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Complex sentences
Verb / expression
should
ought to

Uses
advisability

present / future
1) I should study tonight.
2) She should do well on
the test. (future only, not
present)
3) I ought to study tonight.
4) She ought to do well on
the test. (future only, not
present)

past
1) I should have studied
last night, but I didn’t.
2) She should have done
well on the test.
3) I ought to have studied
last night, but I didn’t.
4) She ought to have done
well on the test.

 You had better be on
time, or we’ll leave
without you.
 You’d better see a
lawyer.
negative form:
had better + not + bare
infinitive
 You’d better not be late.
 He’d better stop taking
those pills.

past form uncommon

5) I would rather go to the
park than stay home.
 negative form:
would rather + not
-How much do you weigh?
-I’d rather not tell you.
 progressive form:
would rather + be + Ving
I’d rather be lying on a
beach in India than (be)
sitting in class right now.
2) He would rather play
tennis than (play) golf .

past form:
would rather + have +
past participle
1) I would rather have
gone to the park.
2) I’d rather not have gone
to the dinner party last
night.

When the subject of
WOULD RATHER is different from
the subject of the following verb,
we use

would rather + past tense
(present/future)
I’d rather Kate stayed with
us tonight.

would rather + past perfect
(past)
I’d rather Sam hadn’t
taken his father’s car
yesterday.

a) prefer + Ving +to+Ving (general
preference)
b) prefer + full infinitive +rather
than + bare infinitive (general
preference)
c) prefer +noun + to +noun (general
preference)
d) would prefer + full infinitive +
rather than + bare infinitive
( specific preference)

1) I prefer playing tennis
to playing squash.
2) I prefer to eat fish
rather than (eat) meat.

90% certainty
(expectation)
should + have +past participle is
often used to criticise smb’s behaviour
had better + bare
infinitive

 advisability
with threat of
bad result (it
is stronger
than should
/ought to )
 to say what
the best thing
to do in a
particular
situation is.

would rather =
would sooner

preference
do (bare infinitive)

would rather

not do
you/ N/he... +V2

+ bare infinitive + than +
bare infinitive

after the verbs:

3) He prefers basketball to
football.
4) I’d prefer to walk home
rather than take the
bus.
5) I’d prefer to have juice
rather than (have) Coke.

1) I suggested that she should see a

2

advise ask
demand insist
propose
recommend
require request
suggest

should do smth
should not do (BE)
that she/he
you/we

do smth
not do (AE)
present/past tense

after the adjectives:

It is /was

tense

advisable
should do smth
desirable
should not do (BE)
doubtful
that you
essential
he/she...
natural
necessary
do smth
recommended
not do (AE)
surprising
vital
present/past
only right
ridiculous

to do

It’s time
It’s high time

for us to do

you/ we/ they... +V2

as if / as though + he/she... + V2

had better

would rather

it’s high time












doctor. / ... that she see a doctor.
2) I recommended that she not go to
the concert.
3) I insisted that he pay me the
money.
4) The teacher insists that we should
be on time.
5) It is necessary that they should be
told the truth.
6) It’s essential that you be here on
time.
7) It’s essential that you are here on
time.
8) I demanded that he apologise.
9) I demanded that he apologised.
10)
What do you suggest I do?
11)
What do you suggest we
should do?
12)
Jane suggested that I
(should) buy a car. = Jane
suggested that I bought a car.
13)
It is ridiculous that we should
be (= that we are) short of water in
a country where it is always raining.

1) It’s time for me to have a holiday. = It’s time I had a
holiday.
2) It’s high time they were here. Their plane landed hours
ago.
3) It’s about time you started doing some work on your
project.
4) It’s time the children were in bed. It’s long after their
bedtime.
1) He speaks as if he were an expert in this field.
2) Mary talks as if /as though she knew everything.
3) He had never been abroad, but he spoke about New York
as if/ as though he had been there many times.

Common Mistakes
We’d better to cut down on our expenses. 
We’d better cut down on our expenses. 
You’d not better talk to him about it. 
You’d better not talk to him about it. 
We would better leave now. 
We had better leave now. 
I’d rather Greg goes to medical school. 
I’d rather Greg went to medical school. 
I’d rather prefer just to lie on the beach. 
I’d rather just lie on the beach. =I’d prefer just to lie on the beach. 
It’s high time you redecorate your flat. 
It’s high time you redecorated your flat. 
Practice.

Ex 1. Use WOULD RATHER to complete the sentences.
1) A: Do you want to go to the concert tonight? B: Not really. I.........
2) A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: Yes, but I........

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3) A: What are you doing right now? B: I’m studying grammar, but I.........
4) A: Do you want to come with us to the museum tomorrow? B: Thanks, but I..........
5) A: I......than........
B: Not me. I......than.........
Ex 2. Use the subjunctive in noun clauses.
1) Her advisor recommended that she........(take) five courses.
2) Roberto insisted that the new baby............(name) after his grandfather.
3) The students requested that the test.........(postpone), but the instructor decided against
postponement.
4) It is essential that no one........(admit) to the room without proper identification.
5) It was such a beautiful day that one of the students suggested we.........(have) class outside.
6) The movie director insisted that everything about his production .........(be) authentic.
7) It is vital that no one else........(know) about the secret government operation.
8) Mrs Wash asked that we........(be) sure to lock the door behind us.
9) It is important that you........(be/not) late.
10)
The governor proposed that a new highway.........(build).
Ex 3. Read the situations and write the sentences using SHOULD /SHOULDN’T . Some of the
sentences are past and some are present.
1) I’m feeling sick. I ate too much.
I shouldn’t.............
2) That man on the motorbike isn’t wearing a helmet. That’s dangerous. He should...............
3) When we got to the restaurant, there were no free tables. We hadn’t reserved one. We............
4) The notice says that the shop is open every day from 8.30 . It is 9 o’clock now but the shop isn’t
open yet.
The shop should...............
5) The speed limit is 30 miles an hour, but Catherine is doing 50. She.............
6) I went to Paris. A friend of mine lives in Paris but I didn’t go to see him while I was there. When I
saw him later, he said: You..................
7) I was driving behind another car. Suddenly, the driver in front stopped without warning and I
drove into the back of his car. It wasn’t my fault. The driver..........
8) I walked into a wall. I wasn’t looking where I was going. I should...........
Ex 4. Are these sentences right or wrong?
1) Tom suggested that I should look for another job.
2) Tom suggested that I look for another job.
3) Tom suggested that I looked for another job.
4) Tom suggested me to look for another job.
5) Where do you suggest I go for my holiday?
6) Where do you suggest me to go for my holiday?
7) Where do you suggest I should go for my holiday?
8) You’d not be better be late for your interview.
9) We would better go soon.
10)
It’s high time you tidy your bedroom.
11)
We’d better to do the washing up.
12)
I’d rather the guests come at 8 o’clock.
13)
Unless you don’t study, you won’t pass the exams.
14)
I wish we would afford a new car.
15)
Nick talks as if he knows everything.
Ex 5. Read the situations and write sentences with HAD BETTER. Use the words in brackets.
1) You’re going out for a walk with Tom. It might rain. You say to Tom: .......(an umbrella)
2) Jack has just cut himself. It’s quite a bad cut. You say to him:.........(a plaster)
3) You and Ann plan to go to a restaurant this evening. It’s a very popular restaurant. You say to
Ann:
We.........(reserve)
4) Jill doesn’t look very well -not well enough to go to work. You say to her: ........(work)
5) You received your phone bill four weeks ago but you haven’t paid it yet. If you don’t pay very soon,
you could be in trouble. You say to yourself : .........(pay)
6) You want to go out but you’re expecting an important phone call. You say to your friend:
I........... (go out)
7) You and Fiona are going to the theatre. You’ve missed the bus and you don’t want` to be late. You
say to Fiona: ..............(a taxi)
Ex 6. Read the situations and write sentences with IT’S TIME.....
1) You think the children should be in bed. It’s already 11 o’clock.

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2) You haven’t had a holiday for a very long time. You need one now.
3) You’re waiting for Mary. She’s late. Why isn’t she here yet?
4) You’re sitting on a train waiting for it to leave the station. It’s already 5 minutes late.
5) You enjoy having parties. You haven’t had one for a long time.
6) The company you work for is badly run. You think there should be some changes.
7) Andrew’s hair looks awful. He hasn’t washed it for a long time. He says:.........
8) You’re taking an important exam next month, but you haven’t started studying for it yet.
9) Sally promised to phone a friend, Mike, two weeks ago, but she still hasn’t phoned him.
10)
Your bedroom is in a terrible mess. Don’t you think........
Ex 7. Rewrite each sentence so that it means the same as the sentence before. Use the words from
the brackets.
1) I think it’s the government’s duty to do something about unemployment. (should)
2) I’m very tired. Why don’t you clear the table yourself? (rather)
3) In my opinion, they should get down to some serious work right now. (high time)
4) My elder brother made me stay at home and do some household chores. (demand)
5) You should put on your jewellery for such a big occasion. (better)
6) It is essential that every child should have equal educational opportunities. (insist)
7) I think it’s a good idea to raise some money for her operation. (were)
8) I think Tom should start studying for his exams. (about)
9) Stay in bed for several days and take antibiotics. (ought)
10)
I believe we should widen our relations with the neighbouring countries. (suggest)
11)
Barbara should stop seeing him before it’s too late. (had)
12)
I don’t think it’s a good idea to lie to your parents about what happened. (were you)
13)
Sam ran out of time; that’s why he didn’t go shopping. (would)
14)
If Helen gets a grant, she will be able to continue her studies. (provided)
15)
Jack would prefer to learn Italian rather than learn German. (rather)
16)
You should join a gym. (better)
17)
Why don’t you make an effort to improve your life? (would)
18)
It’s a pity I missed your graduation. (wish)
19)
You shouldn’t go out tonight; you have to go to school tomorrow. (better)
20)
John would prefer to eat pizza rather than chips. (rather)
Ex 8. Choose the most suitable tense.
1) I wish Pete ........(doesn’t live/ didn’t live/ wouldn’t live) so far away from the town centre. We’ll
have to take a taxi.
2) I feel rather cold. I wish I ........( brought/had brought) my pullover with me.
3) What a pity. I wish we.......(don’t have to /didn’t have to /wouldn’t have to) leave.
4) I wish you ......(tell/ told /had told) me about the test. I haven’t done any revision.
5) I wish the people next door .....(hadn’t made/ wouldn’t make / couldn’t make ) so much noise.
6) Darling I love you so much! I wish we ........(are/ had been/ would be/ could be) together always!
7) I’m sorry I missed your birthday party. I really wish I ......(come/ came/ had come/ would come).
8) I like my new boss but I wish she .....(gave/ would give/ could give) me some more responsibility.
9) Having a lovely time in Brighton. I wish you.........(are/ were/ had been) here.
10)
This car was a complete waste of money. I wish I .....(didn’t buy it/ hadn’t bought it.

Ex 9. Write sentences using IT’S TIME........
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

You ought to clean that car.
She should get her hair cut.
We ought to have a holiday.
You need to cut the grass.
You should wash that sweater.

6) You ought to stop smoking.
7) He ought to grow up.
8) We ought to paint the kitchen.
9) He needs a new car.
10)
That team hasn’t won a match for ages.

Ex 10. Complete each sentence using AS IF / AS THOUGH.......
1) She’s 50 years old, but she looks.........
2) He’s only a receptionist, but he acts........
3) They’re quite rich, but they behave.........
4) He’s only got a cold, but he acts.........
5) It’s my car, but he treats it........

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Ex 11. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1) A: I’m going out in a minute. B: So am I, so you’d better.........(take) your keys with you.
2) A: Do you watch much television? B: No. I prefer.......(read) books to........(watch) TV.
3) A: I didn’t enjoy the concert much. B: Nor did I! I’d rather they..... (play) more modern music.
4) A: Shall we go to that new restaurant this evening? B: Good idea. We had better......(book) a table.
5) A: Shall I tidy your bedroom for you? B: I’d rather you ....(not/tidy) it. I’ll do it later.
6) A: Shall we go for a walk this afternoon? B: No. I would prefer......(stay) here and read a book.
7) A: My brother prefers.....(play ) computer games to ........(do) his homework. B: So does mine.
8) A: Did you enjoy the play last night? B: No. I’d rather.....(go) to the cinema.
9) A: I’d rather you......(not/make) so much noise. B: Sorry. I’ll to be quiet.
10)
A: You had better......(work) hard at your new job. B: I will. I want to make a good
impression.
Ex 12. Choose the correct tense.
1) I’d rather you....(did/ had done) your homework before you go out.
2) Supposing you....(had heard/had been heard) telling me what would have happened?
3) He acted as if he ........(owns/owned) the house.
4) I wish I .....(went /had gone) to the library yesterday.
5) I would have made a cake if I ......(know/had known) you were coming.
6) It’s about time we .....(employed/ had employed) some new staff.
7) If she ....(had won/ won) the competition, she would have had a party.
8) I’d rather you.....(didn’t interrupt/hadn’t interrupted) me when I’m talking.
9) Suppose you .....(saw/had seen) a crime being committed, what would you do?
10)
If only you .....(told/had told ) me, I would have understood.
11)
He would have sent a card if he ......(realised /had realised) it was your birthday.
12)
If you ....(met/had met) John now, you wouldn’t recognise him.
13)
It’s high time you......(learnt/had learnt) how to drive.
14)
I’d rather you ......(hadn’t misbehaved/ didn’t misbehave) at the party last night.
15)
They spoke as if they .....(knew/had known) each other for years.
Ex 13. Cross out the unnecessary word.
1) You’d better to apply to a university in your country.
2) As long as you will book early, you won’t have a problem finding a seat.
3) I wish if someone would do something about it.
4) John would rather his sister had made less noise every time she comes back from a party.
5) It’s time Paul had stopped acting like a child.
6) They won’t let you in unless you will wear a suit and tie.
7) Unless you not ask him, he won’t come.
8) Even if he offered to lend me the money, or I wouldn’t take it.
9) I prefer playing cards than to playing board games.
10)
Emma would rather to study Medicine than Chemistry.
Test 14. ( M-9 Upper-Opportunities)
I. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in the list.
Better

had

insist

ought

rather

should

suggest

time

were

would

1) If I were you, I........apologise to your aunt.
2) The doctor.........that he should stay in bed for a few days.
3) He’d ......return the money as soon as possible or he’ll be in big trouble.
4) Do you think I......to go and visit her?
5) You really.....have an early night. You’re looking very tired.
6) It’s high......you got a job.
7) You.....better not tell them about it.
8) I’d ....not say anything about it at the moment, but I’ll tell you later.
9) I wouldn’t work such long hours if I.....her.
10)
Why don’t you...... that he invites some friends round- that should cheer him up.
II. Complete the sentences with the correct multi-part verb with UP.
11)
It’s hard to...... smoking without professional help.

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12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)

Everybody is worried that food prices will ......again this month.
The police had to.......the traffic for an hour due to a train accident.
Could you help me to.....the room? It’s very dirty.
I don’t think it was very wise of you to.....late for a job interview.
The Smiths will have to.....their old house. It’s in a terrible state.
I’m sure Jill will.......when you tell her she has scored two more points than she expected.
We asked the local authorities for more money to.......a special school for gifted children.
Don’t worry, she won’t know the truth. I will......a convincing excuse.
Sorry to be late, but we were ......on the road for two hours by a traffic accident.

Test 14. ( M-9 Upper-Opportunities)
I. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in the list.
Better

had

insist

ought

rather

should

suggest

time

were

would

1) If I were you, I........apologise to your aunt.
2) The doctor.........that he should stay in bed for a few days.
3) He’d ......return the money as soon as possible or he’ll be in big trouble.
4) Do you think I......to go and visit her?
5) You really.....have an early night. You’re looking very tired.
6) It’s high......you got a job.
7) You.....better not tell them about it.
8) I’d ....not say anything about it at the moment, but I’ll tell you later.
9) I wouldn’t work such long hours if I.....her.
10)
Why don’t you...... that he invites some friends round- that should cheer him up.
II. Complete the sentences with the correct multi-part verb with UP.
11)
It’s hard to...... smoking without professional help.
12)
Everybody is worried that food prices will ......again this month.
13)
The police had to.......the traffic for an hour due to a train accident.
14)
Could you help me to.....the room? It’s very dirty.
15)
I don’t think it was very wise of you to.....late for a job interview.
16)
The Smiths will have to.....their old house. It’s in a terrible state.
17)
I’m sure Jill will.......when you tell her she has scored two more points than she expected.
18)
We asked the local authorities for more money to.......a special school for gifted children.
19)
Don’t worry, she won’t know the truth. I will......a convincing excuse.
20)
Sorry to be late, but we were ......on the road for two hours by a traffic accident.
Test 15. ( M-9 Upper-Opportunities)
I. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.
1) I wish you wouldn’t phone me so often. (rather)
2) The sensible thing to do is to take the exam. (were)
3) The police forced him to answer a lot of questions. (demand)
4) I think you should pay for your own clothes. (time)
5) She made him take the box of chocolates. (insist)
6) You should phone your parents and tell them where you are. (better)
7) He wouldn’t let us pay for the meal. (insist)
8) I’d prefer to stay at home tonight. (rather)
9) I think it’s a good idea to travel abroad for a year or two. (were)
10)
The customs officer made her empty all her cases. (demand)
II. Complete the sentences using one word in each gap.
11)
12)
13)
14)

The leader of our party spoke against racial d...............
Although a lot of measures are taken to combat it, crime is still on the i...........
Ancient Greece was the c....... of Western European culture.
He was found guilty of b......... after they had caught him breaking into his neighbour’s house
and stealing a CD recorder.
15)
The educational system in Russia is currently in a p........of transition.
16)
In my city many people live in the streets and the problem of h............. is growing.
17)
The twentieth century saw the b........ of terrorism in its cruellest form.

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18)
19)
20)

I have no idea what we’ll eventually do. Our plans are in a state of fl...........now.
The health-care system will have to u........many radical changes soon.
When John stole sweets from a shop, his parents were fined for s.........

Test 15. ( M-9 Upper-Opportunities)
I. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.
1) I wish you wouldn’t phone me so often. (rather)
2) The sensible thing to do is to take the exam. (were)
3) The police forced him to answer a lot of questions. (demand)
4) I think you should pay for your own clothes. (time)
5) She made him take the box of chocolates. (insist)
6) You should phone your parents and tell them where you are. (better)
7) He wouldn’t let us pay for the meal. (insist)
8) I’d prefer to stay at home tonight. (rather)
9) I think it’s a good idea to travel abroad for a year or two. (were)
10)
The customs officer made her empty all her cases. (demand)
II. Complete the sentences using one word in each gap.
11)
12)
13)
14)

The leader of our party spoke against racial d...............
Although a lot of measures are taken to combat it, crime is still on the i...........
Ancient Greece was the c....... of Western European culture.
He was found guilty of b......... after they had caught him breaking into his neighbour’s house
and stealing a CD recorder.
15)
The educational system in Russia is currently in a p........of transition.
16)
In my city many people live in the streets and the problem of h............. is growing.
17)
The twentieth century saw the b........ of terrorism in its cruellest form.
18)
I have no idea what we’ll eventually do. Our plans are in a state of fl...........now.
19)
The health-care system will have to u........many radical changes soon.
20)
When John stole sweets from a shop, his parents were fined for s.........