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7, JULY 2009

PAPR Reduction in OFDM

Stéphane Y. Le Goff, Samer S. Al-Samahi, Boon Kien Khoo, Charalampos C. Tsimenidis, and Bayan S. Sharif

Abstract—Selected mapping (SLM) is a technique used to recently, another method was proposed in [10] that combines

reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal channel estimation using high-power pilot tones and PAPR

frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. SLM requires reduction via SLM. One of the key ideas in [10] consists of

the transmission of several side information bits for each data

block, which results in some data rate loss. These bits must choosing the location of the pilot tone used inside each data

generally be channel-encoded because they are particularly sub-block depending on the SI index, and then exploit the

critical to the error performance of the system. This increases the power disparity between this pilot tone and the data symbols

system complexity and transmission delay, and decreases the data in the same sub-block in order to recover this index at the

rate even further. In this paper, we propose a novel SLM method receiver side. The technique in [10] assumes the use of several

for which no side information needs to be sent. By considering

the example of several OFDM systems using either QPSK or 16- pilot tones in each data block, which is not a suitable option for

QAM modulation, we show that the proposed method performs fading channels that change slowly. The practical limitations

very well both in terms of PAPR reduction and bit error rate at of the work in [10] can however be suppressed by leaving

the receiver output provided that the number of subcarriers is out the pilot tones and replacing them with data symbols. By

large enough. doing so, we remove the restrictions regarding the possible

Index Terms—Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing locations of the high-power subcarriers inside the data block,

(OFDM), peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), selected mapping, and are therefore left with a problem which is much more

side information. general than that addressed in [10]. In this paper, we propose

to address this problem by describing a novel SLM method

I. I NTRODUCTION without side information and studying its performance in terms

H IGH peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is a well- of probability of erroneous SI detection, bit error rate (BER),

known drawback of orthogonal frequency-division mul- and PAPR reduction. In our SLM method, each SI index is

tiplexing (OFDM) systems. Among all the techniques that associated with a particular set of locations inside the data

have been proposed to reduce the PAPR (see, e.g., [1] - [7]), block at which the modulation symbols have been extended.

selected mapping (SLM) is one of the most promising ones In the receiver, a SI detection block attempts to determine the

because it is simple to implement, introduces no distortion locations of the extended symbols.

in the transmitted signal, and can achieve significant PAPR The paper is organized as follows: In Section II, the

reduction [2]. The idea in SLM consists of converting the proposed SLM technique is presented. Then, in Section III, we

original data block into several independent signals, and then consider an example for which we provide various computer

transmitting the signal that has the lowest PAPR. The selected simulation results. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section

signal index, called side information index (SI index), must IV.

also be transmitted to allow for the recovery of the data

block at the receiver side, which leads to a reduction in data II. T HE P ROPOSED SLM T ECHNIQUE WITHOUT S IDE

rate. This index is traditionally transmitted as a set of bits I NFORMATION

(the SI bits). The probability of erroneous SI detection has a

significant influence on the error performance of the system In this section, a notation in the form V = (vq )Q shall be

since the whole data block is lost every time the receiver does used to denote a vector V composed of Q scalar quantities

not detect the correct SI index. In practice, a channel code vq , q ∈ {0, 1, ..., Q − 1}.

must thus be used to protect the SI bits. This further reduces

the data rate, makes the system more complex, and increases

the transmission delay. A. The proposed SLM transmitter

It may therefore be worth trying to implement the SLM Consider an OFDM system using N orthogonal subcarriers.

method without having to explicitly send any SI bit. A few A data block is a vector X = (xn )N composed of N

techniques for doing so have already been proposed such as, complex symbols xn , each of them representing a modulation

for example, the scrambling method described in [8] or the symbol transmitted over a subcarrier. In the classical SLM

maximum-likelihood decoding scheme introduced in [9]. More technique, X is multiplied element by element with U vectors

Manuscript received May 3, 2007; revised August 22, 2007; accepted Bu = (bu,n )N composed of N complex numbers bu,n , u ∈

November 29, 2007. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper {0, 1, ..., U − 1}, defined so that |bu,n | = 1, where | · | denotes

and approving it for publication was X. Wang. the modulus operator. Each resulting vector Xu = (xu,n )N ,

The authors are with the School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer

Engineering, Newcastle University, UK (e-mail: stephane.le-goff@ncl.ac.uk). where xu,n = bu,n ·xn , produces, after inverse discrete Fourier

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2009.070463 transform, a corresponding vector Xu composed of N symbols

1536-1276/09$25.00

c 2009 IEEE

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009 3321

xu,q , q ∈ {0, 1, ..., N − 1}, given by increase G, expressed in decibels (dB), is given by

2

N −1 G = 10 · log10 1 + δ · (C − 1) , (2)

1 2πnq

xu,q = √ xu,n · exp j . (1)

N n=0 N

where δ = K N . In practice, the energy increase is compensated

for by decreasing the average energy per complex symbol

Among the U vectors Xu , the one leading to the lowest xn , i.e. reducing the minimum Euclidean distance between

PAPR, denoted as Xv , is selected for transmission. To allow signal points in the constellation from which the symbols xn

for the recovery of the original vector X at the receiver side, are drawn. Remarkably, this does not necessarily result in

one needs to transmit the index v of the selected vector. This some significant error performance degradation at the receiver

index, hereafter called SI index, is generally transmitted as a output, as will be seen later.

set of log2 (U ) bits.

In this paper, we propose a novel SLM technique that B. The proposed SLM receiver

allows for the SI index v to be reliably embedded in the

In this paper, we assume transmission over a quasi-

transmitted vector Xv so that no additional bits need to be sent

static frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel with Z

to the receiver. In this technique, the vectors Bu = (bu,n )N ,

equal-power taps. For each transmitted symbol xv,q , q ∈

u ∈ {0, 1, ..., U − 1}, are such that, for each Bu , the moduli

{0, 1, ..., N − 1}, the corresponding received sample yq is thus

of K elements bu,n are set to a constant C > 1, called

given by

extension factor, whereas the moduli of the other (N − K)

Z−1

elements bu,n remain equal to the unit. Note that the phases yq = hz · xv,q−z + nq , (3)

of these elements can be set to any random values as in z=0

classical SLM. For a given vector Bu , the locations of the

elements bu,n for which |bu,n | = C form a set Su composed where hz

is a complex zero-mean Gaussian sample repre-

of K integers. For instance, if a vector Bu is associated with senting the fading experienced by the zth tap. In (3), nq

the set Su = {0, 7, 25, 37}, it means that only the complex denotes a complex Gaussian noise sample with zero mean

elements bu,n in positions n = 0, 7, 25, and 37 in Bu have a and variance σ 2 = N0 , where N0 denotes the one-sided

modulus equal to C. The set Su is actually representative of power spectral density of the additive white Gaussian noise

the index u. To allow for SI recovery in the receiver, there (AWGN). We also assume that the Z fading samples hz are

must be a one-to-one correspondence between an index u and independent and perfectly known at the receiver side, i.e.

a set Su . In other words, two distinct vectors Bu must NOT perfect channel state information (CSI) is considered. Under

be associated with identical sets. The number of distinct sets these assumptions, we can show that, after discrete Fourier

S transform, the received sample yn corresponding to the nth

Nu that can be generated is given by the binomial coefficient

N! subcarrier, n ∈ {0, 1, ..., N − 1}, is given by [11]

K = K!·(N −K)! . Since the SI index can

take U values, we

only need to use U sets Su among the N K available sets. In yn = hn · xv,n + nn , (4)

the next section, we will describe a simple method to select

the U sets Su . where

N −1

Once all vectors Bu have been generated, our SLM method 1 2πnq

nn = √ nq · exp −j (5)

works exactly like the classical one, i.e. the data block X is N q=0 N

multiplied element by element with each Bu so as to produce

U vectors Xu = (xu,n )N , with xu,n = bu,n · xn , as well as U is a complex zero-mean Gaussian noise sample with variance

corresponding vectors Xu . In a given vector Xu , the symbols σ 2 = N0 and

xu,n with n ∈ Su have an average energy C 2 times greater

Z−1

2πnz

than that of the other symbols, and are hereafter referred hn = hz · exp −j (6)

N

to as extended symbols. This disparity in average energies z=0

between extended and non-extended symbols is what allows is a complex Gaussian noise sample with zero mean and unit

the receiver to recover the SI index after transmission. Finally, variance.

the vector Xu with the lowest PAPR is transmitted. We recall The role of the SI detection block is to recover the index v

that, throughout this paper, this particular vector is denoted by processing both vectors Y = (yn )N and H = (hn )N ,

as Xv and is associated with the vectors Xv = (xv,n )N and the latter being computed using (6). This block has the

Bv = (xv,n )N . The index v represents the SI index to be knowledge of the U possible vectors Bu and the one-to-one

transmitted. correspondence between an index u and a set Su . Under these

In the proposed SLM technique, the average energy per conditions, the optimal performance in terms of SI detection

transmitted symbol is increased when the data block X is is obtained by applying the well-known maximum-likelihood

multiplied by the vectors Bu because the fact that |xu,n | = (ML) detection algorithm: the receiver selects as SI index the

|bu,n | · |xn |, with |bu,n | = 1 or C, implies that E[|xu,n |2 ] > value of u that minimizes the term

E[|xn |2 ], where E[·] designates the expectation operator. Note −1

N

that any energy increase in Xu translates into an identical |yn − hn bu,n xn |2 , u ∈ {0, 1, ..., U − 1}. (7)

energy increase in Xu (Parseval’s theorem). This energy n=0

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3322 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

When 2p -ary complex symbols xn are employed, the num- 1, v+1, ..., U −1}, from satisfying the condition βu < βv , even

ber of terms to compute is equal to U · 2pN , which leads to if we have αu,n < αv,n for several locations n ∈ {0, 1, ..., N −

a prohibitive computational complexity for practical values of 1}.

N . In fact, for each vector Bu to be considered, there are 2pN

possible sequences of symbols xn , i.e. 2pN possible vectors III. E XAMPLE

Xu (or X). In practice, it is thus necessary to use a suboptimal To illustrate the proposed SLM technique, we consider in

algorithm instead of ML detection. In this sub-section, we

this section the example of several OFDM systems based on

propose an algorithm that exploits the disparity in average either QPSK or 16-QAM modulation with Gray mapping. Our

energy between the K extended symbols and the (N −K) non-

goal is to achieve PAPR reduction using U = 10 vectors

extended symbols in vector Xv = (xv,n )N so as to recover the

Bu . All results given in this section are obtained by computer

SI index v. Assume a particular location n ∈ {0, 1, ..., N − 1} simulations considering the frequency-selective fading channel

in the received vector and its corresponding fading sample hn .

model previously described with Z = 4 taps. We also assume

If the SI index was u ∈ {0, 1, ..., U − 1}, the average received

the use, at the transmitter output, of a nonlinear solid-state

energy at location n in the absence of additive noise would power amplifier (SSPA) simulated using Rapp’s model [12]

be given by

with a smoothness parameter p = 3 and an input backoff

E[|hn |2 |xu,n |2 ] = |hn |2 |bu,n |2 γ, (8) (IBO) of 7 dB.

A. Construction of the vectors Bu

At the same time, we can show that the average energy of the

received sample yn is given by In this sub-section, we present a technique to construct the

set of U = 10 vectors Bu = (bu,n )N , u ∈ {0, 1, ..., U − 1}.

E[|yn |2 ] = |hn |2 |bv,n |2 γ + σ 2 . (9) First, for a given vector Bu , the phases of the complex

elements bu,n can be chosen randomly, as already suggested in

At this stage, we can introduce a metric αu,n defined as

previous works (see, e.g., [13]). The first step of the procedure

used for defining the moduli |bu,n | consists of dividing the

2 2 2 2

αu,n = E[|yn | ] − σ − |hn | |bu,n | γ . (10)

vectors Bu into subvectors of length M , where M is the

smallest possible integer satifying the condition M ≥ U,

By combining (9) and (10), we can show that k

k being any integer smaller than M . In our example, U = 10,

2

2

2 and therefore M = 5 because k5 = 10 when k = 2 or 3. If U

αu,n = |hn | γ |bv,n | − |bu,n | . (11)

was equal to 11 instead of 10, we should have taken M = 6

because there is no integer k for which k5 ≥ 11. Each vector

The minimal value of the metric αu,n is equal to 0 and

Bu is thus viewed as a succession of L = N/M subvectors,

obtained for |bv,n | = |bu,n |. Extending this reasoning to the

each of them composed of M complex elements. Before

whole received vector rather than focusing on a particular

moving to the next step, we also have to select a particular

location n leads us to introduce another metric βu defined

as

value of k among all those satisfying the condition M k ≥ U.

N−1 For reasons explained later, we keep the smallest value of the

βu = αu,n . (12) integer k for further considerations. In our example, we thus

n=0 find M = 5 and k = 2.

The minimal value of this metric βu is also equal to 0 and Hereafter, we denote by bm,l the (m + 1)th complex

obtained when the condition |bv,n | = |bu,n | is satisfied for all element in the (l + 1)th subvector, m ∈ {0, 1, ..., M − 1},

values of n, i.e. Bv = Bu or equivalently u = v. This shows l ∈ {0, 1, ..., L − 1}. In each subvector, the moduli of k

that the SI index can be recovered by determining, using (10) elements are set to a constant C > 1, whereas the moduli

and (12), the value of u that minimizes the metric βu . It is of the other (M − k) elements remain equal to the unit. The

important to mention that, in the computation of (10), the locations in each subvector of the elements bm,l for which

receiver uses the sample yn to approximate the term E[|yn |2 ] |bm,l | = C are identical for each subvector, i.e. the moduli

as follows: |bm,l | do not depend on the index l ∈ {0, 1, ..., L − 1}. This

E[|yn |2 ] ≈ |yn |2 . (13) implies that, once the M moduli have been defined for the first

subvector (corresponding to l = 0), this pattern of moduli is

Evaluating an average by only considering a single sample simply repeated (L−1) times in order to obtain the moduli for

may obviously lead to a gross estimate of this average. In case all locations n ∈ {M, M +1, ...,

N − 1} in the corresponding

we use too many unreliable estimates of the terms E[|yn |2 ], vector Bu . The fact that M k ≥ U implies that there are

n ∈ {0, 1, ..., N − 1}, in the computation of (10), the minimal enough possible permutations of k extended elements in a

value of the metric βu may not be obtained for u = v, thus M -element subvector in order to generate the U distinct sets

leading to an erroneous detection of the SI index. In order to Su that are needed. As an example, Fig. 1 shows the U = 10

minimize the probability of occurence of such an error event, subvectors that can be generated when M = 5 and k = 2.

we must ensure that the U vectors Bu are as different as Note that Fig. 1 only shows the moduli of the elements bm,l

possible, i.e. the number of locations n in two distinct vectors since their phases can basically take any random values.

Bu and Bu for which |bu,n | = |bu ,n | is maximised. This The set of U vectors Bu , u ∈ {0, 1, ..., U − 1}, obtained

should, in most cases, prevent a metric βu , u ∈ {0, ..., v − using the simple procedure described above is such that, when

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009 3323

u=0 N = 255, QPSK N = 510, QPSK

C C 1 1 1

N = 65, 16-QAM N = 125, 16-QA M

u=1 C 1 C 1 1 N = 255, 16-QA M N = 510, 16-QA M

1.E +00

u=2 C 1 1 C 1

u=3 C 1 1 1 C

1.E -01

u=4 1 C C 1 1

u=6 1 C 1 1 C

u=8 1 1 C 1 C

m= 0 1 2 3 4

Fig. 1. List of the 10 possible subvectors that can be used to apply our

1.E -05

SLM technique, when M = 5 and k = 2. We only show the moduli of the 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

elements bm,l since their phases can take any random values. Extension Factor C

the proposed SLM technique as a function of the extension factor C, for

considering any pair of vectors Bu and Bu , u = u , the N = 65, 125, 255, and 510 subcarriers. The OFDM systems use either

number of locations n for which |bu,n | = |bu ,n | is at least QPSK or 16-QAM modulation, with Gray mapping in both cases. The system

equal to 2NM . In other words, the probability of erroneous SI

parameters are: Eb /N0 = 10 dB, quasi-static frequency-selective Rayleigh

fading channel with Z = 4 equal-power taps and perfect CSI, suboptimal SI

detection can be lowered by increasing the ratio M N

. This is detection algorithm, M = 5, k = 2, SSPA with p = 3 and IBO = 7 dB.

why it is crucial to minimize, for given values of N and U , the

length M of the subvectors. With the construction procedure

proposed in this sub-section, the total number of extended between extended and non-extended symbols after transmis-

symbols in the transmitted vector Xv is given by K = NMk . sion through the channel, which makes the occurence of an

Note that δ = K N = M . Hence, in order to minimize the energy

k

erroneous detection event less likely. Increasing the number N

increase given by (2), we must ensure to use the smallest of subcarriers also results in a lower probability of detection

possible

M value of k among all those satisfying the condition error. We recall that, if we consider two distinct vectors Bu

k ≥ U . and Bu , the minimum number of locations n for which

|bu,n | = |bu ,n | is equal to 2N

M . Hence, any increase in the

number of subcarriers results in an increase in this number of

B. Probability of SI detection error locations, which then reduces the probability of an erroneous

Fig. 2 shows the probability of SI detection error, Pde , as a detection event.

function of the extension factor C, for four different numbers The results in Fig. 2 also indicate that our SI detection

of subcarriers, N = 65, 125, 255, and 510. We consider two algorithm performs better with QPSK than with 16-QAM. This

OFDM systems using either QPSK or 16-QAM modulation. can be explained by the fact that, in QPSK, the energy per

All results are obtained for Eb /N0 = 10 dB, where Eb symbol xn is constant, i.e. we always have |xn |2 = γ. This is

designates the average energy per bit and N0 is the one-sided not the case for 16-QAM where the term |xn |2 can take three

power spectral density of white Gaussian noise. The parameter different values: |xn |2 = γ5 , γ, or 9γ

5 , meaning that the term

Pde represents the probability that the receiver cannot recover |xn |2 may significantly differ from its average value γ. Hence,

the SI index v, i.e. a complete OFDM frame (vector X) is the corresponding received sample yn , given by (4), has an

lost. Note that, for simplicity sake, the numbers of subcarriers energy |yn |2 that tends to deviate more from its average value

are chosen to be multiples of M = 5 close to the usual powers E[|yn |2 ] in 16-QAM than it does in QPSK. As a consequence,

of two used in practice. Finally, the suboptimal algorithm the approximation E[|yn |2 ] ≈ |yn |2 used in the computation

introduced in the previous section is used for recovering the of (10) tends to be more accurate in QPSK than in 16-QAM,

SI index. which makes the occurence of an erroneous detection event

From Fig. 2, it is observed that the value of Pde depends less likely with QPSK than with 16-QAM.

on the extension factor C, the number N of subcarriers, and

the modulation scheme that is employed. As C is increased, C. Bit error rate performance

the performance of our suboptimal algorithm improves simply It is also important to study the error performance degrada-

because a higher value of C allows for a better distinction tion caused by the application of the technique proposed in this

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3324 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

N = 255, QPSK N = 510, QPSK

PSI, QPSK N = 65, 16-QA M can be made small enough (e.g., by increasing the SNR

N = 125, 16-QAM N = 255, 16-QAM and/or the number of subcarriers), the performance difference

N = 510, 16-QAM PSI, 16-QA M

1.E +00 between our SLM method and SLM-PSI is actually marginal.

This is a priori rather surprising given the fact that the

energy increase per symbol obtained with our SLM method

is G = 0.70 dB in this example (for which C = 1.2 and

δ = M k

= 25 ). At first glance, we would therefore expect to

1.E -01

have a performance difference of G = 0.70 dB in the absence

of any erroneous SI detection event.

Hereafter, we propose to clarify this result by considering,

for simplicity sake and without loss of generality, the example

BER

the transmitter output. As previously mentioned, throughout

our work, we actually compensate for the increase in average

energy per transmitted symbol xv,n (or equivalently xv,q ) by

1.E -03 decreasing the average energy per symbol xn , i.e. making

the constellation more compact. This results in a reduced

minimum Euclidean distance between signal points, and thus

some error performance degradation at the receiver √ output.

1.E -04

In the case of BPSK, the symbols xn ∈

{± Eb } are

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 simply replaced by the symbols xn ∈ {± Eb /ω}, where

Eb/N 0 (dB ) ω = 1 + δ · (C 2 − 1). It is easy to show that extending K

symbols by a factor C and leaving (N −K) of

them unchanged

Fig. 3. BER performance of several OFDM systems using the proposed SLM

technique, for N = 65, 125, 255, and 510 subcarriers. The OFDM systems use in a frame of N BPSK symbols xn ∈ {± Eb /ω} leads to

either QPSK or 16-QAM modulation, with Gray mapping in both cases. The an average energy per symbol equal to Eb , and thus identical

system parameters are: C = 1.2, quasi-static frequency-selective Rayleigh to the energy

fading channel with Z = 4 equal-power taps and perfect CSI, suboptimal SI √ per symbol obtained using classical SLM with

detection algorithm, M = 5, k = 2, SSPA with p = 3 and IBO = 7 dB. xn ∈ {± Eb }.

For comparison purposes, the BER plots obtained with equivalent OFDM If the transmission channel over each BPSK subcarrier can

systems based on classical SLM with perfect side information (PSI) are also be modeled as AWGN, the bit error probability peb obtained

displayed.

with the proposed SLM method in the absence of any SI

detection error can then be expressed as

paper. Such degradation is potentially due to both the energy ⎛ ⎞

increase G and the occasional SI detection error events. In Fig.

2

1−δ 1 Eb δ C E

+ · erfc ⎝

b⎠

3, we have plotted the BER versus Eb /N0 curves obtained for peb = · erfc · · .

the OFDM systems based on QPSK and 16-QAM, for N = 2 ω N0 2 ω N0

65, 125, 255, and 510 subcarriers. For all simulations, the (14)

extension factor value is C = 1.2. For comparison purposes, This equation indicates that, at high SNR, the performance

we have also plotted the BER curves obtained with equivalent gap over AWGN channel between

our SLM method and SLM-

OFDM systems using classical SLM with perfect, i.e. error- PSI is equal to 10 · log10 ω dB, which corresponds exactly

free, side information (SLM-PSI). The latter scenario typically to the energy increase G given by (2). However, as shown by

implies the use of a channel code entirely dedicated to the (4), the transmission channel over each subcarrier can actually

protection of the SI bits during transmission, which is probably be modeled more accurately as flat Rayleigh fading rather

more an ideal situation than a practical one. than AWGN. Based on (14), we can demonstrate that the bit

Fig. 3 shows that the performance gap between our SLM error probability for BPSK over flat Rayleigh fading channel

technique and SLM-PSI can be made very small. When QPSK is given by [14]

is employed, this gap is actually only significant for low SNRs +∞ x

and small numbers N of subcarriers, i.e. in situations where 1−δ √

peb ≈ · erfc x · exp − · dx

the probability of erroneous SI detection is sufficiently high 2ω 0 ω

+∞

to have an impact on the overall BER. Some unpublished δ √ x

simulation results indicated that, when using QPSK and a + · erfc x · exp − · dx,

2ω · C 2 0 ω · C 2

small number of subcarriers, the performance gap at low SNRs (15)

can be reduced by increasing the value of the extension factor

1

C. When QPSK is replaced by 16-QAM, the performance where ω = ω · N0 .

Eb

This equation has the simple closed-form

difference between our method and SLM-PSI becomes sig- expression

nificantly larger due to the increased probability of erroneous

− 12 − 12

SI detection. However, as N is increased, the gap diminishes 1 1 1

to the extent of actually becoming negligible for N = 510 peb = · 1−(1 − δ)· 1 + −δ · 1 + 2 ,

2 ω C ·ω

subcarriers. (16)

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009 3325

N = 65 - No PAPR reduct. N = 125 - Classical SL M

N = 125 - New SLM N = 125 - No PAPR reduct.

N = 255 - Classical SLM N = 255 - New SL M We have proposed a simple SLM technique for PAPR reduc-

N = 255 - No PA PR reduct. N = 510 - Classical SL M tion in OFDM that does not require the explicit transmission of

N = 510 - New SLM N = 510 - No PAPR reduct.

SI bits. Our investigations, performed by considering OFDM

1.E +00 schemes based on QPSK and 16-QAM modulations, have

shown that this technique is particularly attractive for systems

using a large number of subcarriers. In fact, the probability

of SI detection error can be made very small by increasing

1.E -01 the extension factor and/or the number of subcarriers. In

cases where this probability becomes sufficiently low, the

BER performance difference between the proposed technique

Pr[PA PR > PAPR0]

1.E -02

shown to be negligible. In addition, the application of our

SLM technique leads to a reduction in PAPR which is iden-

tical to that obtained with classical SLM, for any number

of subcarriers. For OFDM systems with a large number of

subcarriers, the only significant price to pay for employing

1.E -03

the proposed technique instead of classical SLM is a slight

complexity increase at the receiver side due to the use of a SI

detection block.

1.E -04

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 R EFERENCES

PAPR0 (dB )

[1] A. E. Jones, T. A. Wilkinson, and S. K. Barton, “Block coding scheme

Fig. 4. CCDF of the PAPR obtained with the proposed SLM technique (New for reduction of peak to mean envelope power ratio of multicarrier

SLM), for N = 65, 125, 255, and 510 subcarriers. The OFDM systems use 16- transmission scheme,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 25, pp. 2098-2099,

QAM modulation with Gray mapping. The system parameters are: C = 1.2, Dec. 1994.

M = 5, k = 2, oversampling factor of 4. For comparison purposes, we [2] R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, “Reducing the peak-

also display for each value of N the plots obtained with classical SLM as to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,”

well as those associated with an equivalent OFDM system without any PAPR Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 22, pp. 2056-2057, Oct. 1996.

reduction. [3] X. Li and L. J. Cimini, Jr., “Effect of clipping and filtering on the

performance of OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 131-

133, May 1998.

which can be approximated at high SNR (ω → +∞) using [4] H. Ochiai and H. Imai, “Performance of the deliberate clipping with

−1 adaptive symbol selection for strictly band-limited OFDM systems,” IEEE

1 + δ · (C 2 − 1) · C 2 − δ · (C 2 − 1) Eb J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 2270-2277, Nov. 2000.

peb ≈ · . [5] H. Ochiai and H. Imai, “Performance analysis of deliberately clipped

4C 2 N0

OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 89-101, Jan.

(17) 2002.

Using (17), it is possible to evaluate the expected error [6] B. S. Krongold and D. L. Jones, “PAR reduction in OFDM via active

performance gap at high SNR between our SLM technique and constellation extension,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 258-

SLM-PSI in the absence of any erroneous SI detection event. 268, Sept. 2003.

[7] S. H. Han, J. M. Cioffi, and J. H. Lee, “Tone injection with hexagonal

Note that the bit error probability expression for SLM-PSI is constellation for peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM,” IEEE

obtained by computing (17) with C = 1 and δ = 0. When Commun. Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 646-648, Sept. 2006.

C = 1.2 and δ = 25 , we find a gap of approximately 0.14 dB, [8] M. Breiling, S. H. Müller-Weinfurtner, and J. B. Huber, “SLM peak-

power reduction without explicit side information,” IEEE Commun. Lett.,

which is indeed significantly smaller than the energy increase vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 239-241, June 2001.

G = 0.70 dB. This theoretical result is therefore coherent with [9] A. D. S. Jayalath and C. Tellambura, “SLM and PTS peak-power

the observations made from the BER plots in Fig. 3. reduction of OFDM signals without side information,” IEEE Trans.

Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 2006-2013, Sept. 2005.

[10] N. Chen and G. T. Zhou, “Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in

D. PAPR reduction performance OFDM with blind selected pilot tone modulation,” IEEE Trans. Wireless

Finally, Fig. 4 shows the complementary cumulative dis- Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 2210-2216, Aug. 2006.

tribution function (CCDF) of the PAPR obtained with the [11] M. Russell and G. L. Stüber, “Interchannel interference analysis of

OFDM in a mobile environment,” in Proc. IEEE VTC95, Chicago, IL,

proposed SLM technique when using 16-QAM modulation, July 1995, vol. 2, pp. 820-824.

for C = 1.2 and N = 65, 125, 255, and 510 subcarriers. [12] C. Rapp, “Effects of HPA-nonlinearity on 4-DPSK/OFDM signal for a

The plots corresponding to the ordinary OFDM without PAPR digital sound broadcasting system,” in Proc. 2nd European Conference

on Satellite Communications, Liege, Belgium, Oct. 1991, pp. 179-184.

reduction and the classical SLM method are also depicted for [13] G. T. Zhou and L. Peng, “Optimality condition for selected mapping in

comparison purposes. These results are obtained by using an OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 3159-3165,

oversampling factor equal to 4 [15]. We observe that, for all Aug. 2006.

[14] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill,

configurations, the performance of our SLM method in terms 2001.

of PAPR reduction is identical to that of classical SLM. Note [15] C. Tellambura, “Computation of the continuous-time PAR of an OFDM

that the results obtained with the proposed SLM method take signal with BPSK subcarriers,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 5, pp.

185-187, May 2001.

into account the increase in average energy given by (2).

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 28, 2009 at 06:36 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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