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# STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC

(SCE)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES
UTHM
I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or
give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the
report is true.

_________________
Student Signature

Name

Matric No. :
Date

## CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

REPORT
SUBJECT CODE

DAC 31401

COURSE CODE

2 DAA

TESTING DATE

11 MARCH 2015

STUDENT NAME

GROUP

SEVEN (7)

## 3.MOHD HAMBALI BIN MUIDNUDIN

4.NURUL HAYATI BINTI MAT ROZI
5.NURUL FATTIHA BINTI ISHAK

NAME

18 MARCH 2015

MARKS
attached

EXAMINER COMMENT

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## TEST TITLE: IMPACT OF A JET

EDITION:
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EFFECTIVE DATE:

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AMENDMENT DATE:

1/7/10

1.0 OBJECTIVE
TO VERIFY THEORIES OF FORCES GENERATED BY IMPACT OF THE JET ON DIFFERENT SHAPES OF
VANE
2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of this experiment, students are able to:
Describe the deflection of the jet generates forces on the vane.
Identify the relationship between force and rate of momentum flow in the jet.
Measure the force generated by a jet of water striking a plate.

## 3.0 THEORY OF THE EXPERIMENT

A jet of water is produced when water is fed to a vertical pipe terminating in a tapered nozzle. The jet will impinge on
a vane, of different shapes. Vanes usually used are flat plate, inclined plate, curved plate and hemispherical cup.
Equation used to determine the force of jet impact (Fy) is given as:
Fy = Q ( Vy1 - Vy2 cos ) , Vy1 = initial velocity
where, V

Q
A

1. Flat plate

Q 2
Q

0
A
A

F y Q

## CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE: IMPACT OF A JET

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Q 1 Q
Fy Q

A 2 A
Q 2 Q 2 3Q 2
Fy

A
2A
2A

## Figure 3.2: 120o curved plate

where, from analysis, velocity after impingement Vy 2

1
1Q
V
2
2A

3. Hemispherical cup

Q Q

A A

Fy Q

2Q 2
Q
where, velocity after impingement Vy 2
A
A

## CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

## TEST TITLE: IMPACT OF A JET

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4.0 EQUIPMENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Hydraulic bench
Jet impact apparatus
Stop watch
Vernier caliper

Given:
Diameter of nozzle
= 10 mm
Gravity acceleration, g = 9.81 ms 2
From analysis, slope of the graph as in theory is given by:
Flat plate =

gA

## 120 curved plate =

3
2gA

Hemispherical cup =

2
gA

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## CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE: IMPACT OF A JET

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5.0 PROCEDURES
1.

First, take off the top plate and the transparent cylinder. Then, measure the diameter of the
nozzle. Assemble the flat plate to the lever that carries a jockey weight.
2.
Assemble the top plate and cylinder to the apparatus. Connect the supply pipe from the hydraulic
bench to the inlet pipe of the apparatus.

## Figure 5.1: Arrangement of apparatus

3.

The apparatus is first levelled and the lever is set to a balanced position (as indicated by a tally
supported from it) by placing the jockey weight at its zero position, and then adjusting the knurled nut
above the spring.

## Figure 5.2: Jockey weight restrained by a light spring

4.

Any force generated by impact of the jet on the vane is measured by moving the jockey weight
along the lever until the tally shows that it has been restored to its original balanced position.
5.
Nominal weight is place on the lever first (it is suggested that initial weight and incremental
weight = 20g). Water is then admitted through the bench supply valve.
6.
The force on the vane will displace the lever, which is then restored to its balanced position by
sliding the jockey weight along the lever. Then, cover the opening at the base of the hydraulic bench.

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## Figure 5.3: Move the jockey weight along the lever

7.

Record the volume of water and time to determine the flow rate. Also, record the weight on the
lever.

## Figure 5.4: Determining flow rate

8.

Repeat the procedure (step 1 to 7) for 120o curved plate and hemispherical cup.

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## 6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS

1. Record the readings in the table below.
a) Flat plate
Mass of jockey

Volume of water

weight m (g)

V (l)

Time t (s)

Q2

Time t (s)

Q2

Time t (s)

Q2

## b) 1200 curved plate

Mass of jockey

Volume of water

weight m (g)

V (l)

c) Hemispherical cup
Mass of jockey

Volume of water

weight m (g)

V (l)

2. Plot the graph of mass of jockey weight m versus Q 2 for flat plate, 120o inclined plate and hemispherical cup
and find the slope of the graphs.

## CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE: IMPACT OF A JET

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7.0 QUESTIONS
1. For every plate, record and calculate Q and Q2 and plot graphs of mass of jockey weight m versus Q2.
Theoretically, slope of the graphs is given as:
a. Flat plate

gA

3
2gA
2
c. Hemispherical cup
gA
b. 120o inclined plate

2. Compare the value between the slope at the graph and the theory value
a. Flat plate

Q 2
A

3Q 2
2A
2 Q 2
c. Hemispherical cup
A
b. 120o inclined plate

3. From the result, comment on the graphs slope and theoretical value.
4. Give a conclusion for this test.
5. Questions by lecturer

6.

Question by lecturer

## CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE: IMPACT OF A JET

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## CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE: IMPACT OF A JET

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