces for each group) and markers
1. Ask teachers to work in groups of 4-5 to brainstorm lessons for which they can add a servicelearning component. At the primary school level, students learning about plants could create a
school or community garden. At the secondary level, students studying biology or chemistry
could explore an issue of environmental pollution.
2. It is best for teachers to work on making that connection in a way that can be summed up in a
single sentence, such as: “By creating a community garden, my students can learn to identify
plants, learn how to care for them, and help feed their neighbors.”
3. Of course, depending upon the age-level of the students and the teachers’ own degree of

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comfort with connecting their curriculum with service learning, a project could simply connect
students to an existing project (a water or health campaign, for instance), or take on a pressing
issue poverty, illiteracy, lack of access to school, pollution, unhealthful eating.

Remind teachers that they must connect academics and service in a single sentence, then prepare
2 posters:

The 1st poster shows a picture or describes with words a lesson and how it is currently taught.

The 2nd poster shows a picture or describes with words how that lesson could be taught through
service learning

Teachers will then post the poster #1 one side of the room and poster #2 on the other side of
the room

Teachers will then be asked to go to the posters where they are most comfortable (asking them
to be honest)

Ask them to move and go to the posters where they are most excited

Facilitators can expand this activity to keep teachers moving around to learn more how they
would approach service learning. Teachers could also take their posters back and improve
them more.

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Course 4: Effective Assessment and Evaluation
WARM-UP: (20 MINUTES)
Think about your school life and
ask the new teachers to recall
how they were evaluated. By
taking tests? Standing up at
your desk and reciting the
answers to questions?”
A story: During exams I felt
so stressed out, couldn’t
sleep and sometimes
couldn’t eat. We had to
memorize a lot of things.
After exam we felt relieved
but in the same time we
forgot everything what we
had memorized or learnt. If I
look back to my school life, I
just feel like we studied to
pass the exam or to achieve good marks in the exam, not to learn anything for life long or to apply in
real life. Most of our learning was based on memorization, even the questions in the exam were recall
or memory based and after exam we forgot everything about what we memorized. Now I feel that
learning should not be like this. We have to apply our learning in our real life. Otherwise, what is the
purpose of education?
THE ROLE OF ASSESSMENT IN LEARNING
The overall goal of assessment is to improve student learning. Assessment provides students,

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parents/guardians, and teachers with valid information concerning student progress and their
attainment of the expected curriculum. Assessment should always be viewed as information to
improve student achievement. Assessments are based on the levels of achievement and standards
developed for those curricular goals appropriate for the grade.
Assessment and evaluation measure whether or not learning and/or learning objectives are being met.
One could look at assessment and evaluation as the journey (assessment) versus the snapshot
(evaluation).
Assessment should be built into instruction. It determines whether or not the goals of education
are being met. Assessment inspires us to ask these hard questions: "Are we teaching what we think we
are teaching?" "Are students learning what they are supposed to be learning?" "Is there a way to teach
the subject better, thereby promoting better learning?"
Today's students need to know not only the basic reading and arithmetic skills, but also skills that will
allow them to face a world that is continually changing. They must be able to think critically, to
analyze, and to make inferences. Changes in the skills base and knowledge our students need require
new learning goals; these new learning goals change the relationship between assessment and
instruction. Teachers need to take an active role in making decisions about the purpose of assessment
and the content that is being assessed. Assessment plays a major role in how students learn, their
motivation to learn, and how teachers teach.

Assessment for learning: where assessment helps teachers gain insight into what students
understand in order to plan and guide instruction, and provide helpful feedback to students.

Assessment as learning: where students develop an awareness of how they learn and use that
awareness to adjust and advance their learning, taking an increased responsibility for their
learning.

Assessment of learning: where assessment informs students, teachers and parents, as well as the
broader educational community, of achievement at a certain point in time in order to celebrate
success, plan interventions and support continued progress.

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Assessment must be planned with its purpose in mind. Assessment for, as, and of learning all
have a role to play in supporting and improving student learning, and must be appropriately balanced.
Research and experience show that student learning is best supported when:

Instruction and assessment are based on clear learning goals

Instruction and assessment meet different learning needs

Students are involved in the learning process (They understand the learning goal and the criteria
for quality work, receive and use descriptive feedback, and take steps to adjust their performance)

Assessment information is used to make decisions that support further learning

Parents are well informed about their child’s learning, and work with the school to help plan and
provide support

Students, families, and the general public have confidence in the system

Four Elements of Effective Feedback
Researchers have identified four elements of effective feedback that can be used when giving your
students feedback on assignments. They are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Pointing
Summarizing
Posing one question for your Learner to consider
Offering one or two things for improvement

Element #1 of Effective Feedback: Pointing
 If you are responding to student work in any form, simply point to the words and phrases that
most successfully made you think...somehow they rang true, or they carried special purpose.
Don’t judge, just notice. You are simply reacting to what happened to you when you read the
words this time?"

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Element #2 of Effective Feedback: Summarizing

Tell your student "very quickly what you found to be the main points, main feelings, or centers of
their work. Summarize it into a single sentence; then choose one word...Do this informally. Don't
plan or think too much about it. The point is to show the writer what things he made stand out
most in your head."

Element #3 of Effective Feedback: A Question for the Student to Ponder

Tell your student what philosophical question his/her writing generates for you. What does their
completed assignment make you wonder about on a larger level? (Here, we are not looking for
rhetorical questions, rather questions that spark your curiosity.) You might even start your
question with the words "I wonder...")

An example might be: "After reading the line in your story, 'He never strayed too far from home,' I
wondered if the character was helped or hurt by staying so close to home his whole life. What do
you think?"

Element #4 of Effective Feedback: Offering One or Two Things for Improvement

The reason we say to give your student one or two things is this: If you highlight one thing for
improvement, the student can take that one thing, remember it, and incorporate it for the future.
In our experience, highlighting three, four, or more things to improve upon can get overwhelming.

If there are more than one or two things that you think need improvement in content, keep a
written record for yourself of those things that need work and as future assignments come in,
check to see if those issues come up again. Chances are that the issue will come up again and
you'll have an opportunity to address it at that time. Also, hopefully, you'll see that the one or two
issues you highlighted for improvement have been taken care of. Highlighting one or two issues
keeps things manageable for the student.

For example, if your student stays general in his/her descriptions when answering a question, your
"one idea for improvement" might be: "When you talk about your classroom, give me a specific

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example to support your idea - to make your thought come alive for me," or you might point to a
specific part of the writing and say "You wrote in your assignment, 'The children seemed curious.'
What did that look like, feel like, sound like, taste like, smell like? Filter your description through
the five senses.

Pointing to things that are effective in your Learner's completed assignment is another way to
guide him or her to give you more of that kind of writing where it is lacking. For example, you
could say: "When you wrote that ' Naitana's hands were shaking and his voice cracked when he
read his paper to the class,' I felt like I was right there with you. Do this same kind of descriptive
writing - filtering through the senses - when you simply wrote, 'the children seemed curious.'"

How Not to Give Feedback

In your feedback, do not use words like "good", "great", "nice" or "bad." They are words that do
not help a person improve. For example, let's say you wrote a short story and then you gave your
short story to a friend or a colleague to read. If that person said to you, "Hey, that story you gave
to me to read was really good," you might perk up and feel happy about the compliment, but it
does not help you improve. The more specific you are, the more students will trust your
comments. Feedback that would be more helpful is as follows:

"I read the short story you sent to me. The part where you talked about training the bird made me
laugh out loud.”

"My mind started to wander when you started talking about the cows. I tuned out for a while and
then I was listening again when you talked about crossing the river. Your description of the sounds
of the coming storm (quote the exact words), I could feel my heart starting to pound in my chest."

An example of "summarizing" might be: "I really felt your description of home – the comfort of
home - its foods, smells, the conversations. Home is where your character always returns. That's
what stays with me after reading your piece."

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The first three responses from above are more valuable to you than the "good", "nice" or "bad"
comments of ineffective feedback because you are receiving specific information about content,
including how something in your story affected that particular reader at that particular time (Note:
not all readers for all eternity, simply that reader at that time). As the writer, you can then choose
to re-write or keep those sections the reader pointed to. That's up to you as the writer. You listen
to the feedback and then you have control over what you change or don't change.
RUBRICS

A rubric is a scoring tool or grid that can be customized to promote learning, organization, or
provides assessment. They can be used at the time an assignment is given to communicate
expectations to students, during a lesson to check on progress, and after the instruction is
complete to make certain that grading is air and efficient.

Rubrics help us to see; they help us to look for certain things we believe are important or catch
things that we may have missed. A rubric can be issued from a pre-made template or inspired by
school or national standards. A teacher or a group of teachers can create a rubric. A good exercise
for instruction is to create one with students. That process teaches critical thinking skills and we
suggest it highly.

In short, a rubric is a grid or matrix in which a horizontal column and a vertical column come
together to make comparisons or fill in the blanks.

Using Rubrics in the Classroom: An Example on Communication
Central Question: What is the difference between one-way and two-way communication?
Preparation: This exercise takes some preparation. You will need half as many bags as you have
participants and an object for each bag. The object can be anything: a hairbrush, ornaments (these are very
good), any small office equipment (stapler, scissors, etc.), perfume bottles, etc. Do not use clothing or
books.

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ACTIVITY: RUBRICS FOR COMMUNICATION, PART 1 (60 MINUTES)

Divide the group into pairs.

Give one of each pair a bag with an object inside. The bag holder is not allowed to look in the bag,
but is to put their hand in the bag, feel the object and describe it to their partner.

The partner draws what the bag holder describes.

The partner is not allowed to ask any questions.

Give the pairs five minutes to describe and draw the objects.

After five minutes, ask those who were drawing to show their drawings. At the same time let their
partners remove the objects from the bag.
ACTIVITY: COMMUNICATION, PART 2

Ask for four volunteers.

Send two out of the room and show the picture of the geometric shapes to the other two. Remind
them not to show their picture to anybody. Ask for one of them to wait for the second part of the
exercise.

Invite one of the other volunteers back inside. Explain that they are going to draw what the other
person tells them. They cannot ask any questions (this is ‘one-way communication’). The
‘instructor’ (the participant with the drawing) stands behind the flipchart (or with his/her back to
the board).

The ‘instructor’ describes the picture to the participant at the flip chart (the ‘artist’).

The ‘artist’ draws the picture based on the instructions given.

If you are using a flip chart, turn to a new page. If you are using a board, ensure that you can
reproduce the drawing and then clean the board.

Ask the second ‘instructor’ to come forward and bring in the second volunteer from outside. This
time the instructor can watch what the artist is doing and make comments on it, and the artist

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should ask questions (two- way communication).

When the drawing is completed, compare the two drawings (redraw the first drawing if necessary).

Ask the teachers how they felt when they were either instructing or drawing.

Show the participants the original drawing. Ask the group which drawing is the most accurate.

Discuss why this is so.

You can then use a rubric to discuss one-way and two-way communication:
One-way
communication

Two-way
communication

Advantages
Disadvantages

What are the advantages of one-way communication?

What are the disadvantages?

What are the advantages of two-way communication?

What are the disadvantages?

What responsibilities do we have if we are going to use one-way communication?

Why do we use one-way communication when two-way communication is proven to be more
effective?

Remember that asking questions such as ‘Are we together?’ and ‘Do you understand?’ (with the
whole class saying ‘Yes’) is not two-way communication.

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Below, please find a rubric (example) for creating a Public Service Announcement on Bullying.

Rubric for Public Service Announcement on Bullying
Not Yet
Acceptable
1 pt

Content

Skill

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Can be Stronger
2 pts

Meets
Expectations

Exceeds
Expectations

3 pts

4 pts

Students showed no
understanding of
the content and
included no factual
information to
persuade audience.

Students showed a
very basic
understanding of
the content and
included some
factual information
to persuade
audience.

Students showed
understanding and
included mostly
factual information
to persuade
audience. (2 facts)
The message is
evident and clear.

Students showed
full understanding
of the content and
included factual
information to
persuade audience.
The message is
evident, clear, and
supported.

Students have not
shown how to
communicate their
knowledge of the
subject or teach.

Students showed
basic
understanding of
the subject, but
need more specific
info. to show
others what to do.

Students showed
understanding of
bullying and used
some of their
knowledge of the
skill to persuade
target audience.

Students showed
full understanding
of bullying and
used their
knowledge of the
skill to persuade
target audience.

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Direction
s

Creativit
y

Students did not
follow directions and
did not include
message, facts,
persuasive
technique, and
support organization
into their PSA. PSA
length showed little
editing

Students did not
follow all directions
and did not include
all parts of the
message, facts,
persuasive
technique, and
support
organization into
their PSA. PSA was
too short or too
long

Students followed
mostly all
directions and
included message,
facts, persuasive
technique, and
support
organization into
their PSA. PSA was
approximately 1
minute

Students followed
all directions and
included message,
facts, survey info,
persuasive
technique, and
support
organization into
their PSA. Timing
was just-about
exactly 1 minute

Students did not
understand the
importance of
presentation. Ideas
were not yet clear or
organized effectively

Students used
either props or
voice inflection;
some order and
neatness,
somewhat original
ideas, graphics do
not distract from
the message

Students were
creative in writing
and presenting
their PSA; neatly
presented, original
ideas, graphics
support the
message. The PSA
was smooth

Students were very
creative in writing
and presenting
their PSA, using
props, voice
inflection and
passion; visually
pleasing, neat,
original ideas,
graphics add to the
message.

FORMATIVE VERSUS SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Formative assessments are on-going assessments, reviews, and observations in a classroom. The goal of
formative assessment is to monitor student learning, to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by
instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. More specifically, formative
assessments:

Help students identify their strengths, weaknesses and target areas that need work

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Help faculty recognize where students are struggling and address problems immediately

Formative assessments are generally low stakes, which means that they have low or no point
value. They are, nevertheless, extremely important because it is the only way you will know if
students are truly learning.

Examples of formative assessments include asking students to (a) draw a concept map in class to represent
their understanding of a topic (b) submit one or two sentences identifying the main point of a lecture (c)
use multiple intelligences to show if they are learning.
Teachers use formative assessment to improve instructional methods and student feedback throughout the
teaching and learning process. For example, if a teacher observes that some students do not grasp a
concept, then she or he can design a review activity or use a different instructional strategy to help the
student understand.
Summative assessments are typically used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and
services at the end of an academic year or at a pre-determined time. The goal of summative assessments is
to make a judgment of student competency after an instructional phase is complete.
The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by
comparing it against some standard or benchmark.
Summative assessments are often high stakes, which means that they have a high point value. Examples of
summative assessments include:

A midterm exam

A final project

A final exam

Information from summative assessments can be used formatively when teachers use it to guide their
(students’) efforts and activities in subsequent courses. Summative evaluations are used to determine if
students have mastered specific competencies and to identify instructional areas that need additional
attention.

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We say, don’t wait for the final exam to find out how students are doing. You can find out today!
ACTIVITY: UNDERSTANDING ASSESSMENT (40 MINUTES)
Tell the trainee teachers to think about the following scenario and to discuss how they think this student
should get prepared for the exam. Each group will present their views/opinion to the class.
Story: Leila is a student of Grade 9. In her school there is only one final exam. Teachers give homework but
none if it goes towards marks and there are no other tests/assessments during the whole year. Her science
teacher taught 6 chapters which was in the textbook and he assigned questions only from the last 3
chapters each year and almost every year he assigns similar types of questions in the exam. If anyone can
solve those questions, they won’t even have to read the book. Leila heard it from the students who are in
grade-10 now. Her final exam is approaching.

How should she get prepared for the exam?

Would she read the whole book? Why or why not?

Would she read the book at all? Why or why not?

If there were no other assessments besides the final exam, would she have studied throughout the
whole year?

Do you think assessment is leading learning? And should teaching, assessment and learning have
correlation with each other?
ACTIVITY 2: RETHINKING TESTS (40 MINUTES)

We all are asked to give tests, but what makes a test effective?

Characteristics of a Good Test
The following are the characteristics of a good test:
1. Valid - It means that it measures what it is supposed to measure
2. Reliable- A test is reliable if we get the same results repeatedly

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3. Comprehensive - It covers all the items that have been taught
4. Appropriate in difficulty - It is neither hard nor too easy
5. Clear - Questions and instructions should easily be understood by the students
6. Appropriate in Time - A good test should be finished on a given time allotment.
7. Economy - It respects the teacher’s limited time for preparing and grading and it makes the best
use of the pupil’s assigned time for answering all items.
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES (CATS)
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) are formative evaluation methods that serve two purposes. They
can help you to assess the degree to which your students understand the course content and they can
provide you with information about the effectiveness of your teaching methods. CATs should be quick and
easy to use and can be used every day. Each CAT provides different kinds of information.

For Teachers

CATs provide day-to-day feedback that can be applied immediately

CATs provide useful information about what students have learned without the amount of time
required for preparing tests, reading papers, etc.;

CATs address student misconceptions or lack of understanding in a timely way

CATs foster good working relationships with students and encourage them to understand that
teaching and learning are ongoing processes that require full participation.

For Students

CATs help develop self-assessment and learning management skills;

CATs reduce feelings of isolation and impotence, especially in large classes;

CATs increase understanding and ability to think critically about the course content;

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CATs foster an attitude that values understanding and long-term retention;

CATs show your interest and caring about their success in your classroom.

How may I use CATs?
The following is a partial chart of CAT exercises, indicating the kind of evaluation for which each is intended,
what each is called, how each is conducted, what to do with the information you collect, and an
approximation of the relative amount of time each requires.

Course Knowledge and Skills One-Minute Paper: During last few minutes of class period, ask
students to use a half-sheet of paper and write “Most important thing I learned today and what I
understood least.” Review before next class meeting

Muddiest Point: Similar to One-Minute Paper but only ask students to describe what they
didn’t understand and what they think might help.

Chain Notes: Pass around a large envelope with a question about the class content. Each student
writes a short answer, puts it in the envelope, and passes it on. Sort answers by type of answer. At
next class meeting, use to discuss ways of understanding.

Student-generated test questions: Divide the class into groups and assign each group a topic
on which they are each to write a question and answer for the next test. Each student should be
assured of getting at least one question right on the test. Use as many of the questions as
possible, combining those that are similar.

Attitudes, Values, and Self-Awareness Journals: Ask students to keep journals that detail
their thoughts about the class. May ask them to be specific, recording only attitudes, values, or
self-awareness. Have students turn in the journals several times during the semester so you can
chart changes and development.

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Reactions to Instruction Methods Exam Evaluations: Select a test that you use regularly and
add a few questions at the end which ask students to evaluate how well the test measures their
knowledge or skills. Make changes to the test if necessary.

Student Representative Group: Ask students to volunteer to meet as a small group with you
on a regular basis to discuss how the course is progressing, what they are learning, and
suggestions for improving the course. Some issues will be for your information, some to be
addressed in class.

Suggestion Box: Put a box near the classroom door and ask students to leave notes about any
class issue. Review and respond at the next class session.

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Course 5: Teacher Leaders as Community Agents of Change
INTRODUCTION
We believe that leaders aren’t
born or made, but emerge. They
show up when they are needed
the most. They seize an
opportunity to make their lives
(and those lives around them)
better, more significant, healthier,
more hopeful.
At over 59 million, teachers are
the largest professionally trained
group in the world. They know
who is sick or missing or orphaned by AIDS. They know who has promise and who needs to catch up.
Teachers are the catalyst and the glue that holds society together. In the end, a society is only as good as its
teachers.
Yet teacher professional development around the world can be spotty, inconsequential, or missing entirely.
We have to fill the gap. It is up to you.
So, as we become a teacher, we should also become a community leader. It begins with a professional
statement of who we are – our beliefs, values, and approach to teaching.

Leadership and Management: Two Different Ideas
Leadership is doing the right thing. Leaders have vision, take initiative, influence people, make
proposals, organize logistics, solve problems, follow-up, and - most of all - take responsibility. In short,

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leadership is about being effective (and doing so with integrity).
Managers do things right. Great managers make the system work. Things are clear and organized.
Great Managers create systems to manage complexity and clarify roles a way for things to happen. In
short, management is about being efficient.
Great teachers are both leaders and managers. That is why the job is so complex.
The model of one leader on top, with many followers at the bottom, isn't workable anymore. That is why
leadership development should be a central activity for any leader. You can develop a team of leaders
around you. Leadership doesn't have to be a lonely business. You can train people to competently share
your responsibilities, vision, and commitment.
Whether we know it or not, everything we do in the classroom models our approach to leadership and
management. Our students are listening and paying attention to our every move, so what we say – and
how we say it – matters a great deal. We may not be able to say how we are a manager and a leader, but
we show it every day. This leads us to key questions:

What role you can play to build your students’ leadership skills?

How can you provide a relevant, significant, "real world" educational experience for students so
that they may see the importance of learning, management, and leadership?

How might we teach positive values, leadership, citizenship, and personal responsibility?

How might we use community problem-solving activities to encourage students to become active
members of their own communities?

How do we connect our curriculum requirements to pressing social problems, give students a
greater understanding of the issues in their communities, and equip them to make intelligent
decisions about those issues in their later careers and civic lives?

I am a Teacher: My Professional Statement

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A professional statement is a declaration of your teaching philosophy. It is an opportunity to describe
your approach to teaching, how you view your educational practice, and how you have developed as a
professional.
ACTIVITY: I AM A TEACHER BECAUSE… (30-45 MINUTES)
In groups, discuss the following:

 

What I Believe

Why I Teach

How I Want to Teach

What do you want to keep in your teaching practice and what do you want to throw away. Why?

What are the challenges that lie ahead?

 

To help them become caring parents, spouses, and community members

To help them become co-creators in building lasting relationships and communities

To help them become responsible citizens, and creative, independent thinkers

Example: I am educating young people:
 To help instill within them a sense of appreciation and wonder for our world

ACTIVITY: LEADERSHIP AND INCLUSIVE, LEARNING-FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT (ILFE)
(45-60 MINUTES)
We discussed the power of inclusive learning. We’ve discussed leadership. Now it is time to see how we
can build inclusive schools. This survey from UNESCO-Bangkok provides a strong outline for what to look for
(and what to build) when planning an ILFSE.
The central question is this: What is your school already doing to create an inclusive, learningfriendly environment?
Materials: copes of the following survey for each person attending the workshop

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School Policies and Administrative Support
My school…
______ has a mission and/or vision statement and policies about inclusive, learning-friendly education,
including a policy against discrimination;
______ has a master list of all children in the community, whether enrolled or not, and has individual records
of why children have not enrolled;
______ conducts regular campaigns to encourage parents to enrol their children, ones that emphasize that
ALL children should be enrolled and are welcome;
______ has copies of documents or resources at national or regional levels that address inclusive education
for children with diverse backgrounds and abilities;
______ knows which professional organizations, advocacy groups, and community organizations offer
resources for inclusive education;
______ shows in specific ways that school administrators and teachers understand the nature and
importance of inclusive education;
______ has prepared a list of barriers that prevent the school from fully developing an ILFE and a list of ways
to overcome these barriers;
______ is aware of and is changing school policies and practices—such as costs and daily schedules—that
prevent some girls and boys from receiving a quality education;
______ provides flexibility to teachers to pursue innovative teaching methods for helping all children to learn;
______ has links with the community, is responsive to the needs of the community, and provides
opportunities for exchanging ideas with the community to bring about positive changes in inclusive
practices;
______ responds to needs of the staff and is not exploitative;
______ has effective support, supervision, and monitoring mechanisms in which everyone participates in
learning about and documenting changes in inclusive practices, as well as in making future decisions.

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School Environment
My school…
______ has facilities that meet the needs of all students, such as separate toilets for girls and ramps (not
stairs) for students with physical disabilities;
Toolkit for Creating Inclusive, Learning-Friendly Environments
______ has a welcoming, healthy, and clean environment;
______ has a steady supply of clean, safe drinking water and serves or sells healthy, nutritious food;
______ has (or has a plan to develop) a diverse school staff (women and men with different backgrounds in
race, ethnicity, physical ability, religion, language, socioeconomic status, etc.);
______ has staff, such as counselors and bilingual teachers, who can identify and help with the students’
individual learning needs;
______ has processes and procedures in place that help all teachers and teaching staff, parents and children
to work together to identify and assist with students’ special learning needs;
______ focuses on teamwork among teachers and students;
______ has links with health authorities who provide periodic health examinations for children.
Teachers’ Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes
Our teachers…
______ can explain the meaning of “inclusive” and “learning-friendly” environments and can show examples
______ believe that all children—girls, poor or wealthy children, language and ethnic minority children, as
well as those with disabilities—can learn;
______ are involved in finding school-age children who are not in school to see that they get an education;
______ know about diseases that cause physical, emotional, and learning disabilities; and can help unhealthy
students to get proper care;
______ receive annual medical examinations, along with other school staff;

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______ have high expectations for ALL children and encourage them to complete school;
______ are aware of resources that are available to assist children with more individual learning needs;
______ can identify culture and gender bias in teaching materials, the school environment, and in their own
teaching, and can correct this bias;
______ help students learn to identify and correct gender and culture bias in learning materials and correct it
in a culturally sensitive manner;
______ adapt curriculum, lessons, and school activities to the needs of children with diverse backgrounds
and abilities;
______ use content, language, and strategies in their teaching that help all students to learn;
______ can assess children’s learning in ways that are appropriate to the children’s abilities and needs;
______ are reflective and open to learning, adapting, experimenting, and changing;
______ are able to work as a team with other teachers, children, parents and community members, as well
as education authorities.

Teacher Development
Our teachers…
______ attend workshops or classes on developing an ILFE classroom and school, receiving advanced
professional training on a regular basis;
______ give presentations to other teachers, parents, and community members on developing an ILFE
classroom;
______ receive ongoing support for improving their understanding of the subject matter
______ receive ongoing support for developing teaching and learning materials for ILFEs;
______ receive ongoing support from school administrators through regular observation and a written
supervisory plan;
______ have a work area or lounge where they can prepare lesson materials and share ideas, and teachers
can visit “model” ILFE schools.

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Students
In our school…
______ ALL school-age children in the community attend school regularly.
______ ALL students have textbooks and learning materials that match their learning needs.
______ ALL students receive regular assessments to help them monitor their progress.
______ Children with diverse backgrounds and abilities have equal opportunities to learn and to express
themselves in the classroom and at school.
______ ALL children are followed up if their attendance is irregular
______ ALL children have equal opportunities to participate in all school activities.
______ ALL students help to develop guidelines and rules in the classroom and in the school regarding
inclusion, non-discrimination, violence, and abuse.
Academic Content and Assessment
Our curriculum and learning materials…
______ The curriculum allows for different teaching methods to meet different learning rates and styles,
particularly for children with special learning needs.
______ The content of the curriculum relates to the everyday experiences of ALL children in the school
whatever their background or ability.
______ The curriculum integrates literacy, numeracy and life skills into all subject areas.
______ Teachers use locally available resources to help children learn.
______ Curriculum materials include pictures, examples and information about many different kinds of
people, including girls and women, ethnic minorities, people of different castes and social/economic
backgrounds, as well as people with disabilities.
______ Children with learning difficulties have opportunities to review lessons and improve upon them, or to
have additional tutoring.
______ The curriculum promotes attitudes such as respect, tolerance, and knowledge about one’s own and

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others’ cultural backgrounds..
______ Teachers have various assessment tools to measure students’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes
(including student self-assessment), rather than only depending upon examination scores.

Special Subject Areas/Extra-Curricular Activities
Our children with special needs…
______ Children with physical disabilities have opportunities for physical play and development.
______ Girls have the same access to and opportunities for physical play (such as equal time on the football
field) and other extracurricular activities as boys.
______ All children have opportunities to read, write, and learn in their own language when they first enter
school and, if possible, continuing thereafter.
______ The school shows respect for children of all religions; children have opportunities to learn about
different religious traditions, as appropriate, during the school day.
Community
Our community…
______ Parents and community groups know about ILFE and can help the school become an ILFE.
______ The community helps the school reach out to ALL children excluded from school.
______ Parents and community groups offer ideas and resources about the implementation of ILFE.
______ Parents receive information from the school about their children’s attendance and achievement.
This self-assessment checklist will help you and your colleagues to begin planning and creating an ILFE in
your school. Implementing an ILFE is an ongoing process. You, your colleagues, parents, and community
members will want to review this checklist at different times of the year to monitor whether you are moving
at an acceptable rate toward becoming an ILFE.
ACTIVITY: HOW CAN OUR SCHOOL BECOME AN ILFE? (60 MINUTES)

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[For the Facilitator]: Discuss how would you answer a teacher from another school who asks, “What do we
need to do to become a school that has an Inclusive, Learning-Friendly Environment?” What are the
obstacles? What are the challenges? What are the opportunities? What strategy might work? Work in
groups or ask teachers to run their own workshops for their schools and communities.
ADULT LEARNING
Adult learners are busy people. Adult learners seek a way to improve their social status; increase their
sense of belonging; gain social recognition; and participate in the affairs of their community. Many seek
to overcome feelings of inferiority brought about by illiteracy or a lack of education and sincerely wish to
overcome embarrassment and discomfort. They seek to be admired by others; to satisfy curiosity; and
to win the affection and respect of others. g

Six Principles of Adult Learning
1. You can learn how to learn.
2. You are already a superb learner on occasion and you can build on your natural skill to make the

rest of your learning easy, enjoyable, and productive.
3. You have your own personal learning style, which you can identify, take advantage of, and

strengthen to become an even more accomplished learner.
4. You learn best when you are most active mentally (and sometimes physically), making your own

decisions about what, how, where, and when to learn and using strategies to activate your mind.
5. You can design your optimal learning environment, one that makes learning more comfortable and

hence more effective.
6. You can learn most enjoyably by choosing from a rich array of media, methods, and experiences.

AFFINITY-MAPPING EXERCISE: YOUR ADULT LEARNING (90 MINUTES)
Materials

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Room on the walls of the workshop space to allow free movement of teachers to walk around
Index cards: 5 for each person
Tape or thumbtacks (whatever is acceptable for attaching the index cards to the wall)

What is Affinity Mapping?

What is Affinity Mapping is a process of grouping notes by similarity and levels of importance. The
“affinity” part has to do with items or points that share characteristics. “Mapping” is about setting
a course by organizing those items or points in order to create a map of what to do next.

The technique of Affinity Mapping lets us allow the imagination to express itself, yet also helps to
organize similar ideas together. This can be done as a group of individuals (example: establishing
priorities for a collaboration); a class (examples: setting classroom rules or deciding upon a
community service project); or an organization (example: deciding upon a strategic business
plan).

[For the Facilitator]: Form diverse groups of 5 people each and ask the teachers to reflect about
the past few days’ sessions and to write 5 points about what they learned that they would like to
apply in their own teaching. Encourage them to share their points with their smaller group and
then the larger group. Ask them to consider the Six Principles listed above.

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Facilitate the small group discussion

When that discussion has finished, ask the first group to place their index cards on the wall. Ask
them to stay there and sort them out. For instance, if many of them want to work on classroom
management or ICTs or cooperative learning, place similar cards together (vertically).

The facilitator must guide this activity so that it is not chaotic. The image below is an example of
an exercise using post-it notes on a window.

The facilitator works with the first group to group the notes under general headings

No note can be thrown away, even if it is the exact same as another note for two reasons (1)
everyone’s voice must be heard (2) duplicate notes show the importance

Then the next group comes up and places their notes on the wall. They can add their notes

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underneath the same headings or suggest a new

Each group that follows will follow the same procedure.

The entire group of teachers (no groupings for this exercise)

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The Fundamentals of Adult Learning
Adults learn best when they can relate new knowledge and information with previously learned knowledge,
information and experiences.

Provide opportunities for learners to reflect upon and share their existing knowledge and
experience.

Create learning activities that involve the use of past experience or knowledge.

Ask learners to identify the similarities and differences between what they are learning and what
they already know.

Adults tend to prefer self-directed, autonomous learning, but this is often not an expectation of
educational institutions and society.

Design training around participants' needs and goals.

Ask adult participants what they want to learn. Learners learn best when they establish a specific
learning objective or goal for themselves.

Give them tools to help develop and focus their self-directed efforts and facilitate learning, rather
than lecture them.

Provide opportunities for learners to direct their own learning through guided inquiry and selffacilitated small-group discussions.

Minimize embarrassment’ adults have self-pride and desire respect. They need their experience,
beliefs, knowledge, questions and ideas acknowledged as important. Because learning involves
risk and the possibility of failure, design training to minimize each learners’ risk and
embarrassment

Provide opportunities for learners to share ideas, questions, opinions, experiences, concerns, etc.
and to create an environment that honors and respects everything that is appropriately shared.

Make it safe for learners to express their confusion, anxieties, doubts and fears.

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Provide opportunities for "small wins" and little victories in the learning process - to build
competencies incrementally.

Adults want practical, goal-oriented and problem-centered learning that can immediately help
them deal with life's challenges.

Share examples and stories that relate the learning content to participant's current challenges.
Ask learners to share their own examples that make this linkage.

Engage learners in identifying the challenges they face and the value of learning to addressing
these challenges.

Strengthen learner self-esteem is strengthened through team-based learning, based on mutual
trust and respect.

Follow theories with practical examples and applications to demonstrate the relevance of the
learning.

Adults desire feedback on the progress they are making at learning something new.

Provide opportunities for learners to get immediate feedback to their own learning through case
examples, role-playing, quizzes and responses to trainer questions.

h

Encourage learners to self-evaluate and assess their own learning and performance.

Praise any level of learning improvement and encourage continued learning.

Wherever and whenever possible, design learning around multiple intelligences and cooperative
learning.

Free learners to learn in the style that best suits them by using small group work, discussions in
pairs, and individual activities.

Adults are motivated to learn by a wide variety of factors. These are the most common: personal
aspirations, externally imposed expectations, internal desire or interest, escape from a situation
(boredom or fear), growth and advancement, and service to others; it is important to inquire into

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the reasons participants are interested in learning.

Make a connection between the learning content and each learner's long-term objectives (in work
and life).
ACTIVITY: PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE (60 MINUTES)

Teacher professional development is not a defined by how many workshops one develops or how many
courses one takes. True teacher professional development is the act of learning from and with each other.
Each country, and each region within that country, has (or should have) formal and non-formal structures to
ensure that teachers (a) discuss teaching and learning with each other regularly (b) observe each other’s
classrooms (c) build learning plans that meet individual teacher’s needs and the needs of the school
community
Think about the following possible ways teachers can gather and learn from each other. Afterwards, we will
have an open discussion about what may or may not work.
Book Study
Book study groups are an effective form of professional development that educators at all levels can use to
facilitate their professional growth. Book studies work best if the participants have similar skills and
interests. However, varying viewpoints are important because they inject diversity of opinion and enliven
discussion. One of the first matters on which the group must reach consensus is a schedule for reading and
discussion. If the book study is to consist of four to eight meetings in all, then each meeting should last
between 60 and 90 minutes.
Choose a book on a topic that interests everyone in the group but that is sufficiently open-ended to
encourage new learning through reading and discussion. The book should be thought provoking and have
enough depth to stimulate debate. At the conclusion of the book study, ask the following questions: Did the
book stimulate thought and discussion? Did the group study meet the learning objectives? How might the

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group study experience be improved?
Classroom/School Visitation
Teachers visit the classrooms of colleagues to view innovative teaching practices and expand and refine
their own personal pedagogy. School administrators may benefit from visiting a school in the jurisdiction or
another jurisdiction to view the facility, explore alternatives for organizing resources and discuss leadership
strategies with the hosting school administrator.
Classroom and school visitations may range from a single day up to two weeks and/or multiple visits over
time.
Collaborative Curriculum Development
Collaborative curriculum development provides a unique opportunity for teachers to delve deeply into their
subject matter. Working together, teachers can design new planning materials, teaching methods, resource
materials and assessment tools.
Conferences/Workshops
Conferences/workshops can provide very effective professional development opportunities, particularly
when they are part of a teacher’s ongoing professional development plan. Teachers can arrange
conferences/workshops within the school or collaboratively with other schools. These workshops can be
offered as full or half-day sessions or as part of an ongoing program of school-based professional
development.
Community/Service Organizations
Community and/or service organizations provide an opportunity for teachers and school administrators to
develop leadership skills and gain important knowledge related to their role and community context.
Examples of community/service organizations include church, service clubs, sporting groups etc.
Examining Student Work
Student work provides teachers with a critical source of information about how a student is learning,
developing, acquiring new knowledge and applying new skill sets. Examples: writing samples, projects, oral

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reports and pictures. Thinking analytically about the work can give teachers greater insights into teaching
and learning. The information can also be used in study groups.
Journaling
Journaling is a technique for recording observations and reflections. The entries may be related to teaching,
student growth, and the implementation of a new initiative or any subject for which a teacher may want to
develop a record. The journal can provide a rich, qualitative record of events and activities.
Lesson Study
Lesson study is a professional development process that Japanese teachers engage in to systematically
examine and improve their practice. In this process, teachers work collaboratively to plan, teach, observe
and critique a small number of study lessons. To provide focus and direction to this work, teachers select an
overarching goal and related research question that they want to explore. This research question guides
their work on all the study lessons. Teachers then jointly draw up a detailed plan for the lesson that one of
the teachers delivers to students in a real classroom.
Other group members observe the lesson. The group then meets to discuss their observations. Often, the
group revises the lesson, and another teacher delivers it in a second classroom, while group members again
look on. The group then meets again to discuss the observed instruction. Finally, the teachers produce a
report of what their study lessons have taught them, particularly with respect to their research question.
Mentors and Mentorship
Mentoring is a confidential process through which an experienced professional provides another with
information, support, feedback and assistance for the purpose of refining present skills, developing new
ones and enhancing problem solving and decision making in a way that promotes professional development.
Beginning teachers are in greatest need of the support that will enhance their classroom management and
instructional skills. They also need support systems that will help them see teaching as a collegial, rather
than an isolated endeavor. Mentors can provide the advice, suggestions and constructive feedback that can
make the difference between whether a new teacher succeeds or fails.

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Mentorship is most beneficial when it is based on an action plan that includes goals and strategies.
Mentoring is an effective process to support teachers whether they are new to the profession, new to a
curriculum or grade level.
School Improvement Teams
Changes in school organization and roles within the school require teachers to rethink what professional
development means and who controls it. Decentralized decision-making affords the opportunity to explore
the talent that resides within the school. Strategic planning empowers all members of the school community
—administrators, teachers, support staff, parents, trustees and other stakeholders—by enabling them to
build their future exactly as they want it at the professional and personal levels.
The strategic planning process also involves reaching a consensus on the expectations of the organizations.
The value of strategic planning depends on the extent to which the school administration and staff are
willing to change and to invest the time required to bring about that change.
Study Groups
Study groups involve small groups of educators who meet regularly to work on a predetermined project.
This approach to professional development benefits both teachers and administrators by bringing
colleagues together to undertake in a group setting a task that they would normally do in isolation. The
optimum size for a study group is about six so that each participant is equally responsible for the success of
the group.
Commitment to a study group is greatly enhanced when participants are directly involved in setting the task
and its parameters. Whether the task chosen is implementing a new curriculum, demonstrating the use of
math manipulative, researching theories of teaching and learning, or studying strategies for school
administration, the group must stay focused on its purpose—to create an environment conducive to student
learning. The study group provides the structure; the participants concentrate on content.

Open Discussion: What initiatives can you take to build a teachers’ professional development group and
what activities can that group do for the professional development of the teachers of that community? To
implement a study group, follow these steps:

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Define the task

Set regular meeting times and places

Establish appropriate meeting behaviours

Create an action plan

Choose a shared decision-making process

Contemplate appropriate leadership roles

Promote a climate of shared commitment

Consider logistics of time, space and money

Discuss criteria for achieving and evaluating goals.

As the work of the study group progresses, participants may decide to redefine goals or to invite a specialist
to attend a scheduled meeting. Study groups work best in a collaborative environment that allows for
intellectual exchange and shared experience.

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Additional Teachers Without Borders Courses & Resources
Haiti Teacher Education Program in French (2013)

Bridges to Understanding: Classroom-to-classroom global problem-solving curriculum. Please
request access to our wiki and our network)

Certificate of Teaching Mastery (French and Spanish)

Earthquake Science and Safety (Downloadable content in French and Kréyòl)

Education in Emergencies (Please request course invitation)

Girls' Education (Please request course invitation)

Global Education (Please request course content)

ICTs for Education (full degree program)

Teaching English as a Second Language (Please request invitation to our wiki)

Peace and Human Rights Education (Please request course invitation)

Plus workshops, content, and resources for: bullying; child-friendly classrooms; climate change; conflict
resolution; cognitive disabilities; leadership and capacity building; learning disabilities; problem-solving and
project-based learning; service learning; teacher mentorships.
1.

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Example Workshop Plan in French
1. 8h-8h30

Informatique

2. 8h30-9h

Salutation - Présentation individuelle

3.

Présentation du Protocole

4. 9h-9h15

Appel Nominal-Icebreaking activity

5. 9h15-9h30

Introduction au programme

6. 9h30-10h30
7. 10h30-12h

Réflexion sur son Identité Professionnelle
Travail en Ateliers:

8.

1) Les aspects d’un bon Enseignement

9.

2) Les caractéristiques d’un Enseignant

10.

12h-13h

Break-Lunch

11.

13h-14h

Mise en commun des trois premiers groupes

12.

Les aspects d’un bon Enseignement.

13.

14h-14h30

14.

14h30-15h30

15.
16.

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Mise en commun des quatre autres groupes
Les caractéristiques d’un bon Enseignant

15h30-16h

17.
18.

Commentaires du grand groupe

Commentaires du grand groupe
Distribution des supports (documents)

16h00

Départ

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DAY TWO
1. 8h

Informatique

2. 8h30

Appel nominal-Mise en train

3. 9h

Test chronométré - Commentaires

4. 9h30

Travail en ateliers (les théoriciens du nouveau Millénaire)

5. 10h30

Mise en commun (les trois premiers groupes)

6.

Commentaires du grand groupe

7. 12h

Lunch

8. 13h

Mise en commun (les quatre autres groupes)

9.

Commentaires

10.

15h30

Synthèse

11.

16h00

Départ
DAY THREE

1. 8h

Informatique

2. 8h30

Icebreaking activity

3. 9h

Travail en ateliers (les théories de l’apprentissage)

4. 10h

Mise en commun des trois premiers groupes

5.

Commentaires

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6. 11h

Pause

7. 11h15
8.

Mise en commun des quatre autres groupes
Commentaires

9. 12h15

Lunch

10.

13h15

Commentaires (Suite)

11.

14h30

Evaluation-Dernières informations pour la suite de la Formation

12.

16h00

Départ

13.

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Grille D’Evaluation
1

Nom de l’enseignant : _____________________________________
__

Date d’observation de la classe: ________________ Horaire: ______
Matière: __________________ Evaluateur: ____________________
Ajoutez une croix dans la case qui correspond à votre jugement
1
Toujours

2
Souvent

3
Rarement

4
Jamais

Intérêt de l’enseignant pour son cours
L’enseignant ………..
a) cherche à donner aux apprenants l’envie d’apprendre
b) fait preuve d’humour
c) utilise des supports techniques qui améliorent
l’apprentissage
d) lit ses notes ou un document écrit
e) est ponctuel
f) fait preuve de conviction de son discours
g) est motivé et fait montre de l’enthousiasme

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Organisation du cours
L’enseignant ………..
a)
b)

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énonce clairement les objectifs de son cours
présente le cours de manière organisée

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c) donne des documents de travail
d) fait des transitions logiques entre les compétences
e) fait des synthèses logiques lors de son cours et pour
clore
le cours
f)
emploie
des méthodes d’enseignement (travaux
pratiques, travaux de groupes et individuels)
permettent
une
appropriation
des connaissances.
g)
crée une
atmosphère
de travail
propice à
l’apprentissage
h) utilise et encourage l’apprentissage coopératif

14.

1

Terme utilisé à titre générique, sans aucun préjugé de genre.

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Clarté du cours
L’enseignant ………..

1

2

3

4

a) utilise une introduction appropriée (Brainstorming,
Icebreaking
b)
varie saactivities)
voix
c) s’exprime clairement et vérifie la compréhension des
apprenants
d) avance dans son cours avec une vitesse mesurée
e) utilise le tableau pour rendre son cours plus clair
f) varie sa méthode d’enseignement dépendamment des
g) présente la matière de façon claire et structurée.

Relation enseignant- apprenants
L’enseignant ………..

1

2

3

4

a) montre de l’intérêt pour les apprenants
b) accepte des points de vue divergents
c) apporte de l’aide en cas d’incompréhension
d) montre du respect envers les apprenants
e) est un facilitateur, un coach
f) donne la possibilité aux apprenants de devenir des
enseignants
g) est sensible aux besoins des apprenants et développe
un
sensible
h) œil
appelle
les apprenants par leurs noms
i) utilise de différents types d’interaction: Enseignantapprenant ; apprenant- enseignant ; apprenant-apprenant
j) identifie le(s) style(s) d’apprentissage de ses apprenants
k) gère sa classe de manière efficace
Incitation à la participation
L’enseignant ………..

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

a) encourage les questions et les commentaires
b) questionne les apprenants individuellement et collectivement
c) incite les apprenants à interagir
d) sollicite et encourage la participation
e) utilise un enseignement centré sur l’apprenant ou sur les
tâches
à accomplir
f)
utilise
de l’échafaudage
Explications
L’enseignant ………..
a) utilise des exemples
b) identifie ce qui est ambigu et contradictoire pour les
apprenants
c) souligne les points centraux
Attitudes des apprenants (auto-perception)
Les apprenants

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a)
b)
c)
d)

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sont attentifs et appliqués
participent activement au cours
sont motivés pour le cours
respectent l’enseignant

Commentaires
Ce que l’évaluateur a apprécié le plus dans ce cours
Ce que l’évaluateur souhaiterait modifier dans ce cours – Propositions Recommandations

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