"' ..
r
1
~~
I
l
:z.:...
.;;.
,_
f
:;
;},~, ~~::.
:r
I
i
).
,'_, ,a~
'!'c ..;
ii
.'."' r '' ,
'~N
.~ <(. ~.: 1~
.r
.,
,.
.,.,,.
., i
\ '"';..' ~
~ ""

..'
i, ;.:: .
:: .;;:"' ;
'J
J..
D
J'
..'
.;_ !
:;:
;.
~
.. .
'MANUAL
.. ' . .
:
\'  .
:;~ ~. . .
' \f' : ,
AMERt'CAN 'INSTITUTE
.I
I
OF
..
STEEL CONSTRUCTION
SECOND EDITION
,.
I
i
2 Analysis
4 Moment Frames
5 Braced Frames
"" ~
..
4#
Index
Ir
lI
11
J
vi
vii
,
AISC Q 2012
DEDICATION
by
..
."'" ...,~'\
\,
~~.
t~.
~;,,.. ''fl' t;
~,
I..
..
All rig~
This
part rhereo} miist nothe reproduced
in any fom1 without the written pennission of the publisher.
The AISC.~gl'
f;e~si?jd tr<jfe~fk ofA/SC.
reservia.
bobk o;rm;
%
a
,.
.
.. .. .
..
. Th~ information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for .$~AYf.ll information only. While it is believed to be
accurate, this information should nott~. ~s'&I"'oc relied upon for any specific application
without competent professional exa~~Jj<?!an~ ~eji~cation of its accuracy, suitability and
applicability by a licensed professionaI:e}lgiqeey, desjgner, or architect The publication of
the. material contained herein is not int~n~~d~l!f~ representation or warranty on the part of
the American Institute of Steel ConstrU~tioff:!:/:r,~f any other person named herein, that this
information is suitable for any general or particular use or ~f freedom from infringement of
any patent or patents. Anyone making;use_of th.is inforfuation assumes all liability arising
from such use.
'
.\
..
1.,. .
I
JJ
:,,
. Caution must be exercised when relying upon ocher specifications and codes developed by
other bodies and incorporated by reference herein since such material may be modified or
amended from time to time subsequent to the printing of this edition. The Institute bears no
responsibility for such material other than to refer to it and incorporate it by reference at the
time of the initial publication of chis edition.
Printed in the United States of America
First Prin{ipg: September 2012 .
~
.._
t.
..
., :._!.
ri~ I
...
,,,._
:J.
Thisedition of the AISC SeiSmic Design Manual is dedicated to the memory of Clarkson
W. Pinkham, a longtime member of the AISC Committee on Specifications and 'Taskr
Committee 9Seismic Design. Mr. Pinkham, or Pinky as he was aJ!'ectionately known to' .
his professional collea'gues, was pCC$ident ana member of the Los Angeles consulting structuialengineering firm,. S.B. Barnes and Associates, for 62 years. He sei;ved on the AISC
(
Committee on Specifications from the mid1970s until the yeatioo:i: and Thsk Comin.ittee .
9Seismic Design fromthe mid1990s. until 2010. As a member of :raskComn1ittee'9 and
technical secretary forthe 1997 AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, he
was a major contributor aiid instrumental ii1 the early development of that standard. Pinky rwas one of the fuit proponents of including composite systems. in "the AISC Seismicl
Provisioru and, for the first time; thisSeismic Design Manual includes two chapters on' such .:
systems. Pinky received the AISC Lif~time Achievement Award in 1999. Through a career
that spanned more than six decades, he\.$pent a lifetime sharing his expertise with others in j
the field. He was passionate about learning up until his death in 2012 at the age of 92. Pinky ..
was generous in sharing his abundance of structural engineering experience and knowledge
through committee involvement and with those who requested it o~ the subjects o~ ~tructural ~':
steel, concrete and masonry design, coldformed structures, and timber. By prov1dmg solul:
lions and recommendations in this way, Pinky improved the integrity of numerous ~=.,
structures; in particular, their capacity to resist seismicgenerated forces. He was elected
president of the Structural Engineers Association of Southern California (SEAOSC) in .
1971, and later served as president of the Structural Engineers Association of California I
(SEAOC) in 1975. He was twice given the S.B. Barnes Award for Research, and in 1994 ~
was inducted into the SEAOC College of Fellows, the highest honor awarded by SEAOC.
In 2009, the Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers~
awarded Pinky the Walter P. Moore. Jr., Award in recognition of his dedication to and tecbl .
oical expertise in the development of structural codes and standards. AISC will always
remember his dedication to the development of standards related to the design and con ~
stnJction of structural steel and it is especially fitting that the 2nd Edition of the AISC L
Seismic Design Manual be dedicated to the memory of Clarkson W Pinkham.
L.
I
l
I
j
,;;
. ..
i;~
viii
PREFACE
FOREWORD
..
_J
~I
I
d
'.;I
fI
:;J
11
.1
t: .
..
i.
The design
'
~nc?~ intended to suggest that' the approach presented is the oiiry approach.' The commicteifr~nsible for !he development of these desjgn examples reeognizes that Ciisigoers have
altel"ll!lt~ approaches that worlc'best for them and their'ptojects. Design approache~ that difter~iii._iliose ~ei:ited ~ these examples iire .son'sidered viable as long as the AISC
Sped/icarii>n and AISC Sez'smic Proviswns, sound ~ngiii~ring~ and project srecific require
'
mentS are satisfied.
The.following major changes and improvements have been made in this revision:
"
t
More thorough and comprehensive design examples, updated for the 2010 AISC
Seis111ic Provisions
Sidebyside LRFD and ASD design methodologies for design examples
Addition of Part 2: Analysis
Addition of column base plate design exampl~
Extended discussion in Part 8 on collector elements
Addition of Part 10: Engineered Damping Systems
Addition of bucklingrestrained bf<lCed frame systems and examples
Addition of new chapters on compP$ite moment frames and composite braced frames
'
;
The Institute's objeetive is to make ;~aurai .steel the material of choice, by being the
leader in structuralsteelrelated technical and marketbuilding activities, including: specificatism.and code development, research,educa!ion, tecl!Jlical.assistance, quality e<ertification,
suwdardiz.ation, and mar~et deyelopmenl ,
To accomplish this pbjective, the ln&titu~ publishes manuals, design guides and specificatiqns: Best known Jll)d most widely used is the Steel Construction Manual, which bolds a
highly respected positipn in. engineering literature. The Manual is based on the Specification
forStnu:tural Steel Buildings and the COOe of Sf.(),ntlnrd Practice for Steel Buildings and
Bridge;. Both standards are included in the Manual for easy reference.
11:\e Institute. also publishes lechn.ical information and timely articles in its Engineering
Journal, Design Guide series, MO<km Steel Cons~ruction magazine, and other design aids,
research reports, and journal articles. Nearly. all of the information AISC publishes is available for download from the AISC web site at www~org.
'(
This is the secood edition Q{ the AISC Seismic Design Manual, in~eoded to assist d~signers
in properly applying AISC standards and provisions in the design of steel frames to resist
highseismic loadings. This Ma,nual is intended for use in conjunction with the AISC SruJ
111
Consm.u:tion Manual, 14th Edition.
The following consensus standards are printed in Part 9 of this Manual:
The American Institute of Steel Construction , founded in 1921, is the nonprofit technical
specifying and trade organization for the fabi:icated structural steel industry in the United
States. Executive and engineering head~ of AISC are maintained in Chicago. The
Institute is supported by four classes of membernhlp: Active Membecs engaged in the fair
rication, production and sale of structurefst~l~ ~ociate Members, who include Erectors,
Detailers, Service Consultants, Software bevel.~pers, and Steel Product Manufacturers;
Prof~sional Members, who are individu~l{~iJm~ engaged in the practice of architecture
or engineering, including arcbitecturarand~eilgfu.~iltig educators; and Affiliate Members,
who include General Contractors, Building inspCHo~ and.Code Officials. The continuing
financial support and active parti<'.ipatioti of M~~~ .in i~ engineering, research and
development activities of the Institute make PQssible,th~ publishing of this Seismic Design
Manual
Ronald L. Meng
Larry Muir
Thomas M. Murray
Rafael Sabelli
Cliffor~ W. Schwinger
William N. Scott
William T. Segui
Victor Shneur
Marc L. Sorenson
William A. Thornton
Michael A. West
Ronald G. Yeager
Cynthia J. Dun~, Secretary
Jt
Jt.
Richard M Drake
Michael D. Engelhardt
Patrick J. FortneY.
Timothy P. F~~;
John L. Harri_s,."in.,:
James 0. M~ley '
SCOPE
Bren R. Manning
.. ,
William N. Scott
Victor Shneur
,Hruold 0. Sp~gu,e ,,. .. ..
~t H. Yart11<1 . . ;
).
The committee giq.tefully acknowledges the contributioqs made to ,this Manual by the following individ1,1ils.:. Eric B~lin. Areti
MariaE. Chumbiu, J~et Cummins, Thomas
Dehlin, Richard." Dfcike, Tu.<;.a ~ischer, Louis Geschwindner, .Arp,ir .Gilani, Keith Gr.u~b,
Jeroqie Hajjili,
~an.v:inde,. ~cha,rd Kaehler, Ryan Kersting,_ Zhichao Lai, D awn
Lehman, Bre~t Leu, Kit Miyai:O()tci;
Palmer, Davis Parsons. Il, Paul Richards,
Kimberly l,lobinson, Chai:tes Ro~~~f B.randt Saxe~, Thomas Scblafly. Bahra~ Shafu.~z,
ChiaMing Uang, and Jie Zuo.
Carter;
Ainit
Keith
The specification requirements and other dCsign recommendations and considerations summarized in this Manual apply in general to the design and construction of seismic fore(::
resisting systems in steel buildings and other structures. The AISC Seismic Design Manua f
is intended to be applied in conjunction with the AlSC Steel Construction Manual, which
provides guidance on the use of the AISC Speeijic.ation for Structural Steel Buildings.
In addition to the requirements of the AISC Specification, the design of seismic for~:
resisting sy~tems must meet the requirements in the AISC Seismic Provisions for Structurak_
Steel Buildings, except in the following cases for which use of the AISC Seismic Provisions
is not required:
f'.
Conversely, use of the AISC Seismic Provisions is required in the following cases:
. !
'
Buildings and other structures in SOC B or C when one of the exemptions for steel.
,
seismic force resisting systems above does not apply
Buildings and other structures in SDC B or C that use composite seismic force resistl
ing systems (those containing composite steelandconcrete members and those
composed of steel members in combination with reinforced concrete members)
Buildi~gs. in SOC D, E ~r F
.
Nonbuildiog structures m SOC D. E or F when the exempuon above does not apply
rl
L
The Seismic Design Manual consist.S, of ten parts addressing various topics related to the;
design and construction of seismic force resisting systems of structural steel and structura(
steel acting compositely with reinforced concrete. Part I stipulates the specific editions of"
the specifications, codes and standards referenced in this Manual, and provides a discussion
of general design considerations related to seismic design. Part 2 provides some guidancef.:
on structural analysis procedures employed. For the design of systems not detailed for seis~
mic resistance, see Part 3. Parts 4 through 7 apply to the various types of seismic fore~.
resisting systems, including design examples. Part 8 discusses other systems, such as .
diaphragm chords and collectors, which are important in seismic design. Part 10 addresses'.
engineering damping systems. For applicableAISC seismic standards, s~ Part 9.
tr
AM1UCAN fNS1TTUl'E Of STEEL C ONSTRUCTION
'
1;
PAf4T'1
:t:'.' \. ,,
..... ;;::..:. ..
',
,"
'
J 11
. ,.
.......
~}
l"
.. . .
; . t . ~ . . '
~~'.
?
J'
:I
~i"
Si .
!,
J"
i.:
( i
:\! _..;.
',
: ..
~.2
.;
Specifications, Codes and Scandards for Structural Steel Buildings . . ......... 14
.
.
.
. .. .
. ~;,'. :it . ... :1
..
Other AISC Reference Documents ........ . ............................. 15
c.
., ; ,
~t."'
l.
.' /
'~
;.
!,~J~
of f
r '
'.'"
Risk Category and Seismic Design Category ........... : .., ....' . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Earthquake Ground Motion and ResponseSpectrum .... ~ :;... ..... ..... : ... 17
' .:.
I
.. .
,
,.
. . .4
._,
"i'.
:.
'l
.... ._.
'
~)
.t.
,.:
: ~
.,
."
"'
. I
..
..
Redundancy Factor, p
"
._,
iii
'1
l~
.. .
,.
115
117
" ..
.. ~ ~
Building Separations .......... ...... ...... : .... : . : ... ............ 117
. . . . . . . . 118
. . . ....
.
Deflection Compatibility ; ....... ; .. . ............. ................. 118
.
..
.. . .
'. l
.a
l 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 19a Design Coefficients and Factors for Steel and Steel and
~
Concrete Composite Seismic Force Resisting Systems ..................... 1 5
Dia.wing
J ~~
,a
.;.
l
,..;!!
.,,., i~(
'
..
. r
Seismic Weld Access Hole 'Confi&uratlon ..... .' .. .' .......... .' ........... 125
"~ :
~ : ).' I
J' ' t. ..i 4;i
..,.,:"~ 't 1.
,.
: ' I
~
Mein~r D'~c'tiuty Req~f~meniS '::::: ~ ..... ~: ........... : .... :: . ." ..... 125
'lo
~ f '
'
.f: ~ ) .. ,,:'..
. '..;
....
" ..
....: :
}~ ..:
 
...
"\
;:_
"'t
, ...
...,,. __, 1
.. ). ;
..
,.
._. : ; :
 
.:...
 . ._
,. \~l  ..
128
"' t .. : 
...
~ ~ ..
'
....'
. ,
.'l.' .
,.
'
t"
Table 12. Summary of Member Ductili.ty Requirements ...... ; ....' . : .. .... 134
.
;
....
..
,.
; !
.......
..,
...
.~
* ''
.
1
..
..
..
..
: ,c.
...., .. ''
, ~ .
~
:,
'
'
'
\ :
A.MERIC\N
: ~,,.
'.
., ..
Il
DESIGN TABLES ............... ... . .' ................ .. : ~ ... .......... l33
Table 11. Workable Seismic Weld Access Hole Configurations.............. 133
!.
... .. i
i,
';:1
~.
. ...
'
'
:..I
"
.'
 ..
'l<
.$
~ \., i . \
l
r l
r
l'
~~
:.
...
14
1.1 SCOPE
v....
ii
'
, The design consderations fU~z.ed in lh:iS Part apply .~ ~~ to the design and ~nstruction of steel buildmgs for seismic applications. The specific editions of s~j.fications,
cod~s and oilier references listed below are referenced thrOughout tills Manual. '
I Buildings
a I Subject to the requirements in the applicable building code and the contract documents, the
design, fabrication and erection of structural steel buildings is governed as indicated in the
AISC Specification Sections Al and B2, and AISC Seismic Provisions Sections A2 and B2
as follows:
~
Jl
l ~l
1 ~
1. ASCE/SEI 7: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Stru~tures, ASCEI
SEI 7LO (ASCE, 2010). Available from the _American Society of Civil Engineers,
ASCE/SEI 7 provides the general requirements for loads, load factors and load combinations.
2. AISC Specification: Specification for Srructural Steel Buildings, ANSI/AISC 36010
(AISC, 20 lOa). This standard provides the general requirements for design and construction of structural steel buildings, and is included in Part 16 of the AISC Steel
Construction Manual and is also available at www.aisc.org.
3. AISC Seismic Provisions: Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSI!
AISC 34110 (AISC, 20l0b). Th.is standard provides the design and construction
requirements for seismic force resisting systems in structural steel buildings, and is
included in Part 9 of this Manual and is also available at www.aisc.org.
4. ANSUAISC.358: AISC Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel
MoTMnt Frames for Seismic Applications, ANSI/AISC 35810 (AISC, 2010c): This
standard specifies design, detailing, fabrication ~d quality criteria for connections that
'are prequalified in accordance with the AISC Seismic Provisions for use with special
and intermediate moment frames. It is .included in Part 9 of this Manual and is also
available at www.aisc.org.
5. AISC Code of StandLJrd Prac1ice: AISC Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings
and Bridges (AISC, 2010d). This document provides the standard of custom and usage
for the fabrication and erection of structural steel , and is included in Part 16 of the
AISC S1eel Construction Manual and is also available at www.aisc.org.
Other referenced standards include:
15
(t.
~~
..
~.
F>erf'ormance Goals
 : '
., '"1
. .. !
'
'.'
.
",
'. .
....
.,
'
'.
Seismic design is the practice of proportioning and detailing a structure so that it can withstand shaking from an earthquake even:t with acceptable perfonnance. The AISC Seismic
Provisions Joi Structural Steel Buildings are intended to provide a
of designing structures constiucted to respond to maxiroll.m considered earthquake ground shaking, as defined
in ASCFJSEI 7, with low probabili~ of collapse, while potentially sustaining significant
inelastic behavior and structural damage. Fundamental to seismic design is the practice of
proportioning and detailing the structure so that it can wit11stand Iafge..de_fop:na.~9n d~m~d$.
accommodated through inelastic behavior in structural elements ihat have been specifically
deSigned to withstand this behavior acceptably. This requires carefui proportioning ofthe
sthlCtu.ral system so that inelastic behavior oecwS in preselected cleinents that have apprOpnate1section properties to sustain large inelastic deformation demands without loss of
strength, and a5suring that connections of srru.Ctural elements aie adequate to develop the
strength of the connected members.
means
., . .
1Q
provide performance appropriate to the structure's risk category 1 For some buildings,
peifOnnance that exceedsthese expectations may be appropriate. fuitbose.cases, designers
must develop supplemCJitaiycriteria to those contained in the AISC .SeiSmic Provisions and
:ASCFJSEI ?.
::,
' ;~
. ,:,. .:;: ,..
.
Building performance is not a function of the suuctural system 'alone. Man)> bi:iilding
structures have exluoited ill effects from diinage to nonstructural components;' including
breaks in fire protection systems and impaired egress, which have pre.clucted building functionsand thus impaired performance. Proper conSideiation of the behavior of nonstructural
eomponents is essential to enhanced building performance. Industrial and nonbuilding
structures 6ften oontairi 'elements that require :so me measure of pfotection from large
deformitions.
". ,
'~ "
"
\, Generally,' seismic :force resisting systems (SFRS) are classified into three levels of
inelastic response capability, designated as ordinary, intermediate or special, depending on
the level of ductility that the system is expected to provide. A system designated as ordinary
is designed and detailed to provide limited abity ~ e~bit in~lastiQrespoDS;C witb~fa~"
ure or collapse. The design requirements for such systems, including limits on proportioning
aD<l detailing, are not as stringent as those 'systems 1 classified as intermediate or 'sPecial.
Orllinary systems provide seismic resistance primarily through' their'strengrb. Sttuhu.&s
such :as these must be designed for higher force demands with eomrifonsurately less ~tiih~
gent ductility and member stability requirements. Some steel structures achieve acceptable
seismic performance,by_{l_ioyi.11IDg ductility in. specific struc~r~l:e)_e_!p,ents that are d_ffoi~ed
to undergo nonlinear' deformation without strength loss and dj~sjpate seismic . eqefgy.
Examples of ductile steel structures include special moment
eccentridny 'b'ft.Ce<l
frames, and bucklingrestrained braced frames. The ability of tp,~~~ ~s~c~ef~ fo.,d~~?!ID
inelastically, without strength loss or instability, pennits them
bC designCd for lower
fo~es than. structr~ with oi;dinai:y detailing.
,.
,,.J!nhanced performance, relative to that provided by conformance to the AISC Seismic
Provisions and ASCE/SEI 7, can be a requiredCQnsideration for certain nuclear structures
~d critical military structures, but is beyood the _
scope of this Manual. Critical structur~
gen~rally ~re designed to remain elastic, eve~ fQrlarge infrequent seismic events.
., :,,
frafues,'
to
. :; .
. <. i ~ .
..
......
~ational model building ~es are published. so that state and locc authorities may adppt
the code's prescriptive provisions to standardize design and constru~tioq practices in_their
jurisdiction. The currently used model code in the U.S. for the structural des\gp of bl!ildi?_gs
and nonbuilding s_trucrures is the International Building Code (IBC), published by the
International Code Council (ICC) (ICC, 2012). Oftentimes the84opted provisions are
amended pase4 on jurjsdictional requirements to, develop . l<><;al bl,tllding _<;odes (e.g.,
California l3uildjng Code and,IJ\e Building COOe of, ~~w York City). LOcal codes are then
enforced by law and any devia~on m.ust be apprQved by the lqcal buildil).g~thority. M the
IQC8] code provisions may chapge betweenjurjajicti9hs, the AISC Specijicaticn and AI~C
Seismic Provisions refer t6 this code as the appli~ble building <:09e. .
1
Codes have hiStOrically used occupancy category. This classification was changed
10 risk categoryin
ASCE/SEJ 710 and me 2012. Where class.ification by occupancy category is still employed. the more stringent of the two is used.
.t 1
t
f
t
l
I
I
j
17
The primary perfonnanc;:e objective of these model codes is that of "life safety" for building occupants for all the va4ous demands to \'(mch.lhe building will:be subjected. To satisfy
thisObjective,fof. stiuctures required to resiststrong ground motions from earthquakes;1hese
codes reference ASCEISEI'.7for.&eismic analysis and design provisions:Se.ismic design criteria iii this standard.prescribe minimum reql!llementS for both rhe>strength and stiffness of
SFRS and the strot:tnr:il elements they include: Tue seismic design criteria in ASCFJSEI 7
for the most part are based.on the NEHRP Recommended Provisicns for Seismic Regulaticn.s
for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA, 2009).
The seismic design of nonbuilding structures is addressed separately in ASCFJSEI 7 in
Chapter 15. Nonbuilding structures are defined as all selfsupportiiig structures that carry
gravify loads and that may be required to resist the effects of s~isftuc loads, with certain
exclusions. ASCEJSEI 7 develops an appropriate interface with builf!i,ng structures for those
types of nonbuilding structures that have dynamic behayiors similar to buildings. There are
other nonbuilding structures that ha_ye JJttl~. simifurily to buildings in terms of dynamic
response, which are not specifically covered by AISC documents.
l..::
.
f:
S:
..
Risk Category andS~ismic Design Category
L
f {
or
1 "'
_.
.. . ..
,. j
can
~,,.,._
'
.'
tum.~se stru_~_~urahcceleration8.:While
~ssible
18
'
...
'
associated with using recorded motions' 10 predict a scructure's response, response earthquake
spectra are used. A response,specti\mr.for a given earthquake ground motion indicates the
maximum (l\hsolute value), expressed eitheras acceleration, velocity or displaoe.tneot, that an
elastic singleOegrceoffrccdom (SDOF) oscillator will experience as a function of the structures period and equivalent damping factor. Figure 1la shows an example of an acceleration
response spectrum. On average, lowrise buildings (Figure 1lb) tend to have short periods.
J
..;
!.
..
..
..,, .
'h
0.2s
, "!
...
1.0 s
'
Period, T
. ....
.
..
\ :
~ .......
r.:
I.
:
I
'
r .....,
,
. I
I.
'
,.,
........_;,.,._, l
J ...
l . ''
..... ;; ~.If {
.. ,,_;, l
:
I
..,.., I
,._ l
, _
5
> '
: ' ., 
. I
.H
~zz~::zzzzzzzz~:':_:
G:lu11d.motion
t 9
while tall strucrures tend to be flex.ible with longei: periods (figuq:; 1lc). For a gjven ground
motion, short period strucrurcs tend to experience higher acceleration. and th~ore, higher
inertial force (mass ti.mes ac:ccleratioo), than do longer period stru~. H~~ver, l~ng
period structures generally experience greater displacement. /
Mui.tistory buildings are multi<iegrceoffreedom systems with multiple~odes of vibration. Each mode bas a characteristic deflected shape and period.. Since earthquake ground
motion contains energy caused by vibration across an entire specuum of frequencies, each
acceleration frequency that corresponds to a mode impans energy into the stroctl.lre. Figure
12 sllo\'lts an example of a twodimensional fivestory building frame.and the modal infor
mation for the first four modes. Although the mode shapes are shown separately, the actual
building motion will consist of combined response in each of the severitl modes. Using the
modalshape of the structure for each mode and the effective percentage of the structure's
mass mobilized when vibrating in thac mode, it is possible' to use the same SDOFresponse
spectrum discussed above to determine the maximum response for each mode. These maxima are then combined to estimate the total maximum response based on the participation
of each.mode. These rnaXi.roa for the various modes will generally occur at different points
in time. Modal combination rules approximately account for this effect. Detailed .information about structural response us ing modal analysis can be found in Chopra (2007).
., . I
G~nd motion
:_ =
.:
;.
.6
L ~::::~~
N~:=:':":::1. J
I
I
I
,, .
I
I
I
I
I
.  1
~.
L__ ~==~i4
t ii::":::"=:::;:f. __
I
.L.  L J
~!ZZzzim.:mi
Ground motion
I
I
I
~   ~==>~
" .I
'
~++t' "
..
I
I
  1
I
..
I
I
I
,
I
I
t....:=~ JI
I
u~m.W.m~  J  ~
..>
Ground motion
Model
Mode2
Frequency:
f'efiod:
0.27 Hz
3.70 8
P~:79.2%
Frequency:
0.80 Hz
Period:
1.25 a
Pafticipation: 13.8%
Mode3
Frequency: 1.42 Hz
Period:
0.71 s
Participation: 5.4%
Mode4
Frequency:
Period:
2.12 Hz
0.47 s
Participation: 1.5%
...
110
:r
,.
\,
composite systems designated as ordinary where the counterpart reinforced concrete syscems have designated values of R and design requirements for SOC B and C.
I
Applications where R is greater than 3
mtended for buildings that are designed to t:.:
meet the ~~irements of both, the AI~Ef ~eifmic Provisi.ons and the AISC SpecificaJiofl.
The use of R greater than 3 in the calcufanon of the seismic base shear requires the use of r
a ~isniically designed and detailed system that is able to provide the level of ductility ~m
mensurate ~ith the v~lue of R selected in the design. This level of ductility is achieved .
through a ~mbination of proper material and section selection, the use of low widthtothic~~s..roembers for the energy dissipating elements of the SFRS, decailing member
eonn~tioos to resist the local demands at the capacity of the system, and providing for ~:..
system lateral stability at the large deformations exi>ected in a major eanbqil.ike. Consider
f
the following three examples:
.i1e
1 11
I
,,
1
tI
It'
~1
Sped~ concentrically bqiced fame (SCBF) systemsSCBF ~ystems are generaJly (,_
configured so that energy' dissipation will occur by tension yiel~ing and/or compression buckling in the braces. The connections of the braces 10 the. columns and beams r
and between the columns and beams themselves must then be pr~portioncd to remain :
1
essentially elastic as they undergo these defonnjltions. See Figure 13.
2. Eccentrically braced frame (EBF) systemsEBF systems are generally configured so
1.
r
!
that energy dissipation will occur by shear and/or flexural yielding in the link.. The
beam outside the link, connections, braces and columns must ~n be proportioned to
remain essentially elastic as they undergo !}l~se deformations. See .Figure 14.
3. Special moment frame (SMF) systemsSMF systems are generally configured so that .
energy dissipation will occur by flexural yielding in the girders near, but away from,
the connection of the girders to the columns. The connections of the girders to the L
columns and the columns themselves must then be proportioned to remain essentially
.
elastic as they undergo these def~nnations: See Figure 15.
LI
Buckling
<;:d
these
Yielding
Nominally elastic
elements
I. j
L.
112
R. '
The s~ is used. along' ~ith the SFRS cype, 't~:!sra~4sh a~~~ level of inelasti~. d~
tile response that is requ~ of a structure. The correspo~g expec~ system l>Cba~or is
codified in the fonn of Rfactor, whlch is~ ~ponse m~o~ factor a(>plied to .~
lateral force to adjust a structure's required lateral'strength consi~ its inelastic ~nse
an
: J
....
Capability.
. ...
. .
.
~~ .~.
. The response modification coefficient, R, sets the minimum fraction (l/R) of the ~trength
~uired to resist design earthquaJcc.sh~g.elastically for which it is permissible to :qesign
"~<
'
P.<
,..
; a :....
'
a structure. SlJ'UctuJCS designed with a large value of R mst have extensive capability tu
wilhstand large inelastic defom11ltioo demands during design shaking. Structures designed
with an R approx,imating 1 are anticipated: to. experience design shaking while rcma.in,ing
esscnri.aUy elastic. F'lgure J6 shows the relatiOO:'lhiP between R and the designlevel fo'rces,
along with the corresponding lateral deformation of the suuctural system (FEMA, 2009).
Factors thatdetennine the magnitude of the response modification factor are the vulnerability of the gravity load resisting system to a failure of elements in the.SFRS, the level and
reliability of the ioelasticity the system can attain, and potential b_ackup frame resistance
such. as that which is provided by dualframe systems. As illustrated in Figure H>. in order
for a system t<(utilize .a higher value of R, other elements of the system must have adequate
strength and deformation Capacity to remain stable at the maximum lateral deflection .levels.
If the system redundancy and system overstrength cannot be achie:ed. a lower value of R
should be incorporated in the design and detailing of the structpre. Values of R for all st.Qlc~
tural systems are defined in Table 12.21 of ASCEJSEI 7. Tables l9a and l9b in this
Manual summarize the RFactors and other factors specified in ASCPJSEI 7 for steel
c0mposite systems. More detailed discussion on the system design parameters can be found
in FEMA (2009).
and
' ,
For structures assigned to SOC B and C in ASCFJSEI 7 the designer is given a choice to
either solely use the AISC Specificarion to design and detail the structure (typically assigned
an R of 3) or to assign a higher value of R to a system detailed (or seis~c resistance and to.I
low the requirementS of the 'AISC Seismic Provisions. The resulting systems have ductility
JJ
elements
',' ... I
=3 Applications
associated with cooventionitl steel framing not specifically detailed for hlgb seismic resistance. It is important to note, however, that even steel structures riotspeCifically designed or
c:
Yielding
Nominally
elastic
\besign
elemenfs
Lateral Deformation (Drift), !l
Fig. 16. Relationship between R. design level forces, and lateral deformo1io11.
AM.eRJCAN (N~ Of Sll?EI.. CoNSTI\lJCTIO.'I
..
1 14
detailed. for seismic resistance possess some inherent amount of seismic resistance, which
may be adequate to resist a limiled amount of seismic demand.
It is rerogniz.ed that when the designer bas' the option to design a building to meet the
AISC SpecijicQtion with R 3, such a design will generally be more cost effective thanthe
same sti:ucture designed in accordance with the AISC Seismic Prrwiswns using a higher
valueof R. The extra fabrication, erection and inspection costs nee.ded to achieve the high
ductility commensura~ with the higher R. more than offset the additional st.eel toonage
requiredby theR l::::3 system.. The R 3 option is not generally available for composite steel0oncrete systems. For
composite systems, the designer must follow the requirements outlined in Table12.21 of
ASCEiSEI7.
. ; . ~
.; .....
Overstrength Factor,
0o
Most seisicic fQ~ resisting systems ~ly on dissipation of earthquake energy through vary.ing levels of inelastic behavior. Steel seismic system definitions in the AlSC Seismic
ductile response: and those that are intended to remain essentially elastic. The application of
an overstrengi.h factor,
is applied to some seismic load combinations in ASCFJSEI 7 and
in certain c~es in the AISC Seismic Provisions to provide a design foree that will result in
essentially elastic re8ponse for sp~cific components. These load combinations are invoked
for members or connections whose inelastic behavior may cause poor system performance.
They generally meet the following criteria: They are critical elements on the load path, and
they are not likely to perform well in the itielastic range.
Members ~d connections requiring the special seismic load combinations incoiporating
the overstrength factor,
in ASCEJSEI 7, include the following (the apptic3ble sect.ion of
ASCEJSEI 7 is provided in parentheses):
no,
no.
1.
2.
3.
4.
In the AISC Seismic Pr,ovisions, this concept is addressed using the term, amplified seismic load. In some cases, the amplified seismic load defers to the use of the ASCfJSEl 7 load
combinations that include 0... while for other situations, the amplified seismic load is a term
defined in the AISC Seismic Provisions to meet a capacity design requirement Sections of
the AISC Seisf!liC Provisions where the amplified seismic load is invoked for the design of
certain elements or connections include:
1 15
I
;
I
.
Section D 1.4a Required compressive and iensile strength of columns
Section D2.5bRequired strength of column splices
..
1
Section D2.6aRcquired axial strength of column bases
' . b
Section D2.6bRequired shear strength of column bases
.. : . ;.
Section D2.6cRequircd flexural strtogth of~lumn bases
'
1 J
Section El .6bRequired shear strength of beamtocolumn connections for ordinary I
t~
moment frames
...
Sections F3.3 and F3.6cRequired strength of diagonal braces and their ~onqections, f
beams outside links, and columns for eccentrically braced frames
Sections F4.3 and F4.6cRequired strength of beams, columns and connections in buck
lingrestrained braced frames
,
.
Sections FS.3 and F5.6bRequired strength ofhonzontal and vertical boundary elements :~
,
u
I
and connections in special plate shear walls
,
..
. .
~
See the applicable sections of !he AISC Seismic Provisions for specific requirements.
t"
Redundancy Factor, p
'
., ...... t
(:
Redundancy is an important prope.r ty Ioi strucrures designed with the expectation that d~ .
age will occur. Redundant structures have alternative load paths so that if some elements are ..
severely damaged and lose load carrying capacity, other elements will be able to continue to [.
provide a safe load path. Adequate redundancy is ensured when a large number of plastic
hinges must fonn tl1roughout the structure in a progressive manner before formation of a
mechanism and when no one element is required to provide the full seismic resistance of '.
the struc1urc. To encourage provision of a minimum level of redtindancy in the structure,
ASCVSEl 7 Section l 2.3.4 stipulates a redundancy factor, p, based on the structure's
AME~ICAN L'ISTrl'\fm OP STI!a CONSTRllCnON
'
~.
I
I
configuration and the number 9f independent seismic force resisting elements present.
When structures do not satisfy minimum criteria. this factoramplifies lhe required strength
of the Iateral system. The elastic analysis !lf ~$FR is pt.tfonned usi.n& V. the total design
lateral force, based on !he tabul~ value ofR, and pis applied to.~e resultin&Qsmember
force effects, where QE is the. effect of horizontal seismic forces. , , ,
,
l
length subject to the temperature change
!J.7 =design ttmperature change
See ~SC Manual Thble 17ll for .additional information i:>n coefficients of eJtpansion.
Seismic Joints
...
Seismic joint.S are similar in fonn to expansion joints but are the result of very different
structural considerations. They must accommodate movement in both orthogonal directions
simultaneously and their spacing is not typically affected by building length or size. Seismic
joints 'a.re used to separate an irregular structure into multiple regular structures in an effort
to proyide better seismic performance of tile overall building.
The design of seismic joints is complex and includes efforts by all members of the design
team to assure that lhe joint is properly sized, adequately sealed from weather, and safe to
wallc on, as well as to provide for adequate movement of other systems crossing the joint
and means to mainta.i.\l the .fire ratings of the floor, roof and wall systems. Seismic joints are
costly and architecturally undesirable, so they should be incorporated with discretion.
When seismic joints are determined to be necessary or desira~le for a panicular building,
the locations of the joints are often obvio~ and inherenL Many of the locations appropriate
for expansion joints are also appropriate for seismic joints..Requirements for determining
the seismic separation between buildings are prescribed in ASCFJSEI 7.
The width of seismic joints).n IllQdem,puil9ings can vary from juSt a few inches to several feet, depending on building height and siiffness. Joints in more reoent buildings tend
to be .much widel' than !heir predecessors. ,This is due to several major factors, the most
important of which.is chrulges in the cod~. Other contributing factors are the lower lateral
stiffness of many modem build,ings and the.greater recognition by engineers of the magnitude of reaJ. la~ia,\defonnations induced by an ~quake.
Seismic jo.i,nts o{ten result in somewhat complicated structural framing conditions. In 1be
simplest of joints, ~te columns are placed at either side of the joint to p,rovide lhe n~
essary structural support. This is comroon in parlcing struetures. When double columns are
not acceptable. lhe slrUCtUte must either be cantilevered from more widely spaced columns
or seated connec.ljom must be used. In' lhe case of seat conn~tjons, there is the temptation to limit the .travel of the sliding Clement, because longersliding surfaces using Teflon
sliders or s.imilar devices are costly and lbe seat element may in~ere with other elements
of the building. It js SJrongly ~mmeoded \hat seated coonections be designed to allow for
movements that exceed those ~cu.lated for .the design basis earthquake to allow for th~
effects of greater earthquakes and because the consequences of the sttucture falng off of
the seat may be disastrous. Wi,ete thi.s is not possible, restraint cables such as those often
used on bridges. should be considered.
11\e vyidth of an expansion joint is determined from the basic them1al expansion
Bui/ding Separations
The maximum force delivered by lhe system is a concept used in several applications in the
practice of seismic design. The ma:x.imum force deliyercd by lhe system is oftell one of the
limits for requited strength of a seismic resisting element For example, a thorough.diSC'Ussion of how this force may be detennined for SCBP brace connections is contained in the
AISC Seismic Provisicns Commentary Section F2.6c.
__...
Building Joints
..
..
Expansion Joints
.j
t
'
,.
Expansion join~ .i,n a stru~fre a,re vr.ovided t(),?YOid impairing.the function of the fac~lity or
c.ausini c~.amage to the structural ~. ~hitec~al components. 'the ~umber and l~tion of
building e)(pansion joints is a design iS.sue not fully trealed in tecfun~ai literature.
\...
(I
The Al.SC Spec_ificaJion considers expansion joints a servie&.bility issue, and. Section
L7 states that 'The effects of tbe.nnal expansion and contraction of a building shall be
considered. Damage to building cladding fu cause water penetration and may lead to
corrosion."
'
ASCE/SEI 7 also considers expansion joints a serviceability issue indicating in
Se<:tion 1.3.2 that "Structural systems, and members thereof, shall be designed to
have adequate stiffness to limit deflections, lateral drift, vibration, or any other deformations that adversely affect the intended use and P.Ctfonnance of buildings and
other struct11res."
where
!J.1,
(11)
=change in length
' ..
"
Separations between adjacent buildings that a.re coosuuct.ed at different times, have different ownership, or are otherwise not compatib)e with each other may be necessary and
unavoidable if bolh buildings are located at or near the common property line. ASCFJSEI 7
prescribes setbacks for property lines. An e:itception can be made where justified by ra.tion:i1
analysis based on inelastic irsponsc to design ground motions.
''"
l  18
Building Drift
."\
. ...
Deflection Compatibility
ASCEISEI 7 prescribes requirements for deformation compatibilicy for Seismic Design
Categories D through F to ensure that the SFRS provides adequate defom1ation control to
protect elements of the structure that are not part of the seismicforce resisting sys~em. Thi~
is intended to c'nsure that componentS'designed as gravity supporting only can''alscnesist
PL'J. moments, based on total story drifts:
.
.
.
Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature
,, . ... .
Most structural steels can fracture eitlfer in a ductile or in a brittle mariner. The mode of frac
~,ure is governed by the temperature at fracture, the rate at whidi the loads ate applied, llnd
tlle magnitude of the constraints' that would prevent plastic deformation. Fracture toughness
is a measure of the energy required to cause'an element to fiacrure; the 'm'ore energy that is
iequir~( the tougher thematerial, i.e., it takes more energy tO fracture a ductile material
than a brittle material. Additionally, lower temperatures have an adverse impact on material
ductility. Fracture toughness for materials<Can be established by using fracturemechaili<:S
test methods.
,!
Traditionally, the fracture toughne5s for structural steels has beeri primanly characterized
by testing Chatpy Vnotch (CVN) 'specimens at different temperatures [A:STM E23 (ASTM,
2007)). The CVN'test produces failures at very high1sttain rates. If testing is carried out over
a range of temperatures: the results o{energy abs6rbed versus temperature can be plotted ti:>
give an Scurve asshown in Figure1~7. Usually, three specimens. aretested at a given temperature and' the results averaged.
.1.
' Carbon and low alloy steels exhibit a change in fracture beliavior as the temperarure falls
with the failure mode changing from ductile to brittle. At high teinperatures, the fraclUI'e is
characterized by pure ductiletearing. At low temperatures, the fracture surface is characterized by cleavage fractures. The decrease in fracture toughness at low temperatures decreaseS
the fracture capacity of the member, resulting in poorer cyclic bel)avior. (Austenitic stainless steels do not show thjs change in fracture behavior, with the fracture remaining ductile
even to very low temperatures. This is one reason ~hy these types of alloys arc ustdin cryogenic applications.)
The AlSC Seismic Provisions Commentary Section A3A acknowledges that in structures
with exposed structural steel, demand critical weids may be subject to ser\iice temperatures
'n
~ '
:".~:.,.,,_~>.
rn
I
1
Tue International Buildiiig' Code (ICC, 20i2) refers to the 2010 AISC Specification and ihe b .
2010 AISC Seismic Provisions for all quality requirements for structural steel. The scope
m
w..
less than 50 P on a reglliaf basis. In these cases, the AISC Seismic Provision:s Commentary !r
suggests that the minimum qualification temperature provided in AWS Dl.BAnnex A be ~~
adjusted such that the test tem)'.lerarure for the CVN toughness qualifica~on tests be no more .,.,
than 20 "F above the lowest anticipated serVice temperature (LAST).
It is recognized that the LAST is defined diff~ntly in diffeicnt industries:For example, ITT:
the current AASJITO CVN't~ghness requirements are specified to avoid bri!tlc 'fracture in [H:
steel bridges abOve the LAST, which is defined.in terms of three tem~rattlre zc:>n'es. In arc
tic offshore applications the LAs:r can be either tile minimum deiign temperature or a .w
selected value below the design tempetature, de~nding upon the consequences.of failure. j;~~
The AISC Seismic Provisions are intenoed to ensure' ductile performance for a low prob ;;h,
ability earthquake event. The LAST is O?,WlallY .defin,ed to ensure ductile, perfOtJAance for a
low probability temperature extreme. The direct combination of two low probability events i~
would be statistically very unlikely. As a. result, the definition of LAST need'not be execs :;~
sively restrictive for seismic applications. For purposes of the AISC Seismic Piovi.siOns, the :;..
LAST may be considered to be the lowest oneday mean temperature compiled .from ~
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data. For more information, go to !!;
www.noaa.gov and www.climate.gov.
'
':
\!~.
,, ,.. .
Story drift is the maximum lateral displacement within a story (i.e., the displacement of one
tloor relative to the floor below caefsed by the effects of seismic loads). B\'liJdingfsubjected
to earthquakes need drift control to limit damage to fragile nonstnictural elements, and to
minimize differential movement demands 0n the structure. It is expected that the desigh of
moment resisting frames, and the design of tall, narrow shearwall or bracedframe buil~gs
will be governed at least in part by drift considerations.
The allowable story drift limits arc defined in ASCE/SEI 7 Table 1.2.121 and are a flJ!l~
tion of the seismic lateral force resisting system and the building risk category. The
p~~cribed story drift limits are. applicable to ea9,h story. They mus! n.ot,bi ex~ed i1;1 any
story even though the drift in other stories may be ~ell below the liril.it.
..
119
statement in Section Jl of the AISC Seismic Provisions gives the f~llowing explanation for ~
.
.
quality control and quality assurance:
E~
~ ~
Quiity control (QC) as specified in this chapt_e r shall be provided by the fabrlcaior,
erector, or other responsible contractor as applicabl~. Quality assuranee (QA) as specified in this chapter shall be provided by others wh~b rcq\iired oy the authority hiiving
jurisdiction, applicable building code, purchaser, owrier, or ef!gi~~r of ~ord (EOR).
.I
tt
I lnwer i lhelf
'!I
.. ransiti on Zon ll
, ..
 ..
:~
V'I>
1.,...1 r; ~
'b
f~.,., 1
lli.i
d>
f:'
r.:
'. /!>
4~
41>
T
'
(D
(~~ ~ ~
(~
~I
Temperature
Fig. 17. Typidaz Charpy V:notch tesi results.
" t'
~{,
d.
l'!
I
LI
LI
1 20
When ductile seismic response should be assured and the AlSC Seismic Provisions
govem the design, fabrication and erection, steel framing needs to rnecc speciaJ quality
requirements as appropriate for the various components of the structure. These requiremenis, applicable only to members of the SFRS, are provided in:
ANSI/AISC 34110, Seismic Provisions/or Structural Steel Buildings (AISC, 2010b)
AWS Dl.8/Dl.8.M:2009, Smtcrural 'Welding CodeSeismic Supplement (AWS, 2009)
. ANSI/AISC 35810, Prequalified Connections for Special and lnremrediare Steel
Moment Frames for Seismic Applications (AISC, 2010c)
2012 International Building Co<k, .~pter 17 (ICC, 2012)
Addition~!
u
0
'J
Ll
To meet the requirements of the International Building C<Xk, as part of the contract documents, the registered design professio~ in responsible charge must prepare a "statement
of special inspections~ which is termed the quality assurance plan (QAP) in the AISC
Seismic Provisions. The QAP should be prepared by the engineer of record and made a part
of the contract documents. The plan should contain, at a minimw:n, a written description of
qualifications, procedures, quality inspectie>ns, resources and records to be used to provide
assurance that the structure complies with the engineer's quality requirements, specifications and contract documents. Chapter J of the AISC Seismic Provisions provides the
minimum acceptable requirements for a QAP fo~ .the SFRS, including requJrements for the
contract documents, quality assurance agency documen~. inspection points, and frequendes, along with spec1aJ requirements for weld and bolt inspections.
AJSC Sei.rmic Provisibn.r Chapter J bas specific requirements for nondestructive testing
of welds. in addition to those in AISC Specification Section N4.5, which must be shown on
the contract documents. Quality assurance requirements for bolting include verifying that
faying surfaces meet the specifiCAtion requirements and that the bolts are properly tensioned
per the R.CSC Specification.
1'.!l
122
Protected zones are designated by the AJSC Seismic Provisions for different systemsand
generally are areas encompassing the plastic hinging region. The FEMNSAC testing bas
demonstrated the seiisitivity of these areaS to fracture caused by discontinuities resulting
from welding, penetrations, changes in section. or constructioncaused notches (Riel es et al.,
2003). Fabrication and erection work,
the subsequent work by other trades, have the
potential _to cause discontinuities in the SFRS'. AlSC Seismic Provisi.ons Sections DI .3 and
12.1 provide detailed requirements for the protected zone.
The"loclltidns and dimensions of these protected zones for rrioment'ccinnections ~spec
ified in the AISC .Seismic Prdvisions and in ANSI/AfsC 358 for each SFRS. For e,~ample,
accbrdin'g to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5c, the prbfected zone for special concentrically braced ~rames includes "the center onequarter of the brace length and a zone
adjacent to each conneetion equal ici the brace depth l.n the plane of buckling" as well as
"elements that connect braces to beams and columns." For eccentrically braced frames,
AISC Seismic Provisioris Section F3.5c defines
protected.zone as the Jjnk. In any case, .
the reql!ireme~ts ~n AISC SeiS1J1ic ProvisioTJS Sections D1.3 and 12.1 must be satisfied.
 When !oca~ed in the protected rone th~ ~&c.ontinuities are req~ _to be repaired by
!he .resI?onsible contractor..tQ _the satisfaction of the engi!ieer of record: The AISC Seismic
P_"rovisions r~qufre th;it t.e prot~9ted zones.,be sh9wn on the design drawings. The .s:ontractor n~s to \ise tltis information to ~ontrol ~nstru'ction activities in this area.
and
.J
.....
'
the
;l
..
<
'\
. .
r.
AWS DL8,. sutx;lause 1;2.1 lists the information that the engineer o~ record_ 1s r~mred to C.
protjde o~ the c0n~c~ dqcurn~nts SP,CCi.6<;ally related.to welding of t11e .SF.RS. Additipn~lly,
gouges l!Jld.notcbes.!l!e not peDUitt~,and w_lJ!le gpndipg to a flus~.cQndi.tion is not requin:d,
the contour should provide a s~oo~, tranSttio,Q.. AVf.S D1.8 p~ovtde~ xe,i::?.nynended details ~
for these areas, _ .. . .
. ,
i .
AWS D.1 ;8..con~~ a numrn;r Qf otper special r~irements tha~ sho~4 pe specifisallY
referenced j.n th~. C<?tJ;3q. dotui.nen~. .Iii. addition t_o the fill.er me.~al r~qu~~m~n~. mentioned
preyiou~.ly.!> ~e~g ~tical w~ds h~ve the following requ.trepients:, ., .. . ,:.
. .
l'.ollowing ,~t'. some of the.additional ~eci~ifements from _the AISC peismic Provisions .that
may_ .~~t c~tructural design dr~wing d,etails:
...
L SFRS column splice requirements are given in' AISC Seismic.. Provisions Section
D25a. The splices need to be loca~ away from beamtocolumn connections, with
the proviSions stipulating 4 ft otmore away from the connection; iiowever, in general,
splices should be in the middle thtrd of the column (see Exceptions in Section D2.5a).
Because of the splice strength requirements in Section D2.5, it is important that the
splice be fully detailed on the design drawings. Where bolted splices are used there
must be plates or channels on both sides of the web.
2. C~lUJllll: spl~c~ requirements for columns that are not part of the SFRS are given in the
min.imuni shear foice8 required to be
. . ;. ~IS.C $eiSmic ProVisions Section D25c.
. , .d~el~f.'?fin .th7.5e.splices .".'ill require a special column splice and this detail should
. also De snown .on the desjgn drawings.
.
3. SFRS coi~mn bases must.meet the requh;ements of AJSC Seismic Provisions Section
D2.6 and anc~or rOd embedment and re.irdorcing steel should be designed according
to ACI 318 Appendix.D. Anchor rod sizes ~d locations, along with washer require;
.merits, hole sizes an~ base plate welds must meJt lhese design requirementS and must
be shown. Special embedment used for base fixity must also be shown on the Struc. tura1 dt:sigi;i. ilraw_ings. The Comment:Uy JO Section D2.6 gives a good discussion a!C?ng
. ' with examples of b.ow to develop these fo~ces. For column b8Ses that are not part of
. . .. . '
"
.
. ~.
1 23
.t
The
;,
_.. ... 
..
C~mpos ite Systems
... . .
,_....
"
 .
~'
l!iSJ
For buildings with composite inenibe/s and/or com~site SFRS_. aa importan! ch~g~ in." th
2010 AISC Seismic Provisions is tile' integration ofwhat were formerly presented separately
in Pa.rtS I (steel) and II (composite) into a combined sel of provisions. This edition of th. ~
Seismic Design Manual follows that approach by adding examples for composite systems.
i'
.I
.'.,
:
!JI
The 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions for the seismic design of composite structural steel
and reinforced concrete buildings are based upon the 1994 NEHRP Provisions (FEMA.
1994) and subsequent modifications made in the 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2009 NEHRP
Provisions (FEMA, 2009) and in ASCE/SEI 7. Because composite systems are comprised
of integrated steel sod concrete components, both the AISC Specification and ACI 31 g
form an important basis for provisions related to compos.ite construction.
There is, at present, limited experience in the U.S. with composite building systems sub
jected to extreme seismic loads. Extensive design and performance experience with this
type of construction in Japan clearly indicates that composite systems, due to their inher
ent rigidity and toughness, can equal or exceed the perfonnance of buildings comprised of
reinforced concrete systems or structural steel systems (Deierlein and Noguchi, 2004;
Yamanouchi et al.. 1998). Composite systems have been extensively used in tall buildings
throughout the world.
Careful attention to all aspects of the design is necessary in the design of composite systems, particularly with respect to the general building layout and detailing of members and
connections. Composite connection details are illustrated throughout this Manual to convey
the basic character of the force transfer in composite systems. However, these decails should
not necessarily be treated as design standards. The cited references provide more specific
information on the 'design of composite connections. F0r a general discussion of these issues
and some specific design examples, refer to Viest et al. {1997).
The design and construction of composite elements and systems continues to evolve in
practice. Except where explicitly stated, the AlSC Seismic Provisions are not intended to
limit the application of new. systems for which testing and analysis demonstrates .that the
structure has adequate strength, ductility and toughness. It is generally anticipated that the
dverall behavior of the composite systems herein will be similar to that for counterpan structural steel systems or reinforced concrete systems and that inelastic deformations will occur
in conventional ways; such as flexural yielding of beams in fully restrained moment frames
or axial yielding and/or buckling of braces in' braced frames.
When systems have both ductile and nonductile elements, the relative stiffness of each
sh<'uld be properly modeled; the ductile elements can defoon inelastically while the nonductiJe elements remain noniinally elastic. When using elastic analysis, member stiffness
should be reduced to account f6r the degree of cracking the onset of significant yielding
in the structure. Additionally, it is necessary to account for material overstrength that may
alter relative strength and stiffness.
Parts 6 an~ 7 of t,his.Manual provide discussion and example problems for the design of
members and connections for composite moment frame and braced frame systems, respectively, as well as guidelines for traversing through lhe AISC Seismic Provisions alld AISC
Specification relative to
specific building system. Where possible, the e.umple problems presented were developed to be companions to the example problems presented in
other parts of this Manual. For instance, the example problem for the composite speci:ll
moment fraine system illustrates the application of the composite requirements when a concr;tefilled tube column replaces the steel column of the special moment frame strucru.re
illustrated in the example problems in Part 4 of this Manual.
at
each
::~
I :
~
AJSC Specification Section Jl.6 provides general requirements for weld access holes. It
should be noted that the geometries shown in Table 11 represent only one set of configurations that satisfy the dimensions and tolerances in AWS Dl.8 Figure 6.2. Other
configurations that comply with AWS Dl.8 Figure 6.2 may also be used. The special seismic weld access hole is required for beams in ordinary moment frames per AISC Seismic
Provisions Section El.6b(c), and for beams in welded unreinforced flangewelded web
(WUFW) moment connections per ANSI/AISC 358. ,.
Wshapes with F1 50 ksi (ASTM A992) that satisfy the moderately or highly ductile
width tothickness requirements per th~ AISC Seismic Provisions Table D 1.l are indicated
with a "" in the column correspond.i.tig to the member requirements for specific SFRS.
This includes Wsbapes th:ll incorporate reduced beam section moment connections. See
Table 12 for a summary of the member ductility requirements for the SFRS in the AISC
Seismic Provisions. A wideflange section satisfies these requirements if its flange and weh
widthtothickness ratios are less than or equal to the corresponding limits listed in Table
l A, which is summarized from the requirements in Table D 1.1 of the AISC Seismi
Provisions. For cases where the limiting web widthtothickness ratio is a function of th
member's required axial strength, P,, or P,,, the member will satisfy the widthtolhickne
requirements if P., or P~ is less than or equal to the value tabulated for P,. maJC or Pa ,,,
respectively. The nominal axial yield strength of a member, P,, is calculated as F1 A1 . N<'"
that in these cases it is 3SSUmed that Ca= Pul9cP1 > 0.125 or D..;P0 1P1 > 0.125. Exceptic
l  26
for intermediate moment frame and special moment frame beams with Ca< 0.125 are i.ndicated in the footnotes of Table 1A. Where a dash is shown, there is no limitation on the
values of Pu or P0 .
Aloo provided is the maxirol!m spacin$ ?f beam bracing for moderately ducti,le and highJy
ductile beams, L1nnu. wnere for moderately ductile beams, Lb'max= 0.l1r1 E!Fy, and highly
ductile beams, Lb mo.x =0.086ry EIF,. Note that Wshapes that do not Satisfy "either moderhighly.d1,1ctite
w.idthtothickness ratios
not included in Table 13
ately or
..
,I//
are
....
..
l i .
Table 1A
Limiting WidthtoThickness
Ratio
Ratio
Range, b/.t.
Web, hit.,
Member
01agona1
Brace
0.38P,
..
>.
:s
m
a
0
::!:
..
Pu
'= ~Py
Diagonal' '
...
:;
.
Q
JZ
~ 
:i:
C,
=OcP
C>
Ratio
::0 :::>
oC
'
(l.RFD)
~,,
.,
..
"".....
lit
'
0.38JE!F1
'
Diagonal
.,
Br~,
en<>
Chords In
:c;;
:.: Q:::>
(ASO)
..
Olagonal
Brace
::;:
Py
o.3op,
Brace
C>
where
;
.ii!:'
e=
.. 0
c, >0.125
C
:Limiting WidihtoThickness
Ratio
...
Wlathtol!lici<ness ,
Member
o.33,[fff;
Column,EBF
Unk
"C
For
~
3.76,.fEI F1 (1  2.75C,)
Beam,'
Table 1B
1.49J[ff;
..
,, ~'
Angles with F1 =36 ksi (A36); inctudiDg_botb single and double angle configurations, that
satisfy AJSC Seismic Prpvisiory, locaJ byckJ.i9g requirements fQr, use: fiS, diagonal b~aces 1
SCBF, OCBF, EBP, and the special segment of STMF chords are indicated wilh a "" in I}
corresponding column. An angle satisfies these requirements if the greatest leg widthtolhickness ratio is Jess than or equal to tbecorresponding limits listed in Table 1B, which i~
summarized from the requirements in Table DI. l of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Note th.
angles that do not satisfy either moderately or highly ductile widthtothickness ratios a1
nor included in Table 14.
For c, s 0.125
"'
~
:::>
I:
1 .
bit
0.30JE1Fy
STMFSpeclal
Segment
, ..
1.49JE!F1
ffi( C, S0.125
Column,
ChOfds in
STMf SP,ecfal
Segment,EBF
Un~SPSW
VBE&HBE
..
2.45JE I F1
Beam,'
(1  0.93C,)
ffi(C, :>0.125
o;JOP,
Where
c. "' ..!!...
(l.RFD)
~Py
'
Pr
FcrW~ beanslnSMF systemS YIMre
c.1s les:s 111an or~ 1o0.125, lhe.fmrtlno raliO 11/ 1,,shal not exceed 3.76./fff;.
Fcr W~ beams In SMF S)'SlemS where C. ls Im 111ar1 or~ 1o 0.125. the lmillnO Wldlll~ ralio 11/t. .rial not
~ 2.45.fElF,.
::
..
'
J
. ' ....
..... :.
}
..l
~l
128
I ..
Round HSS sections with F1 =42 ksi (ASTM A500 Grade B) that satisfy the AISC Seismic
Provisions local buckling requirements for use as braces or columns in SCBF and braces in
OCBF and EBF are indicated with a ...~ in the corresponding column. A round HSS satisfies these requirements if its widthrothick:ness ratio is less than or equal to the
corresponding limit listed in Table 1D. Note that round HSS sections tlut do not satisfy
cuber moderately or highly ductile widthIOthi.ckncss ratios are not included in Table 16.
Rectangular aod square HSS with F1 =46 ksi (ASlM A500 Grade B) that satisfy the AJSC
Seismic Provisions local buc.kJing ~uirements for use as diagonal braces or columns in
SCBF, and bT'aCC$ in OCBF and EBF are indicated wilh a "" in the corresponding column.
A rectangular or square HSS s.atisfies these. requirements if its flange and web widthtolhickness ratios are less than or equal 10 the corresponding limits listed in Table 1C. which
is summariz.ed from !he requ.irernents of Table D 1.1 of the AlSC Seismic Prr:nisioru. Note
that HSS sections tha1 do not satisfy either moderately or highly ductile widthtolhick:ness
ratios arc not included in Tables l5a or l5b.
r:
.
i
::.,
Member
2::
Bo
e=s
... <.>
'& c5
'''
::e
..~:9
,.
"
Wltttfl. toThidaless
Ratio
limiting Wfdth.toTlllcl<Mss
RaUo
Diagonal
Brace,
Beam,
bit
0.64JE IF1
'
Column
s~
"8 g
Diagonal
Brace,
Beam,
Column
> 0
~5
Diagonal
Brace,
Beam,
ii.,
~
<.>
"' :::>
:c Cl
WidthtoThickness
Ratio
Limiting WidthtoThickness
Ratio
Olt
D.044 (EIF1 )1
.
Oft
Column
.
> ..
~~
!:I
::&::
Cl
bit
o.ssJE IF1
Column
The lm#ing wlddHI>~ r1lio ot walb (JI rec:tingllal !!Id sq.11r1 HSS memlleta used as beams OI coblr.s shell not
eoaed 1.12../fF,.
0.038(EIF1 )
The li!ni1Jng dlamelerto11lic1QvlsS ratiO of wall1 of round tlSS members used as beams OI CXllumns sllll1 not exteed 0.07 EIF,_.
Diagonal
Brace,
Beam,
Table 1D
Table 1C
limiting;WidthtoThickness Ratios
for Rectangular and Square HSS Walls
in Compression
.....~=~
.
:....\
...
I
"
1 30
Pipes with F, 3S ksi.(ASTM A53 Grade B) that satisfy AISC Seismic Provisions local
buckling requii'Cinents for use as braces columns in SCBF and braces in OCBF and EBF
are indicated with a "" in the corresponding column. A pipe satisfies these requirements if
its widthtothickness ratio, Dlt, is less than oi equal to the corresponding limit listed in
Table 1D. Note that pipe that do not satisfy either moderately or highly ductile widthtothickness ratios are not included in Table 17.
Strength
or
~
I
I
I
t 31
PART I REFERENCES
PART 1 REFERENCES
..
ACI (2008). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACJ 31808, American
ATSC (2010b), Seismic Provi.rion.r for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSIIAISC 34110,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, U..
AISC (2010c), Prequalified Connections for SpecW.I and lntennediate Steel Momeni Frames
for Seismic Applicatibns, ANSI/AISC 35810, American Institute of Steel Construction,
Chicago, IL.
AISC (2010d). Code of SuwJard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges, American
Institute of Steel ConstJUction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (2011), Steel Con.rtrucrion Manual, 14th&!., American Institute of Steel Construction,
Chicago, n...
ASCB (2010). Minimwn Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/SEI 710,
AS:e~:;?::::::d~::: ~:~~::;~:;;~::;;~r
AWS (2007), Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazjng, and Nondesrrucrive Examination,
l:
FEMA (1994), NEHRP Recommended Pro1risions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings
and Other Strucrures, Washington, DC.
[ ::
New.;~
t~
Ricles, J.M., Mao, C., Lu, L.W. and Fisber, J.W. (2003), "Ductile Details For Welde.
Unreinforced Moment Connections Subject To Inelastic Cyclic Loading," Journal OJ' l
Engineering Strucrures, Elsevier, Vol. 25, pp. 667{)80.
.J:
1 32
DESIGN TABl.ES
Vicsi. T.M., Colaco, J.P., Furlong, R.W., Griffis, L.G., Leon, R.T. and Wyllie, L.A., Jr.
(1997), Composite Construction: Design for Bu~ldin!s, McGrawHilVASCE, Reslon, VA.
Table 11
~ri
,1.
tbl
@
'
fY
..
t.
i
I
IA'
(1)Ct
11
_/
t%"min.
t/J(
.,
i
~
Access
Hole Type
CD
degrees
G
H
I
l
M
N
2 12
3
3'/t
4
:.
,,,,
'
,I
1 r,,
1 112
.... 21h
. 31n
'I
3
3 1/
3 3/
1/2
.1
1 114
1 1/z
Pl
2
2 11,
2 1/z
23/4
1 11
1 'lz
Pl
2
2 114
tn.
'I
'h
'I
1
0
E
in.
in. .
In.
'h
30
4 1'2
51/z
6 1/z
l!h
8 1iz
9 112
It
11
12 1'2
14
15
!
I
J 34
DESIGN TABLES
1 35 }:.
Table 12
"
Highly
Ouctile
Moderately
Aw
A.""
Dui:tile
...
..
E2.5a
E2.Sa
.
.
..
F2.5a
F2.5a
F2.5a
..
'
F1.5a
Eccen~lly Braced
Frames (EBF)
Diagonal Braces
Columns
link Beams
Beams outside of the Link
F3.5a
F3.Sa
F3.5b(1)
F3.5a
ES.Sa
ES.Sa
.
'. .
E4.5c
E4.5c
IQgllly
Ductile
System
Moderately
Ductile
~
'AM
F4.5a
F4.5a
F5.5a
F5.5a
F5.5a
seismic
PflJVislons
Section
Reference
l:
G2.5a
G2.Sa .
G3.?a
G3.5a
G3.Sa
ob
I
\
semems
I~
'
G4.5a
G4.5b
H2.5a
H2.5a
H2.5a
..
.
. H4.5b(l)
H4:5b(1)&(2)
..
:.1
Ht.Sa
li
'
~;
..
..
Bements
61.S
No Ductility
Requirements
per Seismic
Provisions
..
El.Sa
Seismic
E3.5a
E3.5a
Provisions
Section
Reference
No Ductility
Requirements
per Seismic
Provisions
I l;
I"
HS.Sb
HS.Sb
H.S.5c, F3.5b(1)
H5.5c,d, F3.5b(1)
'
HS.Sa
H6.5a
~=~
l~
~~
..
Width"':to~Thickn~ss
i~
ll
W40x392
x331
x327
, x294
x278
c x264
x235
x211
x183
x167
X149
SMF
STMf
... .. ..
SCCS
WShapes
OCBF
SCBF
'
'
..
...
.
..
..
'
... ..
.
.. . .
... ...
..
. .
. ..
.
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
.. .,. ...
.;.
I'
..
..
..
..
.
..
..
"
. ..~1J
Shape
Amd
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.3.
28.7
28.7
28.5
28.2
W44x335
x290
x262
x230
31.2
30.6
"
30.0
1~.2
15.1
29.9
15.0 29.6
15.0 29.6
14.9 29.4'
14.7., 29.1
14.9. 29.4
14.8 29.2
14.7 29.1
14.3 28.3
W40x593
11.0
10.7
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.~
10.
10.4
9.98
9.52
W40x392
x331
x327
x294
x278
15.8
15.5
;.r
l 'l
,,
'
~
"
Diagonal
Braces Columns
'A,hd
EBF
Lo f t
. .
..
I'
Widtli~to;;..Thickness
Fy = 50 ksi
WShapes
..
.. ..
.. . ..
.. ... . .. .
. . .
.
.
. .
.. .. . ..
.. .. .. ..
.. ...
. .. .. .
.. ... .. ...
i
:>
Requirements
Beams Beams
and
Diagonal Diagonal
and
Chord
Columns Columns Segment Columns Brace$ Braces Columns "Beams
W44x335
x290
x262
x230
W40x593
x503
x431
x397
x372
x362
, x324
x297
x2n
,_x_2.49
x2.15
x199
,_
..
IMF
r1
Fy = 50 ksi
. Requirements
I
Shape
Table 1~ (continued)
"
21.7
2.1.1
21.2
21.0
20.7
20.7
20.9
20.6
20.5
19.7
18.8
x183
x167
x149
SPSW
Beams
HBE
and
and
Columns
VBE' .
.it....,, kips
LRFD
i..m11
4080
2540
1710
910
..
.
..
..
'\
3790
2940 .
2110 1090
1010
G
G
G
F
E
E
E
0
i)
G
G
..
E
E
I
H
..
Web I
Auessi
Ho!es I
x503
x431
x397
x372
x362 .
x324
x297
')(ln
x249
x215
x199
x264
x235
x21 t
Unl<s
8R8F
169
2500
1790
911
043
625
F
F
F
E
0
D
138
.. Shape
Widthto~Thickness
IMF
SMF
Beams
and
Beams
and
~30
x302
x282
x262
x247
x231
W36x256
x232
x210
x194
x182
x170
x160
x150
x135
x201
W33x169
x152
x141
Xl30
x118
so k~i
WShapes
OCBF
SCCS
SCBF
Chord
Diagonal Diagonal
Segment Columns Braces . Braces Columns Beams
'
...
..
.. '
...
.. . ...
..
. '
.
.
...
...
..
.
. .
. .
... ..
... . .
ii .
I
.
..
..
iI
I;
'
~ ,
..
'
..
....
..
..
. ..
.
'
. ..
..
..
..
...
..
..
..
..
...
..
..
.
.
..
..
.
. ..
..
..
.
.
. .
I
Beams
and
Dlagornil
Brace$ Columns
P.,MX> kips
LRFO
BRBF
EBF
Li.maxi ft
Shape
'
x318
><221
.. ..
.. . . . .
... ..
.. ..
.. ..
. .
.. .
. .
. ..
. . .
.
.
. ...
.. ...
STMF
'
xS61
x241
Fr=
Satisfy Seismic
WidthtoThickness
Requirements
WShapes
x291
x263,
Fy=50 ksi
Requirements
W36X652
x529
x487
x441
W33x387
x354
Sections ~That
Columns Columns
J )<"
DESIGN TABI,BS
Unks
Columns
HBE
HoIll$
and
VB'E,
Ahd
Amd
'Au
A.,,,.,
17.0
16.6
16.5
16.3
16.1
16.0
15.9
15.9
15.8
15.6
15.5
15.4
33.7
329
32.5
322
31.9
31 .6
31.5
31.4
31 2
30.9
30.7
30.5
W36x652
x529
x487
X441
X395
11.0 21.8
10.9 21 .5
10.7 21.2
10.6 21.0
10.6 21.0
10.5 W.8
10.4 20.5
10.3 20<.3
9.89 19.6
\Y36x256
15.7
15.5
15.4
15.3
15.2
15.0
14.9
14.8 .
31.0
30.7
30.5
30.2
30.1
29.7
29.5
29.3
W33x387
IOA 20.5
10.3 20.3
10.1 20.0
9.93 19.6
9.64 19. 1
W33x169
G
G
F
F
x361
x330
x302
x282
x262
>
x247
x231
x232
x210
x194
x182
x170
x160
x150
X135
X354
x3t8
x29l
x263
x241
x221
x20f
x152
x141
x130
x118'
3650
3020
2500
2010
3690
3170
2750
2350
2810
2900
2450
1940
1610
1260
1020 .
2290
1240
805
506
I
..
..
'
262
809
160
582
..
3180
2510
1810
II
I
E
E
D
D
D
0
G
G
F
F
E
E
2650
2090
1sa;l
1170
4TT.
245
128
917
712
483
1160
D
F
1650
Web
Acc~
t.
'
t
~
f
f.i
c
c I:;
c
;.'
t
t:
,.1
U.E::SlGN TABLES
l 41
I
Shape
IMF
SMF
Beams
Beams
and
SCCS
OCBF
WShapes
SCSF
x326
:<
:.<292
x261
><235
x211
x191
x173
:~
l
 =
W30x148
x132
x124
x116
x108
x99
)(9t)
W27>:5391
~
x336
x307
x281
x258
x235
x2t7
xl94
x178
X161
Xl16
I
I
W27x1~
x11 4
x102
x94
X84
..
..
..
.
..
..
. .
. . ..
.. ..
.. .
.. ..
. .
. .
'
..
. ..
.
..
4....,tt
EBF
Shape
Diagonal Diagonal
and
Chord
Columns Columns Segment Cotumns Braces Braces Columns Beams
W30x391
xS57
Sections:That Satisfy:Seismic
Fy = 50 ksi
WidthtoThickness
Requirements
..
..
..
..
.
. ..
.. . .
.
..
..
.
~
...
.
.
..
..
...
..
.
..
~
. .. .
. ... .
.. . .. .
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
. ..
.
.
. .. .
.. .. ..
.. . . ..
.. .. . .
... .
..
..
Diagonal
Braces Columns
BRBF
SPSVf
Beams
llBE
and
and
cor11mns
VBE
Atr.4
15.3
15.1
15.0
14.9
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.4
14.2.
30.2
29.9
29.6
29.4
29.0
28.8
28.7
28.4
28.1
W30x391
9.48
9.35
9.27
9.10
8.94
8.73
8.69
18.7
18.5
18.3
18.0
17.7
17.3
17.2
W30x148
xl32
x124
x116
30.0
28.6
28.3
28.0
'l.7.9
'l.7.6
27.4
27.3
W27x539
x368
x336 .
x307
x281
x2S8
15.2
14.5
14.3
14.2
14.1
14.0
13.8
13.8
13.7
13.5
13.4
13.3
v.o
26.7
26.5
26.3
18.2
17.9
17.7
17.4
8.60 17.0
9J9
9.06
8.94
8.81
Unks
x357
x326
~ x292
x261
x235
x211
x191
x173
x146
x84
'Ah11
H
G
G
F
E
E
2260
1670
2350
1670
1350
982
720
542
1550
1230
1010
859
701
530
235
364
171
32.4
.'
~
I
0
0
Coro
c
c
c
c
8
K
H
G
G
F
F
E
E
E
0
2110
1570
D
D
Web
Access
Holes
'Ji.mt1
W27x129
x114
xl02
x94
kips
LRFO
P11.QJJ.I)
x108
x99
x90
x235
x2l7
x194
x178
x161
2120
1690
1340
1460
965
527
1140
788
324
128
615
c
c
c
418
142
I
W24x370
x335
x306
x279
x250
x229
x207
x192
x176
x162
x146
x131
x117
x104
W24x103
x94
x84
x76
~
W24x62
x55
W21x201
x182
x166
x147
x132
x122
x111
x101
W21 x93
x83
x73
x68
x62
x55
Table 13 (continued)
Table 13 (continued)
Fy = 50 ksi
sees
STMF
'
..
..
,.
.. '
'
.
..
..
..
.
..
..
.
.. .
. ..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. . 
. .
"
.
.. ..
. ..
'
'
SCBF
.
.
...
..
..
..
..
'
Lb ltl#h ft
.
..
..
..
~1
I
'
..
..
..
.
..
.
.
..
..
.
.
. .
. .
Ahd
Amd
26.9
26.5
26.3
26.0
25.8
25.6
25.3
25.2
25.0
25.1
24.7
24.4
24.2
23.9
8.27
.8.23
8.11
7.98
7.77
16.4
16.3
16.0
15.8
15.4
5.74 11.3
5.57 11.0
7.65
7.61
7.52
7.48
7.36
7.19
II
I
13.6
13.4
13.3
13.2
13.1
12.9
12.8
12.8
12.0
12.7
12.5
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.6
12.5
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.1
12.0
I
I
!
I
'
I
I
WShapes
EBF
Shape
Diagonal
Braces Columns
I ''
~J
Links
BRBF
Sf'SV/
Beams
HBE
anti
and
Columns YBE
x279
x250
>;<229
x207
x192
x176
x162
x146
x131
x117
x104
W24x103
x94
x84
x76
..
15.1
15.0
14.9
14.8
14.5
14.2
W21x93
x83
x73
x68
x62
x55
Holes
Ahd
..
E
E
D
0
1260
837
1360
1010
1110
836
506
290
114
1200
968 .
698
517
364
187
58.5
387
223
II
ll!.
I
I
c
c
c
c 1
c
c
c
r
I
A!~ j
B.
~l(
~ }
F
F
1220
1260
1060
1080
776
642
487
347
685
521
330
170
Nola 1: Unks in EBF Illa! meet ll'le exception ln the AISC Seismic ltrwlsions Section F3.5b(l) need ooly me6I the limil$ for
modately dooite memllefS.
'>..ma
W21 x201
x182
x166
x147
x132
x122
x111
x1Q)::
Web
Access
x68
W24x62
x55
UIFD
PuRtUi kips
x335
x306
I
H
G
\Y24x370
24.8
24.7
24.6
24.2
24.1
24.0
23.8
23.7
..
OCBF
Beams Beams
and
and
Chord
Diagonal Diagonal
Columns Columns Seg.n:ient Cotumlls Braces Braces Columns Beams
..
..
..
..
.
..
..
:i
W,Shapes
SMF
Requirements
IMF
Shape
143
DESIGN TABLES
c
c
c
c
c
lI'
l!
B .
AorB
.,..;:f:
,....
144
DESIGN TABL6S
I
W18x311
x283
x258
x234
x211
x192
x175
x158
x143
x130
x119
x106
x.97
x86
x76
Wl8x71
x65
x60
x55
x50
Wl8x46
x40
.
I\~ I
i'
:1
; I
><35
W18x100
x89
xn
x67
W16x57
x50
x45
><40
><36
Requirements
WShapes
ae.rn'
SMF
STMF
SCCS
OC8F
4,.,X> ft
SC8F
. ..
..
..
.
.
.
..
...
..
.
..
..
.
.
.
EBF
llelms
Shape
Diagonal Diagonal
end
and
Chord
Columns Columns Segment Columns Braces Braces Columns Beams
Yl21x57
x50
x44
Widtli~to''Thickness
=50 ksi
Fy
WShapes
IMF
Shape
..
..
..
..
..
.
..
.
..
.
.
.
..
..
..
..
..
...
...
..
..
.
.....
..
..
.
.. .
...
...
.
..
..
..
.
.
..
..
...
..
..
.
..
...
..
..
...
..
..
.
...
...
..
..
...
..
.
..
.
.
.
.. ... ... ...
. . . .
..
..
.
.
..
.
...
...
.
.
..
..
. .
')..,,.,
Diagonal
Braces Columns
!..""'
5.61 1t.1
5.40 10.7
5.24 10.4
12.3
12.1
12.0
11.8
11.7
116
11.5
11.4
11.3
11 2
11.2
11.1
11.0
10.9
10.8
7.07
7.02
8.98
8.94
6.86
24.2
23.9
23.7
23.4
23.2
22.9
22.7
22.5
22.3
22. 2
22.1
21.9
21.8
21.6
21.4
14.0
13.9
13.8
13.7
13.6
5.36 10.6
5.28 10A
5.07 10.0
10.
20.6
t0.4
t03
20.5
20.3
20.2
10.2
6.65 13.t
6.61 131
6.53 12.9
6.53 12.9
6.32 12. 5
UnkS
BRBF
SPSW
Beams
and
COiumns
t!BE
W21x57
x50
x44
P.,.....,klps
LRFD
Holes
hfl4
1.,...,
326
176
57.6
461
330
201
Wl8x71
,.65
x60
x55
x50
\Vl8x46
x40
x35
W16xt00
xn
E
D
D
D
895
932
668
520
326
709
588
319
98.3
46.5
433
411
235
161
x50
)(45
x40
c
c
c
c
c
c
A!BI
B
AorB
AorB
l<67
W16'c.57
Aor B
F
E
)(89
Aor B
I
H
G
G
F
x283
x258
x234
x21l
x192
x175
x158
x143
x130
x1 19
x106
x97
x86
x76
Web
Access
and
VBE
W\8x311
I.
an
881
604
427
624
483
322
261
224
160
Sor C1
c I
B
Aor
A01
A0t " ;
146
..
Fy = 50 ksi
WidthfO:.::ThicKness
Re quirements
Widttt~tO:Thickriess
=so ksi
Requirements
WShapes
WShapes
SMf:'
JMF
Shape
Sections .ThattSatisfy~Seismic
147
DESIGN TABLES
Beams Beams
,and
and
Columns C~lu[ll
. .
W16x31
.xZ6
"
_STMF
::1
SCCS
Chord
Sestnent
... '
.
..
.
...
..
.. . ..
...
..
..
.. . .. . ..
 .
'
... .
. .
. .
..
.
.
.!.
... .. .
.
.
.. ... .. .. .
.
.
.
. .. . .
. . .. . . .
.. .. .. . . . . .
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
..
. .
.
.
x2S7
xZ33
>;<211x193
>;<176
x159
. .. ...
.
~:
1.
..
:;<14r .
..
W14x132
x120.
x109
, W14x82
'" x74
x68
x61
;.
'
W14x53"
x48
x43
W14x38
x34
x30
'
Diagonal
lmr1
4.86
4.66
9.61
9.20
W16x31
x26
15.6
15.5
15.5
30.9
30.7
30.6
; ; ..,
W14x132
x120
x109
10.3,
10.3
102
10.2
20.4
20.4
20.2
20.1
W14x82
x74
7.98 15.8
7.94 15.7
7.&6 15:5
W14x53
x48
x43
6.44 12.7
6.36 12.6
6.19 12.2
W14x38
x34
17.5
17.3
17.2
17.0
16.9
16.8
16.7
16.6
16.5
' Beams
and
Unks Columns
SPS\'l
Po maxi kips
I.RFD
Web
Access
HBE
Abd
'J..m<1
Aor B
171
77.5 AorB
N
M
t. (
....
:i:c:370
x342 .
...
 ..
x311
xZ83
x257
x233
X211
X193
x176
x159
x14s
xsS
x61 .
'
518
535
400
434
329
273
192
x30
258
me
Holes
and
VBE
60.6
13.9
..
W14x730
 x665
x605,
x550
x500
x455:
. 426
X398
...
!!ra<:eS Columns
38.S
38.0
37.4
36.9
36.4
36.0
35.7
35.4
351
34.8
345
34.3
33.9
33.7
33.4
33.3
33.0
32.9
32.7
19.5
19.2
18.9
18.7'
18.4
18.2 .
18.0
17.9
17.7_
..
..
..
.. .
. . . h.&
. . .
. . .
.. . .
..
Shape
'J..hd
BRBF
EBf.;
.,,,_,ft
SCBF
W14x730
x665
><&05
x550
x500
x455
x426
x398
x370
x342
x311
xZ83
OCBF
148
...
DESIGN TABLES
~S
~~
~l
~lw
:1
,,
fll
W14x26
x22
W12x336
x305
x279
x252
x230
x210
x190
x170
x152
x136
x120
x106
x96 .
x87
x79
x72
Wl2X58
x53
W12x50
x45
x40
W12x35
x30
x26
'(
~:
W12x22
x19
x16
X1 4
 ~Ml
~,.
SMF .
STMF
Requirem~nts
W.Shapes
OCBF
SCCS
SCBF
Bms Beams
2nd
Diagonal Olagooal
and
Chord
Columns Columns Segment Columns Braces Braces .Columns Beams
. .
.
.. . ..
.. .
. .
. ... ...
. .. ..
.. . .
'
..
..
..
....
'
I 0
. ...
.
11
.
. .
. .
. ..
'
EBf
Lb,,,., ft
.,
..
.
..
.. .
.
.. .
.
.
WShapes
IMF
, Shape
':: t
"~T
~t~:I
,I
AM
Amd
4.49
4.32
8.87
8.55
Shape
Diagonal
Braces Columns
28.5
28.1
27.8
27.4
27.2
27.0
26.7
26.5
26.2
26.0
25.7
25.6
25.4
25.2
25.1
25.0
W12X336
x30S
x279
x252
x230
x210
x190
.. x170
x152.
x136
x120
x106
10.4
10.3
20.6
20.4
W12X58
x53
8.15 16.1
8.11 16.0
8.06 15.9
W12X50
x45
x40
6.40 12.7
6.32 12.5
6.28 12.4
W12X35
x30
x26.
6.97
6.75
6.35
6.19
SPSW
Beams
and
Columns
HBE
W14x26
x22
14.4
14.2
14.0
13.9
13.8
13.6
13.5.
13.4
13.3'
13.1 .
13.0
12.9 .
12.8
12.8
12.7
12.6
3.52
3.42
3.2J
3.13
Links
BllBF
LRFD
Wei>
ACCI!$$
Holes
and
VBE
Aha
7'ma
116
30.4
189
103
AorS
AorB
I
H
x96
x87
x79"
x72
Puma,r, kips
B
I
W12x22
x19
x16
x14
Acr .
Aor S;
267
458
309
132
200
197
110
56.4
16.0
228
453
:';
155
106
59.3
.
.
~ 1: Unks In EBF that meet t!lv excepUon In the AISC Seismic Prov/skins sectbt f3.5b(1) need only meet lhe llmllli for
mcderately cludlle meml>efs..
AMlllUCAN
c
c
c
c
c
Acr !!'
. .
F
F
E
E
0
0
A or Bl
Aor ~ 1
Acr 2
i
Aor lJ;
A0< Bj
A
151
l50
pESlGN TABLES
I
Shape
W10X112
xtOO
i<88
xn
x68
x60
l<54
x49
W10X45
Y39
x33
WI0..<30
x26
x22
W10x19
x17
x15
x12
w~
x58
x48
x40
x35
x31
x24
Wllx2l
xl8
WShapes
WShap es
IMF
SMF
8eatn$
Beams
and
and
Columns
corum"'
...
..
..
..
...
..
.
..
..
.
..
.
.
..
..

..
.
.
.
. .
I
Yl8x28
STMF
SCCS
OCSF
SCBF
...
.
.
..
..
...
.
.
..
..
..
...
..
.
.
..
.
...
..
I
I
.
..
.
'
... .. .. ..
. . .
. . .
. .
'
... .
.. .
.
. ..
.
. ...
.. .
.. ...
.. .
. .
. .
I
'Ahd
/.1114
11.1
11.0
10.9
10.8
10.8
10.7
10.6
106
220
21.8
21.6
21.4
21.3
21.1
21.0
20.9
BRBF
EBF
LtllWO ft
11.3
W10x30
x26
x22
W10x19
x17
x15
x12
Web
\V8x67
i<58
...48
x40
x35
>C31
13.3
13.2
Y.'Sx28
5.24 10.4
5.11 10.1
W8x21
xl8
275
281
21 1
169
216
179
96.0
66.4
I
8.81 17.4
8.73 17.3
865 17.1
8.48 16.8
8.44 16.7
840 166
6.73
ssg
LRFD
x54
x49
5.69
5.65
5.53
6.45
Pu,.,,., kips
x77
x68
x60
W10X45
x39
>C33
718
6.94
6.66
;cl()()
xes
16.5
16.3
15.9
3.63
3.51
3.37
3.26
.I
WtOX112
8.35
8.23
8.06
11.2
10.9
SPSW
><2.4
A Of
A
A
,l
152
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
("
:l
i I
,.~
,
STMF
Shape
Chords
L8x8x1 1/a
xl
x 7/a
x3/4
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces
..
L8x4x1
x1/s
x3/,
x /ts
.:
' 1
~
l6x4x 7/s
x3/4
x5/a
xiitie
L5x5x7/a
x'I
x5/s
x 1h
L5x3112x31.
x 5/a
x 1h
LSX3x1h
L4x4x'/
x5ta.
x 1/2
x7/ts
x3/a
L4x3x5/a
x1h
XS/a
..
.. .
. ..
..
..
x3/a
l31/zx3x1'2
x 7'16
x3/s
..
.
..
.
.
OCBF
Shape
Table .1 5a
Rectangular HSS
L7x4x3/,
L6x6x1
x7/s
x3/4
x.5/a
SCBF
Diagonal
Braces
L8x6x1
x7/a
xl/4
1:9.r
153
Table 14
Angles
II
DESIGN TABLES
STMF
andEBF
Chords
Diagonal
Braces
. ..
.. .
.
. ..
.. .
l3x3x'f2
x7'1s
x3/s
x51ts
L3x21'2x1/2
x7/t6
'X:l/a
x.5/la
LJxzx112
x3/a
x.5/ta
.
..
.
SCBF
Diagonal
Braces
.
..
..
..
OCBF
SCCS
and EBF
SCBF andSCBP
Diagonal Diagonal
Braces
Braces Columns
Shape
HSS10x4x.5/a
.
.
HSS9x7x5/s
HSS9x5x5/s
HSS8x6x5/s
HSS1 Ox8x5/s
HSStOx6x5/a
HSS8x6x11z
HSS8x4x.5/a
HSS8x4x1'2
HSS8x3x1'2
~7x5x1'2
~7x4x 1fl
HSS7x3x1'2
HSS6x5X1/2
x 3/a
HSS6x4x1'2
x3/e
HSS6x3x1'2
x3/a
HSS6x.2x3/a
HSS5x4x1'2
x3/a
x5/ts
HSS5x3x1'2
x3/s
x.5/ts
HSS5x2x5/a
x!/te
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces
Shape
HSS4x3x3/a
x 5/ts
x11
.
.
.
.
.
.  ..
HSS4x2 /:zx3/e
HSS4x21/ixSfi5
x1/4
HSS4x.2x3/s
x5'16
xl/4
HSS3112X21/2x'S/a
x.5/1s
x 114
HSS31/2x2x1/,
HSS31/2X1 /zx1/4
HSS3x21"1x5/t6
x3'16
x'I
HSS3x2x5'1s
x 1/4
fiSS3x11/'tX1/4
.
..
x3fie
HSS3xlx3/ts
.
.
.
HSS2112X2x11,
x3/t&
HSS21/2X1X~/t8
HSS21/2x3/1s
HSS2x1 1hx3/10
x 1/a
..
...
..
.
..
HSS21/zx1 1hx1/4
x3/ta
..
.
...
...
.
.
..
..
.
.
SCCS
SCBF andSCBP
Diagonal
Braces
Columns
.
..
..
..
Shape
HSS10><10X5fa
HSS~/a
HSS8xexS/a
x'h
HSS7x7x5/a
xlf2
HSS6x6x5/a
xl/2
x3/a
HSS51hx5 1/:zx3/a
x5'16
HSS5><5x1'2
x3/s
x 5hs
HSS41/zx4 1lrx112
x3/a
x5f1s
..
.
.
.
.
..
.
SCCS
SCBF andSCBP
Olagonal
Braces Column$
.
.
.
.
.
OCBF
..
.
.
and ESF
Shape
Olagonal
Braces
HSS4x4x1h
x3/a
x5'1&
x1/ 4
HSS31/2X3 1hx3/a
x5ho
X1/4
HSS3x3x3/a
x0/15
x1J4
x3h&
HSS21/<21/~'1s
x'I
x3h&
HSS2 /~ /11
1
x3h&
HSS2x2x1/
x3'16
..
.
.
SCBF
Dlagonal
Braces
SCCS
SCBP
~nd
Columns
..
. .
.  ..
.
. ...
..
.
.
Shape
.
.
..
SCCS
OCBF
and SCBP
and EBF
SCBF
Diagonal oragonal
Columns
Braces
Braces
HSS16x0625
HSS14x0.625
x0.500
HSS12.750><0.500
HSS10.750x0.500
HSStOx0.625
x0.500
x0.375
HSS9.625x0.500
x0.375
HSS8.625x0.625
x0.500
x0.375
><0.322
HSS7.625x0.375
x0.328
HSS7.500x0.500
x0.375
x0.312
HSS7x0.500
x0.375
x0.312
x0.250
HSS6.875x0.500
x0.375
x0.312
x0.250
.
'Soctloos also satlsty SlMF trvss c1lord requlremenn;.
Qi
Round HSS
Square HSS
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces
Table 16
Table 15b
DJ
l55
oESJGN TABLES
154
HSS6.625x0.500
x0.432
x0.375
x0.312
x0.280
x0.250
.
..
.
.
..
.
..
..
..
.
..
.
.
.
.
..
..
..
Shape
HSSE))<().500
x0.375
x0.312
x0.280
x0.250
.
.
HSS5.563x0.500
x0.375
x0.258
..
.
.
..
..
HSS5.500x0.500
x0.375
x0.258
HSSSx0.500
x0.375
x0.312
x0.258
><0.250
x0.188
HSS4.500x0.375
x0.337
x0.237
x0.188
\ .
..
..
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces
.
..
..
HSS4x0.313
x0.250
><0.231
x0.226
x0.220
x0.188
HSS3.500x0.313
x0.300
x0.250
x0.216
x0.203
x0.188
x0.125
..
..
..
.
.
.
..
..
.
..
secs
SCBF and SCBP
Dlagonal
Braces Columns
..
..
.
.
..
.
..
..
I
I
..
I
.
I
.. I
. I
. I
. I
1."
DESIGN TABLES
Sections.That.Satisfyr Seismic
WidthtoThickness
Fy =42 ksi
Requirements
0
Shape
~.250
x0.216
Xfl.203
x0.188
x0.152
x0.134
x0.125
HSS2.875x0.250
x0.203
x0.188
x0.125
HSS2.500x0.250
x0.188
x0.12.5
11
..
..
...
..
.
SCBf
Dtagonal
Braces
..
.
..
.
..
..
..
SCCS
andSCBP
Pipe
OCSF
and EBF
Diagonal
Shape
Columns
..
...
.
...
01
Round HSS
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces
Table. 17
Braces
HSS2.375x0.250
x0.218
x0.188
x0.154
x0.125 ..
HSS1.900x0.188
x0.145
x0.120
HSS1.660x0.140
SCCS
SCBF
and SC8F'
Diagonal
Braces
Colllmns
..
..
..
.
.
.
..
..
.
.
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces
Shape
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
Pipe 10 Std.
Pipe 8 Std.
Pipe 6 Sid.
'
Pipe 5 Std.
Pipe~ Std.
Pipe 3 Std.
..
Pipe
t~
2112 Std.
Pipe 2 Std.
.
.
Pipe 1 Std.
.
.
SCCS
SCBF ;n~SCBP
Diagonal
Braces COiumns
Pipe
112 Std.
Braces
.
.
.
.
Pipe 12 x...strong
Pipe 1oxStrong
Pipe 8 xstrong
.
.
Pipe 31/uStrong
Pipe 3 X~trong
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
'.
'\ .
secs
SCBF andSCBP
Diagonal
I
Braces
Golumr.s
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Shape
Pipe 6 XStrong
Pipe 5 xStrong
Pipe 4 XStrong
Pipe 2 xStrong
Pipe l1f2XStrong
PipeW x...strong
Pipe 1 xStrong
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
DoubleExtrastrong (xxStrong)
'f'
~'
Pipe 8 xxStrong
Pipe 6 xxStrong
Pipe 5 xxStrong
Plpe 4 xxStrong
Pipe 9 xxStrong
Pipe 2 xxStrong
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
!
I
I
AMERJCAN IiosTmm! OP STEEL CONSTRUCTION
J 58
Fu= 65 ksi
Table 18
Table 19a
Qn
'
Ugtrtwelglrt Concrete
Wc=1Gpcf
Stud
Diameter
Deck
Condition
f~
=3 ksl
f~=
25%
Jn.
Nominal
'le
5.26
9.35
14.6
21.0
5.26
9.35
14.6
21.0
4.58
8.14
12.7
18.3
4.31
7.66
12.0
17.2
3.66
6.51
10.2
14.6
3.02
5.36
I
8.3$
12.1
5.26
9.35
14.6
21.0
4.58
8.14
12.7
18.3
3.77
. 6.70
10.5
15.1
1/2
No De<:k
5/a
3/4
~~1.5
h,
3/4
~ ~<: 1.5
h,
..
.Q
'C
0.
.a
'
..
co
~
..,
3/a
'12
5/a
""...
i::
8.
f""
~
3/a
'h
S/a
3/4
3/a
'12
S/a
3/4
3/
'h
5/a
3/4
3/a
lft
5/
3/4
3/a
l/2
5/a
3/4
3/
117
s,, .
3/
3/a .
1f1
$/a
Red~ed
4 ksl
f~ = 3
ksl
'o=41<s1
25%
25%
25%
3.95
.5.38
7.01
9.57
11.0 " 15.0
15.8 . 21.5
. 3.95
5.38
7.01
9.57
15.0.
11~0 .
15.8
21.5
3.44
4.58
6.11
8.14
9.53
12.7
13.7
18.3'
4.31
3.23
5.75
7.66
9.00
12.0
12.9 .
17.2
2.75
3.66
4.88
6.51
7.65
10.2
11.0
14.6
2.27 . '3.02
4.02
5.36
6.29
8.38
9.08
12.1
3.95
5.38
7.01
9.57
11.0
15.0
15.8
21.5
3.44
4.58
8.14
6.11
9.53
12.7
13.7
18.3
2.83
3.n
5.03
6.70
7.88
10.5
11..3
15.1
4.04
7.18
11.3
16.1
4.04
7.18
11.3
16.1
3.44
6.11
9.53
13.7
3.23
5.75
9.00
12.9
2.75
4.88
7.65
11.0
U.1
4.02
6.29
9.08
4.04
7.18
11.3
16.1
3.44
6.11
S.53
13.7
2.83
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.1
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.1
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.l
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.l
3.66
6.51
10.2
14.6
3.02
5.36
8.38
12.1
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.1
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.1
3.n
6.70
10.5
15.1
3.21
5.70
8.93
12.8
3.21
5.70
8.93
12.8
3.21
5.70
8.93
12.8
3.21
5.70
8..93
12.8
2.75
4.88
7.65
11.0
2.2.7
4.02
6.29
9.08
J.ZI
5.70
8.93
12.8
3.21
5.70
8.93
lUJ
2.83
5.31
9.43
14.7
21.2
5.31
9.43
14.7
21.2
4.58
8.14
12.7
18.3
4.31
7.66
12.0
17.2
3.66
6.51
10.2
14.6
3.02
5.36
8.38
12.1
5.31
9.43
14.7
21.2
4.58
8.14
12.7
18.3
3.77
6.70
10.5
15.1
Redu~
3.98
7.(Ji7
11.0
15.9
3.9.8
7.07
11.0
15.9
3.44
6.1 1
9.53
13.7
3.23
5.75
9.00
12.9
2.75
4.08
7.65
11.0
U.7
4.02
6.29
9.08
3.93
7.07
11 .0
15.9
3.44
6.11
9.53
13.7
2.83
5.03
5.03
5.03.
3
7.88
7.88
7.88
11..3
11.3
tt ..3
N<M: TnDulate<I vall* n llJl)lcable only lo c:oncrete ~with ASTM C33 avgregates tor 00(~ weigllt concm.e and ASTM
C330 aoor89lltes for ~ concme.
Allweld &hear stud length$ 8$SUl1led to be ~ deck helglll + 1.5 in.
All symbols shown h dvftried in AISC $pecilication ~ l
''
l51
DESIGN TABLES
Resp.
Mod.
Coeff.,
R'
strength
Deflection
Amp.
Factor,
Factor,
Over
n,
cl
NL
NL
NL
NL
160
160
160
160
100
100
: : :: ::: ::11
2
2
31/
8
7
8
7
(STMF)
Steel intermediate moment frames (IMF)
Steel ordinary moment frames (OMF)
steel special cantilever column
systems (SCCS)
Steel ordinaJ'y cantile\w column
systems (OCCS}
Steel systems not specifically detailed
for seismic resistanee
2
3
3
3
3
Jl/4
511z
NL
NL
NL
I~
NL
160
NL
160
160
NL
100
100
NL
NP
NL
NL
3S1'
NP"
tlP"
35
35
NP.
NP'
Nf'
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
NL
NL
160
160
100
NL
NL
160
160
10i
Ii
NL
Nl
NI'
NP
NP \:
6
51/2
3
21h
NL
It
NL:
~; ~; ~~ ~~ ~ I
I
l.
COMPOSITE SYSTEMS
Steel and concrete composite
eccentrically braced frames (CEBF)
Steel and coocrete composite special
concentrically braced frames
(CSCBF)
Steel and coocrete composite ordinary
braced frames (COBF}
STEB. SYSTEMS
'i
8
5
..
DetleclJOn amplflcallon ractor, tor use In ASCEISEI 7 SeciSooS 12.8.6, 12.8.7 and 12.9.2
<NL= not runited and NP "not peimltted.
See ASCEJS8 7 Section 12.2.S.~ IOI' a desctlptlon Of seismic to:e resisting systems limited to bulldlng; with a structural helgto
c,,.
hoof 100moment
nor lessframe is permitted lo be used In lieu d irQrmedlate moment frame tor SeiSmic Ot$lgn categories B or C.
1"
OrOinalY
s:eei ordill3IY conc;enlrically tnceCI frames are pennilled In ~!tor}' buildings up to a structural heigltl, h,. of 60 fl (18.3 n .
wtiere 111e dead IOad of tile roof dOes not exceed 2.0 psi.
See ASCEISEI 7 Secbon 12.2.S.7 tor tlm4tltlons kl S1n1t11RS ;migried to Seismic Design Categones 0, E oi F.
See ASCEJS8 7 See1ion 12.2.5.6 lo< ffmlt:ltfons In "1UCUes ~ried to Seismic Design Categories 0, E or F.
1 This table Is baSed en ASCfJS8 71'1lle 12.21 and Is~ with permission from ASCE.
I
r
\
1()!
DESIGN TABLES
Resp.
Mod.
Coeff.,
Overstrength
Factor,
llo
tndudlng Structural
Height, h111 limits In fl
Deflection
Amp.
Factor,
Seismic ~n Category
cd
D'
E'
__
;: j
_, ::f.,.
ii
6h
6
21'2
S'h
NL
NL
160
160
100
NL
NL
160
160
100
4112
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
5112
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
4112
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
51h
160
160
100
NP
NP
2112
NL
NP
t.'P
NP
NP
OUALSYSnMs
Dual Systems with SMF c;cpabi. of
res1sting at tent 25% of
prescribed Ul$lll!C forces
Steel eccentrically braced frames
Steel special concentrically braced
rrmes
t:
!:
'
:1
slren:llh
~.
R'
n.
Cl
21!1
Ei
IJt.
NL
35
NP
NP
21!2
NL
NL
NL
Ill
NL
2112
NL
NL
Nl
UL
NL
71/l
21{2
ti'l
Nl
NI.
t.'L
NL
21h
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Z'h
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
8
7
NL
Nl
Nl
Ill
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
5112
21/t
4112
~L
NL
160
100
NP
NL
NL
NL
NL
tJL
3112
21/t
NL
Hl
NP
NP
NP
61/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
411z
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
"
Mod.
Coeff.,
Oeflection
Amp.
Factor,
DUAL SYSTEMS
1
!Mr
COMPOSITE SYSTB~S
Steel and concretecomposi!e plate
shear walls CPS\'1
Steel and concrete composile spec;tsl
shear walls (CSSW)
Steel and concrete composite orornary
Shear walls (COSW)
Steel and concrete comlJOSi:V special
moment frames (CSMF)
Steel and concrete composite
11\tennedlate momem frames (C IMF)
Steel and coocrete comjl()Sile partially
Resp.
'
l62
PART2
Table 19b
l~
.,
ANALYSIS
I
2.1 SCOPE ........................................................... 22
3112
NL
NL
NL
Nl
NL
2.3 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES .......................................... 2Elastic, Inel~tic and Plastic Analysis ........ ...... .......... ........... 24
31/4
2
2
31/4
21/2
1''2
1''2
2112
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
160
160
100
I;
NL
35b
35b
NPb
NL
NL
160
160
100
NL
NL
NL
Firs~Order An~ysis
Analysis ~etho<ls m ASCEJSEI 7 and the Drrect Analysis Method ............ 2,
Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method .......... 26
fNz
3
2
NL
NL NL NL
35c. NP'd NPc.
4112
21/2
NL
NL
Nl
2112 .
NL
NL
160
111z
i 1h
3 12
NL
NL
NL
211z
2''2
NL
NI.
100
NL
NL
Ill
..
160
100
NL NL
NL
NL NPc. NP"' NP"'
Modal Response Spectrum Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method ....... . 22.4 STRUCI1JRAL MODELING .. ......... , ............... .. ..... .... ... 2".
2
Strength of Structural Elements ... . Stiffness of Structural Elements ....... ... ......... . . ..... .............. 2
"t
100 NP''
NL NL
Diaphragms for TbreeDimension:h Analysis ................... : ..... . 2 \Gravity Loads ................ .................... : ............. 21
PART
.
r.. not llmited illld NP .. not pennlned.
Sleel dNry tnced frames are permitted kl pipe racks up to 65 fl
~~~
'
Steel Ofdinely momen! lranle$ and lnltrmediale moment trames we pennil1ed In pipe raclls up 10 a ~I cl 65 It where Ille
moment Joint; ol llelcl COMeCtloot are constructed ol bolted end plates.
S1eol ordln&ry moment framet and lrrlennedi3te moment rrames 8te pennhted In llilJe racils up to a height ol 35 fl
This table Is based oo ASCIS8 7 Tuble 15.41 and is t11printed wl1ll permission fllJm ASCE
'.,
J62
PART2
Table 19b
ANALYSIS
.:: ..
Response
Mod.
Coeff.,
n.
Cd
3''2
NL
Nl
NL
Nl
Nl
2.2
.... .. 2
I
li
2.3 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES .......................................... 2Elastic Inelastic and Plastic Analysis ................ ........... ........ 21
'
NL
NL
160
160
100
31/4
2
2
31/4
NL
NL
NL
NL
J5b
35b
NP
NL
NL
160
160
100
Nl
Analysis Methods m ASCE/SEI 7 and the Direct Analysis Method ............ 2, .
..
2''2
1'12
m.
NL
Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method : ........ 26
8
4'12
2112
1112
3''2
2112
5'12
tll
NL
2112
Ph
3
2112
NL
NL
tll
35c.
NP"' r:pc.
NL
NL
NL
NL
160
160
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
l'if'C.d
NL NL
NP<.' NP''
100
100
100 NP<.'
NL
NL
NL
Modal Response Spectrum Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method ........ 22.4 STRUCTURAL MODELING .................. , ...................... 2'.
Elemen~
......
~. .. . '.; 2
I
..
...
1.
'
tl
:~~
22
ANALYSIS
2.1 SCOPE
This Part provides an overview of the analysis provisions in ASCEJSEl 7, the AISC
Specification, and theAISC Seismic Provisions, and how they are applied to ~ismic design.
,.
 ,
~:j
;.~
;:
The basic role of analysis in seismic design is to provide the engineer with an understanding of the structure's behavior under design earthquakes. In itS most simple fonn, analysis
will consist of simple static linear methods and will provide information on the required
design strength and system deformation under specified loading. For some structures, analysis may include static or dynamic nonlinear methods that provide infoml3tion on tbe
nonlinear deformation of individual elements, patterns of mechanism formation, and tbe
peak demands that can be delivered to individual structural elements and their connections.
The method of analysis selected must as a minimum conform to the requirements of the
applicable buildfog code. Since the results of seismic analysis inherently depend on the
assumed properties of the structural elements, seismic analysis must often be perfonned in .
an iterative manner, initiating with assumed member sizes and configurations, and refined
as member selection is confinned.
Chapter C of the AJSC Seismic Provisions requires that analysis of a structure for strength
design of seismic force resisting components conforms to Lbe applicable building code and
the AISC Specificarion, as well as additional systemlevel requirements prescribed in the
respective system sections.
"
;
''!
design mechanisms. Thus, the design and detailing requirements of the AISC Seismi<
Provisions and ANSUAISC 358 are intended to desensitize the structu(e to earthquake
characteristics so that multiple mechanisms do not lead to undesirable modes of failure.
Capacity Design
<r"
:~
ANALYSIS PROCED\JRF.S
Sttuctures required to resist the effects of earthquake ground motions should be designed
to allow controlled inelastic, ductile deformations of the system. Accepted design practice
is to limit these inelastic actions to certain components of the seismic force resisting system (SFRS) in order to develop a reliable ductile design mechanism that dissipates energy.
Components of the ductile design mechanism are then designed and detailed to maintain
the structural integrity of the system at.large inelastic deformations. How this energy dissipa:ion occurs depends on the structural system type used as the SFRS. Each SFRS in the
AISC Seismic Provisions includes a "Basis of .D esign" se<:tion that defines the locations
where inelastic actions are intended to occur. Accordingly, the provisions in ASCEISEl 7,
the AISC Specification, the AISC Seismic Provisions, and ANSI/AISC 358 are intended to
worktogether to ensure that the resulting frames can undergo controlled deformations in a
ductile manner and !hat those defonnations are distributed throughout the frame. Clearly
identifying the intended ductile design mechanism will provide insight oo which aspects of
lhe stn1ctural model may need detailed consideration. Many of the ductile design mechanisms shown in Part I were identified from structural behavior at large deformations from
nonlinear static analyses using lateral forces that approitimate the fundamental elastic
mode shape. Real structures in eanhquakes exhibit variability in the formation of ductile
1
The tenn, duclile design mechanism, is hnellded to c;aptW'C all possible systemspecific mechanisms !hat
Capacity design is a design philosophy wherein inelastic actions under strong ground
motion are presumed to be concentrated in predetermined critical zones of the SFRS. The
AISC Seismic Provisions employs this methodology by stipulating that the required
strength of certain elements of 1l1e SFRS be defined by forces corresponding to the expected
capacity (based on available strength) of certain designated yielding members. The adjacent
nonyielding members and connections are then protected be.cause they are designed to
remain nominally elastic regardless of the magnitude of ground shaking; in essence. these
protected componenL<i are designed to be insensitive to lhe characteristics of the earthquake,
ensuring that the desired ductile design mechanisro(s) can develop. See AISC Seismic
Provisions Commentary Section A3.l.
ASCE/SEI 7 addresses the concept of capacity design by using a system O\'erstrength factor, 0 0 (see Part 1). ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4 modifies some of the basic load combina1fons
to address load conditions where the overstrength factor is required, but does not explicitly
provide guidance on application to steel frames. The AISC Seismic Provisions explicitly prescribe where to apply the overstrength factor or, altem:itively, an estimated maximum
seismic load detennined from a capacity design analysis outlined in the respective chapter
for each SFRS.
In many instances, ASCE/SEI 7 and the AJSC Seismic Provisions explicitly prescrib
when amplified seismic loads are to be used. Amplified seismic loads are defined u;
/
ASCE/SEI 7 as
(ASCE/SEI 7 Eq. 12.45
and 12.46)
where
'\
EmJi =DcQ.e =horizontal seismic load effect including overstrength factor
Oq = overstrength factor as defined in Tables 12.21 , 15.4l and 15.42 of ASCE/SE! 'J
Q =effect of horizontal seismic (eanhquakeinduced) force~
E,
The load effect, Em11, is based on codespecified loads and the codespecified overstrengtl;
factor. However, the AISC Seismic Provisions sometimes redefines E,,,h as the forces resul
ing from the e;i;pected strengths of the designated yielding members of the SFRS.
ANALYSIS
While nonSFRS' members and connections may be analytically assun1ed not to re:sist
horizontal ground motion (i.e., pQE from ASCE/SEI 7), they must be reliable in resisting
the vertical inertial forces induced by vertical ground motion (i.e., 0.2SDsD from ASCFJ
SEI 7). NonSFRS members must also be designed to ensure defonnation compatibility at
large lateral displacements to maintain structural integrity of the structure. Equally, the
destabilizing effect that nonSFRS framing Cl\11 have on a stn1crure (e.g., leaning column
effects) must be addressed in the analysis and design of the stabilizing SFRS. The SFRS also
consists of diaphragms, chords and collectors.
Elastic,
In.elastic and Plastic_Analysis
.> :.
j
Elastic seismic analysis procedures in ASCFJSEI 7 reduce the seismic response by a factor
of l/R, where R is the response modification coefficient. The intent of this reduction is to
target the elastic response at the onset of the first significant yield (e.g., plastic hinge in a
beam or compression buekling of a brace). Consequently, inelastic or plastic analysis as
outlined in Append.ix I of the AISC Specification is not permitted for detennining the component design forces . from seismic effectssee the AISC Specificatio11 Commentary
to Appendix 1' for further discussion. Therefore, analytical consistency with the AlSC
Specification and the AISC Seismic Provisions is primarily maintained using an elastic
analysis procedure. Although a .nonlinear response history analysis is permitted; it is not
commonly used. to determine =member design forces, but as an assessment tool to judge
acceptance of a design: In spedfic cases, a nonlinear static analysis may be used to capture
the nonlinear ela..tic'response of a component or coru1ection, such as when rotational springs
are tlsed to represent partially restrained connections.
AISC Specification OU.pter C requires that a rigorous secondorder analysis be used to
detennine .the required strengths of components using the appropriate load combinatiollS.
The analysis must include consideration of certain effects that can influence the stability
of th~ ~tiucture and its elements, inciucling second order effects (both P6 and Po).
AdditjoiJal discussion can be found in Wilson and HabibuUah (1987), White and Hajjar
(1991), and Geschwindner (2002). There are different methods by which to address secondorder effects, in~luding iterative or pqniterative solutions with either stationary or
incremental loading. For example, som~ computer programs use a vertical load combination in conjunction with the approximate geoJ?etric stiffness matrix to reduce the structural
stiffness to account for geometric nonlinearities. The resul~g structural stiffness from this
initial analysis is used for all subsequent load analyses (e.g., dead, live, lateral). This
method~ advantageous as it allows superpositionof individual Joad effects because the
stiffness is held constant. This approach typically captures only the PA effect, and Po is
either neglected or approximated by segmenting membe!'S into two or more sections. Some
programs can iterate by ramping the gravity loads in conjunction with the geometric stiffness matrix to more ac_curately capture the change in system stiffness d~ring eacp load step.
Lateral loads can then be iterated by ramping them so rhat the analysis captures the additional changes to the system stiffness during each step. In this melhod, superposition of
individual load effects is not appropriate and the vertical loads would therefore need to be
in~luded in lhe anaJysis.
With reference to seismic analysis, the structural stiffoess is constant (reduced based on
an initial analysis) when using the ASCEJSEI 7 modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA)
ANALYSlS PROCEDURES
to determine the total lateral seismic forces and linear response bist0ry analysis. The results
of these analyses are I.hen combined wiih other load effecLs based on the same reduced stifJ
ness. Th.is procedure is not applicable to a nonlinear response ti.me history analysis as tl"
structural stiffness would need to be updated at each time step based on all Joad effects
included juthe analysis.
.
Gravity loads should be ~eluded in the seismic analysis i'n order to accurately addre!
secondorder effects, including the destabilizing effect generated by oonSFRS framing, anu
the effect of these loads on the periods of a structure. A threedimensional mathematical
model can be developed that captures all loading conditions or, in the case of a twodime[
sional analysis, an ancillary PDelta column, as a minir~um, can be .modeled as a substiru1
for the gravity (nonSFRS) framing system. The PDelta column is commonly modeled to
provide no lateral stiffness to the SFRS, but could be calibrated to provide the same stiffne~~
as that provided by che gravity system.
As an alternative to a rigorous secondorder analysis, second order effects can be approx
imated by amplifying the axial forces and moments in members and connections from
a firstorder analysis through an approximate secondorder analysis outlined in AIS
Specification Appendix 8. The provisions for performing th.is amplified firstorder analys;
were developed on the basis of elastic theory and are not appropriate for inelastic analysis.
t:
..;
"
!
!i'.
::
I
I.
l
:;
~iscu:.
L
f{
l'
The use of
of
in
desigri is explained in the following
.,i
sions. Additional information on eachof.themethods can be found in the Commentary to"
It
Provisions for the direct analysis method (DM) are outlined in AlSC Specification Sectior
C2 and C3. This analysis procedure is permitted for all steel structures and is require t;:
when t.he ratio of ma.'timum secondorder drift to maximum firstorder drift, whlch can be''
taken as B2 inf\ppendix 8 using nominal stiffness properties, exceeds i.s. The PM requir"
!;'~Delta effects to be considere~ eitbe_.r
thro9gb a second~order elastic analysis 1
through an amplified fustord,er analysis:
.
: : :~
l
ii.
dueetly
1~
~.
....t"
~'
26
ANALYSTS
ln the ELM procedure, interaction between frame behavior an<l tha1 or its members is
approxirnoted by the effective length factor, K. This factor i~ used 10 reprc<ent the influence
of the system on the ~irength of ao individual member. Wbere the flexural stiffness of a column is considered to contribute co the lateral stability and resistance co lateral loads, K for
that member is detennined from a sidesway buckling analysis. AJtemativcly, the effective
length factor may be computed using the alignment charts as discussed in detail in the
Commentary to AlSC Specification Appendix 7. It is permitted to use K 1.0 for design for
compression effects 1f 82 S I. I.
..
.,;
l~
111
ti
:
::
:"""
1
,,
I.
~:
"f:
1.
:.
Provisions for the firstorder analysis method (FO~i) are outHned in AISC SpecificaJion
Appendix 7, Section 7.3. With this approach, secondorder effects are captured through the
application of an additional lateral load equal to at least 0.42% of the story gravity load
applied in eac~ load case. No further secondorder analysis is necessary. 1nc required
strengths arc taken as lhe forces and moments obtained from the analysis and the effective
length factor is K = 1.0.
STRUCTURAL MODELING
, .."
the fundament.11 period fhis is because T., has been statistically derived from actual
build mg ~pon.ses the1efore capturing all influential factocs. See ASCE/SEI 7 Section
12.9.4. .
Forces and deformations resulting from analysis with seismic forces reduced by
factor of 1/R, where R is the response modification coefficient. include secondorder
effects either through a second order analysis, an amplified firstorder analysis, or .
hybrid combiO;lltOO of the two methods, independent of the Stabilily C<.'Cflicient, 0, in
ASCEISEJ 7
The A lSC SpecijicaJicm and the AlSC Seismic Provisions deal directly with strength
&!sign of members and connections Verification of seismic drift limits and potential postearthquake iostabiUty are nddressed 10 the spplicable building code. As such. some of the.
provisions for lbe DM arc not direcily applicable for a drift ana.lysis. However, they can Iii.:
conservatively appUed for dnft anal)~is.
Other methodologies for applying the OM have been proposed by Nair et al. (2011).
Z.8
ANALYSIS
STRUCTURAL MODELING
(2 1)
..
I.
where
E, = modulus of efastkity of steel, ksi
ho
As
'EQ,. =sum of the nominal shear strength of steel anchors between the point of maximum
Steel Elements
The stiffness properties of steel beams, columns and braces used in lhe mathematical model
will depend upon the stability design method selecfed and, potentially, the magnitude of
slmining the member undergoes. Reduced stiffness for all members contributing to the lateral stabifay of the structure is required when using the DM to determine design forces. It
is important to note that the stiffness reduction tenns in the DM include a component representing material nonlinearity (e.g., accounting for residual srresses) and a component
reprcsencing member outofstraightness and other uncertainties. Conseque.nLly, stiffness
reduction is separated inro a loaddependent factor and loadindependent factor, complicating ii$ direct application to dynamic analysis.
Research has deinonstr:ued that residual strbsses have a lesser effect on shear stiffness
than flexural siiffness. For sunplibty; the shear modulus. a, can be reduced in proportion to
the reduction in the modulus of elasticjty, E, with no further reduction to account for axial
load effects.
It is common to model steel &earns that are part of the SFRS without composite action
because the reliability of the composite ~tiffness at large inelastic deformations is questionable due to the potential for failure of steel headed stud anchors. If composite action is taken
into account. the following applicable effects should be considered.
Composite Elements
The stiffness properties of steel members acting compositely with concrete should include
the following applicable effects: concrete cracking of the section, steel reinforcement ratio,
section configuration, material properties. of the concrete, and variations of these factors
along the member length. The flexural stiffness, Eleff, and a.tial stiffness, E.Aeff based on a
transfonned cracked section analysis (that also accounts for variations along the member
length) should be "1Sed in lieu of EI and EA in all analysis methods. Recommendations are
provided in AISC Seismic Provisions Chapter C Commentary based on ACI 318 prov is.ions.
For steel beams with a composite slab, composite action can be included where the slab
and shear connection to the beam have been designed and detailed to provide acceptable
behavior (see Commentary to Chapter G in the AISC $eismic Provisions). For concrete.encased steel beams and beams acting compositely with a concrete slab, a plastic stress
distribution corresponding to tbe ultimate nominal strengths of each component can be
used to compute a lowerbound elastic moment of inertia, Tu. For a steel beam with a composite slab in a moment frame with double curvature bending, the effective flexural
stiffness. Eltff can be taken as lbe average of the stiffness in the positive and negative bending regions, as follows:
positive moment and the point of zero moment to either side, ldp$
=moment of inertia of steel cross section, in.4
YE.~ =distance from bottom of the steel section to the elastic neutral axis, in.
,;, [A,d3 + (T.Q,,IF1)(2d3 + d 1)]/(A, + (I:Q,./F1)J, in.
(Spec. Eq. C132)
di =distance from the compression force in the concrete to the top of the steel section,
in.
=distance from the resultant steel tension force for fulJ section tension yield (P1 =
1,
lu,
t:
is recommended in lieu of 75% of
AISC Specification Chapter I commentary), wher~
1,~uiv
(see
t\
li
where
c1 =compression force in concrete slab for fully composite beam; smaller of A1F1 and I
0.85fc'Ac. kips
~
4
lrr =moment of inertia for the fuiJy composite uncracked cransfonned section, in.
AISC Seismic Provisions Commentary Chapter G discusses limitations on using partially
composire beams in certain composite systems.
The flexural stiffness of composite columns and braces (encased or filled) can be taken
as E/,_qprescribed in AISC Specificati~n Chapter I. The axiafstiffness can be taken as
EAJ =E A$+CJEcA.:
1
(22)
l!
.l
where
Ac= area of concrete slab within the effective width. in.2
Ee= modulus of e_lasticity ?f concrete, ksi
c3 = 0.4 for filled sections and 0.2 for encased sections
fquation 22 is taken from the LRFD ~pecificationfor Structuraf Steel !311ildings (AISC 1.:
2000).
:.,.;
l.
Connections and panel zones can contribute significantly to the overall l::iteral flexibility o
a system and the resulting deformations are required to be addresse<I in the analysis for
det.erminiog the distn'Dution of design forces and story drifts. In modeling moment or bracer ,.
frames. the impact of connection size and stiffness should be considered.
~o
..
~,,
~
2.10
1:f.
:,
"'
ANALYSJS
Research (FEMA, 2000a) has demonstrated that panel zone deformations in steel moment
frames can have significant impact on earthquakeinduced lateral drift. However, modeling
framing using center linetocenter line dimensions for the framing clements can approximate the effects of panel zone flexibility reasonably well for elastic analysis (see Figure
21 ). Zerostiffness end offsets may be modeled to analytically provide forces at the panel
zone faces but not influence the periods of vibration. AJtematively, panel zone models that
include web doubler plates and continuity plates CAil be explicitly modeled or implicitly
included by modeling partially rigid end offsets. fully rigid offsets alone should not be
assumed to be the only source of panel zone stiffness (fsai and Popov, 1990). Several panel
zones models are illustrated in FEMA 355C (FEMA, 2000a).
.Explicit connection modeling by rotational springs is penuitted when based on analytical
and experimenml test data. Such an approach may be warranted when accounting for I.he
effects of panially restrained connections or other mechanical characteristics of a connection such as bolt slip. Alternatively, beams can be modeled with an equivalent flexural
stiffness, Eltff
Beams with reduced beam se.ctions (RBS) can be addressed by physically modeling a
prismatic or parabolic tapered section at the RBS location. If a prismatic section is used, one
possibility is to take the moment of inertia at the outer edge of the center twothirds of the
RBS (ANSJ/AISC 358 Chapter 5). The flange width, ht.RBS is:
,..
f:"
.;~
,~.
~~:
~~:;
L~
(23)
=centertocenter length
dJ2
c
E
~'. .llll
. ~: 1
End offset
Zero rigidity; Flexible length
Full rigidity: Flexible length
= L,,
= 4 d~ 1
:,.
,. .,
~
~
~:.
!,
>
",
Actual beam
1,~'<
!1
~;
::
;.
:
;
>:
~:
'
J
1
2. l !
STRUCTURAL MODEJ...JNG
where
4c 2 +b 2
8c
"" radius of cut from ANS VAISC 358 Figure 5.1
This approach may be counteracted by neglecting composite action with the concrete
slab between protected zones. It is also common not to explicitly model the RBS and to use
either an Eleff for the berun or simply to amplify the elastic story drifts to account for thl!
reduced stiffness, as shown in .Example 4.3.1 of this Manual. Additional infom1a1ion on
steel moment frames can be found in ANSUAJSC 358, FEMA 350 (FEMA, 2000b), and
NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 2 (Hamburger et al., 2009). For composite
frames, the effects of cracking on the beamtocolumn joint stiffness should be included.
A common question regarding connection deformations in braced frames is whether the
ends of a brace should be considered as a moment resisting or pinned connection. The
answer will depend on lhe gusset connection detailing. Fundamentally, a braceend _connec
rion at a beamtocolumn joint or at a beam interior segment can be assumed pin ri~1
outofplane and fixed inplane, because the outofplane stiffness of the gusset plate is si5 nificantly smaller than the inplane stiffness.
.
Similar to beamtocolumn joints in moment frames, partially restrained end zones c
ancillarv stub members can be modeled at the ends of braces to represent the increased inplane.fl~xural stiffness provided by the gusset"conne.ctions. The flexural stiffness at these
sectio~s typically ranges from 2 to 4 times that of the~ brace. The beamtocolumn connection where a brace member intersects can be modeled as a fully restrained connection:
oilierwise the connection can be modeled as a simple connection depending on project specific requirements. Additional infonnation concerning steel braced frames c~ be found in
NCJV (2010) and Carter (2009).
AISC Design Guide 20, Steel Plate Shear Walls (Sabelli and Bruneau, 2006) provides
information regarding modeling practices for special plate shear walls. For composite constniction, the effects of cracking on the beamte>columrrjoint stiffness should be included.
I
of
the
supporting
soil
is
co,mmonly
modeled
using
soil
springs
assum.in~
~ ''
flexibility
foundation component is rigid. Alternatively, foundation components may be exp1Jc1t1
modeled to address their flexibility. For nonlinear resp'.onse history analysis, soil sprir.
should directly model the nonlinear behavior of the supporting soil.
Column base modeling is a function of frame mechanics, detailing and rigidity of 1',
foundation components, and is 001 related to the global restraint of the seismic base. Parti;~.
restrained base models may be used to more accurately capture rotational characterL~. ;,
212
STRUCTURAL MODELING
ANALYSIS
no,
1.
transferred to the SFRS and/or modeling errors. It is recommended that lhe analys1 perfo~
a parametric study wilb various diaphragm assignments and assemblies 10 determine ti
most efficient model 10 adequately capture a re3Sonable esrimate of the diaphragm behavi .
and required axial force.
of base plate connections based on e)(perimental results. Alternatively, pinned bases may be
modeled to account for connection, foundation and sou flexibility, although lhe column base
may be detailed to be fixed to the foundation component.
SFRS. The diaphragm model used in analysis should rea listically model the diaphragm's inplane stiffness and the distribution of lateral forces. ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.3.l classifies a
2
.
'
' I
~I
Gravity Loads
't.
::
"
All gravity loads should be modeled in the analysis in order to accurately address sccondorder effecis and to capture the distribution of gravity load effects on vertical forceresisti.
members. A mathematical model is commonly analyzed as a fully constructed, cohes1
structure for each load effect or load combination. This practice is not, however, consistenl
with how a structure is built, where some load effects are distributed based on constructi""
sequence. This is particularly true for the distribution of selfweight in braced frames a
strucrures with outriggers or hat trusses where installation of diagonal members may ~
completed after the surrounding framing and floor system is constructed and at differem
story elevations. ~n _the latter case, dead load eff~cts created during construction in _exten j::
vertical forcercs1strng members can be underesumated because these members can JO eff, ::
hang from the stiffer outrigger/truss system in the analysis, increasing the forces in the i.nte
rior vertic~I suppo~ syste~. Si~ilarl~, _gravi.ty effects can be distributed to diagonal braces\".
in proportion to lhe11 contnbuuon to JOtOt stiffness.
,
For cases when the distribution of dead load effects is a concern, a staged constrocti
analysis can be performed. In its fundamental form, the mathematical model of a complete
system is broken down in10 assemblies, commonly story levels. and the. analysis wi!l inc 1
mentally add each group and superimpose the results onto the previous analysis. C: ;'.
should be exercised when gravity effects produce sway and when geometric imperfection .
are included in the analysis (by either method discussed previously) as a staged analysis cannot handle sway of different assemblies and superposit~on must b~ applica~le. Alternative
some analysis programs allow the analyst to automatically not mclude diagon~ memb
during the gravity lond analysis. Though this is more related to analysis than modeling, a,
altemative modeling technique wou~d be to provide axial force releases in the diagor ~t
members for 1be gravity load analysis~In these cases, the method used to address geome1
nonlinearities within the analysis program is of critical importance, and this will dictm
which technique can be used. Another consideration is clifferentjal settlement of vertic
forceresisting systems under dead load effects.
l:
r
l
I
,,;
The AISC Seismic Provisions stipulate that the gravity forces be neglected in braces :;:
bucklingrestrained braced frames and web plates in special plate shear walls. These provisions are intended 10 restrict the use of SFRS components that are required to uissip
significant amounts of energy by i~elastic actions to simultan~ously . provide s~clt . ;
integrity of lhe structure under gravny loads. Many of the capacity design analysis pro' .
sions have been developed based on this concept.
This approach can be a concern for complex structures that ~ontain pu~_seJy slope<.
stepped nonSFRS columns or where diagonal braces are required to stabilize a struct .,.
that undergoes sidesway from gravity loads (e.g., sloping siructural system) or are require
f.
" ANAJ..Y))lS
PART 2
R.EFH~<.:I~
PART 2 REFERENCES
AJSC (2000), Load and Rt!sistanu Factor Design Specification for Structural Stu/
Buildings, Amencan Jnsutu1c of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.
Carter. C.J. (2009). ''Origins of R =3," Proceedings of1hc 2009 Structures Congress. ASCE,
Austin. TX. April 30 May 2, 2009, pp. 110.
Deierlein, G.G . Rcinhom, A.M. and Willford, M.R. (2010), ''Nonlinear Strucrural Analysu
for Seismic Design," NIST GCR 109175, .NEHR.P Seismic Design Technical Brief No.
4, N'EHRP Consultants Joint Venture_ pannership of the Applied Technology Council and
the Consortium of Uoiversillcs for Research in .Earthquake Engineering, National
Institute of Standards and Technology. Gaithersburg, MD.
FEMA (2000a), Stott! of thl! Art Report 011 Sysums Performance of S1eel Moment Framu
Subject to Eanhquak.e GroWJd Shaking, fEMA 355c, prepared by the SAC Joint Venture
for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.
FEMA (2000b), Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel MomentFrame
..
...
..
Nair, S., Malley, J.O. and Hooper, J.D. (2011), "Design of Steel Buildings for Earthquake
and Stability by Application of ASCE 7 and AISC 360," Engineering loumal, AlSC, Vol.
48, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 199204.
NCJV (2010), faa/11ation of the FEMA P695 Merltodclogy for Quantification of Buildin.~
Seismic Perfonnance Facton, NIST GCR 109178, NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture,
partnership of the Applie4,I Technology Council and l.he Consortium of Universities for
Research in Eariliquakc Engineering, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Gaithersburg, MD.
2.16
ANALYSIS
PEER/ATC (2010). Modeling and Acceptance Criteria for Seismic De.sign and Analy.sit of
Tait Buildings, PEER/ATC 721 Report, Applied Technology Council, Redwood Ci1y.
CA, October.
Sabelli, R. and Bnineau, M. (2006), Srtel Plate Shear Walls. Design Guide 20, AlSC.
Chicago, IL.
PART3
Tsai, K.C. and Popov. E.P. (1990}, "Seismic Panel Zone Design Effect on Elastic Story Drift
lJl S1ecl Frames," Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 116, No. 12, pp.
32353301.
Wilson. E.L. and Habibullah, A. (1987), "Static and Dynamic Analysis of MultiStory
Example 3.4.1. Moment Frame Story Drift Check .... ........ ....   . :
I
J
1
. 32
Example 3.5.3. Braced Frame Brace10Bcam/Colurnn Connection Design ...  . 3PART 3 REFERENCES .... . ........ 3.
I
\
.
I
:<
16
ANAl..YSJS
PEER/ATC (2010), Modeling and Acceptance Criteria for Seismic Design and Analy.fis of
Tall Buildings, PEER/ATC 721 Report. Applied Tcclmology Council, Redwood City,
CA, October.
Sabelli, R. and Bnineau, M. (2006), Steel Plate SMar Walls, Design Guide 20, AISC,
Chicago, IL.
'
Tsai, KC. and Popov, E.P. (1990), "Seismic Panel Zone Design Effcd on Ela.sue Story Drift
in Steel Frames." Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE. Vol. I 16, No. 12, pp.
32353301.
White, D. and Hiljjar, J. (J991), "Application of SecondOrder Elastic Analysis in LRFD:
Rese:irch to Practice," Engineering Joumal, AISC, Vol. 28, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp.
133 148.
Wilson. E.L. and Habibullah. A. (1987), "Static and Dynamic Analysis of MultiStory
Buildings Including p. Delta EffectS," Earthquake S~ctra, Earthquake Engineering
Research Institute, Vol. 3, Issue 3.
PART3
SYSTEMS NOT SPECI FICALLY DETAILED FOR
SEISMIC RESISTANCE
. ...  .  ..  .  3
3.3 DESlGN EXAMPLE PLAN AND ELEVATIONS ..... :.'. .... .. : . 3....
3.4 MOMENT FRAMES .. .... .. .......... .' 3
Example 3.4. l. J\fomem Frame Story Drift Check . ................ : 3u:imple 3.4.2. Moment Frame Column Design
31
I
\
'
3.1 SCOPE
This Pan shows member and connection designs for braced and moment frame systems that
are not specifically detajJed for seismic resistance. Seismic design of the seismic force
resisting system in accordance with the AISC Seismic Provisi<>ns is referred to as "seismic
detailing" by the applicable building code. The systems in this Part are designed according
10 the requirements of the AISC Specification. The SCOpe s1atement al the front of this
Manual discusses the differentiation between seismic force resisting systems that require
special detailing for seismic resistance and those that do not.
~
,
:
":
t:
___..., rl::::i
Systems requiring structural Steel design in accordance with the AISC Specification only are
addressed in this Part. It is a common misconception that when seismic detailing of lhe seismic force resisting system is not required, there are no other seismic design requirements.
Regardless of the seismic detailing requirements, structures assigned to Seismic Design
Categories B through F are subjec1 ro many other seismic design considerations prescribed
in the applicable building code. For example, ASCE/SEI 7 contains numerous requirements,
such as:
:i:m
l'1
, ,
:r:.,.:r:
        ....
. :J;..:.':r:
_fj i
~ l .   J_ _ _ _ _ _J.\ _ _ _
_ __J~' .
2
30'0"
30'0
30'0"
W18x50
W18x50
W18x50
= 85 psf
=68 psf
~r
=80psf
S
20 psf
Curtain wall 175 lb/fl
=
=
:
t
.'
'
Wtnd loads nre determined according to Chapter 28, Part 2 of ASCE/SEI 7. The assumed
are: 83.Sfo Wmd Speed is 115 miles per hour (3 socood gust), Wind Exposure
Category is B, topographic factor 1(1 is 1.0, 3Jld the bwlding is in Risk Category Il. Required
parametCIS
0Roof
<?
0Foorth
Level
ll
W18x50
W18x50
W18x55
W18x55
..,"'
...~
N
W1Sx50
Third
0Level
0
0
second
Level
N
.....
...
~
~
W18x55
W18x55
~...
ease
Column splk:e
4a above finished
floof (1YP.)
Fig. 32. M~nt frame tW.'Olion for E.xam.ptu 3.4.1, 3.4.2, JA.3 and 3.4A.
For floor plan. stt Figure J1 .
strengths from load combinations that include wind loods were shown not to govern over
load combinations that include seismic loads for both the braced frame and the moment
frame. Therefore, wind loads are not included in the design examples in Part 3,.
T he necessary parameters for determining seismic loading are given with each design
example.
~ 1
Because the momeol frame in the following examples does not require seismic detailing.
it is designed in accordance with the provisions of the AlSC Specification.
.
\.:
!:
1
Moment frames resist lateral forces and displacements through flexure and shear in the
beams and coliunos. The necessary restraint must be provided by the moment connections
between the beam and the columns.
Moment frames tend to have larger and heavier beam and column sizes than braced
frames. The increase in member sizes and related co.sts is often accepted lo gain lhe
increased flexibility provided in the architectural and mechanical layout in the structure. The
absence of diagonal bracing members can provide greater freedom in the confilmration of
walls and in the routing mechanical ductwork and piping. Moment frames are ~ften positioned at the perimeter of the structure, allowing maxi.mum flexibility of the interior spaces.
Drift control is required by the applicable building code to help limit da1itage to both the
structural and nonstructural systems.
of
Refer to the moment frame elevation shown in Figure 32. The applicable bui]ding cod .:
1
specifies the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for seismic story drift requirements. In ac~rdance wit. .. :
ASCFJSEl 7:
Risk Category: Il
Seismic Design Category: C
Deflection Amplification Factor, Ca. 3
Seismic Importance Factor,/~: 1.0
Allowable Story Drift, !:>a: 0.020hsx
Solutio n:
From a secondorder elastic analysis of the structure, the elastic displacement comput'
under strengthlevel design earthquake forces at each level are:
r f
o~
= t.87 in.
2s0
Roof
I:
I:
OM=O in.
Fourth
I
I
Level
Column splices
N
....
tloOr (typ.)
Third
Tue allowable story drift al level x, from ASCEJSEI 7 Table li.121, is:
11 0
Level
~
N
t:
.,.,,;.
=0.020h.u
...~~
~
where
h~ = story height below level
Second
x, ft
~.
level
~
...,.
...
Cd (0,., o.i,)
1.
Base
Fig. J3. Braced frome elevation for Examples 3.5. I, 3.5.2 and 3.5.3.
..
\.,~"
t:
fI
6a
LRFD
. ...
~
.,
~:
::
LR.FD
J,
P.,
v.,
1.0
1.66 in. 
,,.;:~

(1.2+0.2SDs)D+p!2+0.5l+0.2S
} '
le .
6a
ASD
ASD
=233 kips
35.0 kips
Pa
Va
=165 kips
= 23.4 kips
Mubot=320 kipft
o.k.
LO
=1.43 in.
Aa =0.020(14.0 ft)(l2.0 in./ft)
=3.36 in.> 1.43 in. o.k.
There are no transverse loadings between the floors in the plane of bending, and the bean::;
framing into the column weak &Jtis are pinconnected and produce negligible moments.
Solution:
From AISC ManlUll Tabie 24, the material properties are as follows:
ASTMA992
F1 =50 ksi
F,. =65 ksi
From AISC Manual Thble 11, the geometric properties are as follows:
Comment:
In this case, the member sizes resulted from strength requiremencs. The seismic story drift
requirements do oot always govern the design of moment frames.
:~
":
W12x87
rx= 5.38 in.
r1 =3.07 in.
Because the member is being designed using the direct analysis method, K is taken as 1.0.
KLx
=54.7
governs
From AISC Manual Table 4J, the available compressive strength is: .
1L_RFD
_ _ _ _ _ _ l _ _ _ _ __A_s_o______
LRFD
ASD
Cb=
Cb=
12.5.M......,
2.5MfNJJI +3M,.. +4Ms+3Mc
Pn =616 kips
I:
1
+3(70.8kipft)
+3(45.6kipft)
t.
=2.19
From AIS.C Manual Table 310, with Lb= 14.0 ft, the availabie flexural strength of
W12x87 is:
Lr=43.lft
Lp<Lb= 14.0ft<L,
Oi, .
= 1,050 kipft
LRFD
=13 l kipft
.,,(
rn .t) = M10p
=I 131 kipft
= 39.8 lcipft
=10.5 ft) I= Mc
=1201 kipft
(37.2 kips)(I0.5 ft) I
=190 kipft
=320 kipft
=I Bl kipft
(24.4 ki.ps)(10.s fl) I
= 125 lcipft
= 210 kipft
=925kips
Pr
Pc
233 kips
Pc 925 kips
=0.252
fle~ure
~SD
LRFD
= 1201 kipft
t~
Using AISC Specification Section HI( c~eck the inte~ction of compression and
Column CL1, as follows:
\.
_
(24.4 kips}(3.5ott)1
=45.6 kipft
= 70.8 kipft
I'
nb
=I 131 kipft
= 1201 kipft
=13 1 kipft(24.4kips)x
Quarter point momenlS are:
j:'.:
' ''     .
l_..
[Mt"P l M"') x
=696 kjpft,
.
.:
Check yielding (plastic moment) limit
state; using AlSC Manual Table 32,
ASD
Ma rop
f.f
lQb_A._1n.:....=_2.20(4_7_7ki_p_ft_)lM,.::::2.19(_3_18 ki.p.....:_ft)=
'
ASD
LRFD
M max
Lp = 10.8 ft
jM(x
i,.
=:2.20
12.5M__,
2.5M,._ +3M.., +4Mp +3Mc
Q,.
3
("
in
'
ii
.t
310
LRFD
Mry)
320
.i!(
kipft + 0) = 0.827
9 495 kipft
=0 kips
v.,
=33.9 kips
M., l<ft =316 kipft
P.,
Pr +
8(Mrx
Mry)
+
 ::;;1.0
9 Mo:
Pc
Mey
210
o.26s+!(
kipft +o)=o 835
9 329 kipft
.
0.835< 1.0
o.k.
o.k.
.i
!
Pa
=0 kips
Va
= 23. l kips
' !
Mat~JI =212kipft
Mel
=40.6 kipft
Ma ,,,111=106 kipft
Solution:
ASD
LRFD
ASD
P, 8(Mrx+  :s;J.O
+Pc 9 Mex Mcy
0.252 +
3.4 MOMENT~
From A1SC Manual Table 24, the material properties are as follows:
From AISC. Manual Table 32, the available shear strength of a W12x87 is:
ASTMA992
LRFD
.
0.k.
F1 =50 ksi
ASD
'
Fu= 65 ksi
o.k.
From AISC .Manual Table 11, the geometric properties are as foUows:
The W12x87 is adequate to resist the required strengths gi,en for Column CL I.
W18x55
d= 18.l in.
r11 = 2.00 in.
Note: Load combinations that do ~~t include seismic effects must also be investigated.
r...,=0.390 in.
J = 1.66 in.4
r1
Sx = 98.3 in.
Given:
Refer to Beam BMI in Figure 32. Verify that a W18x55 ASTM A992 Wshape is sufficient to resist the following required strengths. The applicable building code specifies the
use of ASCFJSEI 7 for calculation of loads. See the Design Example Plan and Elevation section for code specified loading.
.:
L,, = 5.90 ft
L,. = 17.6 ft
h 0 =17.5 in.
The limit states of yielding and lateraltorsional buckling are applicable, as given in AISC
Specificaticn Section F2.
ASD
.'
Calculate Cb using AISC Specification Commentary Equation CFl5, which applies !.;.
gravity loaded beams with the top flange late.rally restrained; the top flange is restrained by
the composite slab.
ASD
LR.FD
~+ 
M0 =Muufi=3161<.ipft
From ASCE/SEl 7, !his structure is assigned to Seismic Design Catego.ry C (p = J.0) and
Sos=0.352.
The reqwred strengths determined by a secondorder analysis including Lhe effects of P0
and PA with reduced stiffness as required by the direct analysis method are:
II
I
=1.67 in.
Mei.
=58.6 kipft
=106 kipft
AMl!JUCAN
312
LR.FD
=316 kipft'
=212 kipft
=63.1 ksi(98.3in.3)
=6. 200 kipin.
because Mi is positive
because M1 is positive
=517 kipftSMp
(Mo+M1) =Mo
Cb= 3.o~(Mi)~/
Mel
J
3 Mo . 3 (Mo+Mif
}!(
M,,
Cb=302(MiJ
8,
Ma
.
3 M0
3 (M,,+M1f
Mp
=3.85
=3.84
3 212 kipft.
31 :
1L~RFDiAs_n__________~ I ~
ASD
(Mo+M1) =Mo
3 212 kipft
M,.
..
1
=515 kipftSMp
=F1 Z.r
Mp= F:yZx
==50ksi(112in.3
)(l ft/12in.)
=467 kipft
=467 kipft
controls
controls
Mn
II
I
467 kipft
1.61
n,, =
o.k.
I:
Per the User Note in AJSC Specification Section F2, the W18x55 is compact for F). = 50 ksi.
Because AISC Manual Table 310 does not provide a strength for a Wl 8x55 with an
unbraced length of 30 ft, calculate the strength from the AISC Specificarion. From AISC
Specifica1i01l Section F2, with compact flanges and web and lb > Lr, the applicable lirnit
states are yielding and lateraltorsional buckling.
LRFD
(Spec. Eq. F23)
ASD
l.
V,, I ilv. =141kips>23.l kips
o.k.
I
 "         ~
<
o.k.
The W18x55 is adequate 10 resist the loads given for Beam BM1.
Note: Load combinations that do not include seismic effects must also be investig::ited.
Jc
s.1io =o.ooo96s
LRFD
CT
=63.1 ksi
F, _
Given:
"
'
Refer to Joint JT1inFigure32. Design a bolted Oangeplated fully. restrained moment connection between Beam BM1 and Column CL1. The beam and column are ASTM A9~ l
Wsbapes and ASTM A36 is used for the connecting material. Use ASTM A325N bolts ai
. 70ksi electrodes.
:,
ASD
p_le3._4_.3_._th_e_re_q_u~__ed__str_en
__gths
__~are,._:____________________~l
Fro_m_Ex_am
__
LRFD
V., = 33.9 kips
Mu= 316 kipft
ASD
Va
=23.1 kips
Ma = 212 kipft
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties are as follows:
.,,,
314
ASTMA36
Fy 36 ksi
Fu= 58 ksi
.,
J15
ASD
LRFD
ASTMA992
Fy = 50 ksi
Mn = 0.90(391 kipft)
Fu= 65 ksi
o.k.
o.k.
From AlSC Manual Table 11, the geometric properties are as follows:
W18x55
d = 18.l in.
=0.390 in.
t,..
AISC Specification Secrion Fl 3 requires chat tensile rupture of the tension flange be investigated if
FuAJn < _fiFyAJg
Since Fy!F,,
Ajn
ASD
LRFD
y; =1.0
Ajg
The single pl:lte connection in an FR moment connection need not be designed for eccentricity on the bolts; however, AlSC Manual Table 10lOa is appHed here for simplicity.
Conservatively, using AlSC Manual Table 10lOa, select a 'l16in.thick ASTM A36 plate
wi!h (3) Yein.dfameter ASTM A325N bolts (Group A) in standard holes connected to the
besm web, and a Y"'in. fillet weld to the column flange. The available strength of the singleplate connection is:
Rn
o.k.
o.k.
Be<::ause the bolt bearing limit state is included in Table 10 lOa, the beam web is acceptable
by inspection, as the beam web thickness of 0.390 in. is greater than the plate thickness of
5/i6
=4.74 in.2
Use a s1i6in.thick, singleplate connection with (3) 31in.diameter ASThf A325N bolts in
standard holes to the beam web and \.4in. fillet weld lo the column flange.
=.<\r,2(dll+ 1A6in.)r1
in.
=3.48 in.
Y,FyAJg =1.0(50 ksi)(4.74 in.)
2
= 237 kips
F.,Afa
LRFD
=226kips
P.
Since FuAfa < Y1FyAfg, the limit state of tensile rupture of the flange applies.
Mn = Fu~f,n S.r
A/1
= 226
4.74 in.
=4,690 kipin.
= 391 kipft
M ..
u1=7
= 316 ldpft (12.0 in./ft}
18.l in.
:::210 kips
ASD
!
I
Il
Ptt1 =Ma
d
= 212 klpft(12.o in.tft}
18.1 in.
= 14lkips
I
I
316
9r,.
 .24.3 kips/bolt
r,, /O
14lkips
=16.2 kips/bolt
= 8.64 t>olts
=8.70 bolts
210 kips
R,.
n,
F.,A,.U
=
n,,.;,. = Pat
Timflo=_!![_
Fu~
=n n,
9R11 =~,F.,A.t
=91F.,A,.U
ASD
P.
ASD
LRFD
From AISC Manual Tlblc 71 for bolt shear, the required number ofYiin.diameter ASTM
A325N bolts is.
LRFD
J.IJ
o.k.
Try ten bolts on 3 4m. gage. Using AJSC Manual Tables 74 and 75 for bearing strength
with le = 2 in. and s =3 in. the available bearing streoglh of the beam flange is:
o.k.
Using AJSC Man110I T:ibles 74 and 75 with L.. =2 in. ands= 3 in., the be<uing strength of
lhe flange pl3te is:
LRFD
~R,,
ASD
=1t(~r,. )tI
=8(102 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)
o.k.
ASD
) I
lf
LRFD
n=n nr,, )
Rn
..
R,,
(rn)
fl=JI
f2 I p
=8(60.9 kiplin.)(1.00 in.)
9Rn =n(~rn) tp
o.k.
Check the flange plate and beam flange for block shear rupture
t;
The two cases for which block shear must be considered in the flange pl3te are shown i
LRFD
t,,.;,,
P"t
9F1 bp
ASD
210 kips
0.90(36 ksi)(7.00 in.)
= 0.926 in.
t . mm 
Figure 34.
Case l involves the tearout of the tw~ blocks outside of 1he two rows of bolt holes in Ll 1
flange plate. For this case, the tension area has a width of 2(1 'I.I in.). Case 2 involves Ll
tearout of the block between the two rows of boles in the flange plate. For this case, the teo
sioo area has a width of 4 in. Because lhe shear areas are the same in both cases, Case l
governs for the flange plate. The beam flange must also be cbeded for Case l , but need n 1~
be checked.for Case 2 due to the presence of the web.'
~:
P<lf
Fybp/ O.
141 kips
Try a l in. x 7 in. plate. The avrulable tensile rupture s~ngth of the plate
according to AISC Specification Section D2 as follows:
is
determined
~nominal strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is given by AISC Specification
j.!
f.quation 145:
I
R,,
:i
318
,......,
! \
f
LRFD
:
LR.FD
R,. UosFu.Aru
=
$Rn = q>UbsF.A,.,
+min (cp0.60FyAgv, cp0.60F.;Anv)
'!1
~;
...,.,
'~
~
i11
It
+min(0.60FyAgv, 0.60Fu.Alfl')
0.
.Q
= 541kips>210 kips
o..k.
~.
ASD
LRFD
$UbsFuA;,1=2(1.0)(60.9 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)
s;
Ubf'A111
=76.7 kips
=397 hlps
=265 kips
=3.So kips
1
51.2)cips
=302 kips
::...
o.k.
=360kips>141 kips
~'
=?.8.0 lops
.Q
From AISC Manual Tables 93a, 93b and 9"3c for Leh= 13A in. and Lev= 2 in.:
0.6FyAgv
=330 kips
=496 kips
ASD
1;1
ASD
.
;r
'\
=233 kips
~Rn
Flange
o.k.
Use (5) rows oO~in.diameter ASTM A325N bolts in standard holes at a 4in. gage to con
nect each flange plate to i.bebeam flange. Use 2ID.: edge distance and 3in .spacing for the
bolts.
PL
Check the
1~ 11
Case 1
o.k.
I/n~
Case2
Fig. 34. Block shear failure paths for the flange plate in Example 3.4.4.
AMERICAN L'ISTTTlTIB OP STEa CONSTR\lCTlON
t
r==
.Jf2
LOO in.
=712
= 0.289 in.
320
Kl = 0.65(2.50 in.)
r
0.289 in.
= 5.62
~ccording to AlSC SpecificaJion Section J4.4, because Kllr $ 25, Fer =Fy and the compressive sirength of the flange plate is:
Pn
=FyAg
=252 kips
LRFD
ASD
Pn
o.k.
=252 kips
Braced frames gain their srrength and their resistance to lateral forces and displacements pJ
marily from the axial strength and stiffness of the bracing members. Braced frames are arrange
such that the centerlines of the framing members (braces, columns nnd be:irns) coincide o.
nearly coincide, thus eliminating the majority of flexure that might occur due to lateral forces.
Bracedframe systems !end to be more economical than momentresisting frames wh
material, fabrication and erection costs are considered. These efficiencies are often offset t.
reduced flexibility in floor pl:m layout, space planning, and eleclrical and mechanical rout
ing encountered as a result of the space requirements of the brace members.
J.
Braced frames typically are located jn walls that stack vertically between floor levels. [
!he typical offi~e building, these walls generally occur in the "core" area around stair and ek
vator shaflS, central restrooms, and mechanical and electrical rooms. 'I11is generally allowe
for greater architectural flexibility in placement and configuration of exterior windows a
l
,.
'
1.67
=151kips>141 kips
W12x87
o.k.
column
PL 1x1 (A36)
The directional ~trenglh increase is used in determining the required weld size. The length
of the weld, l...,, 1s taken to bet.h e width of the 7in. plate less twicethe weld size.
LRFD
D,,,;,, =
ASD
P1if
2(1.5)(1.392 kipfm.)lw
Dmm =
Paf
2(1.5)(0.928 lcipflll.)l,,.
141 kips
210 kips
=8.55 sixteenths
PL ie"x4" (~6)
W18x55beam
=8.61 sixteenths
L. 
Use o/i6in. fillet welds on both sides to connect the.flange places to the column flange.
Comment:
The column must be checked for panel zone and stiffeitlng requirements. for further information, see AISC Design Guide No. 13, Stiffening of WideFlange Columns at Moment
Connections: Wind and Seismic Applicaiions (Carter, 1999).
AMRJCAN lNsrnvrs OP STESL CONSTRUCTION
~is.
(3) 3i
A325N
bolts In std. holes
Note:
Allow fQ( finger shims as needed
\.
...
SY~"fEMS
,....,
'
c~adding. ~ependiog on the plan location and the sue of lhe core area of IJ1e building, tbe torsional resistance offered by the br3Ced frames may become a controlling design p:lnUlleler
Differential drift betvcen stories at the building perio,leter rnus~ be considered with this type
of layout, as rotational displacements of the floor diaphragms may impose deformation
demand~ on the cladliing system and other nonslJUcturaJ elements of tbe building.
Because the braced f111me in the following ex.am pies docs not re<juire seismic detailing, it
is designed in accordance with the provisions of the AJSC Specification.
Assume that the cods of the brace arc pinned and braced against translation.
Ul
LRPD
ASD
(0.60.14SDs)D + 0.7pQ+H
10
The required strengths of Brace B R1 determined by a secondorder analysis including the
effects of Po and PA with reductd stiffness as required by the direc1 analysis method are:
LRFD
Maximum Compression
t(:
,. ,
= 127 lcips
M:u.i.mum Tensfoo
Pu:::
89.6 kips
ASD
Maximum Compression
P. =83.~ kips
Maximum Tension
Pa= 60.2 kips
=17.7 ft
This unbraced length has been conservatively dctennined by calculating the distance
between the work points based on the interse.ction of the centedines of the brace, columr
and beams, and using K 1.0. Shorter unbraced lengths may be used if justified by the eng
oeer of record.
Brace Selection
Select a trial brace si.z.c based on the effeeti.ve length and the compressive strength of llw
brace. Based on the discussion in AJSC Specificarion Commentary Scc1ion J 1.7, it 1
assumed that the effect of the load eccentticity with rel>pect 10 the center of gravity of the
brace 1s neglig.ible and can be ignored. Use AISC Manual Table 49 to select Iris! brace
sections. Possible double angle brnces include 2L5x5x~. 2L6x6x%, or 2L6x4x~ LLBB.
Use a 2L6x4x~ LLBB for the trial design due lo architecrural ne.eds. From AISC Manuai
Table 4.9, the available strength of che 2L6x4x~ LLBB brace ('hin. s~paration) in com
pression with KL= 17.7 ft is controlled by the yy a.'tis. By interpolation:
P.,
F1 =36 ksi
F.=58 ksi
Select an ASTM A36 doubleangle section to act as Brace BR1 in Figure 33 :!lld resist the
following axial forces. The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCEISEl 7 for calculation of required strength. Sec the Design Example Plan and Elevation section for code
specified loacling.
  ~~.
ASTMA36
Given:
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties sre as follows:
LRFD
$cPn ::: 143 kips> 127 kips
o.k.
ASD
Pn
nc
o.k.
Element Slenderness
Tuble 49 considers che AISC Specification Section E6.2 requirement that the effective sle
demess ratio, Kalrb of each of the component shapes between fasteners may not excev
threefourths times lhc governing slenderness ratio of the builtup member. Per AlSt'
Manual Thble 49, at least twO welded or pretensioned bolled intCJ1lledinte connectors x:n
be provided.
324
LRFD
From ASCEJSEI 7, this structure is nssigned to Seismic Design Dtegory C (p  I .0) and
Sos=0.352.
Tue required sll'Cngths of Column CL2 detennined by a ~ndorder aruslysis ancluding the
effects of Po and P6 with reduced stiffness as required by the direct analysis method are:
ASD
o.k.
LRFD
ASD
Maximum Compression
Mn..'timum Compression
o.k.
P0
Pu= 35 1 !Ops
~in.
11
=253 kips
Maximum Tension
Maximum Tension
PIC
If
=42.1 kips
Consider that the ends of the column are pinned and braced against translation for both ~
separation, assuming a Vain. gusset plate, and 1wo mtermediate conne.:tors for Brace BR l.
Note that the intennedinte connectors can be fastened by welding or wi1h pretensioned bolts.
Solution:
1f bolted intennediate connectors are used, a net section tensile rupture check at the con
From AISC Man11al Table Z4. the rnatcrial properties 3re as follows:
f~
Fy =50 ksi
FIA= 65 k$i
Using AJSC Manual Table 41 with KL= 14 ft, select a W 12x50.
Refer to Column CL2 in Figure 33. Select an ASTM A992 Wsbape with a nominal depth
of 12 in. to resis1 the following required strengths. The applicable building code specifies
the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for the calculation of the required strength. See the Design Example
Plan and Elevation section for code specified loadfog.
o.k.
I
LRFD
ASD
LR.FD
ASD
Maximum column compression from
ASD Load Combination 6 from
ASCEJSEI 7 Section l2.4.2.3
nc
.
o.k.
..
+'0.15L + 0.75S
}:;
Refer 10 Join1 JT2 in figure 33. Design the connection between the brace, beam ar.
column. Use a gusset plate concentric to the broce and welded to the benm with 70elecrrodcs. Connect the gusset and the beam to the column using 3 bolted singlepl ~
connection. Use ASTht A36 for all plate material, u~ lhe brace and column as designed
326
Examples 3.5.1and3.5.2, res~tively, and use an ASTM A992 W18x35 for the beam, ns
required for slreng1h and connection geometry. The applicable buiJding code specifies the
use of ASCE/SEI 7 for calculation of the required strengths. See the Design Example PJan
and Elevation section for code spedfied loading.
,.....
: I
LRFD
ASD
Beam Shear
Beam Shear
Va =2.63 kips
Brace Compression
Brace Compression
Brace Tension
'.f"':
. ~
Using AISC Manual Table 73 for 'Ain.diameter ASTM A325 (Group A) sliJK:ritical bolt~
in double shear, Class B faying surfaces, oversized holes in the gusset, and standard boles
in the brace, the available shear strength and the required number of bolls is:
LRFD
;~
Try (5)
ASTMA992
F1 =50 ksi
F.,=65 ksi
$Rn
127 kips
=4.63 bolts
at 3in. spacing.
= 10.6 in.2
W18x35
=17.7 in.
t..,
=0.300 in.
~= 0.425 in,
Column
U= l 1
W12x?O
=12.2 in.
Brace
=l
1.03 io.
4(3.00 ill.)
=0.914
LLBB
A1 = 11.7 in.2
Rn / Cl.
83.4 kips
18.0 kips/bolt
Beam
2L6x4x~
~in.diameter bolts
= 
17m AISC Manual Tables 11, 17 and 115, the geometric properties are as follows:
pd .
llr~q'd
=4.72 bolts
F1 =36 ksi
F,.=58 ksi
=l.67(10.8 kip~)
= 18.o kips/bolt
26.9 kips/bolt
ASTMA36
Pu
=
From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties are as follows:
..
t
,.
Rn
nuq' d
ASD
Fr<?m Examples 3.5.1 arid 3.5.2; the brace is an ASTM A36 2L6x4x% LLBB section with
%in. separation for a %in.thick gusset plate, and the column is an ASTM A992 W12x50.
Solution:
y = 2.03 in.
Brace Tension
3.
Ae=A11U
= (10.6 in.2)(0.914)
=9.69 in.1
(Spec. Eq.
328
Pn =F11Ae
~.t.
,
The available tensile strength of the brace due to the limit state of tensile rupture is determfacd from AISC Specificarior1 Section D2, as follows:
~~~~~~~~~~~.,.~~~~A~s=o~.~:~1
LRFD
 lh
gles edge
11
earoUt Su ...og OO 3J1
4>Rn
ASD
LRFD
=n,
q,,Pn =0.15Pn

o.k.
562 kips
2.00
=281 kips> 60.2 kips
between bolts:
o.k.
Check bolt bearing on the brace and shear strength of the bolts
According to lbe User Note ih AJSC Specification Section J3.6, the strength of the bolt
group is ta.ken as the sum of the effective strengths of the individual fasteners. 1n the following calculations, the available. bearing strength and tearout strength limit states from
AISC Specification Equation J36a are separated for clarity. Assume that bolt hole defor
ASD
'
lj>R,.
= 0.75(2.4)('A
2.4drF,.
in.)(58 ksi)
=143 kips
Rn =$1.214.F..
11
n
=(1/2.00)(1.2)(2)(% in.)
x(3.00 in.H/i6 in.)(58 ksi)
in.)
=30.0 kips
=lj>l.2t4F.,
=0.75(1.2)(* in.)
x(3.00 in.1'/i6 in.)(58 ksi)
=40.4 kips
, = 95.2 kips
=0.75(1.2)(~
I:
l.2tLcFu
$Rn
(2.4)(~
=97.9 kjps
= 0.75(1.2)(2)(* in.)
 =  in.)(2)(3h
1
1 .
=
=92.4d1Fu
= (J/2.00)(1.2)(2)(* in.)
Rn
=91.21L.:Fu
Rn l.2t4Fu
:::n
n
=47.6 kips
$Rn
""6
u.uu.u
=71.4 kips
2.00
=0.75(562 .kips)
=422 .kips> 89.6 kips
=4>1.2UtFu
=0.75(1.2)(2)(* in.)
Pn
Pn
l2'
=20.0 kips
1.211.;F.,.
n
= (1/2.00)(1.2)(% in.)
2.4dtFu
=n
n
=19.6 kips
J.:
330
,..,...,
'
II
:::::
4,= 11hm.
411= 21hfo.
I,.,
From AJSC Sptcificarion Equation J45:
~Rn
=21 tan 30
=2(4)(3.00 in.)tan 30
=13.9 in.
LRFD
'.
'
ASD
The radius of gyration of the gusset plate buckling in the weak dfrection is:
=$UbsF,,.A,,,
r=:fii
+min(>0.60FyAgv, t0.60FuA11v)
+ . (0.60FyArv 0.60FuAnvJ
mm
n n
*in.
=J'if
=0.108 in.
=112 laps
11
;\
"..
= 313 lcips
.....:"
o.k.
..
''
Fa:::
n.:
o.k.
19.9 ksi
The ~in.
gus~et
~Rn =~/?rAg
Use (5) ~in. ASTh1 A325SC bolts to connect the bmce angle m the gusset plate. Use Class
B faying surfaces, Sl.aJld.9.rd holes fn the brace, and oversized boles in the gusscl
Try a ~in. trial gusset plate thickness.
ASD
29.9 ksi
=74.8kips+183 kips
LRPD
~c:Fcr =
=208 kips
R,,
0.60FNAnv
0.65(6.50 in.)
0.108 in.
=39.l
=183 kips
KL
r
='~
=74.8 kips
0.60FzA1v
The a\'erage length of the gusset plate beyond the connection on the Whitmore wjdth is
approximately 6.5 in. For a fixedfixed buckling condition, K 0.65 [see Dowswcll (2006)),
and
= fc,A1
n
o.k.
The forces ~ulting from the applied brace force at !he gussettobeam, gussettocolumn,
and beamto<:olumn interfaces are determined using the Uoifonn Force Method (~.
The planes of uniform forces will be set as the vertical bolt line and the gusset/beam int.face. The assumption of a plane of uniform force at the verucru bolt line allows the bolts .
the column connection to be designed for shear only (no eccentricity}. However, this ccYcoienc assumption for connection design requires that a corresponding moment be resolw ,
3 32
in the design of !he members: In lhis case, the moment will be assigned to the beam. It
should be noted that this assumption is different than that made for the typical cases of lhe
UFM shown in the AISC Manual and is nor a requirement for this type of connection.
Appropriate work points and uniform force planes can often be selected conveniently to balance engineering, fabrication and erection economy. As is demonstrated in the following, the
application of the UF.M in tenns of equations used will remain unchanged despite lhe
change in interface location to the column bolt line.
Using the connection geometry given in Figure 36 and using the UFM described in AISC
Manual Part l 3, de1ermioe the connection interface forces as follows.
The beam eccentricit:y to the plane of uniform force is:
33
1.
I;
eb= 0.Sdb
=8.38 in.
= 0.5(17.7 in.)
=8.85 in.
~
Assuming four bolts arc used in the gussettosingle plate connections spaced at 3 in. start
ing 3~ in. from the top of rhe beam, the vertical eccentricity from the plane of uniform fore i:
to the centroid of the gussettocolumn connection is:
1'8%~
iL
3 50 in.+~~
.
3(3.00 in.)
I' .
2
=8.00 in.
12)2"
0=45
Sinc.e the gussettobeam connectioo is more rigid than the g~ssetto'.c~lumri connection, tli
beam can be assumed to resist the moment generated by eccentricity between the actual gu~
.I.
set centroids and the ideal centroids calculaled using the UFM. Thirefore:
~ = ~= 8.00 in.
a=K+~tan0
'
where
\I
' ..
.
(Manual Eq. 1316)
Therefore:
Cf.
beam
Plane of uniform
W12x50 column
column
I .
W18x35 beam
force
Cf.
I;
r=
Jco.+ec) +(~+eb)
2
The IJ1.in. difference between the ideal centroid, a, and the actual centr0id. Ci, determined
previously, could be neglected but is included here to illustrate the UFM procedure. From
Vue
LRFD
=~P.,
r
ASD
Voe
8 00
= ~ (127 kips)
23.8in.
=42.7 kips
LRFD
=~Pa
r
M.JJ::::
8 00
= ~n. (83.4 kips)
23.8 m.
.
=28.0 kips
,,..
:~
ASD
v..blaCij
Mo11
= Vabla01
= 6.14 kipin.
= 4.03 kipin.
Tue moments at !he columngusset plate interface and the columnbeam interface due to the
plane of unifonn force set at the ve.rtical bolt line are as follows:
1~
~:
'
:~
'
~ ~:,
Mucg = Vuce
H uc=Pu
ec
Hac=ec P,,
60
LRFD
ASD
LRFD
 3.8 ill.
=45.9 kips
r
60
8
= in. (83.4
23.8in.
=30.1 kips
ki~)
= 107 ldpin.
= 70.0 kipin.
V,.be
::::: 47.2 Jdps (2.50 in.)
111
~
Vl<b=eo RII
r
8 85
in. (127 ki s)
23.8 in.
p
47.2 kips
..,:,.
=
=
.i;
ASD
~~
ASD
LRFD
~.:
Hub = P.,
';::
,.
,,
I
I I
Hab=Pa
r
23.8 in.
=28.9 lcips
Mocb
=Vabe
= 31.0 kips (2.50 in.)
= 77.5 kipin.
I
1
II
.
;
The LRFD and ASD geometry and required strengths are shown in Figures 37 a and 37b.
respectively.
..
eb
Vab =Pa
r
Mo.<t =Voce
ASD
.336
GussettoBeam Interface
89.8 kips
127 kips
..IL kl~
89.8
107 kipin.
42.7 kips~ '2.7 kips
1
45.9klps\ (
v..,' 2 1tC>s
_J
~5.9 kips
fkips
427
45.9 kips
107 kip.in.
11"825
6.14kipln.~
47.2 klps
Pue
=t89.8 kips
~5.9klps
118 klpln.
.tT.2 ldps
.~
lup$
44.0 kips
__J
89
~
45.9 kips
59.0 kips
28.9 kips
20.75 in.
=1.39 kip/in.
vub
f..o=
J.00 _ vab
lw
lw
47.2 lcips
31.0 kips
= 20.75 in.
,.:::r
ti~r:~r. . .
J
~0.1
zs.otklps
kips
30.1 kips
70.0 kip.In.
~"
8.00 in.
77.5 kipIn.
30.1
31.0
kips~
kips\ ( _J
31.0 kips
~0.11\lps
77 5 kipin.
31.0 kips
30.1 kips
fu.pet:A
28.9 kips
30.1 kips
31 .0 kips
59.0ldps
59.0 kips
=4.03 kipin.
I
\
= 0.0373 kip/in.
(1.39 kipfm.)2
'
=~J~:Uuo + /111>)1
(2.12 kipfm.)2
31.0~s
_J
=6.14 kipin.
=0.0569~~
=a.2s in.
z...
Zw
=2.07 kip/in.
Mab
fob=
fwb = M ub
.u 111.
,.
= 1.49 kip/in.
83.4 kips
... . !L59.0 ~
fw
= 20.75 in.
=2.27 kip/in.
P,..
I..,
44.0 kips
20.75 in.
= 2.12 kip/in.
av 
47.2 klps
f, _ Hob .
f.  H ..,,
UV 
ASD
LRFD
47.2 kips
'
(20.75 in.)
z... =.!.....=
=8.38 In.
1
6.14 kipin. '....!._/
kips~
_J 45.9
H.o,. 44 Okips\.  _ ,.
: . .     '
v..,. .. 47.2kips
118 kl!Hn.
47.2
45.9 kips'\ (
I:
337
338
LR.FD
=
f,,, a11g
foh)
3.15 kip/in.
3.11 kip/in.
Use a 20.75in. long, doublesided Yi6in. fillet weld to connect the gusset plate lo the beam.
2JJ7 kip/in.
A conserv:itive method to detem1ine the minimum gusset plate thickness is to set lhe shear
ruprure strength of tbe base metal of lhe gusset plate equal to the required shear rupture
strength of the weld. From AISC Manual Equation 93:
6.19D
6.l9D
Tm;n=~
!min=
F,,
Fu
=1.01
Load angle:
Load angle:
=6.19(1.06 sixteenths)
_ 6.19(1.07 sixteenths)
58 ksi
=0.114 in.S:* in.
58 ksi
=0.113 in.s;% in.
o.k.
o.k.
e= tan!( /aa~/ab)
fub)
ASD
LRFD
= 1.01
S= tan1(/ua ~
The weld size is controlled by the mirumum size of fillet weld given in AISC Specificatior.
T:lble J2.4.
=2.04 kipfm.
: 3.11 kip/in.
fu.~ak
ASD
32)
The nonnal and flexural forces at the gussettobeam interface can be converted into an
effective nonnal force in order to facilitate the web local yielding and web local crippling
=47.7
fu,avg
=1.25
x
1.39 kip/in.
=47.7
D~ 1.25[
checks. The effective normal force for use with the full length of che gusset can be constr
3.'11 kip/in.
2(1.392 kipfm,)li+0.5sin 1.s (47.7))
= 1.06 sixteenths
For a derivation of the weld shear
strength, $Rn = 1.392 kip/in., see AISC
Manual Part 8.
4Mui,
L
N4=Vu1J+\
20.75 in.
fa,""'
=l.25
2.04 kip/in.
1
=48.4 kips
=1.04 sixteenths
For a derivation of lhe weld shear
R
strength. ~ 0.928 kip/in., see AISC
Manual Part 8.
ASD
LRFD
'
4Mab
Neff =Vab+L
_
ki
4(4.03kipin.)
 310
.
ps+
20.75 in.
=31.8 kips
R.,
=Fywtw(2.5k+lb)
=(50 ksi)(0.300 io.)[2.5(0.827 in.)+20.75 in.]
=342 kips
= 17.7 in.,
'
LRFD
342 kips
.Rn
=
oJc.
.Q
LRFD
ASD
ASD
1.50
o.k.
Rn
$Rn= $f).A8
Since the framed beamtocolumn co11Dection will provide significant restraint to the web
relative to crippling, AJSC Specification Equation Jl04 is used despite the fact that the
force is applied less than d/2 from the end of the beam.
'
Using AISC Manual.Table 94 and Equations 949a and 949b:
LRFD
FyA
r.
8
=.Q
Q
o.k.
f<:~
:~
1;
1.67
o.k.
I
f:
ASD
<?Rn= ~UbsFuAnt
l.
=3.89 kip/in.
R3/Q=25.8 kips
R1 / .Q =2.59 kip/in.
'
~ :z2[R3/il+lb (~/Q)]
$Rn =2(<!>R3+lb(<I>~))
= 2[38.7 kips+ 20.75 in.(3.89 kip/in.))
o.k.
+ min($0.60FyAgv, $0.60FuAnv)
U1;s= 1:0
(
GussettoColumn Interface
=25.S kips
=17.0 kips
LRPD
ASD
Forces at interface
Vac
=28.'0 kips
.
Rn
<!>Rn =.$0.6FyAgv.
=
Q
0.6FyAgv
0. 60FyAgv
=63.8 kips
Forces at interface
=72.8 kips
tRn = 25.5 kip/in.+ 63.8 kip/in.
= 89.3 kips> 42.7 kips
o.k.
r'
=48.4 kips
o.k.
LRFD
f~
.
= 121 kips
Calcu~te shear
=10.2 kips
LRFD
ASD
~ =(~)'
tRn =$r11 t
= (78.3 kip/in.)(1' in.)
= 29.4kips>l7.9kips
o.k.
o.k.
o.k.
The resultant forces that will be resisted by I.he bolts in the gusset plate are:
LRFD
LRFD
o.k.
ASD
+(45.9 kips)
kips)
=6'2.7 kips
o.k.
Using ArSC Manual Tables 74 and 75 to check bolt bearing on the gusset plate withs= 3
in. and l. =2 in.. the ava.il:ible bearing strength based on one bolt is:
=J(42.7 kips)
=47.6lops>411 kips
Use (4) ~in.diamcter ASThl A325N bolts to connect the gusset plate to I.he column.
=0.348 < LO
i:f!
o.k..
o.k.
:; ={4)(1t.9kips)
o.k.
!;
=(4)(17.9 k1p:1)
3Ain.diameter ASTM
= 15.3 kips
~Rn
...
FromAlSCManua/Thblc 7 I, (4)
A325N bolts
are required.
~in.diameter ASTM
=8.10 kips
I,
yielding component:
ASD
=80.9 kips
LRFD
ASD
ASD
Shear yielding on gross section, from
AISC Specification Equation 143:
Rn = 0.60FyAgv
;:
o.k.
LRFD
ASD
=0.75(0.60)(58 ksi)
x[l2.0 io.  4(0.875 in.)}(% in.)
$Rn=4>F1Ag.
= 0.90(36 ksi)(l2.0 in.)(}i io.)
F1 Ag
o.k.
Rn:::: FuAe
$Rn=9FuAe
=0.75(58 ksi)
x[l2.0 in.  4(0.875 in.)](% in.)
o.k.
=(1/2.00)(58 ksi)
x [I2.0 in.4(0.875 in.)](% in.)
$R'I =4>UbsFuA>ll
,,
+min (cj>0.60F,,A8 ,., ~.60F,.Anv)
o.k.
=22.4 kips
o.k.
ubs =t.o
o.k.
o.k.
=n n
o.k.
0.60f).A8 .,
.
fro
''"'n =42.4 kips, m gusset
Rn
=(l/2.00)(0.60)(58 ksi)
=55.5 kips> 28.0 kips
o.k.
ASD
LRFD
Rn 0.60F,.Anv
=
$Rn= ~.60F,,Atw
06
}:
I".
t
1
J:
.::i
o.k.
J
I:
LRFD
LRFD
ASD
ASD
~
r r
( 42.7 kips
974 kips
+ ( 45.9 kips
J36 kips
( 28.0 kips
64.8 kips
o.k.
+( 30.1 kips
9 J.0 kips
=0.296< 1.0
lI
R" ('"
n} p
o.k.
o.k.
I'
'
,,i,
;:'
n
R,. = r11tp
l,.
LRFD
,.
~
~
..,:,_.,,
ASD
Vu = Ru+ Vub
= 4.00 kips+ 47.2 ldps
=51.2 kips
Va = Ra+ Vob
H., = Huc
Ha = !lac
..
=30.1 kips
2
~.
Zw =(12.0 in.}1
= 45.9 kips
'
,,
f,.
~in.
required.
required.
~ in.
~ = (4)(11.9.ldps)
kips)
o.k.
ASD
= 51.2 kips
/ .,
12.0 in.
::::: 4.27 rJ p/in.
= 45. 1 kips
=68.8 kips
~Rn= (4)(17.9
=12.0 in.
fa
=45.9 kips
fo
12.0in.
= 3.83 kip/in.
118 kipin.
/b
= 3.28 kip(in.
Use (4) ASTM A325N bolts to connect the beam to the column.
Using AJSC Manual Tables 74 and 75 for boll bearing on the single plate, with s 3 in.
and~= 2 in. (note that~ = 2 in. is used conservatively 10 employ Table 75). The avail
able bearing strength of the plate b<lsed on one bolt is:
12.0in.
::::: 2.SO kip/ in.
=30.J kips
12.0in.
= 2.51 kip/in.
'
_ 33.6.kips
77.5 kipin.
=8.29 kip/in.
=Jz.so2 +(2.51+2.15)2
=5.44 kipfin.
.i.
I
AMl.:IUCAN
'
I.
I
LRFD
....
~4
LRFO
ASD
ASD
n.
Losd Angle
Load Angle
4.27 kip/in.
9 = tan
=59.0
1(2.51
$Rn$F.,A,
in.))(~
D~
S.44 kip/in.
2
2
47.2 k1ps) +(45.9 kips.}
( 97..1 kips
136 kips
=0.349 < 1.0
LR.FD
ASD
She:ll' yielding on gross section, from
AJSC Specification Equation J43:
= 0.75(0.60)(58 ksi)
x[l2.0 in.  4(0.875 in.)](* in.)
= 83.2 kips> 47.2 kips
1.50
=64.8 kips> 33.6 kips
Specificarion
in.)](* in.)
o.k.
o.k.
/"1>
/ 04
=0.338<1.0
o.k.
o.k.
With beam 11:mge intnct, only axial force will caure block shear.
ASD
Block shear relative to normal load:
$Rn =$Ub,FuA,.,
+min($0.60F1 A1v. 0.60P.iA,.,)
. (0.60FyAgv
+mm
'
0.60~uA11v)
J
(1/2.00)(1.0)(65 ksi)
x[9.00 io.3(0.875 in.))
x(0.300 in.)
x(0.300 in.)
= 93.2 kips
,:.:
I
t;
If,~
web
=(J/2.00)(0.60)(58 ksi)
= 55.5 kips> 31.0 kips
""c112.00)(58 ksi)
=0.60F,.A,,,.
x[l2.0 in.4(0.875
o.k.
o.k.
I}
l
LRFD
n
""
R,.
Rn= ~.60F,.Anv
fua + f ub
F1 t,
o.k.
in.)
:: 2.10 sixteenths
= 2.13 sixteenths
=0.75(58 ks1)
=59.0
l
I
l
= 62.2 kips
0.60FyA,,  2(1/2.00) (0.60)(50 k.si)
=18.0 kips
>SO
LRFD
0.60F.,Anv
Q
=27.4 kips
::=
o.k.
,.
,
3.5 BRACED
351
FRAMES
LRFD
....
f u.b
Muct
=
ASD
f db
z,..
= J07 kipin.
.~
Moc8
=
Zw
= 70.0 kipin.
36.0 in. 3 /in.
l.94 kip/in .
18.3 kips
'
~
ASD
~.
:~
f,,,p<alc
o.k.
Since the gusseltocolumn and the beamtoc.olumn single plates are created as identical
plates, several ch&ks related to these can be combined.
=7.68 kip/in.
= 5.02 kip/in.
e=tan1(fua+fu1>)
(12.0 in/
4
36.0 in?/in.
LRFD
=42.7 kips
12.0 in,
=3.56 kip/in.
r
r>:
Hw
.. I
~:
!""=
I..,
=45.9 kips
12.0 in.
= 3.83 !tip/in.
=62.4
D>
= tan
 1
2.33 kip/in.
= 62.4
7.68 lcip/in.
D~
5.02 kip/in.
=l.91 sixteenths
Note: Since the bolts in the single plate will add ductility to the connection and also make
this interface less rigid lhan the gussettobeam interface, the weld ductility factor applied
to the gussettobeam interfuce need not be applied here.
I..,
JIN= Vue.
_ 1(
=1.95 sixteenths
Z,,,.
=tan
laa;:lan )
(2.51 k:ip/in.+1.94 kip/in.)
a ::= Uln 1(
fuv
ASD
J.av 
V,,,,
1...,
28.0 kips
= 12.0in.
=2..33 kip/in.
J.aa_Hoc
lw
= 30. 1 kips
12.0 in.
=2.511.cipfm.
Regarding the design of the weld to the single plate, from AISC Specijicacion Table J2.4, the
m.ininrnm size fillet weld allowed for I.be pans being connected is o/16 in. The AJSC Manual
Pan 10 recommends developing the strength of the plt1ce to ensure plastic yielding of the
plate., instead of .fracture in the fillet weld. A mini.mum fillet weld of~ times 1be plate thickness for both sides of I.be plaie is needed 10 develop the plate streng1h. Since this rcquiremeni
is intended to ensure that the simple berun end rotation can be accommodated in a ductile
manner, it need not be applied 10 R = 3 bracing connections. Use a Vt6io. fillet weld.
The final connection design and geometry is shown in Figure 38.
352
<t,
column
Y.i"
1a~
W12x50
2>'.l"
PART 3 REFERENCES
PART 3 REFERENCES
Carter. C.J. (1999), Srifftning of WideFlange Column at Moment Co11nec1io1u: Wind and
Seismic 1\pplicatio1u, Design Gujde I3, AISC, Chicago, IL.
Dowswell, B. (2006), "Effective Length Faciors for Gusset Plate Budding; Engineering
Jo11mal, AISC, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 91 101.
(2) L6x4x%
%" A36PL
If.
beam
W18x35 beam
I
\
t
'
.l
..
.J.
..\
.1
AMWC>Ji lNsrmm! OF STEEL COl'ISTRUC'l10N
...t
354
41
PART4
MOMENT FRAMES
DESIGN TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tuble 41. Comparison of Requirements for SMP, IMF and OMP ... ..... ... 4122
Table 42. S:MF Design Values ....................................... 4124
PART 4 REFERENCES ................................................ 4138
MOMENT FRAMES
4.1 SCOPE
The following types of moment frames are addressed in this Part: ordinary moment frame
(OMF) systems, intenncdiate moment frame (IMF) systems, and special moment frame
(SMF) systems. The AISC Seismic Pro"isions requ.iremenlS and other design considerations
summarized in this Part apply 10 the design of the members and connections in moment
frames that require seismic detailing according to the AISC Seismic Provisions.
Moment frame systems resist lateral forces through the flexural aud shear strengths of the
beams and columns. Lateral displacement is resisted primarily through the flexural stiffness
of the fr:iming members and the restraint of relative rotarion between the beams and
columns at the connections, or "frame action."' Moment frame systems tend to have larger
and heavier beam and column sizes than in braced frame systems, because the beams and
columns are often sized for drift control rather than strength. The increase in member siLeS
and related costs, however, may be acceptable because of the increased flexibility in the
architectural and mechanical layout in the structure. The absence of diagonal bracing members can provide greater freedom in the configuration of walls and in the routing of
mechanical ductwork and piping. On the other hand. the flexible nature of the frames does
warrant some additional consideration of the interaction between the steel frame and more
rigid architectural cladding systems. AISC Design Guide 3, Serviceability Design
Considerations for Steel Buildings (West and Fisher; 2003), discusses recomniended drift
limits for various cladding systems.
43
(a) FR moment connections are designed for s required flexural strength equal to the
expected flexural strength of the beam multiplied by l. J, as follows:
Jhe required shear strength of the connection is determined using a shear force duo to
earthquake loads associated with the development of these expected flexural moments
simultaneously 3t each end of the beam.
(b) FR moment connections are designed for a required flexural screngtb and shear strength
equal to the max.imum moment and corresponding shear that can be transferred to the
connection by the system, including the effects of material overstrength and slrain hardening. As discussed in AISC Seismic Provisions Commentary Section E l.6b, specific
examples of potentially limiting aspects of the system include:
Flexural yielding of the column when the flexural strength of the column is less than
that of the beam
The panel zone shear strength of the column, in recognition of lhe fact that testing has
shown that panel zone shear yielding provides a fairly ductile response in this joint
The foundation uplift
The earthquake force detemtined using an R value of 1
cc) FR moment conne.ctions between wide fl:."lnge beams and the flange of wide flange
columns are designed according to the connection design requiremenis of the IMF
(AISC Seismic Provisions Section E2.6) or SMP (AISC Seismic Provisions Section
E3.6). or a connection is used that resembles the tested WUFW or WUFB connections
that are included in ANSI/AISC 358. See ATSC Seismic Provisions Section El .6b(c) for
detailed requirements.
(4la)
(4lb)
where
Ry =ratio of the expected yield stress to the specified minimum yield stress, P7
Mp= nominal plastic flexural strength of the beam
AMERICAN .INSTmrra Ol' STEEi.. Cof'l.$1"!\UCTION
}:
required to develop available strengths similar to those of FR moment connections. In addition, PR moment connections must have a nominal flexural strength no less than 0.50Mp of
the connected beam (or O.SOMp of the column for onestory structures). The strength and
fle:tibility of the connection must be considered in the design, including the effect on over
or
Ma =(1.1/1.5)RyMp (ASD)
\:I
The only systemspecific requirements for an OMF penain to the beamtocolumn moment
connections. The general intent of the OMF design provisions provided in AISC Seismic
Provision$ Section El is that connection failure should not be the first significant inelastic
event in the response of the frame to earthquake loading, recognizjng that a connection failure is typically one of the least ductile failure modes of a steel frame. Thus the basic design
requ"irement is to provide a frame with strong moment connections. In accordance with
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section El.6, two connection types are permitted when designing
OMF systemsfully restrained (FR) and partially restrained (PR), as defined in AISC
Specification Section B3.6b.
AU FR connections in OMP systems must satisfy at least one of the following three
options given in AISC Seismic Provisions Section El.6b.
Mu =LIR,,Mp (LRFD)
Tue following section consists of four design examples for an OMF system. See Figure 4 I
for lhe roof plan :md Figure 42 for lbe elevation of the building moment frames.
The codespecified gravity loading is as follows:
D
= 15 psf
=20 psf
.,
..
;l
~:l
'
MOMEm FR.AMl:S
From ASCEISEl 7, lbe following parameters apply: Risk Category IT, Seismic Design
Category D, R = 3~. !1,, = 3, Cd= 3. !< = 1.00, Sos= 0.528, and p = 1.0. According to
ASCE/SEI 7"S'ection 12.3.4.2, p = 1.0 if each story resists more 1ban 35% of 1he base shear
in the direction of interest and loss of moment resistance at the beanHocolumn connections at both ends of a beam will not result in more than a 33% reduction in story strength,
nor does the resulting system have an extreme torsional irregularity. p is takenas I.0 for
this r~son.
45
From an elastic analysis of the structure that _includes secondorder effects and accounts for
paneltone deformations, the elastic drift at the top of the story is:
01e =0.980 in.
At the base of the structure:
Obe = 0 in.
l!~'8> 
Solution:
Drift Check
CR.   
"CRi!

Section 12.8.6 of ASCEJSEI 7 defines che design story drift, .1. as the largest difference of
the deflections of \'ertically aligned points at the top and bortom of the story under consideration along any of the edges of the structure. This calculated deflection includes the effects
of elastic and inelastic drift, which in this example includes secondorder effects. From
ASCE/SEI 7 Equation 12.815:
::::: CJ(OreObe)
'~
:::
'
~!
'
~i;:;.3~f
.~0
[
I
~:
~
W18x40
BM1
30.o
W18x40
FromASCEISEI 7 Table 12.12l, the allowable story drift at level x, 6.a. is 0.020hu. where
ltn is the story height below level x. Tl is assumed in this example that t.., can be increased
to 0.025h~ because interior walls. partitions, ceilings, and exterior wan sys1ems are
designed to accommodate these increased story drifts. ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.12.l.J
requires, for seismic force resisting systems comprised solely of moment frames in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F. chat the design story drift not e.JCceed
AalP for any story. Determine the allow:\ble story drift as follows:
t:.,,
p
= 0.025hsr
l.O
0.025(17.0 ft)(12 ioJft)
1.0
= 5. l 0 in. > 2.94 in,
o.k.
'\
MOMENT FRAMES
ASCE/SEl 7 Section 12.8.7 investigates potential for instability by use of a stability coefficient. e, calculated as:
The stability coefficient may not exceed 011kn The ratio of shear demand to shear capacity
for the story between levels x and x1 is ~. Couser'(<ltiyely, usi.ng a value of l.O for (3:
P,,D.1,'
(1::::
VJthnCa
where
P.t
A
1HAt 
o.s
~Cd
<025
t:
 .
.,
0.5
=1.0(3)
I;
I
':.
=0.167 ~ 0.25
o.k.
Tue moment frame meets the allowable story drift and stability requirements for seismic
loading.
ASCE/SEl 7 does not explicilly specify load factors to be used on the gravity loads for determining P.,. except Section 12.8.7 does specify that no individual load factor need exceed LO.
For this example, the load combination use<l to compute the total vertical load on a given
story, Px, acting simultaneously with the hmizontal earthquake force, Vx, is l.OD + 0.2S,
taken from ASCE/SEI 7 Section 2.3 with the dead.load factor limited ro 1.0 as e.xplained.
Note that consistent with this, the same combination was used in the secondorder. analysis
as used for this example for the purpose of computing the fundameptal period, base shear,
and design
story
dtift.
. .
',
to
Refer Column CL1 in Figure 42. Determine the adequacy of the ASTM A992 W12x35
column for the.following loading. The required strength of columns should be determined
in accordance with AISC Seismic Provisions Section Dl.4a. The applicable building code ~i
specifies the use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads.
~,
1
=171 kips
LRFD .,
ASD
I :;i
1LRFDLoa_d_C_o_m_binauo_n_5_fr_o_m_ __ +_A_S_D_Load_C_o_m_b_in_a_ti_o_n_6_f_ro_m
_ __ 1I
l :.
=
9
=0.0714
Because a secondorder analysis was used to compute the story drift, e is adjusted as fellows according to ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.8.7 before checking 0,,_.
J.
I"':;
+H+F+0.75L
+0.75S
\.
i~
1 ...;::
LL~
e
0.0114
=
1+ e
1+ 0.0114
t;
From a secondorder analysis including the effects of P6 and Po effects as well as th:
reduced stiffness require<l by the direct analysis method, the column required strengths are ~:
.
=0.0666
ASD
LRFD
Per ASCE/SEI 7, if 0 from a firstorder analysis or 0/(1+9) from a secondorder analysis i:s
less than or equal to 0.10, secondorder effecis need not be considered for computing story
drift. Note that whether or not secondorder effects on member forces must be considered
per ASCE/SEI 7 has to be verified, as it was in this example; however, Chapter C of tbe
AlSC Specificarian requires secondorder effects be considered in all cases.
v..
= 15.2 kips
3.78 kips
Pa
V0
M .. U)p
:= 64.3
P,..
kipft
~.:,.
=l7.5k.ips
=2.57 kips
MOMENT FRAMf,S
!""" The higher ASD required axial strength compared to LRFD could be explained by the higher
load factor on snow load. S. of 0.75 for ASD versus 0.2 for LRFD.
I[
According to ASCE/SEJ 7, the load combinations including amplified seismic loads (incJml
ing overstrength factor. flo) are:
.,....
i
~
LRFD
ASD
Mu wp = 64.3 kipft
(0.90.2Sos)D+ 0 0 Qt + l.6H
(l.0+0.105SDs)D + H + F+ 0.5250.,Q.e
+0.75L+0.75S
Mw bet =0 k.ipft
=43.7 kipft
Ma b<>I =0 kipft
.; I
(0.60.14Sos)D+ 0.7Q.,(k + H
'. I
P.
=2LO "'"'
LRFD
P.
=20.6 ljpo
ASO
=0.75(43.7 kipft)
=32.8 kipft
From AISC Manual Table 24. the material properties are as follows:
=64.3 kipft
12.5M,,_
(2.5Mmax+3MA
)
+4.\ls +3Mc
b
=1.54 in.
ISection El .5a of lhc AlSC Seismic Pro\isions states that there are no tirnit:ltions on width!O thickness ratios of members of an OMF, beyond those in the AlSC Specification.
I.
With no interior brace poinL'I, the unbl'3Ced column length is Lt, = 17.0 ft.
C
b=
= 43.7 kipft
M,IUU
12.5(64.3 kipft)
Fu= 65 ksi
.;
'
= 21.9 kipft
=0.75(64.3 kipft)
Mmax
=5.25 in.
=0.50(43.7 kipft)
=12.75 ft)= Mc
Solution:
r,
= 0.50(64.3 kipft)
=32.2 kipft
M (x
ASTMA992
F1 =50 ksi
'
= l 0.9 kipft
= 16.1 kipft
There are no transverse loadings between lhe column supports in the plane of bending and
the columns are considered to be pinned at the base.
,.!~
= 0.25(43.7 kipft)
0.25(64.3 kipft}
tlI
l~
I ~:
Ma '"P
erning load combination that includes the amplified sei~mic load is:
,~
ASD
I .Rm
~ 3
(::J' From the frame analysis, the maximum required ;Uial strength in this column from the gov
4 9
12.5Mmar
(2.5Mma:1: +3MA
)
+4Ms +3Mc
12.5{43.7 kipft)
'
=1.67
Check lateraltorsional buckling using AJSC Manual Table 61 with Lb = 17.0 ft and the
modification to bx for when Cb> 1.0 (AJSC Manual Equation 65).
410
MOMENT PRAlv!ES
LR.FD
b,,
=0.00766 (kipft)J
$bMn =cb(~)[:J
Because the W12x35 is not included in AISC Manual Table 4l, use AISC Manual Tab!."'
61 co determine the available compressive strength. with KLy = 17.0 fl:
ASD
b..
=0.0115 (kipnr
LRFD
Mn =Cb(!)(.!.)
Qb
9 bx
61(!)(
l
9 o.011s(kiprtr
=167(!)(
I
)
9 o.00166(k.ipftr1
1
= 194 kipft
=129 kipft
1)
Use <!>bM,.
=192 kipft
 0.0113 kipsI
0.00754 kips
Mp
=
nb
nb
n1>
=128 kipft
P,
15.2 kips
Pc
133 kips
P, = 17.5 kips
Pc 88.5 kips
=0.198
=0.114
Because P,IPc < 0.2, use AJSC
Specificarion Equation HI Ib:
Tue direct analysis method de.scribed in Section C of the AJSC Specification states that the
effective length factor, K, of all membersshall be taken as unity unless a smaller value can
be justified by ratiooal analysis.
Therefore:
0.114
2
Kx = 1.0
Ky= 1.0
KxLx
rx
2Pc
Mex
Mey
+(&u
kiptl +o)= 0_392
192 kipfl
The slenderness ratios about the strong and wealc axis are:
ASD
LRFD
The unbraced length of the column fur buckling about boch the strong and weak axis is
.0 ft. The column has slender elements according to AISC ;\la1111al Table 11.
17
=88.5 kips
Combined Loading
Using AlSC Specificarion Section Hl, determine whether the applicable interaction equ
tion is satisfied, as follows:
Use Mn
ASD
M11
=o.oi 13 kips
P,.
= !le p
$bM,. =; $bMp
= 133 kips
LRFD
ASD
=0.00754 kips
\
'
o.k.
o) =0_440
o.k.
chc~ l:
Alternatively, Section Hl.3 of the AJSC Specification ma; be used for th,e interaction
for this column since the column is only S\Jbject to bending about a singie ax.is. The interaction equations in Section Hl.3 would result in a rugher column strength than demonstrat I
t~
by this procedure.
:~;
=38.9
K1 l 1 =1.0(17.0 ft)(l2.0 in./ft)
ry
1.54; in.
=132
governs
Per Section D.1.4a(2) of the AJSC Seismic Provisions, it is permitted to neglect moments
t
"
the column for detemunation of required strength because the column moments do : t
result from loads applied between points of lateral support.
~:
A1.tJUCAN
MOMENT FR.AMES
412
Solution:
From AJSC M<1nual Table 24, the maicrial propenics :ire as follows:
ASD
ASTh1A992
Fy
Fu
Available Shear Strength
LRFD
...
~
Beam
W18x40
ASD
o.k.
Vn,x
n.
rx =7.21 in.
o.k.
The W 12x35 IS adequate to resist lhe required strengths given for Column CL1.
.1
....
I
1:
!"
~=
~;
ASD
From a secondorder analysis considering Pa and Po effects as well :is the reduced stiffness required by the direct :inalysis method. the beam required strengths arc:
..
AISC Seismic Proi;ision.r Section El.5:1 states that there are no limjtations on widLhtolhickness ratios of members of ao OMF, beyond those in the AISC Specificarimi.
AJSC Seismic Prolirions Sccuon El.5a also stat.es that there are no requirements for stability bracing of beams or jointS in 01\.fF, beyond those in the AlSC Specificatio11.
Available Flexural Strength
Given:
:
=50 ksi
=65 ksi
From AlSC Manual Table 11, the geometric properties are as follows:
Using AJSC Manual Table 32, the available shear strength for a W12x35 is:
4! l
Per the User Note in AJSC Spccificotion Section F2. the beam has compact flange.~ and web.
The available flexural strength is the lower V31ue obtained :iccorcling to lhc limit Slates of
lateraltorsional buckling :ind yielding.
Note: The infill befilns or joists are not described m th.is eumple. ll is presumed !hat the
combination of these memben. (with suitable connections) and a roof deck diaphragm will
provide an au equate lateral br3Ce for the top flange Of this beam. With appropriate detailing,
I.he bottom Oange of the beam could also be braced by 1he infill beams or joistS. This i~
assumed to be the case in this example.
The unbraced beam length is:
.l.p=4.49ft
L,.=13.lft
LRFD
P., =2.54 kips
Pa =0.784 kips
Ma = 78.0 kipft
Va =I 1.8 kips
The top 3Jld bottom beam flanges nre braced every 6 fl by infiJl beams.
LRFD
=78.0 kipfl
M...u
= 67 .0 kipft
= 52.2 tipft
Mc
38.3 kipft
M,..
""61.0kipft
MB
=45.3 kipft
Mc
=30.9 k.ipft
M,..
MB
414
MOMENT FRAMES
LRFD
l15
Usjng the AISC Manual Table 61 with an unbraced length of 6.00 ft in the weak ox.is, the
available axial strength is:
ASD
l2.5Mm<U'
(2.5Mmax +3MA
)
+4Ms+3Mc
=(2.5Mmax+3.MA
12.5(82.9 kipft)
12.5(82.9 kipft)+ 3(67.0 kipft)l
12.5(78.0 kipft)
= [2.5(78.0 kipft)+ 3(61.0 k.ipfl)l
J2.5M.t
+4Ms +3Mc
= 1.42
ASD
LRFD
p = 0.00379 kipsI
Pn I
= 0.00252 kips
=
4'cPn =
nc
=0.00252 l<lps 1
= 1.50
f
0.00379 kipsI
=264 kips
""397 kips
Compute the lateraltorsional buckling strength using AISC Manual Table 310 with
Lb= 6.00 ft: Combined Loeding
LRFD
ASD
Pc
397 kips
Pr 0.784 l<lps
=
Pc
264 kips
=0.00297
M,.
Mpx
nb
Qb
ASD
2.54 kips
=0.00640
<l>bMn =bMpx
=294 kipft< 389 kipft
P,
.!!..+(Mrx
+ Mry)~I.O
2f>c
Mex Mcy
~ LO
=196 kipft
ASD
LRFD
= l.50(183 kipft)
=275 kipft
LRFD
o.k.
o) = 0 _399
o.k.
The infill beams provide br:icing in the bewl's weak axis and the unbraced length, Ly, is
6.00 ft The beam is not braced in the strong ax.is.
From AISC Manual Table 32, the available shear strength for a W18x40 is:
KxLx
=49.9
K1 L, = 1.0(6.00 ft)(l2 .0 in.lft)
r1
1.27 in.
=56.7
'
_ _ _ _ _LRFD
_ _ __ __ _1_ _ _ _ _
A_so
_____
<1>~V,.
o.k.
V"
n,,
o.k.
~~
Tue W18x40 is adequate to resist the required strengths given for Beam BM1.
Note that load combinations that do not include seismic effects must also be investigated.
governs
Using AISC Specification Hl, determine whether the applicable interaction equation is satisfied, as follows:
Ji
The process could be iterated until the shear and moment values converge, but the difference
is negligible between the initial calculation and the convergence. For simplicity, us~ this
value as the required flexural strength.
3bcJt1t)
Rne =0.60(1.l}R Fydcl,. (1+1
dbdctw
'i
'
'Therefore. the column panel tone shear strength controls the maximum force lhat can be
delivered by the system co the connection, in accordance with AISC Seismic Provisions
Section El.6b{b) and Commentary Section EJ.6b(b).
=147 kips
LRFD
=147 kips
ASD
Va.,= Rn~/1.5
= 147 kips/1.5
= 98.0 kips
Vue= Rne
:, I
419
4JS
Calculate the corresponding shear for the beamtocolumn connection design using AISC
Seismic Provisions Section EJ .6b(b}. The required shear strength of the connection is based
on the load combinations in the applicable building code that include the amplified seismic
load. m detennining the amplified seismic load, tbe effect of horizontal forces including
overstrength, Em11, is dctennined from:
(Provisions Eq. El l)
where
The required flexural strength is:
ii1
LRFb
M.,.
ASD
=Vue(d11 t1)
M,ie
=2,550 kipin.
= l, 700 kipin.
=348 in.
Because AISC Seismic Provisions Section El.6b(b) is used, the term 1.IRy1Hp is sub~tituted
with M11.e (LRFD} or Mru (ASD) based on the panel Z\'ne strength as calculated.
The shear in the column is:
ASD
LRFD
.LRFD
ASD
Mae
Voe=H
l, 700 kipin.
(17 .0 ft)(l2 inJft)
Vu .= M,.,
2,550 kipin.
?M.,,,
V due to Em1r =
Let
 2(2,770 !tipin.)
348 in.
= 15.9 kips
due to Em>i
2Ma.e
=
lcJ'
I
I
2(1,850 kipin.)
348 fu.
""10.6 kips
=8.33 kips
This shear should be added to the panel zone strength to recalculate the required flexural
strength, as follows:
ASO
LRFD
Miu =(V,,,;+ V.,c)(db 11)
x(l7.9'in.0.525 in.}
=1,850 kipin.
AMERICAN lNSlTIVT'B OP STm. Co~UCOON
"{'
420
LRFD
ASD
P,
=F,.,A.,,
= 90 ksi (0.442 in.2)
= 39.8 kips
Vo =(1.0+0.105Svs)D+H +F
+ 0.525EmJi + 0.75L+ 0.75S
"' [LO+ 0.105(0.528)](4.86 kips)
+O kips+0.75(6.49 kips)
Mnp
= 15.6 kips
The design methodology used for 1he moment endplate connections is taken from AlSC
Desigri cfuide 4, Extended EndPlate Moment ConnectionsSei~mic and WindApplication.s
(Murray and Sumner, 2003). ANSl/AISC 358 outlines requirements and design methodology for prequalified moment endplate connections for speciaJ and intermediale momeot
frames. However, for an ordinary moment frame, the basic design equations and methodol9gy described inAISC Design Guide 4 can be used. Note that Design Guide 4 includes only
the LRFD. method and the equations are modified here for ASD.
= 2P,(L.f,,)
2(39.8 kips}
x(22.6i~.+19.6 ~ )
+15.1 m.+12.l m.
=4,140 kipin.
.0.
2(39.8 kips)
= 0.75
II
ASD
LRFD
2.00
= 2,760 kipin.
o.k.
o.k.
l:
Bolts
Figure 43 illustrates the configuration ll?d key dimensions associated with thjs type of
connection.
Continuity plates
I
:;\
(when required)
d/J, rtqd
2Miu
.1t$F,.,(rdn)
'
=0.614 in.
db, rtgd
=.
~
20Mae
nF,,, (U,,)
2(2.00)(1,850 kipin.)
7t{90 ksi)
(22.6 in.+ 19.6 in. }
x +15.I in.+12.l in.
=0.614 in.
tpl
Detemri.ne the required bole diameter, db,,... from AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.6 using
the bolt spacing provided in Figure 44 and ASTM A325N bolts, as follows:
ASD
I
,'
Based upon preliminary calculations, it was determined that an eightbolt stiffeoed endplate
connection would be required to make the column flange work in bending.
LRFD
j,
From AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.8. the flexural design strength of the connection is:
+O kips
= 23.5 kips
l
t
The value of Fn 1, the nominal tensile strength of 1hc boll, is from AISC Specijicatio11 Thble
J3.2 and U,, is I.he srun of h1 through h4
421
MOMENT FRAMl:S
I
I
I
I
.i
I
I
I
 J.JL
Beam
w
I
t.
;~
l
.t
.a..i:.
422
,.....
MOMENT 'FRAMES
The required end place lh.ickness is determined from AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.JO.
The necessary parameters are determined as follows based on Figure 44. From Table 3.3 of
AlSC Design Guide 4:
'
=
"
in.( 2{1.25
, 1 in.) )+19.6 in.(2.001in.)
+15.1
=}__Jb;i
=!J1.oo
in. (4.00in.)
2
;,~
= 232 in.
=1.25 in.
From AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.10, the required end plnte thickness is:
Because d. < s, Case I of AJSC Design Guide 4 applies. From Table 3.3 of AISC Design
Guide4:
Yp = bplhi()+112
(1]+"3(l)+ht(.!.))
1
+ {3.00 in.)2
=3.00 in.
Pfo =2.00 in.
Pfi =2.00 in.
de
4.00111.
Pl>
_______, L~
(3 00
in.( )
2.65 in.
2
(
(3.00
+.+ 15. 1 in. 2.00 in.+
=2.65 in.
...
1
in.()+12.1
2.00 in.
2d.
PJo
P/i
ASD
LRFD
Ip/, Y<qd
~I l
/1.1 Iq>M,,,
$
Ipl.Y<<;.I 
F, y
b yp p
/1.11(0.75)(2,770 kipin.)
0.90(36 ksi)(232 in.)
:: .
Use a
r. stiffener
tktyp.
;:;i
:; I
Total of (16) ~
dia. A325N bolls
(pretensioned)
Wx3stiffener
plates N.S. & F.S.
(A36)
%"thick
end plate
(A36)
W18x40
beam
. =.3
~
LJ.:J
I
nF y
y p
/l.ll(l.67)(1,850 kipin.)
=0.453 in.
=0.554 in.
/l.1 lf4Ma,
~in.lhick ASTM
3.15.
ts1. rcqd
=l,.b (Fyb)
Fys
=0315 in.(so ksi)
36 ksi
=0.438 in.
in.
424
MOMENT FRAMP.S
The length of the stiffener is detennined from AlSC Design Guide 4 Equation 2.11.
ls1
LRFD
=_.!!!!._
QvV~
tan3o
w,'4 = 2>{0.60)(Fm
6.25 in.
=1an3o
=10.8 in.
Use Ls1 = 11.0 in.
Check for local buckling of the stiffener. The stiffener slenderness ratio is:
42S
ASD
.Q V,./0.v
)/Ji
ll'rtq
= 2(0.60)(FE.:a' )/../2
2.00(9.45 kipfm.)/1.50
1.00(9.45 kipfm.)
=2(0.75)(0.60)(70 kr.i)/Ji.
=0.212in.
=0.212 in.
2(0.60)(70 ksi)/72
I!
6.25 in.
'Vt6 io.
=
=14.3
The limiliug slenderness ratio from AISC Specificarion Table B4.1 a Case l is:
ASD
LRFD
=0.56
29,000 ksi .
36 ksi
\.
~ =n(~)
$Vn =n(<Prn)
=8(17.9 kips)
=95.5 kips
,i;
=15.9
143 kips> 23.5 kips
14.3 < 15.9; therefore, the stiffener is not subject to local buckling.
o.k.
o.k.
For all eight bolts, the bearing strength' ~vhen deformation at the bolt hole at service load i~
a consideration is:
Rn =2.4dtFu
AISC Design Guide 4 states that the weld of this stiffener plate to the beam flange should
be capable of developing the shear yield strength of the stiffener plate.
For the 'V16in.thick ASTM A36 plate:
Vn =0.60FyAgv
1:
= 9.45 kip/in.
For a twosided fillet weld, cakulate lhe requfred leg size, wr,9 by setting the available shear
yield strength of the plate equal to the available shear slfength of the weld and solving for
W~q
.l,.)
R,. = I .2lctF,,
f
I
~.J..
MOMENT FR"MES
426
Rn
=1.2/ctF.,
><'rrt
LRFD
ASD
o.k.
=
=85.3 kips
Ffa = M,,,
dt1
..
2, 770 kipin.
=159 kips
Design beam tlangctoendplate welds
for a required strength, FJil = 159 kips
!.
159 kips
=0.75(060)(70 k"i/Jl)(!.5)(11.7 in.)
2.00(106 lcips)
 (0.60}(70 k.sl/"2)(1.5)(11.7 in.)
=0.407 in.
=0.407 in.
Use t'1Gin. fillet welds (twosided) for the beam t1angetoendplate weld.
Design of Beam WebtoEndPlate Weld
AISC Design Guide 4 requires that the beam webtoend plate weld develop the availabi<
tensile yield strength of the web in the vicinity of the tension bolts.
1be aYailable tensile yield strength of the bc:un web anJ required weld size arc:
<
fa
=l~.2 kip/in.
Wnq
dt1
J,850 kipin.
17.9 in.0.525 in.
= 106 kips
=11.7 in.
A factor of 1.5 is applied 10 the weld strength because u)e weld is at a 90 angle 10 the load,
occording to AJSC Specification Section J2.4, as follows:
T,,
n,
F..,.1.,.
=
n,
=9.43 kip/in.
F
,\.fac
ta=
ASD
LRFD
.
s:
x(0525 in.)
0.6F,.,,b;t1
I
I
=0.60(FXX/J2}1.54
ASD
'
ASD
LRFD
4>Rn
= 2~(0.60FEXX / ./2)1.5
Wreq=
2(0.60Frn/J2)1.5
2.00(9.43 kip/in.}
2[0.60(10 ksi)/ Ji]u
14.2 kip/in.
= 2(0.75)10.60(70 ksi)/ J2}1,5
= 0.213 in.
=0.212 in.
Use ~in. fillet welds (twosided) for !he beM1l webtoendplate weld.
Column Flange Flexural Strength
Wilh no column flsnge stiffeners, AISC Oaign Guide 4 Tuble 3.5 gives lhe following:
s=~Jbfc8
= !J6.56 io.(4.00 in.)
2
=2.56 in.
MOM.ENT FRAMES
Pl> =3.00
in.
Wiu1 stiffeners added, AISC ~sign Gujde 4 Table 3.5 provides the following equation:
Pli
=2.00 in.
=2
6 56
1
in. !22.6in.( )+12.1
2
2.56 in.
22.6 in.(3.00 in.+
+12.l
2
+  400 in. +15.I
4.00
2
= 205 in.
2
+4.00 in.
(i
in.))
in.)
in.(
1
)
2.56 in.
3 .. 00 in.)
., .
.
3(3.00
22.6 in. ( 2.56 in. +  + l 9.6 m. 0  m. +
4
4
1
in.()J
2.56 in.
45
:b )+ pgl+
l ) + 19 .6 .w. (  l ) + 15 .1 .m. (  l )
22.6 .m. ( 2j6 in.
2.02 in.
2.02 in.
+ ~}~(s+
+ 4.00 in.
=239 .in.
in.
+  
From AJSC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.21, the available strength of ~e stiffened column
flange is:
From AlSC Desi~ Guide 4 Equation 3.21. the column flange flexural strength is:
LRFD
McJ
n.g.
=F.EY,t}c
= 2,910 k.ipin.
nb
Mcf
=2,490 kipin.
ASD
LRFD
~Mc/= <j>qFycY,t}c
ASD
~Mif = ~bF~Y,1}c
n.g,
F~YctJc
0&
(50 ksi)(239 in.)(0.520 in.)2
Pso =Psi
ct,
::2
4.53 in.~ in.
=2.02 in.
t,= !h !n Then:
=
l.67
= 1,930 kipin.
o.k.
o.lc.
~:=~~re, the connection will be adequate if stiffeners are added as designed in the fol
J
.....
u.
,, __,
MOMENT FRAMES
LRFD
~}ft)
ASD
LRFD
ASO
'
I~
~R,. = QJfc1
R,,
=
2,490 kipin.
17.9 in.0.525 in.
143 kip$
n n(drJb)
d If!>
Met
=159 kips
l,660 klpin.
17.9 in.0.525 in.
=95.5 kips
= 69.0 kips
Calculate the available column web local yielding strength opposite lhe beam flange from
AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.24. The parameter, C,, is 1.0 because the distance from the
top of the beam to the top of the column is greater lhan or equal to dl2 of the column.
R,,
ASD
LRFD
P.  Fa,
P. _Foo
" 2
=46.0 kips
= 112 kips
46.0 kips
2
=23.0 kips
ASO
From AlSC Specification Equation J46, the available a.'tial strength per stiffener with ~
=112klps
al
69.0 kips
LR.FD
$R,. = 1.00(112 kips}
Use 1h in. x 3 in. ASTM AJ6 stiffener plates with 'Ain. clips along the flange on both side'
of the column web and at Lhe beam top and bouom flange.
~=~
,,S:
=106 lc.ips
F.,=Ffemin(~)
=74.7 k.ips
ASD
LRFD
Calculate the colu1nn web local crippling avrulable strength opposite lhe beam flange force.
The fl3llge force applied from the lop of the beam is located more than lhe hsJf lhe column
depth from I.be end of lhe column; therefore use AJSC Specificotio11 Equation JI 04.
,.
=F_..tpbp
n
_ (36 ksi)(1h in.){3.00 in.   in.)
1.67
=36.5 kips
=24.3 kips
""
P,.
P11 =~Fytpbp
o.k.
o.k.
From AISC Specification Equation J43, the available shear strength along the column web :!
= 120 kips
ASD
LRFD
R,,
=0.75(120 kips)
=90.0 lcips
Rn _ 120 kips
n
2.00
=60.0 kips
ASD
LRFD
Vn _ 0.60F)plplp
c>V,. =~0.60Fyptplp
o.k.
n
(0.60)(36 ksi)(lh in.)(10.0 in.)
l.67
=64.7 ~ps
o.k.
432
MOMENT FRA:.1ES
The value of Ip= 10.0 in. is based on lhe length of concact of the stiffener places includ
~ lh
required
'
mg
a red uc t'ion ior
e comer clips
to avoid the karea of lhe column.
LRFD
ASD
Pu .
:/im)
06
29(
"'rrqd
OP,
)bp (l .5)
2 (0.6(Fax )) bp(I.5)
J2
34.5 kips
=
2(0.75)[
2.00(23.0 kips)
06
=0.229 in.
=0.229 in.
LRFD
Wreqd:::
Pu
0 60
29(
!f{J()())(1.0)lp
34.5 ldps
=0.0774 in.
ASD
w
QP0
r.qd 
Jiexx )J(l.O) tp
0 60(F.
_
2.00(23.0 kips)
. 2 10.60(70 ksi)I
p.0)(10.0 in.)
Ji
= 0.0774 in.
Use ~in. fillet welds (two sided). Basedon AISC Specification Table J2.4, a 3/Jrin. fillet
weld is acceptable; however, 'Ain. fillet welds a.re used to be consistent with the stilJenertocolumn flange welds.
The fully detailed endplate connection is shown in Figure 44.
4J..I
'
Wr.qd
f
Special moment frame (SMF) and intermediate moment frame (WF) systems, which are
addressed in AJSC Seismic Provisions Sections E3 and E2, respectively, resist lateral forces
and displacements lb.rough the flexural and shear sirenglhs of the beams and columns.
Lateral djsplacement is resisted primarily through the flexural stiffness of the fr:uning members and the restraint of relative rotation between the beams and columns at the connections,
or "frame action." S~1F and IMF systems must be capable of providing a story drift angle
of at least 0.04 rad per AJSC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6b and 0.02 rad per AJSC
Seismic Provisions Section E2.6b, respectively. An overview of SMF behavior and design
issues js provjded by Hamburger et aJ. (2009).
SMF and IMF systems tend to have larger and heavier beam :md column sizes Utan
bracedframe systems, as the beAms and columns are often sized for drifc control rather t.han
for srrength. The increase in member sizes and related costs, however, may be acceptable
based on the increased fle."<ibility in the architectural and mechanical layout in the structure.
The absence of diagonal bracing members can provide greater freedom in configuring walls
and rouiing mechanical ductwork and piping. As with other momentframe systems, SMF
and IMF systems are often located at the perimeter of the structure, allowing maximum flexibility in interior spaces wilhout complicating the routing of building services such as
mechanical ducts beneath the frame girders. The flexible nature of the frames, however, warrants additional consideration of the interaction between the steel frame and architectural
cladding systems.
Current requirements for SNIP and IMF systems are I.he result of research and analysis I
completed by various groups. including the Federal Emergency Management Agency I?
(FE.MA). AlSC, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National
Science Foundation (NSF), and the SAC Joint Venture. These requirements include pre
qualification of the connections used, per Section Kl of the AISC Seismic Provisions, or j.:
qualification through testing in accordance with Section K2 of the AISC Seismic Provisions.
Design and detailing requirements for IJ\Oment connections prequalified in accordance with
AISC Seismic Provisions Section Kl may be found in AISC Prequalified Connections for l.:
Special and lntennediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications, herein referred to
as ANSl/AJSC 358. ANSI/AJSC 358 is included in Part 9.2 of this Manual.
A primary f~us point of lhe t~ting require~nts lies in the measurement of inelastic
defonnations of beamtocolumn moment connections. Plastic rotation of the specimen was !..
used irutially as lbe basis for qualification; however, this quantity is dependent on the selectfon of plastic hinge locations and member span. To avoid confusion, it was decided to use
the centerline dimensions of the frame to defi.ne the total drift angle, which includes bolh
elastic and inelastic deformations of the connections.
Most beamtocolumn moment connections for ~MF and Th.fF systems develop inelasticity ..)
in the beams and in Ute column panel :z.one, as shown in Figure 45. Panel zone defonnation.
while more difficult to predict, can contribute a significant amount of ductility to the frame. t:
The.re are various faciors that must be considered when accounting for panel zone deformmion
including continuity plates, doubler plates, and toughness of the karea. In regard co these two
areas of inelastic defonn:itionbeam and panel :z.onethe AISC Seismic Provisions Se.ction
K2 requires lhat at lea.st 75% of the observed inelastic defom1mioo under testing procedures
be as intended in the design of a prototype connection. This means that if the connection is ~.t
t:
f;:
l!i
434
MOMENT FRAMES
anticipated to achieve jneJasticity lhrough pl!IStic rotation in the beam, al lea.st 75% of the
acrual deformation must occur in the beamhlnge l~tions when tested.
_ _ Currently, there ;ire cwo primary methods used 10 move plastic hlngjng of the beam away
from the column. These two methods focus on either reducing the crosssectional properties
of the beam at a defined loc;ition away from the colunu1, or special detailing of t.he beamtocolumn connection in order to provide adequate strength and toughness in the connection
10 force inelasticity into the beam just adjacent to the column flange. Reduced beam section
(RBS) connections are typically fabricated by trimming the flanges of the beams at a short
distance away from the face of the column in order to reduce the beam section properties at
a defined location for formation of !he plastic hinge (figure 46). Research has included a
straight reduced segment, an angularly tapered segment, and a circular reduced segment. A
higher level of ductility was noted in tl1e latter, and the RBS is typically fabricated using a
circular reduced segment.
i11
i
ANSI/AJSC 358 includes six prequalified SMF Md IMF connections, iocludjng the
reduced beam section illustrated in the examples. Each of these prequalified connections has
a design procedure similar to that employed in faample 4.3.4. Designers should evaluare the
requirements of their project, the abilities of local fabricators and erectors, and rhe relative
costeffectiveness of different beamrocolumn connections to determine the most appropri
ate connection for a given project.
Special connection detailing for added toughness and strength takes many fonns using
both welded and bolted connections. In many of the connections, both proprietary and non~
proprietary, such factors as welding proc~es. weldaccessbole detailing, webplate
attachment and flangeplate usage have been considered. For additional infonnation on the
specification of chese connections, see ANSI/AISC 358 in Part 9.2 of this Manual.
Panel zone behavior is difficult to predict and is complicated by the presence of continuity plates and doubler plates, as well as karea toughness. Three basic approaches are most
commonly used: "strong panel," "balanced panel" and "weak panel ... These three terms
relate the strength and inelastic behavior of !he panel in relation to the strength and inelastic behavior oft.he framing members in I.he connection. In a "strong panel," the panelzone
strength is greater than the' surrounding framing components to the point where the vast
majority of the inelastic deformation of the frame occurs in the beam. In a "weak panel," the
~trength of rhe panelzone is low enough relative to the framing members such that the
majority of the inelastic deformation of the connection and frame occurs in the panel zone.
A "balanced panel" falls between the strong and weak panel, where inelastic defonnation in
the framing members and panel zone are similar. The requirements in the AJSC Seismic
Provisions generally provide for strong or balanced panel zone designs in S~1F. The full
range of panel zone designs are permitted for IMF and OMF.
Another consideration ill the design of SMF systems is rhe concept of "strong columnweak beam." The AISC Seismic Provisions provide for the proper proportioningof the frame
elements in Equation E3 l.
*
EMpc
*>l.0
t.Mpb
where
:C =sum of the projections of the nominal flexural strengths of the columns (includ
EM
ing haunches where used) above and below the joint to the beam centerline with
a reduction fQr the axial force in the column
CO
I'"
L
I
.::
'
~:
Reduced beam
secticin
.....
K
,,~:
r
1.
'
1.
~.
~:
MUM!:.Nl M<AMl'i
4.3
S~F.CIA1 MtJMI
I
'M;i, =sum of the projcc1io11s of the e."'pected Oexurnl strengths of the beam at the plastic hinge locations to the column centerline
7_30.o
300
+_=....::;..+..r.i ..
l:i.....   .....c8>
30~~r
'41:i
l<
!:!
the
= 85 psf
= 68 p~f
Drocf
= 80 psf
LoJIO<>r
=50 psf (reduced)
lftoo,
s
= 20psf
Curtain wall = 175 lb/ft along building perimeter at every level
I...
\;
Fig. 47. SMF floor plan.
DJ!t>
300
300
30'0"
W21x44
W21x44
I:
I
\
For the S}.IF examples, it has been detenruned from ASCE/SEI 7 that the followmg factors are appJjcable: Risk Category I, Seismic Design Category D. R = 8, 0 0 3.Cd 5'12,
le= LOO, Sos= JO, and p l.O(per ASCE/SEJ 7 Section 12.3.4.2, p = 1.0 if the story resists
more lb.an 35% of the base ~hear in the direction of interest, loss of one bay of SMF wilJ not
result in more than a 33% reduction in story strength, nor does the resulting system have an
extreme torsional im:gularicy).
W21x44
Roor
Fourth
0 Level
W24x76
Third
0Level
..,...
W24x76
..,. i
)(
..
W24x76
,.._
'
l'"'r
Second
0Level
~
)(
W24x76
><
'<\I+_.:.=..;=..::"BM1
~
JT1
~.
Column splice
48 aboVe rinlshed
lloor (typ.)
Fig. 48. SMF elevation.
The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for ca.lculatioo of loads.
. ..
438
MOMENT FRAMES
TI1e seismic design story shear at the third levels, Vx. is 140 kips as defined in ASCE/SEI 7
Section 12.8.4. From an elastic analysis of the structure that includes secondorder effects
and accounts for panelz~ne defom~tions, the maximum interstory drift occurs between the
third and fourth levels: Ox 04  03, 0.482 in.
In this example, the stability check will be perfonned for the third level. This checks the stability of the columns supporting the rhird level. The story drift between the second and third
levels is OJe  Oi. "= 0.365 in..
Solution:
From AlSC Man.ual Table 11, the geometric properties are as follows:
W24x76
b1=8.99 in.
Reduced beam section (RBS) connection~ are used at the frame beamtocolumn connections and the t1ange cut will reduce the stiffness of the beam: Example 4.3.3 illustrates the
design of the RBS geometry and the flange cut on one side of the web is c = 2 in. Section
5.8, Step I, of ANSl/AISC 358 states that the calculated elastic drifr, based on gross beam
section properties, may be multiplied by 1.1 for flange reductions up to 50% of the beam
flange width in lieu of specific calculations of effective stiffness. Amplification of drift values for cuts less than the maximum may be. linearly interpolated.
~11
439
mass at the top and bo11om of 1hc story under consideration, which in this case is the third
level.
0
=Cdou
le
5'h(0.525 in.)
LOO
=2.89 in.
From ASCFJSEl 7 Table 12.121, the allowable story drift at level x, f:..a, is 0.020/ts_r. where
hu is the story height below level x. Although not assumed io this ex.ample, 6.a can be
increased to 0.025hsx if interior walls. partitions, ceilings and exterior wall systems are
designed 10 accommodate these increased sLory drifts. ASCFJSEI 7 Section l 2. l 2.1.1
requires for seismic force resisting systems comprise<! solely of moment frames in structures
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or P, that the design story drift not exceed 6.afP
for aoy story. Determine Lhe allowable story drift as follows:
t. 0.020/ru
0=  "p
p
0.020(12.5 ft){12 in./ft)
=
1.0
=3.00 in.
D. 2.$9 in.< .\a
o.I<.
. l 00
(~O
4 ...1
ASCE/SEI Section 12.8.7 provides a method for the evaluation of the P6 effects on
moment frames based on a stability coefficient, 0, which should be checked for each floor.
For the purposes of illustration, this dt=tmple checks the stability coefficient only for the
third Jevcl. The St:ibility coefficient, 9, i~ determined as follows:
Drift. Check
From an elastic analysis of the strucrure that includes second:.Order effects, the maximum
interstory drift occurs between the lhird and fourth levels. The effective elastic drift is:
Ou
=04e 03,
Dfio<>r
=0.482 in.
Ou IUJS =l.090xe
=1.09(0.482 in.)
::::0.525 io.
Per the AlSC Seismic Provisio11s Section Bl , lhe design story drift and the story drift limirs
are those stipulated by the applicable building code. ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.8.6 defines the
design story drift, t:., computed from o_., as tbe difference in the deflections at the center of
D....011
=450 lcips
AMERJCN'I lNSlnvre OF STEEL CONSTRucnON
MOMENT FRAMES
441
l
I
f'
I
=180 kips
A~~E/SEI 7 does not explicitly specify load faciors 10 be used on the gravity loads for determmmg Px, except that Section 12.8.7 does specify that no individual load factor need exceed
1.0. This means that if the combinations of ASCE/SEl 7 Section 2.3 are used, a factor of J .O
can be used for dead load raLher than the usual 1.2 factor used in the LR.FD load combination . for example. This also means that the vertical component 0.2SosD need not be
con~1dered here. T~erefore, for this example, the load combination used to compute the toL'll
ve~cal load on a given story, P;., acting simultaneously wilh the seismic design story shear,
Vx. is l .OD.+ 0.5l based on. ASCE/SEI 7 Section 2.3 includfog the 0.5 factor on L permitted by Sect10n 2.3. where l 1s the reduced live load. Note that consistent with this the same
co~bination was used in the second order analysis for this example for the purpo;e of computmg the fundamental period, base shear, and design story drift.
The total dead load in the columns supp0rting the third level, assuming rlm 1be columns
supp0rt cwo floors of curtain wall in addition to other dead loads, is:
l.OPv
Because a secondorder analysis was used 10 compute the story drift, 0 is adjusted as follows to verify compliance with 0ma.r. per ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.8.7.
0
1+0
I.,
0.0535
l+0.0535
=0.0508
According to ASCE/SEI 7, if
be considered for computing story drift. Note that whether or not secondorder effects
on member forces must be considered per ASCE/SEI 7 has to be verified, as it was in this
The total live load in the columns supporting the third level is:
?512 =
~.5[(2)(450kips)+180 kips]
The stability coefficient may not exceed 0mo.x. In detennining 0 111 ax. Pis the ratio of shear
demand 10 shear capacity for the level being an::ilyzed, and may be conservatively t:iken
as LO.
= 540 kips
TI1erefore, the total vertical design load carried by these columns is:
=
1.0(5~)
.Ii'
= 0.0909 ~ 0.25
I
The seismic design story between the second and third level, including the 9% amplification
on the drift, is:
.
~= Cdou
I,,
= 5'h(L09X0.365 in.)
LOO
=2.19 in.
o.k.
The moment frame meets the allowable story drift and stability reqUirements for seismic
loading.
Comments:
From an elastic analysis of the structure, !he seismic design story shear at the third level
under lhe s.tory drift loa~ing using the equivaleht lat.era! force procedure is Vx = 140 kips
and the floortofloor heJght below lbe third level is hsx 12.5 ft.
'i
There are a total of six bays of SMF in this example. Considering the relative expense of
SMP connections and because the drift and stability limits are met, it may be more cost ~.
effective to reduce the number of bays to four, and increase member sizes to satisfy the "'
strength and stiffness requirements.
4 42
MOMENT FRAMES
.p
The governing load combinallOn~ for axial and Oexural sLrtngth that include seismic effects
("'
 LRFD
ASD
Pu
ASD
=(J.2+0.2Sos}D+pQ
V.,
+ 0.SL+0.2S
=32.0 lcips
P0
+0.5L+0.2S
=243 kips
=(l.2+0.2Sos)D+pQE
M.,
+0.5L 0.2S
LRFD
Mut<P
= 125 kip ft
Mu/KJI
=298 k1pfl
,'.f 0
= (1.0+0.JOSvs)D+JJ+F
+ 0.525pQE +0.75L+0.75S
=2 14kips
= (l.0 +0.IOSDs)D+0.525pQ
+ 0.75L + 0.75S
M0 '"'P 67 .0 lopft
Mator=  158 kipft
Solution:
From A1SC Manual Table 2~. t11e material properties are as follows:
ASTh1 A992
Fy = 50 ksi
F,, = 65 ksi
From .A.ISC Jfamwl Table 11. lhe geometric properties are :is follows:
AJSC Seismic Pro1;isions Section DI Aa re~uires, with limited exceptions, that che SJJlphfied
seismic load (i.e., lhe seismic load multiplied by the overstrength factor, 120 ) be used to calculate required column axial strength. Moment need not be combined simultaneously w ith
the amplified seismic 3.'<ial load in chis case because there is no tm.osverse loading between
t'ie column suppons. The redundancy factor, p, and the overstrength fouor nCd not be
applied simultaneously.
The governing load combinations for a..:UaJ strength that include lhe amplified seismjc lo.ad
from .'\SCE/SEI 7 are:
LR.FD
:'
!.;.
ASD
P. =(l.2+0 .2Svs)D+ftQe
+0.5L+0.2S
=249 kips
=(l.0+0.105SDS)D+ H tF
+ 0.525Q.Qe +0.75L0.75S
=218 kips
Column
W14x176
d  15.2 in.
A ::: 51.8 in.2
Zx= 320 in. 3
hit..,= 13.7
in.
rx= 6.43 in.
lw= 0.830
1, = 838 in.'
r1 =4.02 in.
y= l.31 in.
bJl21r 5.97
Beam
W24x76
2,100 in.'
1..
444
From the AJSC Seismic Provisions Table D l .1. for flanges of highly ductile members:
AJuJ = 0.30
II
.~.
elements.
The limiting widthtothickness ratio for webs of highly ductile members is determined as
follows from Table Dl. l using the goveming load case for axial load, including the amplified seismic load, as stipulated in AISC Seismic Provisions SecLion D l.4a:
LRFD
K1 L"
=0.141
Because C0 S 0.125,
f.
governs
1.67(218 kips)
QcP,.
JI (
1 0.93C,,)
"J...,,d =
29,000 ksi
SOksi [10.93(0.107)]
O.nJI
=0.77
F1
JI
Fy
50 ksi
=51.7 ~ 35.9
..
= lilt..., =
ASD
LRFD
=53.l
elements.
Using AJSC Manual Table 4l, with K1 L1 = 14.0 ft, the available compressive strength of
the W14x176 column js:
F)Ag
= 0.107
Because A.
KxLx
=
rx
;:; =
=41.8
= =
=2.45
l.67?.,
kips
= 0.90(50249
ksi)(51.S in.2 )
Fy
K1 =l.O
=26.l
OcPo
Ca =  Py
P.,
0.90.F).Ag
~ 2.45
Kx =1.0
ASD
Pu
Ca =$cPy
'Ahd
The direct :malysis mefriod in AISC Specification Section C3 states that the effective length
factor K of all members shaU be taken as unity unless a smaller value can be justified by
rational analysis. Therefore,
VF;
Because A. = b112fJ
13.7 < Ahd, the web satisfies lhe requirements for highly ductile
P,.
nc
o.k.
,.
I
Lp =14.2 ft
Lr= 73.2 ft
4 =14.0 ft<!p
From AISC Specification Section F2, with comp_a ct fl~nges and web and Lb~ lp, the applicable limit state is yielding. Using AISC Manual Table 32, the available flexural strepgth,j.j:
of the W14x176 c:olurno is:
LRFD
Alternatively, Table 13 in lhis Manual can be used to confirm that members satisfy the
requirements for highly ductile members.
o.k.
Mex= $bMpx
=1,200 kipft
ASD
...
M
_Mpx
C< 
!4
1;
....
.=798 kipft
0
r,J
I',,.
t
447
1f
Loadi~g
Combined
. .:)
Check the mtc:racuon of comprei;sion and flexure using A!SC Spuijication Section H 1. 1, ~
and the governing load case for combined loading.
l ';!
}.1 3...
,. ...
ASD
LRFD
,,
The applicable building code specifics the use of ASCPJSEJ 7 for calculation of loads. The
rcqujred )trengl.M at the face of the column and the centerline of the. RBS ti.re dct~incd by
i;ec<)ndorder analysts including the effects of P& and Pll wnh reduced stiffness as
3
243 kips
P,
=
P, 2,050 kips
=0.119<0.2
P,
Pc
214 kips
1,360 lcips
..
ASD
LRFD
.\ f0
2Pc
0.119
2
(Mrs M,.,)
++
+(
+
Mrx
M.;y
298kipft
l, 200 kipft
0.308:::; 1.0
::01.0
0) 0 308

+0.7pQE
+0.5L+0.2S
(M
P,
2Pc
+ _.!!.+2..
M ) s 1.0
Mex Mey
0. 157
2
+( 798
158 kipft 0 ) 0 276
kipft + 
0.276:::; LO
o.k.
=(t.0 + 0.14Sos )D + fl + F
= 136 kipfl
=273 kipn
\ 'o
+0.7pQ
+0.5L + 0.2S
=22.8 kips
=33.8 kips
o.k.
=(1.0+0.l4Sos )D+ 11 + F
.~!
Face of
ASD
LRrD
column '..
to
o.k.
o.k.
..">;
,,
W24x76
beam
C'y
Q: \
Comments:
The beam and column mes selected were based on a leastweight solution for drift control;
thus, the column size is quite conservative for strength.
c = 2.00 in.
I.
2}.ib
= 12.0 in.
t..~~~~b~="18~.X!!.ln~~~i
..:
j
Given:
Refer to Beam BM l in Figure 4 8. Detem1ine lhe adequ~y of I.he W24x76 ASTM A992
Wshapc to resist Lhe following Jo.1dmg. The bc:lm end connections u1ilize the reduced beam
section ~S) prequal1fied .in accordance wuh ANSl/AlSC 358 and shown in Figure 49.
Also, design the lateral bractng for the beam u~ing ASTM A36 angles. Assume that the beam
fl::ingcs are braced nt the columns
a= 5)2 in.
Fig. 49. Initial RJJS derail for Examples 4.3.J <111d 4.3.4.
MOMENf FRAMES
The governing load combinations for the required flexural and shear strength at the cen1crline of lhe RBS are:
!.
LRFD
Mu =(l.2+0.2SDs)D+pili;
+ 0.5L+0.2S
= 246 JOpft
ASD
ANSI/AISC 358 Section 5.3.1 permits calculation of 1he widthtothickness ratio for the
flanges based on a value of bt not Jess than the flange width :it the ends of the cen1er two1.hirds of the reduced section provided that gravity loads do not shift the location of the
plastic hinge a significanl dist31lce from the center of 1he RBS. Assuming this is the case
bere, the RBS radius of cut from ANSI/AJSC 358 Figure 5.1 and 1he dimensions given in
3Ie
as follows:
bf.RBS=
ASTMA992
Fy =50ksi
=65 ksi
W24x76
= 0.440 in.
2..: =200 in.3
lw
choose a section that satisfies the dimensional constraints listed below. For this e,,ampJe,
trial values of a, band care chosen as shi;:>wn jn Figure 49. Example 4.3.4 demonstrates that
these dimensions are acceptable. Other dimensions that satisfy the requirements of ANSI/
AISC 358 could have been selected. Dimensii:ins that satisfy the dimensional constraints
listed below may still require adjustment to satisfy all of the requirements of ANSJ/AISC
358 Section 5.8.
0.1b111!> c ~ 0.25bbf
in.)2
bf.RBS
11.1=2t1
6.72 in.
,,,
2(0.680 in.)
=4.94
According to the requiremenlS of ANSJ/AJSC 358 Section 5.8, Step I, lhe designer must
0.65d s b ~ 0.85d
(23)
=6.72 in.
h0 =23.2 in.
RBS Dimensions
O.Sb111s as 0.75btJ
2(Rc)+b12~R2 (~f
From AISC Manual Table 11, the beam geometric properties are as follows: .
=1.18 in.
ry =l.92in.
At the edge of the center twothirds of che RBS. th~ reduced flange width is, from geometry:
Solution:
kdts
tl
4c2 +b 2
R = 
The required shear strength at the RBS is not given because the shear at the face of the column is greater than at the RBS and the available shear scrength is the same at each location
since the web is not modified by the RBS cut.
d= 23.9 in.
~:
~; .
8c
F..
'.
I
....
From AISC Seismic Provisions Table DI. J, the limiting flange widthtothickness rario for
highly ductile membe(s is:
\
AhJ
== 0.30
=0.30
ff,
29.000 ksi
50ksi
==7.22
Because A/< AJuJ, the flanges satisfy the requirements for highly ductile members.
From AISC Seismic Provisions Table D 1.1, for webs of rolled Ishaped sections used as
beams or columns, recognizingtbat C0 = P.,1(9Pn) is assumed to be zero because no a;<ial
force is presenl for the beam, the limiting widlbtothickness ratio is:
ductile members.
I;~
.v
\.I;
450
'Aird =2.45
[I
'{~
29,000 ksi
=2.45150 ksi
= hit,., ::: 49.0 < Ahd, !he web satisfies the requirements for highly
ductile
Alternatively, using Table 42 of this Manual, it can be seen that a W24x76 will satisfy the
widthtothickness requiremenLs for an SMF beam.
AtSC 'seismic Provisions Seetion Dl.2b requires that both flanges be laterally braced at
intervals not to exceed:
0.086r.
>'
When designing an RBS connection, it is assumed that the flexural strength of the member
at the reduced section will control the moment strengtJ1 of the beam. According to AISC
Specificarion Section P2, where Lb $; Lp, beam strength is controlled by Mp When U1e RBS
section is proportioned and located according to the provisions of ANSJIAISC 358, the flexural strength of the RBS will control beam strength and this assumption does oot need to be
verified. In these cases, the flexural strength of the unreduced section is limited by Mp
FyZx and the Oexural strength of the reduced beam section will be MpRBS = FyZRss. where
ZRas is the plastic section modulus ac the center of the reduced beam section, as defined in
ANSJIAISC 358 Equation 5.84, and Z.x is the plastic section modlllus of the unreduced
beam section. However, in cases where lb > Lp, whlch is the case in this example, Lhe
assumption w111 have to be verified. Note that as a practical matter, che typical value of Cb
is greater than I .O for moment frame beams and when the limits imposed by rhe AISC
Seismic Provisions on unbraced length are considered, lateralcorsional buckling typically
will not reduce the flexural strength of the unreduced section below Mp.
=59.0
Because Aw
members.
451
29
(~J
=0.086(1.92
in.1( ' OOO ksi )( 1 )
Fy
.
' 50 ksi.
12 in./ft
For tbe unreduced section, from AISC Specification Section F2, with compact flanges and
web and Lp < Lb :s; L,, the :ipplicable flexural strength limit states are yielding and later<iltorsional buckling. For the limit state of yielding and lateraltorsional buckLing, the
following equation applies.
=7.98 ft
(Spec. Eq. F22)
Alternatively, using Table 42 for a W24x76, it can be seen that Lbmax is equal to 7.98 ft.
::11.
!~:
'(
:~
The composite concrete and meta.I deck diaphragm provides continuous lateral support to
the top flange of the beam; however, !he only lateral supports for the bottom flange occur at
the end connections. Therefore, a bottom flange brace must be provided <lt least every 7.98
ft. The distance between column centerlines is 30.0 ft. If three braces are provided aiong the
length, the unbraced length of the beam, Lb. would be:
Lb,;, 30.0 ft
4
:::: 7.50 ft< 7.98 ft
Therefore, provide lateral bracing of the bottom flange at 7 .50 ft intervals.
Cb =
12.5Mmax
2.5Mmax +3MA +4Mo +3Mc
If bracing is provided at 7.50 ft on center, there are four unbraced segments along the beam,
although the two segments on each side of the beam midsp::m are symmetric assuming that
the seismic load case on the beam is considered. The moment diagram from the elastic
analysis has an approximately constant,slope such that the' values of M,~ax MA. Ms and Mc
can be obtained by proportioning the moment diagram shown in Figure 410. Thi.s approximation assumes that the impact of gravity load is such that it does not significantly
influence the shape of the moment diagram resulting from lateral load.
Lp:::: 6.78 ft
Lr = 19.5 ft
>;
ii
li
452
'
MOMENT FRAMES
For the exterior segment~ of the beam, where M is the moment at the end of the beam:
Mmax = M
MA =I0.87SMJ
453
Ma=I0.75 Ml
Mc= 10.625.\11
ZRBS = Zr2ctbt(dlbf)
Cb=
12.5M
2.SM + 3(0.875M)+4(0.75M) + 3(0.625M)
=l.25
Mmtu=O.SM
MA = 10.375.MI
Ma=I0.25
Ml
Mc= 10.125MI
As determined previously, the nom.ioal llexural strength is the plastic moment of the beam,
Mp. At the centerline of the RBS, the nominal and available flexural strengths are:
Cb =
12.5(0.5M)
2.S(0.5M)+ 3(0.375M)+4 (0.25M)+3(0.125M)
Mn@RBS
=1.67
=FyZRBS
The available flexural strength of the beam end segment is detemtined in the following. The
end segment is the governing case because the ratio of Cb values for the exterior and interior segments is Jess than the ratio of the maximum moments for the segments. From AISC
Specification Section F2.2, for the limit state of late:raltorsionaJ buckling, with Lp <Lb:::; L,:
=6,850 kipin.
=571 kipfl
LRFD
Mn@RBS 57 l kipft
=
1.67
nb
= 342 kipft
where
Mp =F)Zx
(Spec.
Eq. F21)
Mu@RBs
o.k.
Mo@RBS
o.k.
At the face of the column, the nominal :\f\d available flexural strengths are:
=833 kipft
LRFD
ASD
M11 Mp
=
tj>M,. =9bMp
=0.90(833 kipft)
6
tt)( 750
ft .78 ft)]
19.5ft6.78ft
M"
= 1,020 kipft
Therefore, Mn = Mp = 83~ kipft because Mn csm1ot be greater than Mp (as indicated in AISC
Specification. Equation F21) regardless of the value of Cb and hr.icing may be provided at
7.5 fl on center to achieve Mp
nb
= 833 kipft
1.67
=499 kipft
=750 kipft
ASD
o.k.
M0
L
o.k.
'.
...
f:
AMl!JCAl< lNsTrJvn; Of' S1UL CO~TIU.ICllO.'<
MOMf.NT FRAMES
AhcmaLively, Table 42 of this Manual can be used lo determine M,. The required brace
force using AlSC Specification Equauoo A67 is.
LRFD
I:.
'
I RFD
ASD
.
v"= 210 kips
.~',
Q~Vn
=3 15 kips
:1
...'
..)
Vu
o.k.
v.,
Lateral Bracing
According to lhe AJSC Seismic Provisions Section Dl.2b. which references AISC
Specification Appendix 6. the required sttengrh of nodal lateral bracing away from an
expecced plastic hinge location is determined from AlSC Specification Appendix 6 as
follows:
P,b = 0.02M,Cd
ho
R1  1.l from AISC Seismic Provisions Table A3.l
..::,,
C.1=1.0
where, nccording to AJSC S~ismic Prollisions Dl.2:i(a)(2):
=R1 F.,Z
1.5
..:;
:;
...
= 6.32 kips
The length of the brace is a~sumed lo extend from the cenierline of lhe bottom Oange of
the W24x76 SMF beam 10 the centerline of the lop tJange of the adjacent gravity beam
The siu of the adjacent gravity beam 1s unknown, but assume for this calculation that lhe
flange thickness is the same as 1hc W24x76. The centertocenter spacing of the beams is
12 ft 6 in., as indicated in Figure 4 7. Therefore, lhc length of lhc brace is approximately:
t =
= 12.6 ft
From AISC Manuc1/ Table 4 12 for ecceouically lo:ided single angles with the eccentricity
equal to or less than 0.75 time~ the angle thickness. uy a l5x5x$fie with K = 1.0. For
ASTM A36, 1he av:ul.ible axial s1rtngth of the single angle is found through in1erpolation
using KL= 12.6 ft.
LRFD
ASD
~ =15.0 kips
~.,P,,
= 22.9 kips
Purl>
LRFD
3
=7,330 ldpin.
23.2 in.
o.k.
o.k.
bracing according to Appendix 6 of the AlSC Specification. The kicker brace selected in
this eumple is considered a nodal brace. Assuming a rig.id bmce support, from ATSC
Specificarion Equation A68, the required brnce stiffness is:
ASD
arb 
AISC Seismic Pr<TVisions Section 0 I .2b also specifics a minimum 51iffness for lateral
LRFD
M, =R,F1 Z
P.
= 9.48 kip~
Comment;
::=.
..
ASD
o.k
The preceding .flexural check could have been conservatively m~dc using 1he required
strength at the face of the colullUl compared to the available strength al the cenlerline of the
RBS. This approach might be useful if there is unc~rtsinty regarding the geometry of the
RBS, particul:irly the values of a and b since these arc needed 10 Jctennine 1hc location of
the RBS centerline.
flt
t 0)
P.,,.= 0.02(11 ,000
. ,kipin.X
.
23. in .
n.,
,.
ASD
456
LRFD
where
where
= 0.75
Mr = 7 ,330 kipin.
Cd = 1.0
Lb = 7 .50 ft(J 2 in./ft)
::::: 90.0 in.
= 90.0 in.
ho
ho =23.2in.
0.75
The SMP beamcolumn connection design presented in this example bas been chosen to
demonstrate the application of the design pro~isions for prequalified RBS connections in
accordance with ANSI/AISC 358. This example demonstrates that the RBS geometry developed below is satisfactory. Some of the results from this example are used in Example 4.3.3.
The geometry of an RBS connection is not uniqoe and alternative configurati'ons of the RBS
geometry are possible.
=2.00
Cd = LO
Lb =7 .50 ft(J 2 inJft)
.. ...
ASD
= 23.2in.
l3t>r =
z.oo[10(7,330k.ipin.)(1.0)1
(90.0 in.)(23.2 in.)
WD::::
e =tan
l(
23.2in.
J 2.5 ft(12 in.Jft)
=8.79"
0.84 kip/ft
})IL=
0.60 kip/ft
Procedure:
The procedure outlined below follows the order of the design procedure outlined in
ANSI/AISC 358 Section 5.8. The term ''Step i1" indicates the actual step number in
ANSI/AISC 358 Section 5 .8. The steps from ANSI/AISC 358 are augmented with some
additional checks in this example. Some of the steps listed in Table 4 A are exe.c uted in
detail in Example 4.3.3, the SMF beam su;ength check. The procedure is defined for
LRFD only.
Giv~n:
The stiffness of the L5x5x5/ 15 brace, with A= 3.07 in.2, in the horizontal plane is:
k
t:
Refer to Joint JT1 in Figure 48. Design the connection between Beam BM1 and Column
CLI using the reduced beam section (RBS) shown in Figure 49. All beams and columns
are ASTM A992 Wshapes. Plate material is ASTM A572 Grade 50. The gravity loads on
the beam are:
=70.2 kip/in.
~:
457
j..
o.k.
L5x5x5/1& ASTM A.36 kickers will be provided to brace the beam bottom flange at a spacing of 7.50 ft. The brace at midspan can be designed in a similar manner with Cd 2.0,
_bec;rnse it is the brace closest to the inflection point
Note t!Jat because this connection features a prequali.fied RBS moment connection supporting a concrete structural slab, according to ANSl/AfSC 358 Section 5.3.1(7) the slab pl~s
the typical lateral stability bracing provides sufficient stability so that additional bracing
adjacent to the plastic hinges is not required, provided that shear connectors are provided at
a minimum spacing of 12 in. (but omitted in the RBS protected zone).
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 24, the Wshape material properties are as follows:
\
ASTMA992
Fy= 50 ksi
Fu=65 ksi
From AJSC Manual Table 25, the plale material properties are as follows:
ASTM A572 Grade 50
Fy =50 ksi
F.,= 65 ksi
Comment:
av~ilable flexural strength is gre.ater than the required
flexural strength from codespecified load combinations at the center of the RBS, the maximum probable moment, Mpr. at the column face needs to be checked against I.be expected
moment strength of the unreduced beam section. This will be done in Example 4.3.4.
From AISC Manual Table 11, the geometric properties are as follows:
Colwnn
W14x176
A= 51.8 in.2
fJ= 1.31 in.
Zx= 320 io. 3
d= 15.2 in.
lfdet
=116 in.
. t1....
~:
458
MOMENT rR.AMES
The beam aJso sati~fies the ma.~imurn widthtothickness ratios for the flange, mensurcd u1
the edge of the center twothirds of the RBS. and the web specified by ANSl/AISC 358
Scc1ion .53.1(6). as ~howo in E.umple i.3.3.
Table 4A
Beam latcml bmcing must be provided in conformance with the AlSC Seismic Provisions
This beam supports a concrete ~1ruc1ural sl.ab that is connected between the prorected zones
with welded shear connectors spaced at a maximum of 12 in. Consequently, according to the
faception in Set:tir.n 5 3 1(7) of ANSVAJSC 358, supplemental lateral bracing is not
required at the reduced )~lion . ~11mmum ~p3cing between rhe face of the column and the
first beam lateral suppon and minimum \pacing between lau~ral supports is shown 111
faample 4.3.3.
step 2. Compute plastic section modulus at tile center of RBS, z~ See Example 4 3.3.
Step 3. Com1lu'.e the pcobable maximum moment at !he cen!Er ol RSS.
The protected zone consi~ts of the portion of the beam between the fuce of tbe column :uiJ
the end of the redu..:etl beam se.;oon farthest from the face of the column. Figure 5.J of
ANSl/AlSC 358 ~hows lbc locauon of the prorwed zone. This information should be
clearly identified on the strucrurnl dct.ign drawings, on shop drawings. and on erection draw
Step 4 Compute lhe 6hear force at Ille center of lhe RBS at each end of beam
Step 5. Compute the probable nmimum moment at Ule race ot the column.
Step 6. Compute the plastic moment of Ule bfl3Jll based on e,pected yiekl Slre$S.
Step 7. Check tllat moment 81 Ille tau of Ille COlumn. /J~ does nol exceed availaDle strength,
~
""
+r#,.
than a W36.
The column also ~a1isfics the m:i11;imum width 10thickness r::llios for the flanges and the
web specified by Section 5.3.2(6), as shown in Eumple 4.3.2.
Beam
W24x76
A= 22.4 in. 2
ft= 0.680 io.
Column lateral bracmg musr conform to lhe requirements of the AISC Seismic Provisions.
Section E3.4c allows the use of a strongcolumn/weakbeam ratio (~SC Seismic Prorisions
Equation E3l ) greater than 2.0 to show that a column remains elastic outside of the panel
zone at restrained beamtocolumn connections. If ir can be demonstrated I.hat !he column
remains elastic outsiJe of the panel zone, Secllon E3.4c(l) requires !he column flanges tr>
be braced at the level of the beam top Oanges only. With a c0lumnbe.am moment ratio of
I.72 in this c.xample (see calculations following). t~ column cannot be assumed to rem:.a.n
elastic and bracing as required at both the top and botcom flanges of the beam. Column
flange bracing at these locations may be provided by coatinuily pl:ites and a fulldepth shelf
plate between the continuity plates al the connection of the girder framing into the weak axis
of the column.
=0.440 in.
d=23.9 in.
t,.
r1 =1.92 in.
br 8.99 in.
ANSI/AJSC 358 provides only nn LRFD design procedure for the RBS connection; there
The W24x76 beam satisfies the requirements of ANSUATSC 358 Sec1ion 5.3.J as a rolled
wide nangc member. wi1h depth less than 3 W36. weight less than j()() lb/ft, And n:mge
thickness less than I.75 in. The clear spantodepth mtio of che beam is at least 7 as required
for an SMP system:
Clear span /dept h :::
23.9 in.
::: 14.4 ? 7
in gs.
Check column requirements
The W 14x176 column satisfies the requirements of Section 5.3.2 as a rolled wide Oangi>
member, with the frame beam connected to lhe column Oange and witb a column depth kss
o .k.
fore , the RBS connection must be designed using lRFD, even in the case where ASD
was used for Lhe remainder of 1he design. The following calculations illustrate the LRFD
procedure.
Trial Values for the RBS Dimensions a, b and c
(Step 1 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)
The dimensions of lhe RBS cut ~ill be determined so that the RBS has sufficient strengt1l
to resist the flexural loads pre1'Cnbed by the building code as ~ell as so that I.he probable
MOMENT F'RAMF.S
maximum moment in 1he beam at the face of the column does not exceed 1he expec1ed plastjc moment capacity of the be:im. The former check is perfom1e<l in E.,;in:iple 4.3.3, while
the latter check is pcrfonne<l in lhe following.
For the trial values of the RBS dimensions, use lhe values in Figure 4.9 and check per
ANSl/AlSC 358 Equations 5.8J to 5.83.
a = 5.50 in.
0.5bt Sa S 0.15bJ
0.5bJ 0.5(8.99 in.)
4.50 in.
=
=
=8.670 kipin.
The value of Mpr is intended to represent the m:iximum moment tha1 can occur at the center of the RBS cut when the reduced section has yielded and strain hardened.
i:
The gravity lo3d on the beam is computed from the load combination provided in ANSJ/
AlSC 358 Section 5.8, Step 4, as follows:
I~
+ 0.2(0 kip/ft)
o.k.
=1.31 kip/ft
(ANSI/AISC 358, Eq. 5.83)
0.1(8.99 in.)
= 0.899 in.
0.25bbf = 0.25(8.99 in.)
=2.25in.
0.899 in. S 2.00 in. S: 2.25 in.
The distance from the column face to the center of the RBS cut is determined from ANSI/
AlSC 358 Figure 5.2 as follows:
sh =a+(b/2)
=5.50 in.+{18.0 io./2)
=14.5 in.
o.k.
l..
The value of the plastic section modulus at the center of the RBS,
puted in Example 4.3.3.
ZRBS
2F1
O.lbbf Sc S 0.15b1
~1.2
Mpr =CprR>FyZRJJs
w., = 1.2D+0.5L+0.2S
c= 2.00 in.
Fy+F.
The shear force at the center of the RBS at each end of the beam is computed from a free
body diagram of the portion of the beam between the RBS centers. For this free body dfa
gram, assume the moment at the center of each RBS is equal to Mpr as compu1ed in Step 3.
o.k.
b 18.0 in.
0.65d s; b s 0.85d
Cpr =
R1
'Hll
Shear force at the center of the reduced beam sections at each end of the beam
. (Step 4 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)
0.lbbf
50 ksi+65 ksi
2(50 ksi)
=l.15s;1.2
L1t =L2(dcoi/2)2S1i
.t
As shown in Figure 412. V~BS and Vifusare lhe symbols used for the sbear at the center of
the RBS cuts. VRss is r.he larger of che two shear forces and VR.as is the smaller of tJ1e two.
By summing moments about the right end of this free body diagram, the shear forces can be
computed as follows:
.;.:;
l
l
l!
T
r .
MOMENT FRAMES
2Mpr Wulh
VRBs=+
Lh
If the gravity load on the beam is something olher than a uniform loau, the correct Shear
forces at lhe centers of I.he RBS cuts are still obtained from equilibrium of the portion of the
beam between the ccnLers of the RBS cutS {i.e., by sum.ming moments about e~~h end of lhe
free body di<1gram).
316 in.
=72.l kips
If the gravity load on the beam s.s very large, lhere is a possibility tha1 the loca1jon of the
plastic hinge may shift a significant distance outside of the RBS. lf this is the case. the
design procedure in ANSI/AlSC 358 would require. some modification, sin,ce the design procedure assumes the plastic hinge forms within 1he RBS. The possibility of the plastic hinge
shifting outside of the RBS can be checked by drawing the moment diagram fQr tbc portion
VfuJs
=2Mpr _ Wulh
l1t
of the beam between RBS cuts. If the point of maximum momenr is outside of the RBS and
exceeds Mp of the full beam cross section, the plastic hinge loc111fon will not fon11 in lhe
RBS, and the ANSUAISC 358 design procedure must be moclified. This is unlikely to occur
for typical spans and gravity loads, but may be a possjbility for cases of very long beam
spans and/or very large gr.Mey loads. Figure 413 shows the moment diagram for the portion of the beam between RBS cuts for this example. This moment diagram confinns that
the maximum moments occur at the RBS cuts, :ind therefore the plastic hinges will form in
the RBS cuts, as assumed in the ANSI/A.ISC 358 design procedure.
1
:J
,,
The probable maximum moment at the face of the column, Mf. is compu1ed by taking a free
body diagram of the pon:ion of the beam between the center of the RBS cut and the face of
the column. Summing moments for the frt;e bQdy diagram results in Equation 5.86 in
ANSI/AlSC 358. The probable maximum moment at the face of each column is:
W24x76
L =~so
~
RBS
RBS
1"r1
10,000
8,000
<lRBS
6,000
~RBS
.~
a.
:.s;:
c:
Cl)
0
~
",,,.'
L.,,= 316"
I
4,000
2,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
Distance along beam span, fl
mome111 diagram
MOMENT FRAJ\.1ES
Mf = Mpr + VRBSsh
Check that moment at the face of the column, Mt, does not exceed c;M,,.
(Step 7 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)
M/ = M pr + VkssS1i
=1.00
cpd
=9,220 kipin.
The free body diagram corresponding to Equation 5.86 is shown in Figure 414 for rhe Jefl
side of the ~
As noted in ANSI/AISC 358, this free body diagnro and Equation 5.86 neglect the gravity load on lhe beam between lhe center of the RBS and the face of the column. Neglecting
this gravity load introduces little error. For this e'l;ample. Jf Lhe gra\ity load of 1.31 kip/ft
was included m the free body dfagram in Figure 414, lhe value of M1 would mcrea~e by
11.5 kipin.
=11,000 kipin.
=9. 720 kipin.
Mt
Mt$ ~J.\ff'<
9.720 kipin.< 11,000 kipin.
o.k.
Because &1uauon 5.88 is satisfied, the preliminary valu~ of a= 5.50 in .. b = 18.0 in .. and
m.3)
=11,000 kipin.
Alternatively. using AISC Seismic Manual Table 42 for Lhe
ldpfc 11,000 kipin.
W24x76 beam,
R>MP::: 917
Required shear strength, Vu, of the beam and beam webtocolumn connection
(Step 8 in ANSl/AJSC 358 Section 5.8)
The required shear strength of lhe beam and the beamtocolumn connection. V,., can be calculated by taking the previously compuled value of VRss and adding the shear due to lhe
gravity load on the portion of the beam between the center of the RBS nnd the face of the
column:
<t_RBS
72.1 kips
M, = 9,720 kipin(
V., =
VRBS
=72 I
+ w.SA
kips+ l.31 kip/ft(l ft/12 in.)(14.5 in.)
= 73.7 kips
1)
Thedesi&n ~hear sucngth of the W24x76 beam, v," is 316 kips fromAISC Afanua/Thble 36.
)
M1 =9,720 kipJn.
72.1 kips
'===_.,
VR8S
=72.1 kips
o.k.
~
1~...
Select a singleplate connection with a plate al lea.st 1n. lhtclc lo suppon crecllon loads,
per ANSUAJSC 358 Section 5.6(2Xa). The same secuon requires that the beam web be ,
welded to the column fl:inge using a completejointpenetration (CJP) groove weld.
..Jj
J,
466
MOMENT FRAMES
Wilb lhe single plate as backing. use a CJP groove weld to connect the beam web to the col
of this e.umple. lhe column size will not be changed and '.\.in.thick continuity plates are
required.
From the AlSC Specification Section G2. l, the required minimum remaining web depth
between weld access holes for the 73.7 kips shear force is:
Welds between lhe continuity plate and the column flanges are required to be CJP groove
welds according to AlSC Seismic Pro1isions Section E3.6f(3).
The AISC Seismic Provisions do not specify lhe width of the continuity plate. AlSC
Spcciftc01ion Section J 10.8 S3ys that the minimum width of each con1inuity pl:11e plus tcwfl
must be greater than bbJ/3. As shown below, however, this width does not appear to be sufficient 10 stiffen 1be column flanges due to the significant clip in the plate resulting from the
column fillet.
$0.6F1 t,.,C.
73.'7 lcips
1.00(0.6)(50 ksi)(0.440 in.)(1.0)
::: 5.58 in.
From AISC Specification Section J 10.8, the minimum continuity plate width is:
o.k.
ANSl/AlSC 358 requires conlinuity plates for the prequalified RBS connection unless the
e.xceptions of AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6f are met and both Equations E38 an<l
E39 are satisfied.
= 1.31 in.
lcJ
Ryb
111
'
~;
'ef
n.g.
~!!st..
6
n.g.
Use 'Ain.thick ASTM A572 Grade 50 continuity plates on both sides of the web.
i:
Alternatively, lhe W14x176 column could be upsizcd to a W14:x211 to avoid the need
for a continuity pl:ite. The decision to upsii.c the column should also consider the need
to provide a doubler plate for the panel zone, as discussed in !he following. For !be purposes
f:
111.
4 08 in.
Continuity plate
For this twosided connection, the thickness of lhe continuity plates is required to be at least
equal to th~ thicker beam flange on either side of lhe column according to AISC Seismic
Pro11isions E3.6f(2). Therefore the minimum continuity plate thickness is 0.680 in..
).
,.... ) o.s3o
2.58 in. f( 1~ .rn.+ 1am.
2
Neither Equation E3S nor Equation E39 is satisfied, S<? the minimum thickness requirements of Section E3.6f are not met. Therefore, continuity plates are required.
I!
While a 2Ysin.wide continuity plate is lhe minimum width penn.it1ed, lhis is too narrow
because the resulting conl3ct width is only 0.870 in. as shown in Figure 415, once the
impact of the fillet is considered. AISC Sei.mtic Provisions Section 12.4, which references
AWS D1.8 clause 4.1 , limits the corner clip to not rnore than 1,~ in. beyond the published kt
dimension. where k 1 for a W14x176 is 1Ys in. Thus, the lenglh of contact between each continuity plate and the column flange is:
The typical practice, therefore, is to set the continuity plate so !.hat it is at least as wide as
the edge of the frame beam flange:
(l .1)(50 ksi)
:..."
~
467
umn flange.
:; l
Fig. 415. Contact area between minimumwidth ronti11ui1y plate and column flange.
AJ,tEJUCAN lNsTm.ml OF STEEi.. Co.~~
MOMF.NT FRAMES
For illustration in this example, use 6.00 in. as 1he pla1e wid1h, so that the contact \\;d1b is:
)
,, JO.+ i.<
nm.
6.00 .m. l(l~'
~Rn
")( . .)l
dbdcfw
According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6f(3), the strength of the sum of the
welded joints of the continuity plates to the column web weld is the smallest of:
(a) Sum of design strengths in tension of continuity plate contact area with the column
flanges
(b) Design strength in shear of continuity plate contact area with the web
(c) Design s~ength in shear of the column panel zone
(d) Sum of expected yield strengths of the beam flanges transmitting force to the continuity plates
3befr~}
=0.60FrJ,tw ( l +

l+
= 480 kips
Since this requirement applies
10
tP1Tn
=672 kips
Since this requirement applies to the entire panel zone, it will be divided by 2 when com
pared with requirements (a) and (b).
=~',Fy(co.nt.act area)
The concinuity plate to column web weld is based on the smallest of 290 kips, 156 kips,
.i&O kips/2 240 kips, or 672 kips/2 :::: 336 kips. Thus. the design should be based on
156 kips.
=290 kips
To transfer 156 kips, a lhin. doublesided fillet weld is required over the contact length.
From AISC Manual Equation 82a:
l
I
.'.
156 kips
2(1.392 kip/in. per sixteenth)(6.94 in.)
= 8.07 sixteenths
=156 kips
For continuiW plate reqliirement (c) and assuming that P, :S 0.75Pn the design strengch of
the panel zone, $Rn, is (note that AISC Seismic Provisions Seccion E3.6e(l) revises tlie value
of 4> to 1.00):
LM:C
(Provisions Eq. E3 1)
 ..>LO
I.Mpb
The value of M;,c in th.is example is based on projecting Mpc to the beam centerline assuming
that the column shear, Ve;, is in equilibrium with the column moment, Mpc; This is consistent
with the definition of M;,c in AlSC Seismic Provisions Section E3.4a. Alternatively, the column shear could be computed to be in equilibrium with the beam moment, Mpr The latter
approach wilJ result in a smaller value of M;,c and, when applied to Equation E3l, will produce a slightly more conservative resulL
,. .
70
MOMENT FRMff:S
The axial load on the column must also be considered when determining the flexural
strength of lhe column at lhe beam centerline. (For simplicity, the same axiol lood will be
used abo\'e and below the joint although ch.is is not quite accurate.} Using P., = 249 kips as
given in ~ample 4.3.2, and the height of the column to its assumed points of inflection
above {h, (12.5 fl/2)(12 inJft) = 75.0 in.] and below [hb= (14 ft/2)( 12 inlft) = 84.0 in.] the
beam centerline. r..u~ is detennine0 as follows:
L.M:.:
4 7 1
in.
l.72
1.72 > 1.0
o.k.
Therefore, the strongcolumnweakbeam check j, sati,.fied.
+ z.lb(Fy P,,:)[
,\,
= 310 in 3
hb
J
hb db '2
249
(so ksi  51.8
kips)
in.
x {[ 75.0
in./2) ]}
The expected fle:(Ural demand of the beam at the column centerline is defined in ANSU
AISC 358 Section 5.4 as:
''here
....
rfV"as(a+~ +; )J
L\J,,,
LH,.,
I.
From statics, it can be seen that column paneltone shear based on the summation of the
expected moments at the column faces should be reduced by the column shear, Vr The column shear, Ve. is not from the codespecified loads but is. instead, the column shear
developed from the plastic hinging of the RBS. Assuming points of inflection at the m1dheight of the columns above and below the panel rone and as previously detcmuncd in this
enmple, M1= 9,720 kip in. o n the lert side of the beam and Mf 9,220 kipin. on the right
s.idc, the value of Ve, ig1wring the small effect of gr::ivily loads between the ex peered p la.s11c
hinge location and the face of the column, 1s:
.  .~If+ M/
\,.  h
h
..!!. + ..!.
.!.!!2
dctemlined pre\'iously
;. l
"
The term r.M 11v is the sum of the moments produced at the column centerline by the shear
at the plastic !tinges. Recalling I.he values of VRas and Vfu computed in Step 4 of tbis c'l:ample and the values of the RBS cut confinned in Step 1, r.Mw is:
= 119 kips
where
lrb
i;
!:...
= 2,420 kipin.
I ;i.
.!,
ITherefore, the expected flexural demand of the beam at the column centerline is:
r.'tf;/>
=2 .\/pr + r.Jf
=2(8,670 k.ipin.)+ 2.420 kipin.
10.
=697 kips
llV
=19,800 kipin.
AlSC Seismic Provision.t Section E3.6c(l) requires that the design shear strength of the panel
zone be determined in accordance with the li.nUt stale of shear yielding in AISC Spurftcario11
Section J 10.6 with~" :::: 1.00. Specifically, AISC Speciftcorion Section JI0.6(b) is applkable
4 72
because frame stability, includjng plastic panelzone deformation, is considered in the analysis. Detennine 1he applicable equation as follows:
It 11as already been pointed out in this exnmple that reducing the RBS cut (i.e., dimension c)
might be possible to bring Mt closer to ~tiftf~ and reduce I.he impact of the
on frame
stiffness. Also, increasing the RBS cut dimensions would reduce shear demand on the panel
i.one and, in some cases, eliminate the need to install doubler plates.
P, <0.75Pc
P,. < 0.75F1 A1
RBS
o.k.
Therefore, the shear strength of the panel zone is given by AISC Specificario11 Equation
Jl011:
Rn
= 0.60Fydctw l +3bctt1'j
f dbd<lw
II+
Alternatively, using Table 42 of this Manual for the W14x176 column:
dt
90
Wz
90
t
Rv2
=0.250 in
=480 kips
>Rv1
The minimum th.ickness of each component of the p311el zone, withour the aid of intennediatc plug welds between the column web and the doubler is:
473
=378 kips
=2,420 kipin.
=0.140 in.
0.250 in.+0.140 in. =0.390 in.
4>Rv2
=<j>Rv i +  dl>
o.k.
If the doubler plate satisfies this minimurl;l thlckness, it is penniued to be applied directly to
the column web or spaced away from the web, without the use of plug welds.
23.9 in.
= 479 kips
Because Rw 697 kips> 9Rn. a columnweb doubler plate is required. Note that if Ve had
not been subtracted, the required panel zone strength would have been approximately 816
kips, which is a 17% increase in demand.
The available shear strength of the panel zone is checked using AISC Specification Equation
JlQ..11 with the thickness, tw. taken as the combined thickness' of the eolumn web and doubler plate.
I.
plac~
II
.1
MOMENT FRAMES
474
<:::
.
!
697 kips
~r
Ip
C!:: 0.476
l0.830 in.
Column flnnge restraint al these locations can be provided by continuity plates and a fulldtpth shear plate between the continmty plates at the connection of the girder framing into
tlle weak ax.is of the column .
Specify Beam FlangetoColumn Ffange Connection
Per AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6c, the connection configuration must comply with
the requirements of the prequalified connection, or provisions of qualifying cyclic test
results in accordance with Section K2. ANSI/AISC 358 Section 5.5(1) requires a cqmplete
Because the doubler plate meets the IDlmmum thickness re.quired by AISC Stismic
Provisions Equation E37 (0.390 in.), plug welds between the doubler and the column web
arc not required. Tiie length of the clip of the continuity plate at the doubler plate is not
required to meet AWS DLS clause 4.1. Use a 1 in. x 1 in. clip.
Use a completejointp.:netration groove weld to connect the beam flanges to the column
flange. The weld access hole geomerry is required to comply with AlSC Spt!cificarion
Section JI .6. The welds are also considered demand critical.
Tue final connection design and geometry is shown in Figure 416.
Extend the doubler plate 6 in. above and below the beams. Attach lhe doubler plate to the
column flanges using completejointpenetration groove welds, as stipulated in AISC
Seismic Provisions Section E3.6e(3)(2). A minimumsized fillet weld may be used across
the top and bottom of the doubler plate to avoid free edges, bUt is not required.
PL '..0"x6"x12;\ wiih
corner clip per AWS
01 .8 (A572 Gr. 50)
Alrematively, two doubler plates spaced away from the colunm web can be used as shown
in AISC Seismic Provisions Commentary Figure CE3.3(c).
Figure 4 l6 shows the final configuration of the panel zone.
Installing doubler plates can be costly, so selecting a larger column may also be considered.
Upsizing the column may potentially eliminate the need for continuity plates. The amount
that the column can be upsized without losing the savings associat~ wilh eliminating the
doubler plate varies significantly depending on the project and geographic region, but a general rule of thumb suggests that upsizing the column between 50 to 100 lb/ft might still be
more costeffective than installing doubler plates and continuity plates. "The column would
have to be upsized to a W14x257 to eliminate both continuity plates and doubler platesa weight increase of 81 lb/ft from the W14x176 used in this example. This weight increase
is in the middle of the 50 to 100 lbtft range where upsizing might be costeffecti\'e and a discussion with a fabricator is rCGOmmended. Nevertheless, for the purposes of thi~ example,
the W14x176 column size will be retained tO illustrate the design of the doubler plate.
1i<
AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.4c allows the use of a strongcolumn/weakbeam ratio
(AISC Seismic Provisions Equation E3l) greater than 2.0 to show that a column remains
elastic outside of the panel zone at restrained beamtocolumn connections. If it can be
demonstrated that the column remafrls elastic outside of the panel zone, AJSC Seismic
Provisions Section E3.4<:(1) requires the column flanges to be braced at the level of the
beam top flanges only. With a ratio of l.72 in this example, the column cannot be assumed
to remain elastic and bracing is required at both the top anctbottom flanges of the beam.
%" ;Ingleplate
connection
(A572 Gr. 50)
"
415
W2AX/6 beam
1
" '  Bolts as required
for erectlon
W14x176 column
476
MOMB'IT FRAMES
If
~
1
A!isume that the gravity column splices are at the same vertical elevation as the S.MF column splices shown in Figure 48. This location satisfie~ AlSC Seismic Provisions Section
D2.5a.
From AISC Manual Table 24, the beam and column material properties are as follows:
1~~ASD
~_=_~~~LR_FD
_ _ _....J...l_v"_=
L1 ..
_ _ _1 ;
In the weak a.xis of the column. the required shear strengLh of the splice is:
ASD
V: _ FyZy
V. _ FyZy
ay  I.SH
uyH
50 k.si(16.8 in.3 )
ASTMA992
r;.= 50 ksi
:z
Fu=65 ksi
=3.73 kips
=S.60 kips
The shear force to be resisLed by each flange splice plate is half of MpclH. Therefore, for
one splice plate:
F,.=65 ksi
W12x58Lower shaft
=12 A in.
Zy =32.5 io. 3
ddct
=11.9 in.
dd"
=12 in.
Z, =16.8 in.3
Vuy
=5.60 k.ips/2
=2.80 kips
1f
=0.640 in.
i
r
=1.87 kips
br = lO.o in.
Note that the smaller column, the W12x40, controls the required shear strength, as is stip
ulated in AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5c.
W12x40Upper shaft
ASD
LRFD
From AlSC Manual Table 11, the column geometric properties are as follows:
d= 12.2 in.
From AISC Manual Table 25; the splice material properties are as follows:
ASTM A572 Grade 50
.Fy 50 ksi
AlSC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5c requires that, with respect to both orthogonal axes,
the column splice be able to develop a required shear st.rengtJ1 equal to:
LRFD
Solution:
~.:.
AISC Seismic Provisions Sections 02.1, D2.5a :lnd D2.5c have requirements for gravity column spikes. Note that these gravity column splice provisions are equaJly applicable to
gravity column splices in bracedframe buildings.
AlSC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5a requires that the splice be located a minimum of 4
ft from the beamtocolumn connections. The three exceptions to this requirement do not
apply for this building.
AMERICAN lNsrnvrs OP STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Conservatively ignoring frictional resisLa.nce between the upper and lower shafts due to column dead load, this force will be resisted by the splice material.
fi
Required Compressive Strength of Splice
.)
With the upper shaft centered on the lower shaft, the dimensions of the upper shaft are sue
that it will achieve full contact bearing on the lower shaft. Therefore, the splice will not b ..
required to transfer any compressive loads iflhe upper shaft is finished to bear on the lower"'~
shaft. Because a note stating, "finish to bear," is provided on the detail, Case [A applic
from AJSC Manual Part 14, Table 143.
478
MOJ\1ENT FRAMES
Splice Geometry
Try the column splice detail from AISC Manual Parr 14, Table 143, Case IA.
Iy
W12x40
du=dtk1
= 12 in.
Ix"'
W12x58
di= d,u1
l p"" Ix+ ly
= 1214in.
o.k.
~;
gu = g1 == 51h in.
LRFD
z:
v.uySill. oo
~
n.
=1.87 kips(l.00)
4
=0.468 kips
LRFD
$:
M14
ASD
= V.,ye
=2.80 kips[1h(3in.)+1% in.]
.,
Ma= Vaye
~hat.the
eq~idistant
=rpu
COS
_ VuyCOS90"
=9.10 kipin.
rpyu
n
=
rpasin 0
= VaySin 90
"
Manual and considering the eccentricity from the center of the bolt group to the column
'.:'.~ interface, this moment is:
Ir
lpxa :::::
I Be.c ~use the centroid of each ~olt group is eccentric to the column ends, there will be a
;: I moment on each bolt group. Usmg the geometry shown in Table 143, Case 1A oftheAISC
ii
rpxu = rpuSin 0
~l,.
lf
ASD
Splice Bolts
....,.
From AISC Manual Equation 72a, die direct shear force on each bolt due to the concentric
force, Vuy and Vay. applied at 90 with respect to the vertical is:
~d from Case 1A of AISC Manual Table 143, use Type 2 flange pl_ates.
i:~
du + IA in. $ dt $ du + Vs in.
,.~~
479
"
= VayCOS 90
2.80 kips(O)
11
:::::
1.87 kips(O)
4
=0 kips
=0 kips
=2.75 in.
1
h(3in.)
=1.50.in.
AMElllCAN
'
The additional shear force on each of the four bolts in the bolt group due to the moment
cau~cd by eccentricity is:
= 1h(5 1h in.)
Cy ;,.
AMERICAN INSTITUTE. OF
SlllEL CONSTRUCTION
480
MOMENT FRAMES
[M,,c.,)
I
Bearing Strength of Splice Plate
Using AISC .\tfanual Table 75 with~= I 1A in., hole type = STD, F,, = 65 ksi:
ASD
(39.3 ;'.n:'!)
(39.3 ::: )
~
=0.232 kips
[M.,cx)
rm)"'   Ip
.'
(39.3 ~
J
m.2
4
'
(39.3 m.2
~ )
r,,
>ro
o.k.
o.k.
I
J::
1.
~
=0.425 kips
= 0.637 kips
rn
= 18.5 kips
=0.347 kips
1~
rmw =(M;Pc,)
Ip
481
LRFD
riw:u  
ASD
LRFD
Ubs =LO
A,,1
LRFD
r.,
1
( 0.468
o.k.
::!
ASD
=0.819 kips
LRFD
=2.53 in.2
2
2
r., = J(rp.xa +rmxa) +(rpya +rmya)
From AISC Ma11ual Table 71 for a ~in.diameter ASTM A325N bolt (Group A):
= 1.20 in.2
ASD
.
M
I ;~ 1
8"
1~1
SW
I
I
I
I
~~
I.:
~:
'
...
.,
1::
Ill
To
482
MOMENT FRAMES
An1
=2.04 in. 2
f~A"'
Because the column flanges are thicker and wider than the splice places and their yield
strength is equal 10 the splice material, the shear yielding strength of the column llanges is
adequate.
=65ksi(1.20in. 2 )
=78.0 kips
0.60FuAnv =0.60(65 ksi)(2.04 in. 2 )
=2.34 in.2
=75.9 kips
R.,,
+83
From AISC Specificaiion Equation 144, the av:iilable strength due to the Hmit state of shear
rupture for each splice plate is:
Vn
Q
=
cj>Vn = ~0.60FuAnv
The available strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is:
LRFD
$Rn::: 0.75(154
kips)
Rn 154 kips
=
n
2.00
77.0 kips
77.0 k.ips ~ 1.87 kips
=116 kips
o.k.
cj> V,.
=0.60F1 A1
Vn
=L00(0.60)(50 ksi)(* in.)(s:oo in.) n
=90.0 kips > 2.80 kips
LRFD
I
I
ASD
0.60F,A1
o.k.
ASD
Mrxx
v.,,.=H
II. _ Mpcx
""F1 Zx
FyZx
=
cu
50 ksi{57.0
o.k.
o.k.
AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5c requires that the column splice be able to develop
a required shear strength in the strong 3x.is of the column equaJ to:
From '.ls~ Specification Sec[ion J4.2, the available shear strength due to the limit state of
shear y1eldmg of one splice place is:
,
Required Shear Strength of the Splice in the Strong Axis of the Column
o.k.
LRFD
2.00
= 45.6 kips> 1.87 kips
ASD
0.60F,,Anv
ASD
LRFD
I.
1.5H
1.5H
in.3)
..
.BOllcd splice plates could be provided on the column web, but it may be possible
the strongaxis shear through weak axis bending of the flange plates.
10
resis:
Since there are two flange splice plates, the applied force on each plate is one half of ll:
shear calculated for the strong axis of the column.
ASD
LRFD
..
The required flexural ~trenglh of the plate, from AlSC Ma1111al Table 323 Case 23: is:
ASD
LRFD
V. _ 12.7 kips
.u2
=6.35 kips
4S5
MOMENT FRAMES
Vaxl
2
6.35 kips(l.75 in.)
=
2
"" 5.56 kipin.
VIL\'.L
M.=2
Ma=
Assuming the column is rigid enough to force all defonnation into lhe splice plate, the relative movement between the columns will cause weakaxis plate bending. The bending
behavior in the plate is that of a beam fixed at one end, free to deflect Yertically but not rotate
at the other (Case 23 of Table 323 in the AJSC Manual).
d
I ...e splice plates are PL~/a in. x 8 in. x 1 ft 0 1'2 in. Using AISC
As detemune previous y, '!.'
.
.
S eci cation Section Fl I, detemtine Lhe available flexural y1eldin_g strength of the P.1:ue.
:ote~at the dimension I used in AISC Specification Section Fl 1_1s parall~l to. the axis lof
~
bendmg,
and t hereiore
/  g.00 m. 1''or weakaxis ~bending of the splice plate m this examp e.
The limit states checked are flexural yielding of the splice plate, shear yielding of the splice
plate, shear rupture of the splice plate, and prying action on the innermost bollS.
The length of bending is the distance between the bearing plane of the columns Md the
innermost bolt line, which is 1.75 in. according to Figure 418.
Lbd
 2
r
(8.00 in.)
= 0.0103
0.08(29,000 ksi)
50 ksi
0.08
Fy
column shaft
:::46.4
Lbd O.OSE AlSC Speciification Equation Fll1 applies. The nominal flexura'
Because  2 < F,
W12x40 column
with std. holes
1
M,. = FyZ
~ I.6M1
(2) ~ dia.
A325N bolts @
s~ gage (typ.)
I
I
I
l.6M1 == 1.6F1Sx
= 1.6(50 ksi)l(8.00
in.~(~ in.)21
Finish to bear
W12x58 column
with std. holes
1
Fig. 418. Connection as designl!d in Example 4.4. J.
I ..
~l ~86
.: ~
MOl\.fF.NT FRAMES'
'l~
~
I
ASD
:
,...,
'111>Mn
Mn
=4>bFyZ 5: l.6My
=0.90(14.l kipin.)
FyZ
=nl> .Qb
o.k.
'i
. "~
= 14. I kipin.
l.67
t~
.$87
;j,':!
~Jl
'.:
LRFD
"
~'fl
o.k.
ASD
LRFD
T
=9.50 kips
T= 6.35 kips
2
4.75 kips
=3.18 kips
The parameters required for checking prying action are defined in AISC Manual.Part 9 and
. Shear Yielding of the Splice Plate
LRFD
$Rn
:::i
db =Y.. in.
ASD
=$0.60FyAgv
=l.00(0.60)(50 ksi)O~ in.)(8.00 in.)
Rn
d =13/i6 in.
=0.60FyAgv
n
=11
l.50
o.k.
=1.75 in.
o.k.
b' =bdb/2
=1.75 in..i in.(!..
=1.38 in.
a =4.50 in.
(Manual Eq. 927)
j
1
5~
=2.34 in.2
LRFD
'..
R,. = 0.60FuAnv
$R,. =0.60F,.A,.,
114"
2.00
o.k.
+ .
....
o2w \
II
ASD
o.k.
';iiII
.Q
\ .P =4 1
Prying Action on the Splice Plates
recause lhe inneonost bolts wiJl dominate the resistance tO the tension fore onJ the lWO
b~lts closest to I.he interface are considered. The required strength per bolt, T. ~ tak~n as half
f the shear force at each flange plate, therefore:
AMERICAN WS1'1Tl!re OF STEEi.. CONS'T1UJCTION
488
MOMENT FRAMES
j;
where
From AISC Manual Equation 925. ~is:
=4.88 in.
LRFD
1J:
ASD
and
~=~[%1)
=2.56 in.
4.88 in. > 2.56 in.
I (29.8 kips
0.539 4.75 !Ops
TI1is tiibutary width is limited by lhe ge0metry of the plate. The tributary width cannot be
greater than the acrual edge distance lo the end of the plate on one side and half of the bolt
gage in the other direction. Therefore, use:
I.
=0.840 in.
Because the fitting geometry is known, the available tensile strength of the bolt including
the effecis of prying action can be determined as:
I
T1n't'JI= BQ
=4.00 in.
.ASD
LRFD
pFu
Because the splice plate is thinner than tc. prying on the bolts will occur at the bOlt ultimate
strength.
=10.5 in.
p =b'/a'
r24Bb'
'c 
=0.838 in.
[( r I
a'1 !.s_ 1
 o(i+p) c
=
(Manual Eq. 926)
t.
ASD
~ F.
p"
p,. =4../bC
=9.75
J4Bb'
le 
=3.94 .in.
l!
i)
The required plate thickness to develop the available strength of the bolt. B, with no prying
action, is calculated from AlSC Manual Equation 920 as:
I ( 19.9 kips
= 0.539 3.18 lcips
LRFD
c =a+b
1
l)
=9.78
To .calculate the tributary length, p, 1he AISC Manual refers 10 DowsweJ1 (20 11) as one
method to calculate the length. According 10 this reference. the tributary length, p~. can be
taken as Pe= 4./bC (Dowswell, 2011, Equation 33) where bis as defined above and where
c =a+ b, and a is limited to 1.25b. For this calculation:
~=~(;  1)
1
((0.838 in. r1]
0.797(1+0.539)
'ti in.
:=3.26
a'   1
 0(1+p)
[( r
!. 1
/
_
1
[(0.840in.r1J
 0.797(1+0.539)
3h in.
=3.28
f'
f
..
490
MOMENT FRAMES
,.. .
1
LRFD
ASD
Q = ( ,:
=(
~in.
Q=[,:
+0.75L+0.75S
=109 kips
LRFD
ASD
= 19.9 kips(0.358)
. o.k.
o.k.
1~ =(0.90.2Svs)D+flvQE
The final COllJ.lCCtion design and geoi:fletry for the flange connection is shown in Figure
418.
.
'
.
T0 =(0.60.14Svs)D+0.70.,QE
=8.64 kips
=15.3 kips
ASD
LRFD
Design a splice for the SMF column located on grid 4 in Figure 48. The column material
The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for calculation of loads. The
required column strengths between the dJU:d and founh levels were determined by a secondorder analysis including the effects of Po
Pii with reduced stiffness as required by
the direct analysis me_lhod. The governing load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7, including
the overstrength factor (referred to as the amplified seismic load in the AISC Sei.smic
Provisions), follow.
and
..
...
={i.0+0.105Sns)D+0.525q,Q
is ASTM A992.
:
;;
P.,
+ 0.5L+0.2S
Given:
..t..J
Tamil =BQ
= 29.8 kjps(0.360)
11
=140 kips
=BQ
491
ASD
P,. =(J.2+0.2Svs)D+'l,QE
(l+o)
=0.358
=(0.840
*in: r(l+0.797)
m.
(1+0.797)
=0.360
Taw1il
LRFD
(! +o)
0.838 in.
~;
v.. =(L2+0.2Sos)D+'l,QE
+ 0.5L+0.2S
=47.2k:ips
'
t
I
Assume that there is no transverse loading between the column supportS in the plane of
bending and that the connections into the column weakaxis produce negligible moments on
the column .
Solution:
ASTM A992
F1 =50 ksi
P., = 65 ksi
I
I
+0.75L+0.75S
from AfSC Manual Tuble 24, the column material properties are as follows:
AMERICAN
MOMENT FRAMES
From AlSC Manual Table 11. 1hc column geometric properties are as follows:
W14x68Upper Shaft
A = 20.0 in. 2
lw
= 0.415 in.
LRFD
Vu
=47.2 lcips
ASD
Va
=26.9 kips
Th~re. is no ~~t tensile load effect on the column; therefore, ihe requirements of AJSC
Se1sm1c Prov1srons Section D2.5b(l), (2) and (3) do not apply.
Splice Connection
According .to AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6g. welded splices in SMF columns shall
be made with comple1ejoimpenetra1ion (CJ'P) groo,e welds. The use of CJP groo,e welds
ensure~ that the required axial strength and the required flexural strength of the splice will
be achieved.
Use CJP groove welds 10 splice the column webs and flange.s directly :is shown in F1gure 420.
~
L\1pc
. d
. .
There.ore   govems in eternunmg
H
lhe required shear strength of the splice.
~
"f..Mpc
. d
..
Th ere1ore   governs m etemunmg
I.SH
the required shear strength of the splice.
Using AISC Specificmion Equation G2l, I.he requfred web depth to develop this fore'
through shear yielding of the web is:
V,,
..  ..0.6FytwC
..
d 
_
dw
116 kips
1.00(0.6)(50 ksi){0.415 in.)(1.0)
Per AlSC Seisr:iic.Provisions Sections D2..5b, D2.5c and E3.6g, ihe required shear strength
of th~ we_b spl!cc is equ~l to lhe greater of lhe required strength determined using the load
comb1~auons m the applicable building code, including the amplified seismic load and lhe
followrng:
'
I~~=_LM_H_p_c~ LR~~~~~~L.....~_=_~
FD
~=5H~pc ~ASD~~~~~~i
where LMpc ~s the sum of the nominal plastic flexural strengths of the columns above and
below the .splice. Be~ause lhis requirement is for web splices. r..Mpc in the strong a.~is of the
column will be collSldered.
LRFD
. . . . . . . __ _
=~'
=9.32 in.
Therefore, !he maximum lenglh of each weld access hole, th, permitied in the direc:tion
the web is:
LRFD
111
='h[d2t1dwJ
=1h[l4.0 in. 2(0.720 in.)9.32,' in,]
=1.62 in.
ASD
111
='h[d2t1 dwJ
=1h[l4.0 io.2(0.720 in.)9.35 in.]
=1.61 in.
=116 kips
I
j
Therefore, specify that lhe access holes for the flange splice welds may not extend more th
l 1h in. measured perpendicular to the inside flange surface as shown in Figure 420.
Location of Splice
TMpc
ASD
!Mpc
Vu =  
D.vVa
0.6FylwCv
1.50(77.6 kjps)
(0.6)(50 ksi}{0.415 in.)(1.0)
=9.35 in.
=~...:~~
ASD
LRFD
~: .
I
!
I
Using the load combinations in ASCE/SEl 7 including the amplified seismic load, the
required shear strength is given as:
Z.. = 115in.3
W14x132Lower Sh3fl
Vo=l.5H
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5a requires I.bat splices be located 4 ft away from .
be4lmtocolumn flange connection. The clear distance between the beamtocolumn cc,,.,.:
nections is approximntely I0.8 ft. Because the webs and flanges nre joined by OP weklf.
AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5a(2) perm.its the splice to be located a minimum
the column depth (14.0 in.) from the beamtocolumn flange connection.
. .
The column splice location shown in Figure 48 is acceptable.
<
494
AlSC Specification Seccion JI .6 provides additional requiremen1s for weld access hole
geometry. The final connection design is shown in Figure 420.
r
)
The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCE/SEI 7 for calculation of loads; The
required column strengths st the b,ase level were determined by a secondorder, analysis
including lhe effects of Po and P6 with reduced stiffness as required by che direct an~y
sis method. The governing load combinations in ASCE/SEl 7, including the overstrength
factor (referred to as the amplified seismic load in the AISC Seismic Pro\lisions), follow. In
this example, two of the controlling limit states are tensile yielding in the anchor rods and
bending in the base plate. For these limit states, the axial force needs .co be minimized as this
will increase the overtumi11g (bending) in the base plate and increase' the tensile force in the
anchor rods; therefore, the required axial compressive strength is detennined from:
Given:
...
L.,
'. _J
ASD
LRFD
A992
~~
495
MOMENT FRAMES
Refer to Column CL1 in Figure 48. Design a fixed coiuffin' base plate for the ASTM
Wshape. The base and other miscellaneous plate material is ASTM A572 Grade 50. The
anchor rod material is A_STM Fl554 Grade' l 05: The 21.t.1~in.diam.eter anchor rods have an
em.b edment length, h,,f> of ;u least 25 in.. The columq i$ centered on a reinforced concrece
foundation. The foundation concrete compressive strength, fJ, is 4 ksi with ASTM A615
Grade 60 reinforcement. The anchor rod concrete edge distances, c.,1 and c112 , are both
greater than 37.5 in.
P,, =(0.90.2SDs)D+0uQE
=98.8 kips
Pa =(0.60.14SDs)D+0.70 0 QE
::::64.5 kips
ill
column shaft
... 4 .
ASD
LRFD
',;.
W14x68
Ma =(0.60.14S 0s)Mo+0.1~MQ.
=662 kipft
= 946 kipft
The required shear strength is derermin~d from:
\
ASD
LRFD
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/S.EI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
1.z" max
typ.
~++ per
W14x132
vu = (l.2+0.2SDs)D+nuQE
'
'
'.
Va =(L0 +0.14Svs)D+0.70;Qe
= 67.2.kips
= 96.0 kips
..
Assume that che connection into the column weakaxis produces negligible moments on the
column.
From ASCE/SEI 7, use Seismic Design Category D,
...
..
J\Mllltl<:A:N WSTITTITE OP
STEEL CONSTRUCTION
496
MOMENT FRAMES
497
Solution:
LRFD
ASD
From AlSC Manual Table 24, the column material properties are as follows:
T.Mpc
F1 =50 ksi,
F.,= 65 ksi
where r.Mpc is the sum of lhe nominnl plastic flexural strengths of lhe columns above and ;:
below the splice, or in this case, lhe base.
Therefore:
=50 ksi
LRFD
Fu= 65 ksi
From AlSC Manual Table 26, the anchor rod material properties are as follows:
ASTM Fl554 Grade 105
A= 51.8 in.2
t,;. =0.830 in.
v. 
V.  IM re
II J1
fM,x
I.SH
Use V4
=127 kips.
AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.6c(b) requires th3t the flexural strength equal or
exceed 1he lesser of lbe load combination of the applicable building code, including th ...
=1.91 in.
, ..!;,
t1= l.31.in.
W24x76
FromAlSC Manual Table 717, the 2\4in.diameter anchor rod has an area of A"" 3.98 in.2
ASD
lRFD
1         l.lR
+
    i.
F Z.x
M.,
=23.9 in.
=1.lR1 FyZx
1 1
Ma=<<1.5
{J2in/ ft)
=946 kipft.
l.5(12in./ft)
::::; i.oso kipft> 662 kipft
Use MQ
I!
~
=662 kipft.
f.
ASD
11!
'~~~~'~~~~~~~
From AISC Manual Tuble 25, lhe base plate material properties are as follows:
F1
V. _ 'flvlpc
0
1.5H
v.u  fl
ASTMA992
::~a~~z:1::~::::::shall
four
Try a plate with: N 32 in., B 32 in., and anchor rod edge clistance
of four equ:illy space.cl rods, as shown in Figure 423.
t:
\::
MOMENT FRAMES
Using tl1e recomm.endations from AlSC Design Guide l. Base Plate and Anchor Rod Design
(Fisher and Kloiber, 2010), determine the required base place thjckness and anchor rod tension force.
32.0 in.
=2
For the calculation of the base plate eccentriciry, e, from AISC Design Guide 1 Equation
3.3.6:
LRFD
'
M,,
P,,
Ma
Pa
e=.,
:~.
,'
:
::
r1
ASD
ecrit
Pa
=2qwu
64.5 kips
=2(94.1 kip/in.)
2
98.8 kips
2(141 kip/in.)
= 15.7 in.
\VitJ1 e > ecro. lhe eccentricity meets the AJSC Desigil Guide 1 criteria for a base plate with
a large moment (Figure 421).
Per AlSC Design Guide I Section 3.4, the following inequality must be satisfied:
64.5 kjps
=123 in.
'N
Pr
2qT11/JX
/ +
N')
~ 2P,(e+ j)
q,n(J)C
= N  edge distance
2
32.0 in.
.
4 00 m.
=.
2
12.0 in.
For the calculation, assume the concrete bearing frustum area ratio equals 2.0 from ACl 318
Seetion 10.14.l:
~.,,
J=2.0
The available bearing strength is determined from AISC Specification .Equation JS2.
LRFD
f P<.,,_) =$(0.85J:)l
At
0.65(0.85)(4 ksi)(2.0)
ASD
Iip{max) 0.85f: lQ
=
= 4.42 ksi
qtntU
'
32.0 in.
=15.6 in.
eaiJ=
~~

e=
i:::J
P.,
2qmo.r
=2
ASD
LRFD
ecr11
49?
=f P<.max>B
=4.42 ksi (32.0 in.)
=141 kip/in.
Ai
=0.85(4 ksi)(2.0)
iT
qmaxY
2.31
qlNVC
= 2.94 ksi
=f P<.ftllU)B
=2.?4 ksi (32.0 i n.)
=94.l kip/in.
N
Fig. 421. Base plate with large momtnt (Fisher and Kloiber: 2010).
MOMENT FRA.\1ES
For the calculation of the assumed bending lines at lhe bearing interface, from AlSC Design
Therefore:
(!
N) :::::
+2
[12.O m.+
.
32.0
 in.)
2 .
m=
:::::784 in.2
ASD
2P.(e+ f)
2(98.8kipsXl15in.+12.0 in.)
2P,,(e+ f)
qmox
141 kip/in.
q,,_
=178 in.
N0.95d
2
32.0 in.0.95(15.2 in.)
LRFD
=8.78 in.
With
4101
qmill
fl=
B0.8b1
2
32.0 in. 0.8(15.7 in.)
2
I.
"
=9.72 in.
For the calculation of the base plate cantilever bending line distance at the tension interface:
x =f _!!._+ t I
From AlSC Design Guide 1 Equation 3.4.3, the base plate bearing length is:
LRFD
ASD
=5:06 in.
Y=(!+~)~ (!+~r
=h84
2P.,(e+ f)
Qmax
= 3.38 in.
Y=(!+~)
Nr
/+2
2Pa(e+f)
qmilX
d
185 in.2
1
@
,_
LRFD
Nua,,, qmnxY  P11
= 141 kip/in.(3.38 in.)98.8 kips
= 378 kips
__
I
I
.....
=268 kips
 1   D I
c::
1
I
I
I
I
I
....
I
I
ASD
N"=qlnlllYP.,
=94.~ kipfm.(3.53 in.)64.S kips
'g
co
 II      
co
c::i
c:
..t
0.95d
Base Plate Thickness
Check the base plate for flexural yielding at both the bearing and tension interfaces. At the
bearing interface, the beSnng pressures between the concrete and the plate wiU cause bending for the cantilever lengths m and n as shown in Figure 422. At the tension interface, the
anchor rods cause bending for the cantilever length, x, as shown in Figure 421.
.r.
AM.eluCAN
4 102
For flcxurol yielding at the bearing interface and Y < max(m. n), from AISC Design Guide I
Equation 3.3.15:
LRFD
f P<.rtt1>
=2.1
J'
f p<maxJY[ m~(m,11)i)
I p(nq)
Fy
x(9.72 in.
=2.11 1
r::
f p(mtUJY( max(m,n) ~J
33
~ in.)
LR.FD
=2.11
ASD
N11aX
BFy
=2.31 in.
fp(req)
 JNaaX
=2 .:>8

BF,.
Use a PL3 h in. x 32 in. x 2 ft 8 in. ASTM A572 Grade 50 for the base pl3te.
Plate Washer Bearing Strength
According to AJSC Manual Table 142, use a }8 in. x S1A in. x 5\4 in. pl3te washer, welded
to the top of the base plate, to transfer the shear to the anchor rods. Also, interpolating from
Table 142, use a 3lhin.diameter bole for the 2~in.diameter ancbor rods.
Detennine the available bearing strength assuming deformation at the bolt hole is not a
design consideration.
The clear distance to the edge of lhe bearing plate, le. is Laken as:
o.k.
Using the recommendations from AlSC Design Guide l and AISC Specification Sectior,
J3.7, the available tensile stress of the anchor rod subject to combined tensile and shear load~
is checked, including the effects of bending.
Based on testing performed by Gomez et al. (2010), this approach was detennined lo provide a reasonable and conservative strength estimate for earthquake des.ign. Therefore, given
the comprehensive testing and design approach, the general anchor strength requiremenr of
AC1 318 Section D4.3 for resistance to combined tensile and shear loads can be satisfied.
The anchor rod noro.inaJ tensile slress, from AISC Specification Table 13.2:
Fni =0.15Fu
= 0.75{t25 ksi)
=93.8 ksi
The anchor rod nominal shear stress with threads not excluded from the shear plane from
AlSC Specification Table 13.2:
F,.,,
=0.450Fu
=0.450(125 ksi)
..
=56.3 ksi
The anchor rod required shear slress.frv:
ASD
LRFD
f,rv ~
Va
f,.,=llvAg
n.Ag
190 kips
2
8(3.98 in. )
=5.97 ksi
.I
o.k.
2.00
=510 kips
= 2.38in.
= 1.50 in.
=765 kips
=3.32 in.
For flexural yielding at the tension interface, from AISC Design Guide l Equation 3.4.7:
fp(rtq)
;~::j
ASD
I
3.53
.
x [9.72 m.in.
2
=2.58,
50 ksi
50 ksi
LRFD
Fy
=3.2? in.
_ ____,
=2.581
ASD
?:
4J(i,
127 kips
= 8(3.98 inh
= 3.99 ksi
AMUtlCAN INSTlTVTE OI' Sn;a CoNSTR\iCTION
41()4
MOMENT FRAMPS
4105
Therefore. the nominal tensile stress from AISC Specification Equation 133 is:
ASD
LRFD
LRFD
ASD
f/;J
F:U
= 1.3Fn1 
F,:,
~Fnv
= 1.3(93.8 ksi)
93.8 ksi
 0.75(56.3 k:si) (5.97 ksi)
= 109 ksi
F;,
From AISC Design Guide 1 (Fisher and Kloiber. 2010) the anchor rod be d' o
\10 1
M lb
 VIII

M1b=flv
11,
=52.0 kipin.
/rb
=+2
2
=34.8 kipin.
M,,,
./,
=34.8 kipin.
t...
1.90 in.'
=27.4 ksi
=18.3 ksi
Combined stress
Combined sness
I.f
Mw
/ib = 
:::
J,
~in.
26$ kips
4(3.98 in. 2)
=l6.8 ksi
J, = /u+ fib
3 1h in.
= 52.0 kipin.
1.90 in.3
+ frb
378 kips
93.8 ksi
2.00
=46.9 ksi
,,,A,
=4(3.98 in.2)
=23.7 ksi
=93.8 ksi
/,,.._ Naa
n1 A1
=
= 70.4 ksi
J, = f.a
:!!t.
=fta+ fzb
 16.8ksi+18.3 ksi
o.k.
o.k.
=2.19 in.
The anchor rod plastic section modulus,
...
z. 1s:
Z::: db
6
= (2~ in.)3
=1.90 in.3
Determine
rod tensile s tres s, assunung
tha t only the rods on one side of the b3Se
the anchor
I
I
4106
The steel tensile strength of the anchor rod group of four (on one side of the base plate):
~NS4
=n As~.Nf.10
ANco =9'1!1
where
A,,,N
0.9743)
=41t ( don,

n,
410?
=5,630 in.2
N,,
=16A.J/:1i;p
Therefore:
1t(2" .
Au,N::: 
0.9743
I 1 0
.  )
1,000 lb/kip
4.50 in.
= 216 kips
= 3.25in.2
Therefore:
2
7 430 0
~ :)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(216 kips)
Nt:bg :(
o.k.
5,630 m.
~285
For the design tensile concrete breakout strength of the anchor group:
kips
0.4(0.75)Ncbg
(AO 318 Eq. D5)
Per ACI 318 Section 0.4.2. l provide supplemental reinforcement to restrain the concrete
breakouL From ACI 318 Section D.5.2.9:
'Y~t1,N
=0.4(0.75)(0.75)(285 kips)
=64. l kips< 378 kips n.g.
T,,
0.75$/y
As=
cp :::: 0.75
378 kips
ANc :::: [(n l)s + 2(1.5)/rq j2{1.5)1tef from ACI 318 Figure RD.5.2. l
A."0.75(0.75)(60 ksi)
:::: 11.2 in.2
=fB2(EdgeDisunce)]/(nl)
=132.0 in. 
Provide at least 11.2 in. 2 of vertical reinforcing stirrups spaced within O.Shefof each anchor
rod group per ACI 318 Section Rt>.5.2.9."
2( 4.00 in.)]!( 4 J)
= 8.00 in.
For tbe design pullout srrength of the anchor group, including the additional 0.75 factor stipulated in ACT 3 18 Section 0.5.2.9 nnd 0.4 factor sti pulated in D.3.3.6:
Therefore:
ANc
Ii I
A.t.tBUCAN
where
$
'l'c,P
"'
I ~!
4108
MOM.ENT f'RAMES
4109
'
rz
"
... n IO. X 4 n m. plate
was er with a double heavy hex nut head on the embedded end of the anchor rod.
For rhe c:Ucul:ition of the plate washer cantilever bending moment, the plate washer cantilever distance, l, is:
Aorg = Aplote  Au
=(4 12 in.  3 h
=0 ..500 in.
in.)
::::: 17.0 ~. 2
where Bnut Juad is the heavy hex nut F dimension given in AISC Manual Table 7l9.
Therefore:
= 544 kips
ASD
LRFD
Therefore:
0.4(0.75)C!>Npn
=0.4(0.75)(0.7)(4)(1.0)(544 kips)
= 457 k.ips > 378 kips
N,,,,
Naa
\ V a = 
Wu=
o.k.
,<\i,rg
=17.0 in.2
The plastic section modulus per unit width, Z, of the plate washer is:
=22.2 ksi
bd2
4
wa/2
Ma=
Mu=
=0.250 in.3
= (1s.8
M,. =FyZ
'
. Wul 2
o.k.
\
.
l..
kipf10.)(o.so9 in.)2
2
= 1.98 kipin.< 2.99 kipin.
o.k.
=50 ksi(0.250
in.3 )
Therefore, from AlSC Specification Section Pl 1.l and AC! 318 Secrt"on D 3 3 6 th
1
able flexural strengtb of the plate washer is:
, e av:u 
LRFD
=0.4(0.90)(12,.5 kipin.)
= 4.50 kipin.
~
= l 2.5 kipin.
0.4$Mn
=17.0 in.2
=15.8 ksi
Z:::::
.:
t:
268 kips
378 kips
Abrg
ASD
0.4Mn :::: 0.4(12.5 kipin.)
J.67
= 2.99 l<lpin.
Although checked previously in ae<;:ordance with Al~C; provisions, the following illustrates
the shear loading checks in accordance with ACI 318 Appendix D provisions. Frictional
shear resistance developed between the base plate and the concrete is neglected in consideration of earthquake loading. By inspection, the concrete breakout strength of .the anchor
group in shear is not applicable.
The design steel shear strength of the entire anchor group, including the grout pad factor of
0.80 (AC! 318 Section D.6.J.3) is:
$Vso =cl> 0.80n0.6Au.Vfu10
t'
>
where
.....,
Ai.l.61UCAN INsTmTrS OF STES. CoN~Tiu.icnoN
4110
MOMENT FRAMES
TI1creforc:
cj>V,.,
Vu
9v10
= l,O !Ok.ips>l90kips
190k.ips
190 kips
1,060 kips
Because V., s 0.29Vsa. the full strength in 1ension is permitted according to ACl 318 Section
D.7.l. Therefore. V,. is controlled by a ductile steel element
Design of Column WebtoBase Plate Weld
1,010 kips
V<a
o.k.
For the inter3ction of tensile and shear forces. from ACI 318 Se<:1fon D.7:
l=
4l l t
The effective Jengtl1 of weld available, I,. on both sides of web, holding welds back from the
=0. 188
Nua
378 kips
=Ns11 1,220 kips
=0.310
le= d2kdu
= 15.2 in. 2(1.91 m.)
= 11.4 in.
Because Vu s 0.2<Wso. lhe full Strength in tension is pennitted according to AC! 318 Section
D.7.1.
For the design pryout strength of the anchor .group, ACI 318 Sec1ion D.3.3.5 requires that
the streng1h be greater than tl1e shear associated with a ductile failure of 1he attachment if
the requirements of ACT 318 Section D.3.3.4 are not met Because the shear strcngrh is
based on hinging in the column, the ductile failure requirement is met if the design streng1h
exceeds the column shear strength.
As indicated previously, the anchor rods on both. sides of the base plate are provided with
supplemental reinforcement. Io the region between each anchor group, lhe supplemental
reinforcement may overlap, contributing to either group. In consideration of the concrete
breakout strength for prying, a conservative estimate considers only 75% of the supplemental lotal for both groups. Also, the Ncbg term is no"\ determined based on lhe area of
supplemental reinforcement instead of ACT 318 Appendix D. Equation D5. Therefore, lhc
revised design pryout strength is:
From AlSC Manual Equation 82, the weld size in sixteenths of.an inch is:
ASD
LRFD
Dnq
Vu
= 1.392(2/e)
rtq 
l90 kips
1.392kip/in.(2Xl1.4 in.)
Va
0.928(2/e)
127 kips
0.928 kip/in.(2)(11.4 in.)
=6.00 sixteenths
= 5.99 sixte.enths
Conservatively use Yi6in. fillet welds (twosided) for the column webtobase plate weld.
Design of Washer Plate to Base Plate Weld
The effective length of weld available, I,~ on each of the eight plates (two sides), is:
I
0.75 V,.p8
:::::
where
~
kcp
Therefore:
rtq 
o.k.
Recheck the intcrnction of tensile and shear forces, using ACI 318 Sec1ion D.7.!, wit11
$V:o 0.75 $V,.,,., as follows:
ASD'
LRFD
= 1,010 kips
Vu
1.392(81,)
190 kips
1.392 kip/in.(8)(l0.5 in.)
= 1.62 sixteeolhs
::::
Vu
rtq 
0.928(8/e)
127 kips
0.928 kip/in.(8)(10.5 in.)
1.63 sixteenths
The minimum weld size based on the thinner part joined from AISC Specification Tabl<'
12.4 controls. Bnsed on the 0.830in. web, use 111in. filJet welds (two sides) for the washt f
platetobase piste weld.
~fERJCAl'I .lNSTmtlll OF STEEL CoNSTRllCllON
4112
n,ie final connection design and geometry for the moment frame column base is shown
Figure 423.
in
1
L
~113
'
Given :
Refer to Column CLl in Figure 48. Design an embedded column base plate for the ASTM
A992 Wshape. The column is centered on a 72in.wjde reinforced concrete foundation.
The foundation concrete compressive strength,//, is 4 ksi with ASTM A6 I 5 Grade 60
rcinforcemen1. Use ASTM A572 Gr:ide 50 plate material.
N= 2'8"
The applicable building code specifies che use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads. The
required column strengths al 1he base level were decerrnined by a secondorder analysis
including the effects of Po and Pt:. with reduced stiffness as required by lhe direct analysis method. The goveming load combinations in ASCFJSEI 7. including the overstrenglh
factor (referred to as the amplified seismic load in the AISC Seismic Pro1isilms), follow.
PL 3~ (A572 Gr. 50)
with (8) 2J4" dia. F1554
In th.is example, !he concrolling limir state is yielding of the face plates. For this limit state,
the axial force needs to be ma:<imized as this will increase the bearing force :md subsequent
bending (yielding) in the p13te~. Therefore, the required axial strength is determined from:
LRFD
4
typ.,
_J
.W14x176 column
ASD
P,. =(1.2+0.2Sos)D+O.,QE
Leveling nut
and washer
or shim olack
3 nonshrink grout
+0.5L+0.2S
=250 kips
+ 0.75L+0.75S
= 215 kips
l
\
LRFD
c:
....
E
(.'.,
=946 kipft
ASD
ASD Load Combination 8 from
ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
Ma =(0.60.14S.os)D+0.70.,Qe
= 662 kipft
''
PL 1"x4W'X4}2" (A572 Gt. 50)
washer with a double nut
.. .
AMF.IUCAN lNST!TVtl! 01' STEl!J.. CONSTRUCTIOl'J
', ..
.....
\
~l
MOMENT FRA.MP.S
LRFD
LRFD Load Combina1ion 5 from
ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
,_
ASD
....
Consider tha111te connection int.o the column weakaxis produces negligible moments on lhe
column. With rcspecc 10 lhe fo_undation, consider that the ACI 318 reinforcemenc requirements arc adequa1e for all apphcable concrete limit states including punching shear.
AlSC Seismic Pro.ision.~ Section 02 6a requires that rhe :Wal strength equals or exceeds lhe
required strength calculated using the load combinarions of the apphcoble building code,
including lhc amplified ~J\mic load.
By reference to AISC SeiJmic Pm~isions Section D2.5c, which references Section D2.5b,
AISC Seismic Pro\'isions Section 02 6b indirectly ~tipulates that the required shear strength
of the column base be the greater of lhe required sheM strength determined frorn load combinations including the amplified seismic load (Section 02 5b(b)) or the required column
strength as stipulated in the systC'm chapters lSecuon D2.5b(~)). Here, the pro\.is1oru. of
Section E3.6g apply. as follows:
LRFD
ASD
From ASCE/SEI 7, use Seismic Design C.ategory D. n.., = 3.0. p =1.0 and Sos= 1.0.
v.,, =r.~tpc
I.SH
Use LRFD provisions for the concrete design. The final connection design and geometry for
the embedded column base i~ shown in Figure 424.
Solution:
From AlSC Manual Table 24, die column material properties 3fe as follows:
ASTMA992
From AISC Manual Table 25, I.be plate material properties arc as follows:
LRFD
From AlSC Manual Table I1, the geometric propenies arc as follows:
~: ..
.i;
Column
W14x176
A= 51.8 in.?
TJ= l.31 in.
Beam
W24X76
d 23.9 in.
IJI tx
V11=H
2(1,330 kipft)
F,. = 60 ksi
ASD
I
i
::
= l,330 kipft
Therefore:
.:~.
M pc =FyZx
F1 =50 k.si
Fu= 65 ksi
)j
11e.~ural
= 14.0 ft
=190 kips > 96.0 kips
Use 11,,
d= 15.2 in.
Zx =320 in. 3
1..,
=0.830 in.
=190 kips.
v. =r..upc
I.SH
0
2(1,330 kipft)
1.5(14.0 ft)
:::
127 kips.
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section D2.6c(b) requires tha.t the fle.xural s~ngr.h equals or
exceeds the lesser of the load combination of the applicable building code, including I.he
amplified ~ismic lood, or I.IR> F, .t.
LRFD
M,,
o:
ASD
Mo= l.IR1 F1 Z.
1.5
J.IR,F,Z.
..
190 kips
60 ksi
'
Co~sider the base condition similar 10 s structuraJ steel coupling beam embedded in a coms
posne speci 3 J shear w:ill, per AISC Seismic Provisions Section H5 5c Therefi
embedment length, ~:
=J.54,fjj ( [>,. )
Vn
0.66
P1b1L, 0.580.22P1
0.88+L
bi
(Pro~isio11.s
=3.17 io.2
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section H4 .5b{l)(4) requires twothirds of this reinforcement in
the top layer. It is pennitled to use reinforcement placed for other purposes as pan of the
required longitudinal reinforcement.
F,
(12 in./ft)
V.,
As=
Eq.
H4~2)
2~
AISC Seismic Prrn:isions Section H5.5c requires that Ibis reinforcement be confined by
transverse reinforcement that meets the requirements for boundary members of ACI 318
Section 21.9.6. For this ex:imple, as st:itcd above, the foundation reinforeiog requirements
are considered adequate per ACI 318.
Minimum Face Bearing Plate Thickness
AISC Seismic Pro\lision.t Scc1ioo H5.5c requires face bearing plates on both sides of the column at !he foce of the foundntion and near the end of the embedded reg.ion. At a minimum.
the stiffener thickness should meet the detailing requiremcnis of AJSC Seismic Provisions
Section F3.5b(4) "here,
fmfn
where
g = 11
= 140ft(12 in./ft)
=168 in.
is distributed from the column to the face bearing plates and then to
the fotll'ldation io direct bearing. As outl.med in AJSC Manual P:irt 14, lhe critical face plate
cantile.,.er dimension, 1, is determined 3$ the IMger of m. n or Ni' (as depicted in Figure
Therefore:
422). where:
V,.
~(
=l.54v'l.V
k.s1
0 66
720.
in ) (0.85)(l

15.7
IIl.
m:::
'
N0.95d
2
B0.8b1
2
.
t be 'd
e emv=ment lS consu:lered
o gm ms1 e I.he first layer of co~g reinforcement io the foundation.
. i A.f<ibi
N
=
N=d
o.k.
~
n=
B=bt
'
I
l
In
Therefore:
Therefore:
= 0.691 in.2
, b
be f 11 de\ cto~ \\here they engage the embedThe pro"icion requU'CS th.it all tran.'iCT ars
u y
. rw
.l
r AC! 318.
ded flange. For this e."tample. consider a bar length of 36 tn. fully de\.e opcc..I pe
=0.380 in.
15.7 in.0.8(15.7 in.)
'
2
=I.57 in.
(2)7t(+~ in.)2
Arb=
o.k.
For the yielding limit state, the required minimum rh.ickness is dctermjncd from AlSC Manual
Equauons 147a and 147b:
LRFD
fmiJt
2Pu
=l   09FyBN
= 3.86 in.
2(250 kips)
x
0.9(50 ksi)(l5.7 in.)( 15.2 in.)
=0.833 in.
ASD
t,,,;,, =I
=3.86 in.
Section AA
3.33(215 kips}
50 ksi(I5'.7 in.)(15.2 in.)
=0.946 in.
Due to the different load combinations used for LRFD versus ASD, lhere is a. slight d iscrepancy between the LRFD and ASD rcsulis for the required shear strength. Typically. one
.merhod should be chosen and used consistemly throughout an entire design. For the purposes of this example, the LRFD result will be used.
.J
Because flexural yielding at the beruing interface controls the face plate design, the fillet
.,
.:;
:"
,,
,,
.... .
~'
weld connection provisions of AISC Seismic Provisions Section F3.5b(4) are not applicable
and the lh.ickness )hould be fully developed. Therefore, the face plates are welded to the
<>
...
..
if
, .I
...
\i
typ.
:=~=+~  L'
\
\..
~1
I
I
!
. c
e
>
=LJ_
.I
f\
reinforcement bey
"1
I'
....
I..
<;
""'
r:\
A.b
~ 0.03//l,,bf / F7sr
\A
l''IVIVJt.J'I !
M<AMl'.S
The weld of the defom1ed bar to the column flange should be a flux filled ni:itcrial using an
electric :trc welding process, that develops the strength of lhe rebar according to AWS DJ. J
clause 7.
to 0.1SPc. then the vnlues of cl>Rvi and ~Rvz or Rvilfl and R.z/fl can be used to calculate the
a\ailable panel zone shear strength. Considering st.rcngth of a column without doubler plates:
A ISC Seismic Provisions Seclion HS.Sc also requires that the nottoexceed transfer reinforcement area is:
In AJSC Seismic Pro\ isions E.quation H52. As is the longirudioal area of reinforccmcnl
pro,ided over the embedment length. As noted in the Given statement, the foundation reinforcing requirements src considered ade<juate per ACI 318 Therefore. tJus check 1s pro' ided
for 1Uustrali\'e purposes only.
where
F, = spcclfied minimum yield ~lJ'Css of the column web, ksi
bcf width of column Oangc, in.
d 11 :: depr.h of beam, in.
~
depth of column. in.
lcf = thickness of column nange, Ill.
cw =thickness of column web, in
=
=
The final connection de~ign and. geometry for the embedded column base is shown in
figure 424.
Rv1 =0.60Fld,t...,
Rv2 = 0.60Fyd,t. (
3::c?)
Substituting into the expth~ded version of AISC Specification E.quation Jl().. l l, the available
panel zone shear streng 1s:
Various values useful in the design of SMF are tabulared. Values are given for Wshapes that
meet the widthtothickness requirements for SMF beams and colwnns with F. = SO ksi
1
(ASTM A992).
.
For cases where the limiting web ~idthtothickness r.itio is a function of lhe member's
required a."tial streng1h, P., or Pa. according to AlSC Seismic Provisions Table Dl.J, the
me~11ber will sausfy the widthtothickness requirements for highly ductile members if P., or
Pa is less than or equal to the value tabulated for Pu max or Pa max respec1ivcly. The nominal
axial yield suength of a member, P;. is calculated as FyA1 Note that it is assumed that
Ca"" Pul9cP, > 0.125 Ol' C,, = ~Pa1P1 > 0.125. Where a dash is shown, there is no Jimiration on the values of P,, or Pa.
The value 1 JRyMp is given to aid in several calculations, including rhe derermination of the
required shear strength of SMF connections and the SlvfF columnbeam moment ratio.
Several values are tabul:ttcd lo enable quick determination of coluroo panel zone shear
strength. To determine if AISC Specification Equations Jl(). J J or JJ012 are :ippHcable
0.75Pc is given for comparison with the required axial sr.rength, P,. If P, is less thnn or equ~
LRFD
..
ASD
Rv =
~~i
R~1 +
di.
I.
'
R.
R,1
R..2
fldb
=+
To aid in the detcnnination of the minimum pruielwne element thicknesses, W:/90 or dl/90
arc also tabula1ed. Therefore, the rum of the corresponding wif 90 or di/90 values for the
SMF beam anti column will detennfoe the minimum panelzone element thicknesses per
AISC S~ismic Provisions Equation E37:
Values are also tabulated to aid in the determination of lateral bl':\Cing requirements. The \
value given for lb lllAK is the maximwn distance between lateraJ. brace; specified in AISC ~
Seismic Provisions Section Dl.2b. The required brace strength al beamtocolumn c~nnec., j
tions stipulated in AISC Seismic Pro"ision.s Section E3.4c(I), equal to 0.02FybJ'J is also
given. All lateral bracing is also required 10 have a minimum stiffness based on a moment
equal to RyMp = R1 F1 Z. The value of t.h.is moment is tabulated.
,
~
AMElllCAI' l>lsmun! OP ST661. Coi;STJUJCTION
....
MOMENT FRAMES ~
4123
DESIGN TABLES
'.':
Table 41
Special Moment
Frame {SMF)
Intermediate Moment
Ftame (IMF)
Ordinary Moment
Ftame (OMF)
0.04 rad
0.02 rad
Connection Shear
Strength
Special Moment
Frame (SMF)
Continuity Plates
or 
or
or
Lesser Vpermitted if
Justified by analysis. See
also tile exception
provided Jn AISC Seismic
Provisions Section E3.6d
Lesser Vpermilted if
justified by analysis. See
alSo Ille exception
provided in AlSC Sefsmfc
ProviSfons Section E2.6d
Lesser Vpermitted if
justified by analysis
No additional
requirements beyond
AISC~tkln
No additional
Stability Bracing
of Be;;ms
requirements beyond
AlSC Specification
'
f ~ (d1 + W1 )/90
Protected Zone
..
No additional
requirements beyond
AlSC Specificauon
No additional
requirements beyond
NSC Spectncation
No additional
requirements beyond
A!SC Specification
No additional
requlrements beyond
PJSC Specification
No additional
requirements beyona
AiSC Specification
No additional
requirements beyond
14$(; Specification
P$. established by
ANSVAISC 358 for each
prequalified connection;
generally, onehalf be.am
depth beyona'centertine
of plastic,hinge
k> established by
ANSVAISC 358Jor each
prequalifled connection;
generally, onehalf beam
depth beyond centerline
of plastic hinge
'
Of \
Q,"'
No additional
requirements beyoncl
. AISC Specification
Column Splice
. ,.
.,
Ordinary Moment
Frame (OMF)
l:M~>1 .0
l:Mp0
WitithtoThickness
To match tested
To match tested
condition 0< ANSVAISC 358 coodition or ANSVAJSC 358
Section 2.4.4
Section 2.4.4
SeamColumn
Proportion
Limi~ticms
Intermediate Moment
Frame ~MF)
..
None
,
.,
NJUMtlN J t'K.l\M_c:)
DESlGN TN:!Lt:.::.
Table 42
Ry= 1.1
Table 42
Fy =50 ksi
Fy = 50 ksi
WShapes
WShapes
Panel Zone
Panef Zone
Pu mar
,.
~Rr1
kip$
W44x335
x290
x262
x230
3900
1930
887
234
kipft
kips
8170
7110
6400
1360
1130
1020
914
2310
1950
1660
1500
1410
1360
1210
1110
989
3710
2600
1560
S87
333
W40x392
x331
x327
x294
x278
x264
x235
x211
x183
x167
x149
Lateral 8r.1cing
(I.RFD)
Shape
761
1no
1490
tO
1280
1240
1150
989
887
761
753
722
2200
1320
280
259
169
9R,.z
kfpin.
4480
0.75Pc
kips
369()
3200
2900
2540
15700
11200
8120
7010
6090
5820
4690
3870
3550
2870
2120
6530
5550
4760
4390
4130
3980
3570
.3270
2760
2380
7090
4980
4940
4020
3540
3210
2670
2140
1530
1130
732
4350
3660
3600
3230
3090
2900
2590
2330
3550
2870
2120
Shape
90
Lmu
ho
kips
kipft
W44x335
x290
x262
x230
0.450
0.449
0.450
0.450
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.3
28.1
25.0
22.4
19.3
42.2
30.9
33.3
29.0
7430
6460
5820
5040
W40x593
x503
x431
x397
15.8
15.5
15.2
15.1
15.0
15.0
14.9
14)
14.9
14.8 .
14.7
53.9
45.3
38.2
35.4
33.0
32.2
28.8
26.1
25.0
22.4
19.3
76.3
64.9
55.4
' 51,0
47.9
46.7
41.8
38.3
36.1
32.4
28.1
12700
10600
8980
8250
x249
x215
Q.406
0.406
0.406
0.407
0.406
0.406
G.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
o.406
W40x392
x331
x327
x294
x278
x264
x235
x211
x183
x167
x149
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.407
0.406
0.406
11.0
10.7
10.7
10.6
10.s
10.5
10.6 :
10:4
10.4 .
9.98'
9.52
31.2
26.0
25.8
23.2
21.7
'\ 20.6
18.8
16.8
14.2
12.2
9.79
48.1 .
40.6
40.1
36.3
34.1
32.5
29.2
26.2
22.5
20.3
17.6
noo
7520
6690
6100
5730 .
5130
4420
I l:;
7840
1,.
I ;
6550
6460
5820
545o
. 5180
4630
4150
3550
3180
2740
l:
}l
I.....
.r:
.J
, :~ ....
~
R1 Mp
0.02M,C,
ldps
x2n
1640
!lO
UIFO
fl
x362
x324
x297
2000
1850
dz
In.
x3n
306()
Wz
or
I
:h.;.\ .
,..
Ry= 1.1
,J
1'
11;
J
:(.
1.1
t.
.. :~l
AMEJUC;\N 1Nsmuni OF SrEa Co;isnucno.'I
rl
MVMcJ'l l r.!<.AMJ:..S
lJ~l\.Jl'f
U\,01,.. ~
,~
Ry= 1.1
,.. .,
,,.
...
'
.,..
.
l
~~
!::j
,~
:!;~
>:
flI
r:~
k"
!~
.~
~~.
:j:
~1:
Fy
=50 ksi
SM F Design Values
Shape
W36x652
x529
x487
X441
x395
x361
x330
x302
x282
x262
x247
x231
P,,W:U
(U!FD)
i'l36x256
x232
x210
x194
x182
x170
x160
xJSO
2810
2290
1650
1240
805
506
262
1'133x387
x354
x318
x291
x263
x241
x221
x201
W33x169
x152
x141
x130
Panel Zone
LRFD (t == UlO)
~pe
3650
3020
2500
2010
1160
777
477
245
Ry= 1.1
w~ha pes
kips
,,.
..f~
=50 ksi
Panel Zone
(:"
Fy
WShapes
'
14700
11700
10700
9630
8620
7810
7110
6450
6000
5550
5190
4860
Rvi
'Ryz
0.75Pc
kips
kipin.
kips
Wz
dz
or
90
90
Lateral Bracing
UIFD
OJYlM1 C4
Lt llJU
0.02F,b1t1
R1 Mp
ho
in.
ft
kips
0.378
0.378
0.377
0.378
0.378
0.378
0.378
0.377
0.377
0.378
0.378
0.378
17.0
16.6
16.5
16.3
16.1
16.0
15.9
15.9
15.8 .
15.6
15.5
15.4.
62.3
50.1
45.8
41.5
37.0
33.6
30.7
28.1
26.1
23.9
22.3
20.8
69.5
64.0
57.6
52.0
47.4
43.2
39.6
36.9
. 34.1
32.0
'
kips
klpft
85.1
13300
10700
9760
8750
7840
2430
1920
1770
1590
1410
1280
1150
1060
985
930
881
832
19900
7200
13100
5850
11100
5360
9110
4880
7320
4350
6070
3980
5110
3630
4240
3340
3680
3110
3100 . 2900
2710
2720
2360
2560
W36>t652
.x529
x487
5240
\ 4720
4200
3870
3620
3370
3150
2930
1080
2820
2550
2320
. 2140
2010
1880
1760
1660
W36x256
x232
x210
x194
.x182
x170
x160
x150
0.377
11.0
21.1
32.0
0.377
10.9 .
19.0
29.0
673
3290
2680
2030
1730
1520
1310
1120
954
0.378
0.378
0.377
0.378
0.377
0.378
10.7
10.6
10.6 . 10.5  .
10.4
10.3
16.6
15.2
14.3
13.2
12.2
11.3
26.0
24.0
22.5
20.9
19.6
18.3
7870
7160
6400
5850
5240
4740
4320
3900
1360
1240
1100
1000
900
852
788
723
7580
6330
5140
4280
3510
2800
2330
1870
4280
3900
3510
3210
2900
2670
2450
2220
W33x387
:<354
5<318
x291
x263
'x241
'5221
x201
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.348
0.348
0.349
0.348 .
0.349
15.7
'15.5
15.4
15.3
15.2
15.0
14.9
14.8
36.9
33.6
30.2
27.5
24.8
22.3
20.2
18.1
50.9
46.6
42.0
38.5
34.8
31.5
28.9
26.1
7150
6510
5820
5320
4770
4310
3930
3540
3170
2820
2590
2350
679
638
604
576
1540
1170
954
757
1860
1680
1560
1440
W33x169
x152
x141
x130
0.348
0.349
0.349
0.349
10.4
10.3
10.1
9.93
14.0
12.3
11.0
9.83
21.2
19.0
17.5
16.0
2880
2560
2360
2140
.,
968
914
838
790
738
702
x~I
x395
x361
x330
x302
; x282
x262
x247
x231
"
r
f:
:.
::
30.1
7foo
6460
' 5870
' 5450
5040
4720
4410
4770
4290
3820
3520
3290
3060
2s60
2660
4
vtU' 1 t".K.t\1'U:~
DESIGN TABLES
SM F Design Values
Ry= 1.1
Fy
=50 ksi
WShap es
Panel Zone
p
(l.RF1l)
Shape
kips
WJ(b(391
x357
x326
x292
x261
x235
x21 1
x191
xl73
W30x14S
x132
x 124
x116
xi OB
2260
t1tii,.l'
1670
~89t
~1~5f~
.4~
36\ <.;
242"
1350
982
720
5"2
364
x368
x336
x307
x281
x258
x235
I
1..J
)(194
x178
x161
x146
W27x129
x114
x102
x94
klpf1
W30x391
x357
x326
x292
x261
x235
x.211
x.191
x173
0.315
0.315
0.314
0.314
0.314
0.314
0.314
0.315
0.314
153
151
15.0
149
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.4
1'6 2
38.1
34.7
31.6
28.3
25.1
22.7
19.9
17.9
16.1
51.8
47.5
43.1
38.6
34.6
31.3
27.9
25.2
22.8
6650
6050
0315
031 4
0.315
0314
031 4
9.48
9.35
9.27
910
8.9"
12.4
105
18.6
16.4
15.3
142
13.1
2290
W30x148
x132
xt24
}(116
1<108
546
497
3310
2860
2260
1800
1470
1200
5960
4090
3720
3380
3120
2850
2600
2400
2140
1970
1790
1620
W27>'539
x368
><336
x307
x281
x258
x235
x217
x194
x178
x161
x146
0282
0.283
0283
0.282
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.282
0.282
0.282
0.283
0.283
15.2
14.5
14.3
14.2
14.1
14.0
13.8
13.8
13.7
13.5
13.4
13.3
71 .7
48.9
4<19
412
37.6
34.S
31 .3
291
25.9
23.6
21 .4
19.3
8660
5680
5180
4720
4290
3910
3540
3260
2890
2610
505
467
419
395
1090
786
620
500
1420
1260
1130
1()40
W2.7X129
x114
x102
0.282
0.283
0.283
0.282
16.4
14.3
128
11 7
1810
1570
1400
1270
kips
7310
1350
1220
1110
979
882
2110
1570
2600
1340
965
527
1990
1730
1540
32'6
1400
597
599
559
530
509
"87
1320
945
817
683
546
n9
654
3580
3180
2870
2340
8360
7000
5820
4710
3720
3060
2370
1910
1550
718
3890
x217
kips
kipin.
9530
6250
5700
5190
'720
4300
W27.x539
kips
kJps
1910
1740
ft
kipft
2060
R1M,
In.
0.75Pc
2520
2200
WO
O.CYlM1 C.
h.
Ltaw
Rrt
. sfT,
6~
545
. 4(5
d,
90 or90
R~
5340
4750
4270
3790
3400
3060
w,
Lateral Bractng
Panel Zone
LRFD I+ UlO)
1.1R1M,
6660
6000
1513.
Ry= 1. 1 .
Fy::: 50 k si
WShapes
1920
1260
1130
1030
932
853
784
707
632
605
17300
8140
6830
5660
4830
4030
4310
3940
3600
3230
2890
2600
2340
2100
1910
1640
1460
1370
1280
1190
Shape
x9'6
9.19
9.06
8.9"
8.81
9,n
8.93
7.98
54.2
36.5
33.3
301
Z78
25.3
22.9
212
18.8
168
15.1
13.7
11.0
9.39
8.30
7 45
5450
4860
4320
3880
3440
3090
2780
2000
1870
17~
1590
~\
2360
2130
\
'
:.._
...
..:.......
MOMENT FRAMES
4130
i:'
Ry= 1.1
Fy
=50 ksi1
"":,
WShapes
i:'
Shape
kips
r.
"
.::.
~:
.,
.
:~d
~:
...::.:>:~
..
:j;I J
;:
'r~
"'1
1ij
!~'.
...:..
1;:
:$,
...
~~:
~;:
l'
~:
t.
W24x370
x335
x306
x279
x250
x229
x207
x192
x176
.,x162
x146
x131
0.75Pc
kips
kipin.
kips
x8_4
x76
1110 .
836
506
290
1410
1280
1130
1010
404
375
340
315
W24x62
x55
187
58.5
x94
Shape
$R112
1280
1140
1020
929
821
749
671
620
567
529
482
445
d,
or90 90
L11mu
in.
ft
W:
4090
3690
3360
3070
2760
2520
2280
2120
1940
1790
1610
1450
W24x370
x335
x306
x279
x250
x229
x207
x192
x176
x162
.x146
x131
0.251
0.250
0_250
0250
0.250
0250
0.251
0.251
0.250
0.251
0.250
0251
13.6
13.4
13.3
13.2
13.1
12.9
12.8 .
12.8.
12.6
12.7
12.5
12.3
ns 
1140
W24x103
8,27
625
481
374
1040
926
840
x94
x84
x76
0.250
0.251
0.251
0.250
221
161
683
608
\'/24x62
x55
0.250
0.251
9120
7470
6270
5230
4240
3530
2880
2490
2080
1740
1380
1070
~
. 
LRFD
r
1)1Rv1
5700
5140
4650
4210
3750
. 3400
3060
. 2820
2580
2360
2110
1870
W24x103
._
LRFO ( =1.00)
(LRFD)
Lateral Bracing
Panel Zone
Panel Zone
Pu mu
Ry= 1.1
Fy =50 ksi
WShapes
4  131
DESIGN TABLES
~:
9:azF,1iftr  .::o.02M;cd
\.M
.,;. 1.5,'11h:
~~'1'/r.~
~:
D.02Fyb1tt
0.02M,Cd
R1 M,
h,
kips
kips
kipft
37.3
33.5
30.6
27.8
24.9
22.7
20.4
19.0
17.3
15.9
14.1
12.4
49.1
44.9
40.9
37.3
33 5
30.6
5180
4680
4230
3830
3410
3090
2780
2560
2340
2150
1920
27.7
25.6
23.5
21.6
19.5
17.3
1700
8.82
13.1
8.23
8.11
7.98
7.94
6.95
6.11
11.9
10.6
9.48
1280
1160
1030
917
5.74
s.~z:
4.15
3.54
7.29
6.38
701
614
20.5
18.5
16.9
14.4
12.9
11.9
10.8
27.2
24.7
22.5
f9.5
17.6
16.3
14.9
2430
2180
1980
1710
1530
1410
1280
H.7
676
306
280
W21x201
x182
x166
x147
x132
x122
x1 11
2670
2400
2180
1880
1680
1550
1410
628
565
506
4n
425
391
355
3010
2460
2060
1490
1210
1030
848
2220
2010
1830
1620
1460
1350
1220
W21x201
x182
x166
x147
x132
x122
x111
0.219
0.219
0.220
0.220
0219
0.220
0.219
W2lx93
x83
x73
1110
655
525
409
349
280
1020
915
806
750
686
W21x93
x83
x73
. x68
x62
0.219
0.219
0.219
0.219
0.220
7.65
7.61
7.52
7.48
7.36
7.83
6.98
6.14
5.66
5.07
10.5 ,
9.23
8.63
7.76
1010
898
788
733
660
n6
376
331
289
272
252
650
555
481
256
237
217
249
626
551
488
\Y21x57
x50
x44
0220
0.219
0.220
5.61
5.40
5.24
4.26
3.19
2.93
6.99
5.99
5.17
591
504
437
x68
x62
W21x57
x50
x44
988
1060
685
521
330
867
807
326
176
57.6
168
118
12.6
12:5'
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.l
12.1
!:'
:.:.
:~ '
.~
I:I
MOMENT FRAMES
oESlGN TABLES
41
1.1
SM F Design Values
Fy= 50 k si
Fy= 50 ksi
WShapes
Shape
WShapes
Panel Zone
Pu max
(!..RFD)
kips
 
W18x311
x283
x258
x234
x211
x192
X17S
x158
x143
x130
x119
X106
x.97
3800
3410
3080
2no
2470
2230
2010
1790
1620
1460
1320
1160
1060
938
5<$6
W18x71
x65
x60
x55
x50
W18x40
'x40
.x35
1020
920
826
734
658
588
534
479
427
388
373
331
299
195
169
159
60.6
(16~
5620
4690
3810
3170
2590
2110
1760
1450
1140
891
756
451
384
329
269
219
. 200
149
97.5
457
395
335
427
224
8110
275
319
98.3
46.5
604
kipin.
592
227
212
192
998
882
756
~R112
265
668
520
326
x 77
W16x31
kips
736
671
620
565
509
W16x100
x89
W16x57
xso
x45
x40
kipft
Ry= 1.1
248
298
265
225
529
464
415
368
212
186
167
272
131
146
0.75P,
kips
34!
3120
2850
2570
2340
2110
1930
1740
1580
1440
1320
1170
1070
949
W18x311
x283
x258
x234
x211
x192
x175
x158
x143
x130
i<110
x106
x97
784
716
660
608
551
Wl8x71
x65
506
443
386
Wl8x4~
908
717
535
1100
328
253
202
161
630
551
96.4
Shape
983
a.ca
499
443
342
x86
x60
'555
xSO
x40
x35
Wz
dz
90
90
or
}:..
LRFD
o.02M;c,
Lbowt
R1 Mp
ho
In.
ft
kips
kips
kipft
0.187
0.188
0.188
0.188
0.188
0.188
0.187
0.187
0.187
0.188
0.188
0.187
0.187
0.187
12.3
12.1 .
12.0
11.8
11.7
11.6
11.5.
11.4.
11.3
11 .2 '
11.2
11.1
11.0
10.9 .
32.9
29.8
27.1
24.7
22.2
20.1
18.1
16.3
14.8
13.4
12.0
10.5
9.66
8.55
42.3
38.3
35.0
31.8
28.7
26.0
23.8
: 21 .4
19.5
17.6
16.1
14.2
13.1
11 .6
3460
3100
2800
2520
2250
2030
1820
1630
1480
1330
1200
1050
967
853
0.188
0.188
0.187
0.187
0.187
7.07
7.02
6.98
6.94
6.86
6.19
5.69
5.25
4.74
4.28
9.07
8.27
7.73
7.04
6.39
669
610
564
513
'453
0.188
0.187
0.187
s.36
5.28
5.07
3.67
3.16
2.55
5.70
4.96
4.23
416
359
305
0.167
0.167
0.166
W16x57
x50
x40
0.166
0.167
0.166
0.167
6.65
6.61
6.53
6.53
5.09
4.45
3.98
3.54
7.36
6.45
5.84
5.18
481
422
377
335
W16x31
0.167
4.86
2.43
3.83
248
x45
Lateral Bracing
W16x100
x89
xn
)"
10.4
10.4
10.3
10.2
9.10
7.83
13.6
12.1
10.5
908
802
688
I
I ~:.;
II.
\..
I ~:
,,,..
, ...
'.:
ht~
l.:
I.
"'~
.l
MOMENT FRAMES
4134
''.~$1
i.f.
4IJS
DESIGN TABLES
i~
.~/
Ry= 1.1
Fy= 50 ksi
W~Shapes
Shape
(lRFO)
kips
8370
7460
6660
..:~
\)t
:m11
:: )
::
,,
0.75Pc
kips
kip In.
kips
x159
xl45
3040
2730
2460
2200
1970
1790
1610
1450
1310
W14x132
1180
284
1400
1460
701
635
665
. 560
5~0
219
192
174
467
' 900
818
750
W14x53
x48
439
395
154
141
316
. 256
585
. 529
W14x38
400
310
131
162
420
W14x26
116 .
203
106
5290
4720
4380
4040
3710
x426
x398
x370
x342
X311
x283
x257
x233
x211
x193
W14x82
x74
. x68
iil
:
~Rt?
38800
32500
27100
22600
18700
15600
13900
12100
10500
9000
7450
6210
5140
4230
3460
2930
2420
1990
1660
~90
x11s
l~
41R,1
2060
1830
1630
1440
1290
1150
1050
972
891
809
723
646
581
514
462
414
378
335
302
i:::i
Shape
8060
7350
6680
6080
5510
5030
4690
4390
4090
3790
3430
3120
2840
2570
59$0
:
Lateral Bracing
Panel Zone
Panel Zone
Puma
79.9
ma
2130
1940
1750
1600
288
Ry= 1.1
Fy = 50 ksi
dz
or90 90
W:
In. ..
Lb ,_
ft
LRFO
0.02MrCd
0.02F1bttt
87.9
80.0
72.4
65.7
59.5
53.9
50.8
47.3
43.9
40.5
36.6
33.3
30.2
27.3
24.6
22.6
20.6
18.6
16.9
104
95.2
86.9
79.l
71.7
65.2
60.9
56.8
53.3
49.3
44.8
40.8
. 36.9
33.S
3M
27.7
25.3
22.9
20.9
7610
6780
6050
5410
4810
4290
3980
3670
3370
3080
2760
2480
2230
2000 .
1790
1630
1470
1320
1190
15.1
18.8
1070
W14x730
x665
x605
x550
x500
x455
x426
x398
x370
><342
x311
x283
x257
x233
x211
xl93
x1?6
x159
x145
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
\ 0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.1,40
0.140
0.140
0.140.
0.140~
1S.5
19.2
18.9'"
18.7
:18.4
18.2
18.0
l7.9
17.7
17.6
17.5
17.3
17.2
17.0
16.9
15.B"
16.7
16.6
16.5
W14x132
0.140
15.6
W14><82
x74
>C68
0.140
0.140
0.140
10.3 .
10.3
10.2 .
8.64
7.93
7.20
11.4
10.3
9.51
637
578
527
W14x53
x48
0.140
0.140
7.98
7.94
5.32
4.78
7.26
6.53
399
359
0.145
6.44
3.4~
4.97
282
W14x38
0.145
4.49
2.11
3.28
184
W14x26
~~
'
,,...
.,''
{
1
I
kipft
kips
AMEJtfCAN
AMEJUCAN l.NSTTTUTR 01' Sre:a CO.NSTRUCTlON
ho
kips
II
Ry Mp
. .,,
MOMENT FRAMES
_....JV
4137
.
1:
l'
Ry= 1.1
l:.
pESIGN TABLES
Fy =50 ksi
Fy = 50 ksi
.c.
Ry= 1.1
WShapes
WShapes
r
.,.
Panel Zone
Ponwt
Shape
kips
W12x336
x305
x279
><252
x230
x210
x190
x170
x1 52
x136
x120
x106
x96
W12x50
x45
Shape
~Rn
~R2
kipft
kips
kipin.
kips
3040
2710
2430
2160
1950
1750
1570
1390
1230
1080
938
827
741
897
797
730
647
10600
8720
7190
5920
4970
4160
3460
2760
2210
1740
1360
1080
889
584
520
458
403
358
318
279
236
210
3710
3360
3070
2780
2540
2320
2100
1880
1680
1500
1320
1170
1060
90
90
0.02M,C,
RyMp
or
hmu
In.
ft
kips
kiP.S._
kipft
o.12r
0.121
0.122
0.121
0.122
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
14.4
14.2
14.0
13.9
. 13.8
13.6
13.5
13.4
13.3
13.1
13
12.9
12.8
39.7
48.1
43.4
39.5
35.7
3.2.7
29.9
26.9
24.4
21.7
19.3
17.1
15.2
13.7
2760
2460
2200
. 1960
ho
~5.8
32.4
29.3
26.7
24.3
22.1
19.7
17.5
15.5
13.7
12.1
11 .0
\:
1no
1600
1430
1260
1110
981
853
752
674
6.82
6.14
330
294
135
122
298
240
548
491
W12x50
x45
0.121
0.122
8.15
8.11
160
386
W12x35
0.127
6AO
3.41
4.69
235
113
243
209
W12X22
x19
0.127
0.128
3.52
3.42
1.71
1.40
2.71
2.28
134
113
W10x112
x100
x88
11.1
11.0
10.9
10.8
10.8
13.0
11.5
10.2
8.87
7.78
15.9
14.3
12.7
11.0
9.74
674
596
518
447
391
x68
0.0989
0.09S4
0.098
0.0984
0.0984
0.0984
8.35
4.97
6.37
252
WlOx45
W10x30
x26
0.105
0.105
5.69
5.65
2.96
2.54
4.03
349
168
143
W10x19
x17
0.105
0.105
3.63
3.51
1.59
1.32
2.42
2.11
W12x22
x19
197
110
148
125
95.9
86.0
65.5
44.2
xS8
741
655
570
492
430
258
226
196
169
147
1460
1160
909
695
539
1230
1100
975
851
746
W10x45
2n
106
2n
499
W10x30
185
x26
158
94.S
$).3
136
101
332
285
109
94.3
76.5
72.7
211
dt
362
324
258
W10x19
x1 7
W12x336
x305
x279
x252
x230
x210
x190
x170
x152
x136
x120
x106
x96
Wt
5.17
4.63
453
xn
i~
l.RFO
0.75P,
W1 2x35
W1 0x112
X100
x88
Panel Zone
LRFO (~"' 1.00)
(UIFD)
Lateral Bracing
56.4
39.3
211
187
I'
'
xn
'1
99
85.7
'1
I;
\
II
\"
\
I:
11
r:
:_,,
..
51
MOMENT FRAMES
413&
PART 4 REFERENCES
PARTS
~'Swell.
...
B. (2011), "A Yield Line Component Method for Bolted A3llge Connec1ions;
Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Consll"Uction, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2nd Quarter,
pp. 93116.
Fisher. J.M. and Kloiber. L.A. (2010), Base Plate and Anchor Rod Design, Design Guide I.
2nd Ed., AJSC, Chicago, IL
.
Gomez, I.. Smilh, C.; Deierlein, G. and Kaminde, A. (2010). "Shear Transfer in faposed
Column Base Pint~; http://nees.or~resources/837.
BRACED FRAMES
5.1 SCOPE . . . . . . .
.... .. .. .
53
).
Hamburger. R, Ktawinkler. H., Malley, J. and Adan, S. (2009), Seismic Design of Steel
Special Moment Frames: A Guide for Practicing Engineers, NEHRP Seismic Design
Technical Brief No. 2. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Murray, T.M. and Sumner, E.A. (2003), Extended EndPlate Momeni CcnnecrionsSeismic
and lVind Applications, Design Guide 4, 2nd Ed., AlSC, Chicago, IL.
OSHA (2008), Occupational Safety and Health Regulation.~. Title 29. Code of Federal
Regulations, U.S. Government Priming Office, Washington. DC.
West, M.A. and Fisher, J.M. (2003), Serviceability Desig11 Considerations for Steel Buildings,
Design Guide 3, 2nd Ed, AISC. Chicago, IL.
591
E:<:unple 5.3.2 SCBF An aJ ys1s
............... .
111
'.ii
~1
11
. ... ....
. 5119
,.
Example 5.3.7 SCBF Ma.Umuro Force Limited by Foundation Uplift ....... 5136
533~.
II
4138
51
MOMP.NT ?RAMES
PART 4 REFERENCES
PARTS
D~swcll, B. (2011). "A Yield Line Component Method for Bolted fl~ge Connections."
Eitginuring Joumal. Americ.ln Institute of Steel Cons!J"Ucooo, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2nd Quarter,
BRACED FRAMES
pp. 93 116.
t"
Fisher, J.M. and Kloiber, L.A. (2010), Base Plate and Anchor Rod Design, Design Guide 1.
2nd Ed , AlSC. Chicago, IL.
5.1 SCOPE
Gomez, I. Smith, C.. Deierlein, G. and Kaminde, A. (2010). "Shear Transfer in Exposed
Column Base Plates," h ttp://n ees.org/resources/837.
Hamburger, R., Krawinkler, H., Malley, J. aod Adan, S. (2009), Seismic Design of Steel
.. . .. .  .
. . . .. .
................ 53
Special MomenJ Frames: A Guide for Practicing Engineers. NEHRP Seismic Design
Technical Brief No. 2. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Murray, T.M. and Sumner, E.A. (2003), Extended EnclPlate Moment Connecrio11sSeismic
and 1Vi11d Applications, Design Guide 4. 2nd Ed , AISC, Chicago, IL.
OSHA (2008), Occupauonal Safety and Health Regulations, Tille 29, Code of Federal
Rcgulauons, U.S. Govenunent Printing Office, Washington, DC.
West, M.A. and Fisher, J.M. (2003), Serviceability Design Considerations for Steel B11ildings,
Design Guide 3, 2nd Ed., AISC, Chicago, IL.
.
Example 5.3.3 SCBF Column D es1gn
......  . 598
. .............. .. . 5104
E:tample 5.3.4 SCBF Beam Des1gn
Example 5.3.5 SCBFBeam Design ................. . . 5119
fj
~~
Example 5.4.3 EBF Beam OulSide of the Link Design .......... . 53~
Example 5.4.4 EBF Brace Design ..... . ...   53
5.1 SCOPE
\,
The AlSC Seismic Provisions requirements and other design considerations summarized in
Ibis Part apply to the design of the members and connections in braced frames thnt require
seismic detailing according to the AJSC Seismic ProvisWn.r.
'<
~..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5419
Example 5.5.2 BRBF Column Design ........... .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 5425
Example 5.5.3 BRBF Beam De.sign ................................... 54JO
Ordinary
l:
I
f
..
BRACB> FRAMES
' '"r
I
I
o+i+~
40'.0"
40'0"
+"''I'.;.....:;_
..
.~
lters
H M
._ ____" ' . . F=
at 6'8"
II
If
111
111
f \
'
:.;
::
\;,,,,
1X. . . .      D     c
0 D
=30 psf
. rtical load of the exterior wall is supported at grade. The seismic weight of the wall
Th e \e
f h b 'tdi
. t The
th t s trihutary to the roof level is 140 lb/ft on all four sides o t e w ng penme er.
Ja~e~I eanhquake force,, acting at the roof level along grid I is 65.8 kips as calculated per
ASCEJSt:J "1
The vertical seismic load effect, E,,, based on LRFD load combinauons m
.....
Section 12.4.2.3. is:
(ASCEISEI 7 Eq. 12.44)
0.2SosD  0.2(0.528)D
0.14Sosf) =O.l4(0.528)D
= 0.0739D
A
N~~1 B
D
111
111
,1,
111
111
111
,.
%  1    l
I
I
I
I
I
c:1 
'
l =Opsf
JT1
Roof
:r.cccc
I~
ts psf
II
11
D ..
(typ.)
Ix
= 0.1060
,.
"'
,.
+{ O
~~
Base
=.
O.lOSo~D
= 0.10(0.528)D
=0.0528D
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 24, tbe'~aterial properties
Note that according to ASCE/SEI 7 Table 12.21, buildings with OCBF frames in Seismic
Design Categories D and E are only permitted up to a structural height of 35 ft. An cxccpuon applies for Seismic Design Categories 0, E and P that allows the maximum structural
height to be increased to 60 ft for singlestory buildings where the dead load of 1he roof does
not exceed 20 psf, which is the case here.
~ume that the ends of the diagonal braces are pinned and braced against translation for
both th.e xx and yy axes. The loads giYen for each example are from a firstorder analysis.
Assume that the elTecth'e length method of AISC Specijicarion Appendjx 7 is used for
stability design. AJSC Specification Appendix 8 will be applied 10 approximate a .secoodorder analysis.
F1 =50 ksi
F11 =65 ksi
Required Strength
Determine the required strength
Tue load combinations that include seismic effects are:
ASD
LRFD
LRFD Load Combinations 5 and 6 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3 (including
the 05 factor on L permitted in
ASCfJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3)
Given:
Refer to the roof plan shown in Figure 51 and che Brace BRI shown in Figure 52. Select
an ASTM A 992 \V<;bape for the diagonal braces to resist the loads gi"en.
The axial loads and moments on the brace due to a firstorder analysis are:
=5.54 kips
The dead load bending moment indicated above is due lo the selfweight of the brace assuming a member chat weighs 33 lb/ft. Sometimes this selfweight lo3ding is ignored in the
design of venical diagonal braces where judgment would indicate that the loading is minimal and only uses a small percentage of the member strength. Howc,er, in this example,
consjdering the relatively IOtlg length of the diagonal brace and that the selfweight moment
is resisted by the wc:ik axis flexural strength of the brace, the dc:ld load moment is included
in this design check. There arc no bending moments due to tiYe loads or snow loads.
I~
l
f
L.....~~~~=LRFD.:..:_~~~~'~~~t~~~~~AS_D~:~~~~I
LRFD Lood Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3
P. =[1.2+0.2(0.528))(5.54 lcips)
Considering the load combinations given in ASCEISEI 7, the maximum compressive ax.iai
Psrery is the total vertical load on the story calculated using the foUowing governing load
combination. From the analysis:
MD = 2.34 kipft
LR.FD
arc:
ASTMA992
P, 14ry
tory shear from the analysis is 136 kips. The first order intcrstory drift due to thls shear
Th es
00941
force without the Cd factor applied from the analylils model 1s 1'1.H
m.
and
PD
5
BRACED FRAMES
I"
Pa =[1.0+0.14(0.528))(5.54 kips)
+ O kips+O kips
~.::..::..+=0~.2=(6~7~0 kips)~~~~~.L~+0_.7_(_1.0)(22._3_k1ps)~~~~j:
.
=21.6
ASD
ASD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3
30.9 kips
kips
.
(LO+ 0.14Sos)D + H + F + 0.1pQe
..
AMIUcAH J.NsmVn! Of STO!L CONSTIUJCTION
BRACED
FRAM~
The mrutimum bending moment in the brace concurrent wilh the above load combination is:
59
Brace Slenderness
~ .,
ASD
LRfD
Mu =l l.2+0.2(0.528))(2.34 kipft)
+ 1.0(0 lcipft)+0.5{0 kipfl)
+ 0.2{0 kipft)
+ 0 kipft+ 0 kipft
According to AISC Seismic Provisions Sections Pl.5a. braces are required to satisfy lhe
n.quirement.S for moderately ducllle members. Elements in the brace members must not
exceed AmJ widthtothickness requirements given in Section DI.I.
+0.7(1.0)(0 kipfl)
M 0 =ll.0+0.14(0.528)](2.34 kipft)
=2.51 kipft
=3.06 kipft
'A.""'=0.38ff,
The ASCEJSEI 7 load combination that results in the maximum axial tensile force in the
diagonal brace is:
,.
I
ASD
LRFD
:::J
~I l
i.
.
~~
!~
P0 = [0.60.14(0.528))(5.54 kips)
Mw
LRFD
=(0.90.2(0.528))(2.34 kipft)
+ 1.0(0 kipft)+ 1.6{0 kipft)
ASD
M0 =[0.60.14(0.528)](2.34 kipft)
+ 0 kipft+ 0 kipft
+ 0.7(1.0)(0 kipft}
= l .86 kipft
=1.23 kipft
Try a W1 Ox33 with its flanges oriented parallel 10 the plane of the braced frame.
From AlSC Ma1111al Table 24, the material propenies are as follows:
ASTh1A992
:.i:.
!":
From AISC Manual Table l I, the geomerric properties for lhe W10X33 are ns follows:
"=
0.435 in.
rx = 4.19 in.
from Table Dl. l of the AISC Seismic Provisiori.r for webs of rolled Ishaped sections used
as diagonal braces:
ff,
= 1.49
29,000 ksi
50 ksi
=35.9
Because /J/r,,,::;;
A...!. the web meets the requirements for moderately ductile members.
Altematively, Table l3 can be used to "erify that the member satisfies the loc.11 width.tothickne~s requirements for OCBF diagonal braces.
Additionally, the W10X33 does not contain slender compression elements according to
AJSC Specification Table B4. la.
Available Compressive Strength
Determine K
As stated in the OCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation section, the cffecrive length
Fy =50ksi
Fw = 65 ksi
A =9.7 1 in.1
Because btlZIJ ~ /....,,J, the flanges meet the requiremenll> for moderately ducole members.
/..,,..d=l.49
The maximum bending moment in the brace concurrent with the above load combination is:
50 ksi
:: 9.15
29,000 ksi
= 0 38
b1=7.%in.
k.ks = 0.935 in.
ly = 36.6 in.'
d =9.73 in.
b1121r9.15
ry =1.94 in.
method in AISC Specification Appendix 7 is used for stability design. According to AISC
Specification Appendix 7, Section 7.2.3(a). for braced frame systems, the effective lengt!:
factor, K, for members subject to compression is Ull:eo as 1.0. llllless a rational analysis ind:catcs that a lower value is appropriate.
The length of the bnce diagonal in ench bay. based on the geometry in Figure 52, is:
S10
BRACl:D F'RAMLS
This length has been determined by calculating the distance between the work points based
on the intersection of the centerlines of the brace, column and beams. Shorter unbraced
lengths of the brace may be used if justified by the engine~ of record. By inspection, the
laterally unbraced length of the diagonal brace in the inplane (about the yy aJtis) direction
is half of the overall length. For buckling outofplane (about the xx axis), if both of me
diagonals :ue continuous for their full Jenglh and are connected at the inte~cction poini.
t~n the effective length factor, K, is 0.5 (EITayem and Goel. 1986; Picard and Beaulieu,
I987). Th.is requires a connection betwe.en tbe diagonal members :it their intersection that is
rigid in flexure outofplane. The available axial compressive strength of diagonals in Xbracing where one of the diagonal braces is not continuous through the intersection can be
detcnnined by an energy method (Nair, 1997).
L~~~~~LR~ro~~~~~~1~~~~~~A_s_o~~~~~ ' 1
Assume that the colUlection of the half brace sections at che Xbrace intersection is rigid omofplane. The braces are oriented such tha1 buckling :ibout the yy a.xis of the brace occurs
in the plane of the frame.
followrng.
~cFcr =7.38
Fer
91 k SJ.
=4.
ksi
Oc
~c~ =$c~rAg
!i_=(Fcr)A,
0.,
Uc
Secon~order effects :ind interaction between axial force and fleiture are checked in I.hr
From AISC Manual Table 34, the available strength in the weak axis is:
=0.5(56.6 ft)
\.
L. ~bM~n1_=_5_2_._s_kipfL~~~~~~'~~:_1_=_3_4_.9_~__pfi~~~~~~~~I t
Kx = 0.5
K1 = LO
Kxl, 0.5(56.6 ft)(l2 in.lft)
=
rz
4.19 in.
"~=
SecondOrder Effects
Secondorder effects are addressed using the procedure in AISC Specification Appendix 8
as follows:
= 81.l
K1 L, = 1.0(28.3 ft)(12 in./ft)
M, = BtMni + JhM1J
P, = P,., + B2P11
1.94 in.
=175
ASD
LRFO
= 28.3 ft
I~
Lx =56.6 fl
L, =0.5L
r1
(governs)
'
\.
Calculate 81
The slenderness, KL/r, ~ less lhan 200 and therefore meets the recommendation of the Usa
Note in Section E2 of 1be AISC Specification.
Cm
Using AISC Specification Equation E3l and AISC MOJtual Table 422 wilh KL/r 175, the
available compressive strength is detennined as follows:
The elastic critical buckling strcnglh, Pt1. is calculated in the plane of bending. For this calculation, the plane of bending will be in the plane of me frame, about the brace's yy ax.is.
=28.3 ft
1
'
; I
...
l
5 12
BRACED FRAMES
The required flexural scrength of lhe brace including secondorder e1fects, using AlSC
Specification Equation A81, is:
~.
_ n E1;
(K1L)2
I ,,...
M11
LRFD
~1
Cm
laPrffe1
B1
= 1(1.00(30.9LO
kips)/ 90.8 kips]
=1.52:<!:1 o.k.
Cm
;;;:: 1
1aP,/ Pd
1.0 .
'.
=2.5 I kipft
=0 kipft
M11
Psraryis given as l,i30 kips (LRFD) and 740 kips (ASD) and His given as 136 kips.
HL
Pt J/OYj ;; RM 
/:iH
=4.65 kipft
Because 82 = l.00, the required axial compressive strength of the brace including secondorder effectS, based on AISC Specification Equation A82, is:
. ASD
(l.2+ 0.2Sos )D+ B1 (PQE )+0.5L+0.2S , .(L 0+0.14Sos )D+ ij +.f + B, (0.7pQE)
B2 =
1
1 aP11~
~1
,.J;
= 1.00
 + 0 kips+O kips
+ l.00(07)(1.0)(22.3. kips)
= 21.6 kips
'
Bi=
...
Pe:no17
l
~ _ LOO(l,130 kips)
1
694,000 kips
Pa =(1.0+0.14(0'.528))(5.54 kips)
=30.9 !dps
1
l a.Ps1ory
~l
"'\.
+ 0.2(6.70 kips)
ASD
LRFD
Pu =[l.2+0.2(0.528)](5.54 kips)
=l.OO
Mr = B1M111 + BzM11
LRFD
Calculate 8 2
I, I
Mnr =Mo
=3.06 kipft
=0 kipft
ASD
,.
ASD
,\Int= Mu
=90.8 kips
Bi=
'I
I...Rffi
513
W10x3~brace
(::
...
Pu1ory
'
I
=LOO
Because 82 ~ 1.5, !he effective lengl.b method is a valid way to check stability according to
AISC Spccific01io11 Appendix 7.

ASD
LRFD
P, :::: 30.9 kips.
71.7 kips
= 0.431
Pc
. P, = 21.6 kips
...,.
.
..
. Pc
47.7 kips
=0.453
8(Mrx
P,.+   + Mry)
$LO
Pc
9 Ma
Mey
. .
'
.
BRACED FRA.1',ffiS
S....14
.LRFD
30.9 kjps !(o  4.65 kipft)o 5
+
+.5 .
 . 10
71. 7 kips ~ .. 2.5 kipfl
o.k.
0.510<1.0
ASD
ASD
LRFD
P, = 12.7 kips
P, = 17.9 kips
Pc 437 kips
291 kips
Pc
=0.0436
=0.0410
o.k.
0.556<1.0
515
Because P,IPc < 0.2. lhe brace design is controlled by lhe equation:
Note that the weak axis bendjng moment from tbe selfweight of the diagonal br:ice utilizes
about 8% of the member available strength.
LRFO
'

o.k.
Mey
<1.0
".
'~
Mry=Mu
+(O+ l.86
o.k.
< 1.0
o.k.
Mry=Mo
=17.9kips
=437 kips
= 1.23 kipft
=T,,
Pc =cj>,P,,
Given:
.
'
Refer to Column CL1 in Figure 52. Select a 40ftlong ASTM A992 Wshape to .resist the
loads given for the column.
ASD
= 1.86 kipft
..,
t.
Pr =Ta
= 12.7 kips
P,.
'Pc =n,
'
=291 kips
Consider secondorder effects per Appencfu 8 of the AISC Specification. As previously ~al
culnted, 82 1.0. According to Appendix 8, Section 8.2 of the AISC Specification, B 1 shouEd
be taken as 1.0 for members not subject to compression. Given that both 8 1 and 8 2 are equal
to I, there is no amplification required for secondorder effects for the loads on the member
when I.be diagonal brace is ~n tension..
I,JU"D
. >
"
ASD
i.RFD
The W1 Ox33 is adequate for lhe OCBF diagonal brace BRI. The brace is oriented with Lhe
flanges parallel to the plane of the braced frame.
P,
Mex
...
r,.
2Pc
17.9 kips
2(437 kips)
ASD
 o.k.
~+(Mrx + Mry)sl.O
~s =)9.9
kips
Assume that the ends of the'columns are pinned and braced against translation for both the
x:c and yy axes. The loading in the columns is from a firstorder.analysis. Appendix 8 of
the AlSC Specification can be appHed to approximate a second0rder analysis.
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties are:
ASTMA992
L
"
]
l
...
.. :~{:
Fy =50 ksi
Fa== 65 ksi
Required Strength
AISC Seismic Provisions Section Dl.4a requires lllat the axial compressive and tensile \
strength be detennined using the ampl.ied seismic load; Lhat is, the seismic load multiplied
by the overstrenglh factor, n.,.
:'
....:;
BRACED FRAMES
:.I()
The governing load combinations, including the overs1rength factor, for the required axiaJ
compressive strength are:
LRFD
ASD
P., =(1.0+0.14SDs)PD+ PH
+Pp +0.70.,Pa.c
Determine K
According to AlSC Specification Appendix 7, Section 7.2.3(a), for braced frame systems,
the effective length factor for members subject to compression shall be taken as I .0.
K1 =1.0
L.. =40.0 ft
Ly =40.0 ft
KxLx
=
=110
Pa =[0.60.14(0.528))(16.4 kips)
+ 0.7(2)(15.8 kips)+O kips
K Ly
1 =
r1
= 189 (governs)
,..
Use the procedure of AJSC Specification Appendix 8 to detennine the secondorder effects
on the required strengths, where the required flexural strength and required axial strength
are given as:
~;
Kx= 1.0
+ 0.7U 0 PQ +PH
SecondOrder Effects
Therefore:
Pa= (0.60.14SDs)Po
=13.5 kips
..,,
Column Slenderness
There are no specific requirements for member ductility for columns in OC.BF systems
in Section Fl of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Therefore, check widthtothickness ratios for
element slenderness according to Table 84.la of the AJSC Specification. As indicated in
AISC Manual Table 11, the W1 Ox49 section is not slender for compression.
+ 0.7(2)(15.8 kips)
ASD
ry=2.54 in.
LRFD
Jl
d= 10.0 in.
rt=4.35 in.
+ 0 kips +O kips
The governing load combinations, including lhe overstrength factor, for the required axial
tensile strength is:
From AlSC Manual Table 1l, the geometric properties afc as follows:
=I L0+0.14(0.528)](16.4 kips)
= 39.7 kips
=57.0 kips
Try a W1 Ox49.
A= 14.4 in. 2
51.,
From AISC Manual Table .+22 with KL/r = L89 and using AlSC Specification Equation
E3l, the available compressive strenglh is:
~cPn =~cFc,Ai
There is nG bending moment in the column due to either vertical loading or lateral translation. Consequently there is no requirement 10 detennine multipliers for the required flexural
strength due to secondorder effects. The lateral drift is min1maJ. As calculated in Example
5.2.1, B2 = 1.0. Therefore there is no amplification of the axiaJ load in the column due to
P6. }Ji summary. no adjustments to the member forces calculated by a firstorder anaJysis
are required due to second<:>rdcr effects.
~JCAN lJ<STmJTE OP STEEi.. CONSTRUCTION
ASD
LRFD
=6.32 ksi(l4.4
.
in.2)
o.k.
!le
Pn (Fer )A
 '
!le  f2c
'
I
o.k.
518
BRACED FRAMES
I.
;,~
~
ASD
LRFD
~,P,.
o.k.
n,
o.k.
S...19
The required axial compressive strength of the beam; with axial tension shown as negative,
is:
ASD
LR.FD
Pa =(l.0+0.14SDS)Po
+?,,+PF +0.1!laPi
+ 0.5P.L + 0.2Ps
=(l.2 + 0.2(0.528))(3.92 kips)
+ 0 kips+ 0 ldps
Given:
Refer to Beam BMI in Figure 52. Select a 40ftIong ASTivi A992 Wshape to resist the
loads shown below.
+ 0.7(2)(16.5 kips)
+ 0.2(4.74 kips)
=18.9 kips
=26.9 kips
h::: 0 kips
Ms= 120 kipft
Vs= 12.0 kips
Assume that che ends of the beam are pinned and braced against translation for boch the
xx and yy axes.
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties are:
ASTMA992
F1 50 ksi
F.,=65 ksi
The beam is a collector element transferring diaphragm shear to che OCBF braces.
According to Section 12.10.2.l of ASCE/SEI 7, the forces in the collector are calculated
using the seismic load effects including the overstrength factor. The axial force in the beam
from dead and snow load is in tension.
The governing load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7 used for determining the required flexural
strength of the beam are used to de1emrine the required axial strengths.
ASD
,
Pa =[1.0+0.14(0.5:8)j(3.92 kips)
+0 kips+Okips
+ 0.7(2)(16.5 kips)
=27.3 kips
+ 0.2(4.74 kips}
= 39.l kips
..
.
I
..
Required Strength
..
LRFD
I.RFD
v~ = [1.2 + 0.2(0.528)](7.20 kips)
+ 0,2(12.0 kips)
=11.8 kips
ASD
~ =[l.O.f0.14(0.528)](7.20 kips)
+ o'kip~+ o kips
'
.
0.7(2)(0 kips)
=7.73 ldps ..
..
II
BRACED fRAM'.ES
;)10
The governing load combinations, including the ovcrMrcngth factor, for the required a>;ia]
comprc~sive
strength are:
Pu = (I 2+0.2Sos)Po +0 0 PQ&
+0.SPt + 0.2Ps
ASD
.
'
Po =(1.0+0.I4Sos)Po+PH
+Pp +0.7Q 0 Pa.
+ 0 kips+ 0 kips
+ 0.7(2)(15.8 kips)
!::J
The go\'eming load combinations, incJuding the overstrength factor, for the required axial
tensile Strengch is:
LRFD
r:
i.
.
. l
t,..
r1
=0.340 in.
=2.54 in.
Therefore:
Ks = 1.0
K1 =1.0
Lx = .m.o r1
L: = 40.0 ft
=189 (governs)
From AISC Manua l Table 422 with KL/r = 189 and using ATSC Specificatio11 Equation
E3l, lhe available compressive strength is:
Second~Order Effects
Use the procedure of AISC Specification Appendix 8 to determine the secondorder effects
on the requited strengths, where the required flexural strength and required axial strength
are given as;
ASD
LRFD
Fer =4.21.ksi
M, = B1Mn1 + B2M1t
nc
=P,.1 + 8')}'11
9,_.P,,
~ =(~)A,
There is n~ bending moment in the column due to eiLher venkal loading or lateral translation. Consequently there is no requirement to determine multipliers for the required flexural
strength due to secondorder effects. The lateral drift is minimal. As calculated in Example
5.2. l. 82 1.0. Therefore there is no amplification of the axial load in the column due to
Pt:... In summary. no adjtl$tmcnl.S to the membu forces calculated by a firstorder ruW.ys.is
are required due to secondorder effecL~.
Column Slenderness
There are no ~pecific reqwrcincnts for member ductility for columns in OCBP systems
in Section Fl of lhc A1SC Seismic J>m1 is1on.s. Therefore. check widthtothickness ra1ios for
element slenderness according to Table B4. la of the AISC Specification. As indicated iu
t\ISC Manual Table 11, the W1 Ox49 section is not sJender for compression.
= 13.5 kips
P,
1
ASD
lJ = 0.560 in.
d= 10.0 in.
rx=4.35 in.
=[J.0+0.14(0.528)J(l6.4 kips)
=39.7 kips
=57.0 kips
Try a W1 Ox49.
LRfD
S17
:~cFcrA1
o.k.
i
I
= 4 .2 J lcsi(14.4 in. 2 )
= 60.6 kips > 39.7 kips
o.k.
I'
DR.ACED FR.AMES
518
S19
The required axial compressive strength oft.he beam, with axial tension shown as negative,
is:
ASD
LRFD
LRFD
~1Pn
ASD
o.k.
Pn =431kips>13.5 kips
n,
o.k.
Pa =(l.0+0.14Sos)Po
+PH+ 'PF+ 0.70 0 P~
+ O.SPr. + 0.2Ps
=[1.2+ 0.2(0.528)](3.92 kips)
=[l.0+0.14(0.528)1(3.92 kips)
+ 0 kips+O kips
PL= 0 kips
The beam is a collector element transferring diaphragm shear to the OCBF braces.
According to Section 12.10.2.1 of ASCE/SEI 7, the forces in the collector are calculated!
using the seismic load effects including the overstrength factor. The axial force in the beam
from dead and snow load is in tension.
The governing load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7 used for detenninjng the required flexural
strength of the beam are used to determine the required axial strengths.
Pa ={l.0+0.14(0.5~8)](3.92 kips)
+Okips+Okips
...
+ 0.7(2)(16.5 kips)
+ 0.2(4.74 kips)
=27.3 kips
=39.l kips
ASTMA992
F1 =50ksi
Required Strength
ASD
,.
'
Solution:
Fu= 65 ksi
..
LRFD
Assume that the ends of the beam ace pinned and braced against translation for both the
xx and yy axes.
= 18.9 kips.
=26.9 kips
+ 0.7(2)(16.5 kips)
+ 0.2(4.74 lcips)
.
V11
'
LRFD
..
ASD
~ 0.7(2)(0 kip_s)_
= 7.73 kips , ,
,
i
..
.I
I
'"'~
11
BRACED FRAMES
K1 J.,,.
;:; =
LRFD
M.
ASD
+ 0.2(120 kipfl)
+ 0.7(2)(0 kipft)
0 kipft+ 0 kipfl
=77 .3 kip ft
=118 kipfl
Try a W18x50.
From AlSC Manual Table JL the geometric properties are as follows:
A::: 14.7 in. 2
d= 18.0 in.
=0.355 in.
ry= 1.65 in.
lw
b1 = 7.50 in.
hftw= 45.2
Sx = 88.9
in. 3
If = 0.570 in.
rx = 7.38 in.
Zx = 101 in.3
Beam Slenderness
There are no specific requirements for member ductility for beams in OCBF systems in
Section Fl of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Therefore, check widt.h~toLhic.kness ratios for
element slenderness according to Table B4. la and Table B4. lb of lhe AISC Specification.
ll
As indicated in AISC Manuaj Tuble 11, the W18x50 is slender for co.m pression and com,
pact for flexure.
':
1.65 in.
=145 (governs)
The combination of the top flange bracing and the bottom flange bracing from the open web
si.cel joist at midspan creates a torsional brace. This example uses a simplified calculation of
lhe available compressive strength according to AISC Specification Section E7 that considers I.he limit sltlte of flexural buck.ling using the minor axis unbraced length of the member
thilt is bl!:Sed on the bottom flange unbraced lenglh. A grearer compressive strength may be
available due to the additional minor a.'tis coos1raint at the top flange. See Section 8.3 oft.hi ~
Manual for a method to deternUne 1he available torsional buckling strength considering constraint at the top flange.
B~ause the web is considered a slender element for axial compres&ion ( h/1,.. > l.49JE/ Fy
=l .49~29,000 ksi/50 ksi = 35.9) a reduction for slenderness is required for calculating
Lbe available compressive strength per Section E7.2 of lbe AlSC Specification.
This reduction is included in AJSC Manual Table 6 l; therefore, use AlSC Mamwl Table
61 to determine the available compressive strength of the W18x50. From Table 61. for
K1 ly=20 ft:
LRFD
3
px10 = 6.37(kipsr
ASD
P x 103 = 9.ss(kipsr'
I
Pn /Dc =
Determine K
6.37x103 (kipsr 1
According to AISC Specification Appendlx 7, Section 7.2.3(a), fo~ braced frame systems,
the effective length factor for memberS subject to compression shctll be taken as l.0.
Consider the open web steel joists at ~ top flange of the beam to provide the strength and
stiffness required by AISC Specification Appendix 6 to stabilize 1he top flange of the beam
in the yy axis at 6 ft 8 in. centers. Consider that the bottom flange 9f !he beam is stabilized
in the yy axis at midspan by a bottom chord extension from the open web steel joisL
Consider the effective length of I.be beam in compression about Lhe yy axis to be based on
the unsupported length of the bottom flange.
Therefore:
K..= LO
lx=40.0 fl
K1
=1.0
Ly =20.0 ft
7.38in.
=65 .0
= 157 kips
9.58x103 (ltipsf 1
::: 104 kips
The open web steel joisis provide lateral f;Upport of the compression flange ac 6 ft 8 in.
centers.
rx
4=6.67 ft
5'.lJ
BRACED FRAMES
522
Therefore Lp < La S 4 and the limit state of lateraltorSiooal buckling applies. Consenativety.
use c,,= 1.0.
Calculate 82
nz.
'
LRFD
Calculate B1
= [l.2+'0.2(0.528)J(3.92
I'
' '
1.0
1.00(26.9 kips)
1
994 kips
= 1.03
..
=18.9 kips
l
I
,..,
LRFD
ASD
\
\
BI:;
. Cm
1o.Pr/ P, 1
=122 kipft
.'
,.
= 79.6 kipft
..
. ..
'
1.0
1.60(18.9 kips)
1994 kips
= 1.03(118kii>fi}+1.00(0 kipft)
ASD
'
+ 1.00(0.75{2)(16.5 kips)
r ,
'
B1= . Cm
1o.Pr/ Pei
.~
..
From AISC Specification Equation A81, the required flexural strength is:
LRFD
'
=994 kips
Jdps)
=26.9 kips
:::: (K1L)2
' '
'
+ 0.2(4.74 !tips)
n Elx
:=:
.. ..
'.
..
C,,, = 1.0 as the beam is subject to transverse loading between supports
1t
ASD
..
From AISC Specification Equation ;\82 and the applicable ASCF/SEI 7 load combination,
the required axial compressive strength is:
SecondOrder Effects
..
Mn1
'
=0 kips
' .
'
Mn :;245 kipfl
Pru
..
ASD
From AISC Manual Table 310. the available flexural streoglh o f the beam is:
l~
LRFD
=1.03
'ASD
26.9 kips
=
Pc 157 kips
P, 18.9 kjps
=
Pc 104 kips
=0.171
=0.182
P,.
..J
,,
..
""' i
...1
: .I
:l
BRACED FRAMES
Because P,!Pc < 0.2, the b~m design is controlled by 1be equation:
LRFD
(Spec. Eq. Htlb)
: l;
ASD
LRFD
'
o.k.
0.417<1.0
0.416<1.0
Mrx= Mo
=118 k:ipft
=77.3 kipfl
P, =Tu
39.1 kips
P, = Ta
Pc = 4>1Pn
Pc = Pn 10 1
440 kips
2(104 kips)
ASD
Mn=M,.
.,
525
245 kipft
=27.3 kips
= 662 kips
o.k.
Detennine the applicable equation in AISC Specification Section Hl.l:
LRFD
From AISC Manual Table 36, the available shear strength of the W18x50 beam is:
;
..'
!: ,
LRFD
<PvVn
=192kips>11.8 kips
...
Ill
l .
o.k.
n.
P,
39. l kips
Pc
662 ki ps
=0.0591
=
ASD
ASD
P,
 =
Pc
27.3 kips
440 kips
=0.0620
o.k.
Since P,IPc < 0.2. the beam tle.~ign is controlled by tbe equation:
, ...
From AISC Mam~al Table 51, the available strengtb of the W18x50. beam in a."<ial tension
for yielding on the gross section is:
LRFD
'.
LRFD
ASD
ASD
._
o.k.
2(440 kips)
245 kipft
'
+o)=o. 347
..
0.350<1.0
Consider ~econdorder effects (tension loading)
Consider second order effects according to Appendix 8 of the AJSC SpecificaJiQn. As previously calculated, Bi= 1.0. According to NSC Specification Appendix 8, Section 8.2, B1
is taken as 1.0 for members not subject to compression. Given that both B 1 and 82 are equal
to 1.0, there is no amplification required for secondorder effects for the loads on the mem
ber when the diagonal brace is in tension,
o.k.
''
o.k.
Note that the available flexural strength was conservatively based on Cb = 1.0. Derennining
Cb and applying it would have resulted in a higher available flexural strength.
The W18x50 is adequate for use as the OCBF Beam BM~
.....
ii'
A.MER.lCAN !NSTTTUTE OP Sn:a CONSTIUJCl10N
Given:
Refer lo Joint JT1 in Figure 52. Design the connection between the brace, beam and co'
umo. Use a bolted connection for the brace10gusset connection. Use a singlepl:i
connection lo connect the beam and gusset to the column and a welded connection bctwce'l
the beam and gusset plate. Use ASTM A36 for all plate and angle material. Assume tl.
AMERICAN hlsmvra OF
SlllEl. CoNS1'R\JCTION
BRACED FR.AMES
1 '
~~~~~~~~~~~~~r~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
member siz.es are as determined in the previous OCBF examples. Use 3Ain.diame1er ASTM
A325N bolts and 70ksi weld electrodes.
From Example 5.2. I, the loads on the connection from the brace based on a firs! order analysis are:
Ps = 6.70 kips
PD = 5.54 kips
From Example 5.2.3, the loads on the connection from the beam (collector elemcnr), base~
on a firstorder analysis are:
PD= 3.92 kips (tens.)
Pl= 0 kips
ML= 0 kipfl
VD=7.20 kips
VL
=0 kips
PQr.
=16.5 kips
Moe = 0 kipft
~~~~~L_RFD
~~~~~~1~~~~~ASD~~~~~ 'i .:
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section J2.4.3.2 (including
l.
.
I\
The required :axial compressive strength of !he collector at the beamtocolumn connection
is, from the loads given in Example ?.2.3:
LRFD
ASD
' 1:
P0 =(l.0+0.14(0.528)]{0kips}
ASTMA36
Fy =36 ksi
F,,=58 ksi
+ 0.2(0 kips)
=33.0 !Ops
Beam
d= 18.0 in.
T= 15~ in.
b1=7.50 in.
Ix =z:800 in.'
ry = 1.65 io.
Note: The above load results from tbe 1ransfer of tbe collector force from the beam in t.
adjacenr bay. The axial components from snow and gravity axial loads used in Exampl
5.2.3 are transferred from the brace ~usset directly into the braced frame beam.
According to AISC Seismic PrQVisions Section Fl.6a, the required strength of diagonal
brace connections is the load effect based upon the amplified seismic load. Based on lh /,
loads given for me brace trom Example 5.2.1. the maximum aua1 tensile force in the rua 8
onal brace based upon the amplified seismic load, is:
LRFD
fw
= 0.340 in.
d= 9.73 in.
Required Strength
ASD
kw = 1.06 in.
Broce
W10x33
A=9.71 in.1
bi.=1.96 in.
i'
VQE = O kips
From AISC _Manual Table 25, the material properties are as follows:
Column
W10x49
d= 10.0 in.
Solution:
W18x50
A= 14.7 in. 2
t..., = 0.355 in.
Sx = 88.9 in. 3
l.<
Pa =I0.60.14(0.528)J{5.54 kips)
=40.2 kips
I!
l
\i
+ 0 kips+O kips
+ 0.7(2)(22.3 kips)
=28.3 kips
~,
\:
"
BRACED FRAMES
528
, ..
' i\
According to the exception in AISC Seismic Pro~isions Section FI.6a, Lbe required ax.ial
tension strength need not ex'ceed the expected yield strength muhiplied by 1.00 (LRFD) or
divided by 1.50 (ASP):. ,,
,.
AccordinJ; to 1he Excep1jon in AISC Seismic Provisions Section Fl.6a, the required axial
strength of the brnce connection in compression need not exceed the lesser of the expected
yield strength and l.14Fcl\' A8 , where Fcre is based on the expected yield siress. RyFy .
.'
~
LRFD
"\
T,,, exp
=1.00(.R1F>'Ag) .
=1.00(1.1)(50 ksi)(9.71 in.2 )
=534 ~dps
As determined in Example 5.2. 1, the available compressive strength of the brace is:
ASD
LRFD
The required shear strengch of the beam concurrent with axial tension in the brace is:
LRFD
ASD
11
ASD
+ 2(0kips)+1.6(0 'kips)
= 5.72 kips
=3.79 kips
The available compressive strenglh is greater lhan the maximum compressive axial force
calculated using the amplified seismfo load. Therefore, the exception limiting the required
rodal compressive strength to the.expected yield strength and l.14Fm Ag will not govern.
The required strength of the brace connection in compression is Pu = 53.2 kips and Pa
37.2 kips.
The required shear strength of the beam that is concurrent with maximum ax fol compression
in the brace is, as calculated in R""<arnple 5.2.3:
LRFD
I v.
ASD
Va = 7.73 kips
11.8 "'
BracetoGusset Connection
Using AlSC Manual Table 71 for '!4in.diameter A325N bolts (Group A) in double shear:
'
LRFD
The above shear force is concurrent with the maximum tension for<:e in the diagonal brace.
r1~
:
;:;:: I
"...
Considering the lond combinations given in ASCPJSEl 7, the maximum compressive axial
force in the diagonal brace based upon the amplified seismic load is:
LRFD
ASD
+0.2Ps
+0.7~ PQe
Pa =[l.0+0.14(0.528)J(5.54 lcips)
~ps+O kips
+0
+ 0.2(6.70 kips)
+ 0.7(2)(22.3 kips)
=53.2 kips
=37.2 kips
AMEJUC\N L>IS't1l\1l'E OP STEEL CoNsnu.1cnoN
=239 "'"'
For the limit Stale Of bolt shear, the minimum number Of bolts required in the bracetogusset connection is:
ASD
LRFD
ASD
Pu
n=$rn
Pa
n=r11ln
= 53.2 kips
35.8 kips
_ 37.2 kips
 23.9 kips
= 1.49 bolts
=J.56 bolts
To facilitate erect.ion, use oversized holes in one ply of the connection as permitted in AI!::C
Seismic Provisions Section 02.2(3).
STEEi.. CONSTltUCTION
When oversized holes arc used in the diagonal brace connection, the required sttcnglh for
the limit Slate of bolt slip need oot CJtceed the load effect calculated using the load combinations not including the amplified seismic load, according to AlSC Seismic Provuions
Section Fl .6a(3). These correspond to the required strengths calculated for the member
design in faample 5.2.1.
Therefore, the required strength for I.he limit state of bolt slip need not exceed:
I'"" =
For short claw angle connections, eccentricity mny be an issue. For angles with the ratio
Llg ~ 4, the eccenuicity effect of connections 10 opposite angle legs can safely be ignored
(Thornton, 1996). l 1~ the distance between the centers of bolt groups on opposite legs of
the angle, and g is the bolt gage in lhe angle leg. Se.e Figure 53.
Consider a 2.00in. edge distance on the brace and che gusset, 11.?in. space between the eod
of the brace and the end of the gusset. and 4in. spacing between bolts.
I
ASD
4.00 in.
0.500 in.)
.
L = 2 (+ 2.00 m. +   2
2
=8.50 in.
P0 = 21.6kips
From AISC Manual Table 73 for '.l4in.diamcter A325SC bolts (Group A) in double shear.
Class A faying su1faccs, oversized holes in the diagonal brace web and standard holes in the
gusset and angles:
g =2.00 in.
L
g
8.50 in.
2.00 in.
= 4.25 > 4
LRFD
=J0.8 kips
For the limit srnte of bolt slip, che minimum number of bolts required in the bracetogusset
connection is:
LRFD
\.
=4A
=4(2. 10 in. 2 )
=8.40 in.2
I l. 1
Pa
= 30.9 kips
. .. ,,
:
'
=1.92 bol15
Use four claw angles 10 connect the brace to the gusset as shown in Figure 55. Try (4)
L3 1hx3 1hx)/1e claw angles each connected to the gusset with (2) 'Ain.diameter ASTM
A325 bolls in double shear and to the brace web with (2) ~in.di:uneter ASTM A325 bolts
in double shear. Therefore, the tot.al number of bolts at lhc bracetoangle connection and at
the angletogusset connection, N,, = 4, is greater than che minimum number of bolts, n, calculated above.
..
Claw Angles
L3 1hx3 1/2xs1ia
A= 2.10 in.2
'
= 21.6 ldps
10.8 kips
= 2.00 bolLS
16. l kips
1
ASD
n=r,./Q
~r,.
o.k.
ASD
P.,
n=
IJ =0.435 in.
x=0.979 in.
g = 2 in.
Fig. 53. Single claw angle dimt11Sion.r for check of eccentric effect.
   <
::
r1
i
S'32
BRACED FRAMES
S.3..l
'
 
R,. =Fy,Ag _ .
..
(Spec.,Eg. J4I)
Rn 320 kips
 =
= 36 ksi(8.40 in.2 )
=302.kips
r~~~~~L_R_FD
~~~~~~+~~~~~~A_S~
D ~~~~~I
.. '
".
o.k.
2.00
o.k.
LRFD
ASD
o.k.
.
;~
f~~
o.k.
The horiwmal edge distance along the tension plane, Leh, is calculated as the angle leg less
the gage:
Leh
U=ll
Use an edge distance, Lev. of I .SO in. at the ends of the ang_(es.
0.979.in.
4.00 in.
The nominal strength for the limit state of b1ock shear ruprure is:
=0.755
,.
.'~
l~
~:
Use standard holes in the angles. For calculation of net area, AISC Specification Section
B4.3b defines the width of the bolt hole as Y\6 in. greater than the nominal dimension of the
hole: where tlle nominal hole dimension is giv_e~_ i? Thble J~.3 ~ __ .
Ai,
=Ag  4tdh
=8.40 in.2 4(Sfi6 in.)( li6 in.+
=7.31 ln.2
13
.. 1
.......
,,.
'
,,
AISC Manual Tables 93a, 93b a.nd 93c for block shear may be used here for accurately
calculating the rension rupture componenc. For the shear components, the values in the
ta.hies are based on a bolt spacing of 3.00 in., whereas this conneetion uses 4.00in. bolt
spacing. For this reason, the tables are not used here for calculating shear components (but
could haYe been used as a conservative check).
Yi6
in)
..
= 14.4 kips
= S.52 in.2
R,, = F,,A,,
= 58 ksi(5.S2 in.
(Spec.
2
Eq. 142)
= 320 kips
ASD
\
A,,z::AnU
=1.0:
=9.63 kips
.;:
"BRACED FRAMES
S34
ASD
LRFD
' .
u =1.0
= 27.8.kips
2.00
= 18.6 lcips
. .
. I.
An= (d2d,,)t...,
..
'
l...~.
'
=2.24 in. 2
.~==AnU
., . 2 .
= 2.24 m. (1.0)
== 45.5 kips
'.
= 2.24in.2
ASD
LRFD
0.60F.,AMv
=34.1 kips
"
For tensile rupture of the brace web, the nominal stre.ngrh is:
45.5 kips
2.00
= 22.8 kips
Rn= FuAe
= 65 ksi(2.24
I:.
in.2)
t:
=146 kips
Shear yieldfog. governs over shear rupture. The available strength for the limit state of block
shear rupture for the four angle~ is:
ASD
LRFD
Rn =4(9.63kips+l8.6kips)
o.k.
o.k.
o.k.
mem~~.
c~uld
calci1~ted
indicates th..
I
f;:
First, calculate ,'t of the angle, where xis measured from the centerline of the web (this ca, ,
cuJarion ignores che fillets):
A= bJ (t1)+(%t1)(';
=l.00 in.
$\.
cal~ulation
o.k.
l;::
:;:
.......
S36
BRACED FRAMES
_ t.X,Ai
x=
=(A2dhtw )U
(0.2~in.)(0.2~in.)(9.7~in. _ 0 .4 3 Sin.)
,,,
~ = AnU
1\
537
For tensile rupture of the beam web, the nominJ1l strength is:
=1.47 in.
AJSC Specification Commentary Section 03 states that 'i is the perpeodjcular distance from
lhe connection plane to the centroid of the member section. Therefore, the used in the tension rupture calculation is the calculated i of l .47 in. minus half the web thickness. From
AJSC Specification Table 03.l:
Rn =Fu~
= 65 ksi(6.1 l io. 2 )
=397 kips
The avajlable tensile rupture strength of the brace web is:
U=ll
LRFD
Rn =0.75(397 kips)
=0.669
ASD
o.k.
o.k.
ll
W1 Ox33 brace
r
As shown, ttie available strength of the Wshape brace for the limit state of tensile rupture
as calculated per the simplified caJ~lation (with only the brace web considered effective) is
adequate for the applied loads. However, if additional capacity were required, lhe avaiiable
strength as calculated per AlSC Specificario11 Table D3. l, Case 2, is much greater.
= 0.979 in. 2
= 4.00 in.
A8 =2(.l.n. +s)tw
=2(2.00 in.+ 4.00 in.)(0.290 in.)
=3.48 in.2
Fig. 54. Tension rupnire on brace
STEEl. CONSTRUCTION
BRACED FRAMES
S38
539
L
i
TI1e 11om.inal scrength for the limit state of block shear .rupnire is given by:
R,.
11
AISC Specification F.quatio.o J45 can be expressed as follows to determine lhe available
strength of the brace web for the limit state of block shear rupture:
=0.75(1.0)(65 ksi)
2.00
0.60FyAgv
2.00
=0.75(0.60)(50 ksi)
x(3.48 in.2)
. 0.60F,,Anv
= 0.75(0.60)(65 k,si)
2
x(2.61 in.
AlSC Specificatio11 Equation 145 can be expressed as follows to determine the available
strength of the gusset plate for the limit sl:ite of block shear rupture:
2.00
LRFD
9R,, =$UbsFuA..1
2.00
=(0.60)(65ksi)(2.61 in.
2.00
2.00
~ =3l.8kips+50.9kips
o.k.
2.00
x(I.28m.2)
x(4.SO m.2)
t, =
= ~6 in.+!li6 in.
x( 3.52 in.
2.00
2.00
=48.6 kips
0.60F11 A,..
2.00
= 0.75(0.60)(58 ksi)
2
'
ub, =i.o
o.k.
=(2g+t.,d,,)r8
Lev
=2.00 in.
and Llni (2011 ), and is shown for this example in Figure 55.
=4.00 in.
AMERJCAN
.t
~.00
= 61.2kips
= 91.9 kips
= 0.875 in.
Ant
~0.60FuAnv
2.00
0.60FyA.!"
I
= 72.9 kips
= 37.l kips
=55.7 kips
o.k.
2.00
. (0.60FyAzv , 0.60FuAnv)
+mm
2.00
. = 50.9 kips
ASD
=76.3 kips
=52.2 kips
=78.3 kips
~Rn=
in.)
The nominal strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is g.ivcn by:
= 31.8 kips
=47.7 kips
~0.60F.,A,.,.
in.)(~
=4.50 in. 2
Ub,Fu.Ani
=
n
2.00
. (0.60FyAgv 0.60FuAnv)
+nun
'
2.00
2.00
x(0.?79 in.2 )
~0.60F,Agv
Rn
$R,. = $Ub,F11An1
$Ub,FuAnt
l..:
Aiv=2(L.,.+s)t1
= 2(2.00 in.+4.00
ASD
LRFD
The "Whhmore section" is discussed in AlSC Man:ual Part 9 (Figure 9J) and in 'Thornton
".
BRACED FRAMES
541
On the gusset plate, the space between the bolt lines of the angles is:
~column
W18x50 beam
I..,= 2/tan30+ s
   ~ <t
beam
=8.91 in.
r _..!J_
 Jli
~: :
...
*in.
=:m
~.
<Xl
'
=0.108 in.
>
   1
L:J
W10x33 brace
Use rhe effective length factor, K, of 0.50 as established by full scale rests on bracing connections (Gross, 1990) and as referenced in theAfSC Design Examples VJ4.0. Note that this
K value requires the gusset 10 be supported on both edges. Alternatively, the effective length
factor for gusset buckling could be detennined according to DowsweIJ (2006).
From Figure 55, the unbraced length of the gusset plate along the axis of the brace is
L
W10x49
!;
,.'/
,.v
L = 8.70 in. (Exam.pie 5.3.10 provides an equation for calculating che length of buckling;
(6) ;i dia. A325N
bolts in std. holes
KL
column
0.50(8.70 in.)
= '0.108 in.
=40.3
W10x33 brace
LRFD
1
4  L3~3Yzxo/16
\;
:;
...
~~19
=40.3:
ASD
...
Therefore, from AISC Specificaticn Equation E3l, the available compressive strength
based on flexural buckliog is:
~~'
Fig. 55. As5wned initial geometry for xample5 5.2.l through 5.2.4.
...,,
:;,
'r
AMERJ(".A}I
~=(~)Ag
cpP" =IJ>cFcrAg
Section AA
ASD
LRFO
o.k.
o.k.
BRACED FRA,\ffiS
542
Note: An altema1ive is to use a reduced unbraced buck.ling length fo.r the gusset calculated
from the ave.rage values from the end and center of the Whitmore section. See AISC Design
Examples Vl4.0, Example II.C2 (AISC, 2011).
Because the absolute value of the required strength of the connection in tension is less than
the required strength of the connection in compression, tension yielding on the Whitmore
section will not control.
ASD
LRFD
r,.
fn
= 0.75(23.8 kips)
23.8 kips
2.00
= 11.9 kips
=
= 17.9kips
t.:..
!
Considering four angles, each with one end bolt and one interior boll:
Check bolt bearing on the angles
Standard holes are used in the angles. From AISC Specification Table J3.3, for a
iliameter bolt, dh = 1Vi6 in.
~in.
The bearing strength requirements per boll are given by AISC Specificarion Section 13. l 0.
For the imerior bolt with a bolt spacing of 4.00 in., the bearing strength per bolt is:
r11
=l.21,tF,, ~ 2AdtF.,
Therefore, no.ininal bearing strength for the interior bolt is rn =32.6 kips. The availabie bearing strength of the interior bolt is:
ASD
LRFD
o.k.
[lbolt(l6.3 kips)
+1
l
o.k.
Note that AlSC Manual Table 74 could also have been used; however, it is based on smaller
bolt spacing than 4.00 in.
For the end bolt, with Lt= 1.50 in., the nominal bearing strength per bolt for each angle is:
~ 2.4d1F11
AMlllUCAN
ASD
LRFD
rn
33.9 kips
2.00
= 17.0 lcips
=
Note that AISC Manual Table 74 could !lave been usCd, but the table is based on smaller
bolt spacing than the 4.00 in. used in this example.
"
Therefore, the nominal bearing strength of. the interior bolts is 33.9 kips. The available bear'i
ing strength of the interior bolts is:
= 16.3 kips
in. 1h(1i6
1.2.LctF.,
= ~3.8
=33.9 kips
=24.5 kips
rn = 32.6 kips
2.00
=0.75(32.6 kips)
$ 2.4(
R11
n= bolt(ll.9 kips)
=113 kips > 37.2 kips
For the interior bolt with a bolt spacing of 4.00 in., the bearing strength per bolt is:
= 32.6 kips
3,4
Oversized holes are used in the brace. From AISC Specification Table 13.3, for a '.!Ain.diameter bolt, dh = 1Sft6 in.
::: l.2[1.50
bolt(2t5 kips)
+ 1 bolt{l7.9 kips)
=69.3 kips
rn ::: l.2lctF11
ASD
~rn
R,. = 4
LRFD
;(
BRACED FRAM.ES
'
Use AISC Manual Taqle 75 for lhe end bolts. For L~
bolt is:
LRFD
~
Note that AISC Manual Table 74 could also have been used. However, it is based on smaller
boll spacing than 4.00 in.
Use AISC Manual Table 75 for end bolls. For Le = 2.00 in., the bearing strength per end
bolt is:
ASD
=58.5 kip/in.
ASD
r,.
?
..
n
: : : 5.2
kip/m.
LRFD
ASD
= 17.0 kips
LRFD
ASD
= 19.6 kips
Considering two interior bolts and two end bolts on the brace:
LRFD
$Rn=
'
ASD
[2 bolts(2S.4 kips)
R,.
n=
+ 2 bolts(25.5 kips)
. '
LRFD
f2bolts(17.0kips)
+2bolts(17.0kips)
o.k.
ASD
..
o.k.
Rn::::::
[2 bolts{29.4 kips) ]
+ 2 bolts(29.4 kips)
R11
o.k.
=39.2 kips
Therefore, !he nominal bearing strength of the interior bolt is 39.2 kips. The available bearing strength of the interior bolt is:
L.RFD
$rn = 0.75(39.2 kips)
=29.4 kips
ASD
2.00
= 19.6 kips
..
i
o.k.
Use (4) ASTM A325SC bolts in double shear to connect (4) L3 1hx3 1hx 5/1s lo the brace
web. Use standard boles in the angles and gusset; and oversized holes in the brace web. Use
(4) ASTM A325N bolts in double shear to connect the (4) L31/2x3 1hx 5h6 to the gusset.
'
The forces the gussetto_beam aI!d gusseHo~cqj~~ interfac~s are detenni~ed using
Uoifonn Force Method. The planes of unifo~ forces will be set at the column bolt line and
!he gusset/berun interface. The assumption of a plane of uniform force at the column bolt
line allows the bolts at the column connection to be designed for shear and wal load only
(no eccentricity) and therefore simplifies the design.
the
at
[2 bol1$(l9.(i ~ips)
"' + 2 bolts(19.6 kips)
It should be noted that this assumption is different lh~ that made for the typical cases of th!
Unifonn Force Method discussed in the AISC Manual where the unifonn force at the colum.ri
is at the face of the column t1ange. Appropriate work point.s and uniform force planes er,:,
often be selected conveniently to balance enginee.ring, fabcication and erection economy.
As previously determined, the ma,mnum brace force according to ASCEtSEI 7 load corr:
nations is 53.2 kips (LRFD) or 37.2 kips (ASD) acting in coropre~sion. The maximum tm,(.,,
force iu tension is 40.2 kips (LRFD)
28.3 kips (ASD). Consider !he larger compress, .
force to act in both directions in order to simplify calculations.
or
AMJ<lCAN
BRACED FRAMES
Assume an initfaJ connection geometry as shown in Figure 55. Using the analysis found in
AISC Manual Part 13:
db
tb = 
18.0 in.
=  2
=9.00 in.
tc
r = J(a+ec )2 +(J3+eb)
+2.50 in.
10.0 in.
.
=    + 2.50 10.
2
=7.50 in.
Set as the distance from the bottom of the beam to the center of the two bolts connecting
the single plate lo the gussec.
P=5.50 in.
Use a shared singleplate connection to connect the beam and gusset 10 the column.
Therefore, the bottom flange of the beam must be either coped or blocked flush 10 clear the
.singleplate shear connection. Consider no weld between the gusset and the beam for 5 in.
to allow for a 4 1hin.wide si.Ugle plate with a 1hin. clearance between the plate and the start
of the blocked beam flange. Assume a 17.0in.long gusset with a ~in. clearance 10 the column flange. Consider the gussettobeam weld length as 12.5 in. Because the bolt line is
used as the plan~ of uniform force, the distance to the center of the gussettobeam weld,
Ci., must be set from the bolt line. .
12.5 in.
.
 + 4.50 in.+ 0.500 in.  2.50 in.
2
=8.75 in.
LRFD
. 13
VacPa
r
= 5 5 ~ ~ (53.2 kips)
20.) 10.

20.5 in.
=9.98 kips
=14.3 lcips
\
I
LRFD
ASD
ec
Hae =Pa
r
_p
V.,c =Pu
Note: Alternatively, where the beam flange is blocked flush to lap the shear tab, the gusset
could be welded to the beam with a onesided fillet weld on the far side of the gusset, and a
flush partialjointpenetration groove weld on the near side. This would allow the full length
of the gusse1 along the beam.to be included in the _design at this interface.
ASD
ct= 
Setting
Because the a required for unifon'n forces does not equal ii based on this initial geometry,
unifoon forces at the interfaces are not possible with the current configuration. The connection geometry can be adjusted by an iterative process to achieve the unifo~
distribution. Alternatively, th~ connection can be analyzed with an additional moment per
75
~ ~(53.2 kips)
20..) ID.
= 19.5 kips
.
)
t
BRACED FRAMES
r1
!
~
~
;
'
LRFD
I'"'
ASD
'I I
t<
..:
ct_
column
Hub =P.,
Hob = Po
r
7 00 0
~ '(37.2 kips)
=20.5
J.n,
=7.00
 in.
{53.2 k'lpS )
20.5 in.
18.2 kips
=12.7 kips
LRFD
<:
'
)
  ....
":~:J
..,');~
,
'<
ASD
tb
eb
Vab =Pa
r
9
= 00 in. {37.2 kips)
.20.5 in.
Vwb =P,.
=16.3 k.ips
=23.4 kips
 .
ec
= 2de + ""2
'>V
LRFD
Mub = Vublaaj
ASD
Mob= V.wlaCij
= 41.0 kii}in.
=28.5 !Opin.
WP~
\
I
GussettoBeam Connection
550
BRACED FRAMES
Sw
LRFD
=(12.5 in.)2
fu, ~
=26.0 in.
LRFD
ASD
Hub
/av::: Hab
lwb
l...i,
!lllJ = "'"'
lwb
= 23.4 kips
12.5 in.
= 1.87 kip/in.
f,uJ>_ Mub
Sw
= 41.0 kipin.
26.0 in. 3 /in.
=1.58 kip/in.
+ (1.46)
lh
lwb
= 16.3 kips
12.5 in.
=1.30 kip/in.
+J(l.87+1.58)
'
l
l
,,
+fa~
+JU,,, +lab )2 + fa~
JUoo  lab )
Jc1.301.10> 2 + c1 .02)2
=1.82 kip/in.
!a.peak = 2.61 kip/in.
fa, avg
1:
L82kip/in.
""f.43
= 28.5 kipin.
+(1.02)2
=1.43
=tan
rm.
=)h
= 2.62 kip{m.
1 ( 1.87
Sw
fa.avg =1h
+ (1.46)2
J.I\.
Mab
fab=.  '
=J(I.30+ L.'10)
+ (1.46) 2
aa 
= 2.61 kip/in.
,,.,
},,
='h
/u,avg
12.5 in.
=1.02 kip/in.
26.0 in.3
fa.peak=
= 3.75 kip/in.
=12.7 kips
/. _ Vab
ASD
+ fu;
=J(l .87+1.58)
The shear force, axial force, aod force due to flexure per linear illch of weld are:
. = 18.2 kips
12.5 in.
= 1.46 kip/in.
= Ju.,,, +/kb )
/in.
fw=
UKA\....l!U r~
S=
tanI( faafov+fob)
=67.0
=67.1
=1.10 kip/in.
The force on the weld due to bending is determine.d using elastic section properties as per
the Elastic Method indicated in Part 8 of the AlSC Manual. Generally this method is considered conservative. The Instantaneous. Center of Rotation Method, also found in Part 8,
often results in smaller requi.re4 weld sizes for welds subject to eccentricity. In the examples in this Manual employing special concentrically braced frame connections, a plastic
stress distribution is used to determine the forces at the beamtogusset interface. This example will use the oiore conservative elastic method.
Use a vector sum (square root of the sum of the' squares) to combine the shear, axial and
bending stresses on the gussettobeam interface. Because the bending stress acts in opposite directions over each half of the length, tIs creates both a maximum (peak) and a
minimum stress. The average stress is detenniued based on the maximum (peak) stress and
the minimum stress. AU stress un~ts below are in kip/in.
According to the AISC Manual Part 13, because the gusset is directly welded to the beam,
the weld is designed for the larger of '11e peak stress and 1.25 times the average stress;
Becausef~aklfavg > 1.25, the w~ld ductil,ity factor need not be applied . .For a discussion of
the weld ductility factor of 1.25, see AISC Manual Part 13.
t
:'.
The strength of fillet welds defined in AISC Specification Section J2. can be simplified, as
explained .in Part 8 of the AISC Manual, to AISC Manual Equations 8.2a and 8:?,b:
LRFD
ASD
. Rn =(0.928 Jdptin.)Dl
''
l.".
...
:~
BRACl:!D FRAMES
=0.934 sixteenths
D~
2(0.928 ldp/in.)(1+0.50sin 15
a)
2.61 kipfm.
2(0.928 kipfm.)h + 0.50sin 1J (67.0)J
=0.975 sixteenths
R. =V...
(M.)
""
1
r:r')
(Mob)
1
=Ve1b+4 
=36.5 kips
ro 1he beam_
The beam is checked for the limit state of \\eb loc!\I yielding due
Wl'lded to the beam flange.
10 the force
A conservati\'C method to determine the minimum gusset plate thickness required to lrallsfcr t11e sbear and tension forces is to set the shear rupture strength of the weld (based on the
resultant force) equal to the shear ruprure strength of the gusset plate. Using AJSC Manual
The force is applied a distance a from the beam end. Because l'l <db= 18.0 in, AlSC
'ipecificatio" Equation J 103 is applicable.
Equation 93:
For a force applied :it a distance less than the depth of the member:
LRFD
F,,
58 ksi
=0.0997 in.
R,, = Fy,.t,.(2.5k+lb)
lmv. =  
=6.19 kiplin.(0.934)
I
ASD
6.L9D
6.19D
f'"m=F11
.,:i.,
Mw,
R,.~v,.+ (~f
=Vub+4
;, 1
ASD
LRFD
!11.~(lk
From AlSC Specijicatkm Table 12.4, the minimum sii.e fillet weld allowed for the parts
being connected is 16 in.
.,
rKAMI.:.'>
ASD
LR.FD
D~
UKJ\l.l!U
portion of this stress distribution that acts JD the reverse direction, aoc.J considering the total
force to be applied at the center of the bearing length, the resultant compre~ive force is:
fu, P,aJ:
520RDJNARV C.'ONCJ::.l'l'HUl...Al.l..t
=6.19 ldp/in.(0.975)
ASD
LRFD
58 ksi
=0.104 in.
o.k..
Rn
o.k.
Use a ~io.thick gusset plate to connect the brace lo the beam aod column.
Alternatively, the required thickness of the gusset plate could be determined by cbeckiog ilie
strength of gusset plate directly.
=1.00(265 kips)
=265 kips > 36.5 kips
o.k.
'
1.50
o.k.
'
Alternatively, the available strength for web yielding can be determined from AlSC Manllal
Table 94.
'
A portion of the force is applied within d!l of the member cod; therefore, use AISC
Specification Section J10.3(b). Check the length of beating relative to the beam depth:
lb 12.5 in.
=d
18.0 in.
=0.694 >0.2
tlKALtU t'KAMt:)
Therefore, use AJSC Specificarion Equation J 105b to determine the available strength,
through use of AISC Manual Table 94.
From AISC Manual Table 94 for the W18x50:
LRFD
ASD
R,,=JV~+HJc
LRFD
ASD
Rs
=52.0 kips
~ =34.7 kips
>Rt;
=6.30 kipfm.
~ = 4.20 kipfm.
Ra =Jv1.:+ H~
2
= 24.2 kips
ASD
~
Rs
~
=+lb
=131kips>36.5 k.ips
o.k.
f:.
l.:
Try two bolts connecting the gusset to a single plate. The required shear strength per bolt is:
LRFD
= 16.9 kips
ASD
LRFD
Ra
V.u R...,
2
24.2.kips
= 2
=12. l kips/bolt
\..
Va=2
= 16.9 kips
2
=8.45 kipstbolt
;
;
o.k.
.1. ,
'~
rn
o.k.
o.k.
From AISC Manual Table 74 with 3 in. bolt spacing, the bearing strength per inch of singleplate thickness is:
LRFD
Qrn =78.3 kipfm.
ASD
"
~.
~ =52.2 kipfm.
I
For the interior bolt, lhe available bearing strength of the single plate is:
Design gussettocolumn bolted connection
The result~nt force
LRFD
ASD
1 i1
!+___,
q>r,. = 78.3 kip/in.(!& in.)
=24.5 kips/bolt
=16.3 kips/bolt
I ~i
L~~~~L~~~~'
~
)
.,,3.
1n
BRACED FRAMES
556
The edge distances in Lhe single plate are l 1h in. vertically and 2 in. horizontally.
Conscrv:itively, use the lesser of Lhese edge distances. A more refined cbeck would calculate the edge disrnnce in tbe direction of the force. For the end bolt, with L,, = 1'h in., the
nominal bearing strength per bolt is:
,....
Yn
!!
J.2/"F,'
The nominal strength for the limit state of block shear rupture relative to the normal force
=1.21,.Fu S 2.4dF,,
t
d 11
=104 kip/in.
=0.977 in.
LRFD
rn
A1 v =24Mp
:::: 2(2.00 in.)(Vi6 in.)
=1.25 in. 2
ASD
UI
557
76.l ldp/in.
2.00
= 38.1 kip/in.
For the end bolt, the available bearing strength of the single plate is:
=72.5kips
LRFD
rn
f~.
1
...~
ASD
= l7.8 kips/bolt
> 12.1 kips/bolt
o.k.
= 11.9 kips/bolt
> 8.45 kips/bolt
o.k.
Therefore, tbe nominal strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is Rn= 65.5 kips.
The available strength for the limit state of block shear rupture on the single plate is:
According to A ISC Specification Section B4.3b. in compuling ne1 area for tension and shear,
the width of a bolt hole is taken as 1/16 in. larger than the nominal dimension of the hole. The
nominal diameter of the hole from Table 13.3 is 126 in.
,I
I
ASD
LRFD
The available bolt shear strength and the bearing strength for the end and interior bolts
exceeds the required shear strength per bolt
The gusset is tlin.thick and wiil have greater bearing strength than the o/16in. single plate;
therefore, the gusset plate is not checked for bearing strength.
~n
Rn
=0.75(65.5 kips)
=
Q
=49.l kips>19.5kips
o.k.
65.5 k,ips
2.00
o.k.
In thjs case, the AISC Manual tables will be used to dctennine the available strength for the
limit state of block shear rupture, because the parameters fall within the limits of lhe table:;.
provided. For the single plate at the gussettoeolumn connection:
5 58
BR.ACED FRAMES
=2
= 11h in.
411 =2.00in.
Vbr = 1.0
n
559
L~
From AISC Specification Equation J45, the svailable strength for the limit state of block
shear rupture can be written as:
LRFD
$R,, =$UbsF11An1
+min($0.60FyAgv. $0.60F11 A,,,,)
+IIll l
. (0.60f).A8 ,
in.)
0.60FyAg.
(
.
)(
)
= 48.6 kip/in. 16 in.
0.60F.,Anv _ 55 5 Jdp/i {! . )
Q
.
ID.
16 Jn.
=17.3 kips
$R,, = 21 .3 ldps
+ min(22.8 kips, 26.0 kips)
o.k.
( 14.3 kips
44.lkips
( 9.98 lcips)
29.4 kips
19.5 kips
49.lkips
=0.263 $LO
=0.287 $ l.O
o.k.
,:::
..
o.k.
~
'
d,,
= 0.875 in.
=1.0
)~
. :
'.
j:
= 1.33 in.2
\i
t;
..
Therefore:
=14.2 kips
= 29.4 kips> 9.98 kips
Block shear rupture in the t1in.thick gusset plate is also adequate as tJ1e gusset is thicker
than the single plate.
~=AnU
R,,
+(32.8
13.6 kips)
kips
Conservatively consider only a 6.00.in. length of single plate under axial tension from the
gusset. The nominal tensile rupture strength is:
=15.2 kips
= 14.2 lOps
$0.60F.,A,,.:::: 83.2
::::26.0 kips
0.60F11 A11 , )
=21.3 kips
k:ipfm.( 5/16
ASD
LRFD
r+( r
ASD
l:..
t
....;
=77.1 kips
\:.:
t"
,.!
S60
BRACED FRAMES
LRFD
'
R,.
77.1 kips
2.00
38.6 kips> 13.6 kips
=
Rn
ASD
'
=0.60FuAnv
=0.60(58 ksi)(l.33 in.2 )
= 46.3 kips
LRFD
Tensile rupture in the Vsin.thick gusset is also okay because of its greater thickness.
S61
ASD
o.k.
:
..
Rn 46.3 kips
=
Q
2.00
= 23.2 kips> 9.98 kips
o.k,
Again, conservatively consider only a .6.00in. length of single plate under ax.ial tension
Shear rupture in the %in.tbick gusset is also okay because of its greater thickness.
Rn=FyAg
where
Ag= ltp
Agv =ltp
=1.88 in.2
=1.88 in.2
Therefore:
Rn = 0.60FyAgv
= 67.7 kips
in.2)
=40.6 kips
The available tensile yielding strength is:
,.
LRFD
LRFD
fl
ASD
ASD
Rn
=
o.k.
1.67
= 40.5 kips> 13.6 kips
..
67.7 kips
=40.6kjps>14.3 kips
o.k. \
40.6 kips
Q
l.50
= 27.l kips> 9.98 kips
!
. ...
Rn
=
o.k.
o.k.
Shear yielding in the sin.tbick gusset _is also ?k.a!' becau~e of it~ greater thickness.
Tensile yielding in the Vsin.thick gusset is also okay because of its greater thickness.
Anv
=(l2(fh)tp
= 16.00 in.2(0.875 in.)](16 in.)
=l.33 in.2
"
Use a iirin.tJlick single plate with (2)'.}~in.diarneter ASTM A325N boltsin standard
holes to connect the %in.thick gusset to the column.
~:
..,,?:
S..62
BRAC.li!) FRAMES
L.RFD
P., =max
rlHu1> =ll.. ,}
A..i.
:::max {19.5
=max {H
P0
kips}
The maxbnum shear at the beamtocolumn interface will occu.r when I.he diagonal brace 1
in tension based on ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.J.2 Load Combination 5 (LRFD and ASD).
The beam rcacuon, V" or Va. is the concurrent force.
flob =Hd<"}
Aob
33.0 kips
= 33.0 k.ips
LRFD
(1.2+0.2Sos)To+OoTa. +0.5ft
The vertical force on the beam webtocolumn c~nnection is, as sho" n in Figure 56:
vab
V"
=Rui, + V..b
=24.0 kips
LRFO
r.. v.
V,,= R.,+Mb
~
~ps)(23.4 kips)
36 0
53.2 kips
37.2 lcips
= 27.6 lcips
= 18.8 kips
Combine the mwmum vertical force wilh the horizontal force at the beamtocolumo inter J.
face as follows:
...:
ASD
'
R.,
=8.57 kips
I:.
Therefore.. the maximum vertical force in lhe beamtocolumn connection is Vu= 27.6 kips ::I
(LRFD) or V0 = 18.8 kips (ASD).
Va =Ra+ Vab
Ra =7.73 kips
V.a
= 11.8 k.ips+(
ASD
.:i
1L_.RFD
_ _ _ _ _ _l~~A_S_D~~:' J
v..
=25.3 kips
Calculate v11 concurrent with tension in the brace by prorating therensile force in the brace
calculated abo\'e to the m:i..'tilnum compressive force in the hr.Ice calculated at the beginning
of this example.
Note tlm the vertical shear fon:e calculated above is conservame as lbe analysis has been
simplified by considering the maximum brace force as equal in magnitude in either tension
or compression. A more e.'tact analysis would include the actual tension and compression
forces combmcd with the ~pective beam reaction.~ with considerntion of the dire(;tion of
loading of each force component.. For this srrucrure, the larger diagonal brace force which
acts in compression, and its resultant Vb component which acts upwards, would be counteracted by the beam reaction acting downwards. So to remedy the shortfall of this
simplificatioo, the vertical force, V., (LRFD) and V0 (ASD). could be calculated for bolb the
maximum force due to compression in the brace with its concurrent reaction and the maxjmum reaction resulting from tenSion force in the brace with the \'CrUcaJ beam reacuon.
= 23.4 kips
=Ru+V.,11
+ 0 kips+O kips
+ 0.7(2)(22.3 kips)
=36.0 kips
VMb
T0 =[1.0+0.14(0.528)j(5.54 kips)
Va =Rab+ Vob
=11.8 kips
(1.0+0.l4Sru)To+1iJ +TF
=35.2 kips
Ru
+0.10 0 To,
= 16.3 kips
'
+ 0.2Ts
ASD
ASD
Note that the detennination of the relative directions of the collector force and II, forces at
the column face may not alwa)s be as apparent as in this 5inglestory structure. A conservative approach is to add the absolute values of the two components.
LRFD
ASD
..
=Jv..,2 + Pu1
R.,
...~
= Jvl +Pal
= 43.0 kips
=29.8 kips
.}
BRACED FRAMES
Try (4) ~in.diamcter A325N bolts in the single plate connecting the beam and the
column.
=1.99 in.2
From the check of lhe gussettocolumn single plate design, the available strength of tbc
~in.diameter ASTM A325N bolt in the 'l'i6in.thick pfatc is 17.9 kips (LRFD) and J1. 9
kips (ASD) for bolt shear and 17.8 !0ps (LRFD) and 11.9 kips (ASD) for bolt bearing. The
0.60F1 A1 v + Ub,FuA..i
LRFD
Ru
n,,,.,.=::::
r,.
43.0 kips
17.8 kips
=2.42
ASD
n=(r,.10)
"'.29.8 kips
11.9 kips
ASD
LRFD
=2.50
~R~
o.k.
2.00
=4
4 = l11l in.
411 =2.00 in.
Ubs =1.0
I
From AJSC Specification Equation J45. the available sLrength for the limit state of block
shear rupture can be written as:
The available strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is:
ASD
LRFD
(Sp~c.
Eq. J45)
R..:::: ~UbsFuA,.i
R., U,.,F,,A.u
=
..
. (0.60F.!'.A1,,
U0s =LO
Ap"' 241.tp
o.k.
Use lhe AJSC Manual tables to detennine the 3\'ailable scrength of the single plate for the
limit !>Ute of block shear ruprure relative to the shear force on the single plate. For the single plate at the gussetto.:olumn connection:
Check block shear relative to the noanal force io Lbe single plate.
According to AlSC Specification Section B4.3b, in computing net area for tension and she.'lr,
the width of a boh hole is taken as 1/16 in. larger than the nominal dimension of the bole. The
nominal diameleT of the hole from Table J3.3 is 116 in.
142 kips
R,,
::
=0.75(142 kips)
Therefore. the nominaJ strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is R,. 142 kips.
The available strength for the limit state of block shear rupture on the "ingle rlate i:.:
R,,
The beam web thickness is 0.355 in., which is slightly thicker than the single plate.
Additionally. the beam specified minimum tensile strength, Fu. of 65 k.si is greater.man I.he
F,, of the single rlate. Therefore, thc bolt available bearing strength on the beam web is greater
than that of the ~ingle plate, and the bQlt beariog strength of lhe beam web is adequate.
where
 149 kips
Use four bolts so thm the connection is at least haJf the depth of the beam.
1\
+mm
9u,,1 FuA.u
. 0.60~wAnv)
=21 3 kips
BRACED FRAMES
LRFD
567
A1 =ftp
ASD
0.60F. A
.
r{ " = (113 kip/in.)(~6
in.)
=3.75 in.2
R,.
=35.3 kjps
=F1A1
0.60FuA""
.
)( 11& .In. )
. n  {l 29 k1p/in.
=135 kips
The available strength due to tensile yielding in the beamtocolumn single plate is:
Rn
.
n14.2 kjps
Mn =2 1.3 kips
+ m1n(53. l kips, 60.6 kips)
o.k.
o.k.
Bl<x:k shear rupture in the beam web is also okay, based on the greater thlckness and the
hig~cr Fy and Fu values.
is also adequ:ue.
Tensile rupture in the beamtocolumn single plate
~ps
74.4 kips
r+( r
0.233s1.0
33.0 kips
107 kips
o.k.
,
= 0.233
(~ +(~r $1.0
23. l kips
71.0 k.ips
0.250s1.0
o.k.
=0.250
'
..
= 2.66 io. 2
.
(Sptc. Eq. 031)
~=AnV
r+( r
( 18.8 kips
49.5 kips
= 0.875 in.
u =l.0
ASD
o.k.
A,, =(l4d1i)tp
For the singleplate at the beamtocolumn connection. the interaction of shear and normal
block ~hear rupture is considered as foll~ws:
LRFD
o.k.
The beam web bas a greater lhick.ness (0355 in.) and a higher specified minimum yield
stress of F  50 ksi; therefore, the av:.Ulable ten.qlc s1rength clue to yielding in the ~:im web
dh
Combined shear and normal block shear design check
using an elliptical equation
l
ASD
LRFD
=40.3 kips
.J
=2.66 in.2
.~
Rn =F.,Ae
568
BRACED FRAMES
The available strength due to tensile rupture in the beamtocolumn single plate is:
LRFD
= llp
Agv
ASD
R,.
154 kips
2.00
=
o.k.
S6!t
=3.75 in.
o.k.
The beam web has a greater thickness (0.355 in.) and a higher specified minimum rcnsile
strength than the single plate, therefore, the available strength due to tensile rupture in I.he
beam web is also adequate.
R,,
=0.6'0F,..A,..
t:
~;,
..
t:11
~11
... \
.ii:':,,.
A,,v = (14dn) tp
=2.66 in.2
The nominal streogrh due to shear rupture is:
R,, = 0.60FuA...
:~
;:
~;
:i
.....
"
..
..
:~
f>
Use a minimum t6in.thick single plate with (4) 3.4in.dfameter ASTM. A325N bolts in
standard boles to connect the beam to the column.
ASD
.R,.
92.6 kips
2.00
46.3 IOps > 18.8 kips
=
o.Jc.
o.k.
When the collector force acts in tension on the column face, the He force on tbe gussettocolumn interface is also in tension. The collector force in the beam, Ab, acts 5.75 in. above
the neutral a.us of the single plate, and the He force at the gussettocolumn interface acts
8.75 in. below the neutral a."<is of the single plate, as determined in the following.
Eccentricity of Ab on tbe single plate:
o.k.
Design the weld of the combined single plate to the column face
The weld of the single plate could be determined assuming two individual single plates.
However this neglects the increased bending capacity of a 22in.long plate relative to the
summation of bending capacities of a b.Oin.long single plate and a 6.00in.1ong single
plate. Therefore, design the weld based on a 23.5in.long single plate.
The beam web is lhicker (0.355 in.) and has a higher specified minimum tensile strength
(65 ksi) than the single plate; therefore, the available strength of the beam web due to shear
rupture is also adequate.
'~:
= 92.6 kips
....,
o.k.
81.0 kips
1.50
The beam web is thicker (0.355 in.) with a higher specified minimum tensile strength (65
ksi) than the single plate; therefore, rhe available strength of .the beam web due . to shear
yielding is also adequate.
LRFD
~:
R,.
=
'
ASD
LRFD
Check the available shear rupture strength at the net section through the bolt line. Conservatively
consider only a 12.0 in. length of .single plate.
=5.75 in.
=2.50 in.
570
.~~~~~~~~~~~r::~:~~~'~~~~,
LRFD
H,,=Aub+H.,,
ASD
.I
=23.1kips+13.6 kips
=33.0kips+19.5 kips
.=52.5 kips
= 36.7 kips
Vu
= 49.5 kips
.
ASD
For moment on a weld group, sum moments about the midheight centerline of the single
plate at the face of the column:
LRFD
M,. = V,.e, + AubeAa HuceHc
=143 kipin.
=98.8 kipin.
=23.5 in.
Ja  , 
=36.7 kips
_ 52.5 kips
23.5 in.
=2.23 ldpfm.
23.5 in.
= 1.56 kip/in.
M;,a
fab =Z..,
98.8 kipin.
138 in.2
/ub=Z,.,
143 kipin.
138 in.2
= 1.04 kip/in.
fur =
= 0.716 k.ipfm.
_ / (2.11 kip/in/
=(23.5 in.)2
 1 (2.23kipfm.+1.04
=57.2
(1.45 k.ip/in.)
=~.70 kip/in.
= 3.89 kip/in.
=tan
,1
, _Hna
H,,
11
=1.45 kip/in.
Mu
l'
23.5 in.
f,.,,
lz
Zw=4
ASD
=34.0I kips
/ua=1
ASD
Ma
/., =VOLi_
= 2.11 kip/in.
LRFD
LRFD
Vu
1
49.5 kips
= 23.5 in.
f,,,,=
2.11 kipfm.
kip/in.)
(faa +fa~)
!av
i(l.56kip/in.+ 0.716
tan
..
1.45 kip/m.
=57.5
=138 in.2
kipfm.)
l:
f !
573
BRACED FR.AMES
572
~~:. . l
The weld size is determined from A1SC Mat111fll Equation 82a (LRFD) and 82b (ASD):
Check the plate for \he limit state of buckling using the doubJecoped beam procedure given
in AISC Ma1111.(ll Part 9.
LRFD
hr
D=
ASD
D=
=
=J.01 sixteenths
Fer"' QFy
far
2(0.928 k:ipfm.)(1.0+0.50sin1.5 9)
ho.JP,
2.70 k:ipfm.
2 ( 0.928 kip/in.)
A.=.=======::"
1
[t .0+0.50sinl.S (57.5)]
10,p
475+28o(~Y
:::~~..l:..:7=~=======:;"
=0.284
Because A.~ 0.7,
(Manual Eq. 915)
Q= l
=%(16 in.)
<
23.5 in.)
in.
250
Use twosided IAin. fillet welds at the single plate to column connection.
One method to detei:mine the IJUnimum singleplate thickness required to transfer the shear
and :ension forces is to scl the weld strength (based on the resultant force) equal to the shear
rupture strength of the .single plate. From AISC Manual Part 9, the minimum required singleplate thickness is:
For a force applied at a distance less ~an the depth of the member:
Eq. J 103)
6.19 kipfm.(1.0 1)
58 ksi
=445 kips
o.k.
6.19 kiplin.{l.05)
r,,,;,, =
58 ksi
0. 112 in.< 16 in.
ASD
LRFD
ASD
LRFD
lmin""
(Spec.
Rn= F)wlw(2.5k+lb)
6. l 9D
Fu
(milt=
r"::
~R,, = 1.00(445
Rn
445 kips
1.50
= 297 kips > 23.J kips
::::
kips)
o.k..
o.k.
o.k.
AJtematively, the available strength for web yielding can be determined per Part 9 of t!le
..:
::,
I:
5 14
BRJ\CF.D FRAMES
Cf. column
A portion of the concentrated force is applied at a disrnnce less thlln d12 from the end of the
column; therefore, useAJSC Specificatwn Section JJ0.3(b). C~ck the length of bearing tel
ntive to the column depth:
lb 23.5 in.
==d 10.0 in.
S75
W18x50
beam
W.P.
 
~c:;_
<t_ beam
Therefore, use AISC Specification Equation J105b to determine the available scrength,
LRFD
Rs =48.5 kips
$~
~ .
ASD
co
Rs
.
n=J2.3 kips
=I0.1 kip/in.
~ =6.76 kip/in.
LRFD
R,, =R, +lb (~Ro)
ASO
R,,
Rs
n
= 
Ro
W10x49
column
Hb
W10x33
brace
in web of~
surfaces.
E:campl~
5.2.4.
The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads. From
n firstorder analysis, the loads on the brace arc:
Po=O !Ops
PH= Okips
Ps= 0 kips
Pt=O kips
PQ=51.1 kips
Mo= 1.13 kipft
J
J
576
:'
BRACED F1V\MES
The dead load bending moment indicated above is due to the selfweight of the brace
assuming a member r.hnt weighs l6 Jblft. Sometimes this selfweight loading is ignored in
the desigo of vertical diagonal braces where judgment would indicate that the loading is
minimal and only uses a small percentage of the available member strength. However, in
this example, considering the relatively long length of the diagonal brace, the dead load
moment is included jn this design check. There are no bending moments due to live loads
or snow loads.
From AJSC Manual Table 17, the geometric properties :ue as follo\.\s:
The story shear, H, from the firstorder analysis 1s 136 kips and the first<>rder intcrstory drift
due to that load without the CJ factor applied from the analysis model is:
tlH=0.761 in.
Solution:
5 77
L5x5x1/2
A= 4.79 in.2
, :t
=5.()() in.
I"' 0.500
in.
d = 5.00 in.
'i
=0.980 in.
The braces must sntisfy I.he requuements for moderately ductile members. as slipulateJ in
Sections F l .5n and 01.l of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Elements of the brnce members
must not C:\ceed ~widthtothickness ratios.
From Table 14 o f this Manual, the L5x5x1/z satisfies widthtothickness ratios for OCBF
diagonal braces (moderately ducnle members).
F1 =36 ksi
Fu= 58 ksi
Determine the required strength of the diagonal brace
Considering the load combinauons given in ASCE/SEI 7, the governing load combination
and resultant maximum axial tension and bending moment in the diagonal brace are:
LRFD
tl
l~.4.2.3)
(1.0+0.14Sos)D+H + F+0.7pQs
Pa
+ 0.2{0 kips)
,.r:
,.,
'I .
=51.1 kips
Mk =(l.2+0.2(0.528)j(l.13 k.ipft)
. I
+ 0 kips+ 0 kips
t 0.7(1.0)(51.J kips)
= 35.8 lcips
Ma= jt.0+0.14(0.52S)J(1.13 kipft)
+ 0 kipft+O kipft
+ 0.2{0 kipft)
+ 0.7(1.0)(0 kipft)
..'
=[l.0+0.14(0.528))(0 kips)
= 1.48 kipfl
ASD
= l.21 iipft
The available compressive strength of a tension<>nly brace is ignored in the design of the
bracing. Therefore in order to ensure the brace will buckle in compression under relatively
minor loading, use a tensiononly brace with a slendem~s ratio greater than the recommended maximum effective slenderness ratio, KL/r, of 200 as indicated in the User Note in
Section E2 of the AISC Specification. According to the User Note in AlSC S1>ecijicario11
Section D l. K.L!r of members designed on the ba:;is of tension should preferably not excc!ed
300. Therefore the effecli\e slenderness ratio, KL/r, is selected to be greater than 200, but
less than
300.
Determine K
According to AISC SpecificalWTI Appendix 7, Section 7 .2.3(a), for braced frame systems the
effective length factor for members subject to compression shall be taken as 1.0, w1less a
rational analysis indicates that a lower value is appropriate.
The overall length of the brace diagonal in each bay is:
This length lw been determined by calculating the distanee between the work points based
on the intersection of the centcrHnes of the diagonal braces, columns and beam. Shorter
lengths m;iy be used if justified by the enginur of record.
Single angles in Xbracing are normally continuous for the full diagonal length of the bay
,1.;1h the orientation of each brace rcver~cd as s.hown in Figure 58, pcnnitting the brae~
to be coonecred to each other by bolling at midlength. The effective length in 1his arrangement is 0.85 times the half diagonal length cons1dcring the radius of gyration in the za.."<is,
'r. (ElTayem and Goel, 1986).
S78
BRACED FRAl1F.S
L: =0.5L
=0 .5(56.6 ft)
LRFD
ASD
= 28.3 fl
$1Pn
K%= 0.85
Ktlt
Pn
=0.90(17~ kips)
= J 55 kips> 51.l ltips
, n, =
o.k.
r~
0.980 in.
o.k.
The limit state of tension rupture on the effective area should also be checked; however, by
inspection, it would not control.
=295
The slenderness,
172 kips
1.61
X:, is greater than 200, but Jess than 300, and therefore meets the desired
range based on I.he User Notes in Sections DJ and E2 of the AISC Specification.
Note that ~e suggested slenderness limit of 300 does not apply to rod bracing, nor does the
0.85 effecuve length factor.
Pn = FyAg
=172 kips
Mn= 1.5M1
I:.
t
Mn= l.5SxF1
<>
LRFD
High~strength
bolt
with spacer plate
~11Mn
=0.90(14.2 kipft)
ASD
'
Mn
14.2 ltipft
1.67
=8.50 kipft> 1.21 kipft
=
o.k.
Qb
o.k.
M,=B1Mm+B21r
P, = Pn1 + /hP11
Calculate 81
.,
BRACED FRJ\.C\1E8
...
Calculate B2
~:
I,,.~
P"""' is lhe Lota! vertical load on the story calculated using the applicable load case. As cal
Af,
I ...
~ps
P_, = l,130
=1.00(1.48kipft)+1.01(0 kipft)
=81M"' + /hM11
= l.OO(J.21kipft)+1.01(0 kipfl)
=1.48 kipft
=1.21 kipft
= B1M,., + IhMtz
l~
!.
LRFD
Ill
=R.11 D.H
=l.O 136 kips(40.0 fl)
1
t cx.Psrorz
~l
ASD
Ih =
~ 110'1
l
l oPJtcry
~l
=1.01
Mtr.,. 0 kipft
=Piil +lhPiz
= 0 kips+ 1.01(35.8 kips)
=36.2 kips
=51.6 kips
P, _ 51.6 kips
Pc 155 ldps
ASD
LRFD
'
36.2 ltips
:::
Pc 103 kips
0.351
P,
=0.333
Because P,IPc <? 0.2, lhc brace design is controlled by the equal.ion:
I.RFD
=1.48 kipft
P,
~JCstord~ be?<'ing moments with the strncture rcslr.\ined against !:Heral lr.lnslation (grav
Mni =M,,
ASD
Pr =Pnr + B2Piz
= 0 kips+ 1.01(51.l kips)
_ 1.60(740 kips)
1
85,800 kips
ity loads Ill this case), and due Lo lateral translation of the story are, respectively:
!i
Piil =O kips
=51.1 kips
P. ""'7
I_ l.00(1,130 kips)
85,800 lcips
= 1.01
'
=0 kips
LRFD
LRFD
")'
P,,,
fl,
,..~
fh 
ASD
The required ;trength oftbe brace including secondordcr effects is, from AISC Specification
Equation A82:
= 85,800 kips
'
firstorder ruual force:. wilh the strucrurc restrained ag:uaq lateral trani;lation <gravity loads in
this ca..<.e), and due to lateral translation of Lhe story from seismic loading are, l'C$pechvely:
LRfD
   ;::;:J
M,
ASD
P, nory
..
ASO
LRFD
ASD
Mm =Ma
= 1.21 kipft
M11 = 0 kipft
The required fle.'(ural screnglh of the brace including second<:>rder effects is, from AJSC
Specification Equation A81:
LRFD
!(o+
51.6 kips ..
155 kips 9
0.436< 1.0
ASD
oi.
!(o +
36.2 k.ips +
103 kips 9
0.478< 1.0
kipft)== 0.478
1.21
8.50 kipft
o.k.
Note that I.he yy _axis bending moment from the selfweight of the diagonal br.lce utih
about 11 % of the member capacity.
;U1ERJCAl'I lNs'rm1r6 OF STEJlL O:lHs'nucnON
BRACED FRAMES
Use an L5x5x1h in the tensiononly configuratfon for OCBF diagonal Brace BR I
BraC:es must be continuous through and bolled to each other at the intersecung JOint as
shown in Figure 58.
. ~ considering the configuration of a braced fr:imc system, both in plan and elevation, it
is unportant to note the requirements for redundancy in the system. The AISC Sei$tniC
Provisions require that a braced frame system balance the compression and tension braces.
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.4a requires that along any line of bracing, the braces
are oriented to resist a t least 30% but not more than 70% of the 1otal horiz.onts.l force in tension unless the exception in Section P2.4a is met
. The Al~C Seismic. Pro_visio~. limit member slenderness, compressive strength, and
WJdtht~ckness rauos, m addiuoo to requiring special detailing for gusset plates. The
cwnula1J,e ~eA of these ~uiremcnts is inleoded to result in braces that maintain a high
level of ducuhty and bysterebc damping when subjected to severe seismic forces.
Brsc.e slenderness is limited to ensure adequate compressive strength and resistance to the
eyeUc degradation of the brace. The postbuckling performance of the brace is dependent on
the compactness of Ille members used. Members with a higher widthtothickness rntio are
more susceptible to local buckling, which may lead to tearing of the brace material in the
buckled areas prior to the dissipatfon of a significant amount of energy. This behavior results
in a system with signHicantJy lower energy dissip:uion cap:ibility.
. The la_st of the predominant issues relating to the bracing members is the spacing of
mtenned1ate connecrors of double angle, double channel or similar builtup braces. AJSC
Seismic Prtn:isicn.r Section P2.5b ootes that connectors should be placed such th:it the air,
5.:l SPECIAi.
CON('UNTRJCAU~Y
BAAl'W
tKA1v11.:J
value for the individual components of the brace is less than 40% of the governing slcu
demess of the builtup member. Addiuonally, 11 is required that the connectors have a ~bt
strength that develops the tensile strength of individual components of the brace. The
two provisions are intended to ensure that the brace buckles as a unit, thus allowing more
reliable behavior. The connector requirements are reduced wben it canbe shO\\ n that 1'"~1
brace assembly can buckle as a single element without inducing shear forces in the co
nectors between the individual members. In any case, no fewer than two connectors a.
allowed with uniform spacing, and bolted connectors are not permitted in the middle ooefourth of the clear brace length. The limitation on the Jocati~n of bolted ~ttn~hme~ts
included to gu:ud against premature fracture due to the formauon of a plasuc htnge in LI
l.
buckled brace.
In order to increase ductility and energy dissipation of. the system the connection( l
must be detailed to accommodate the effects of br.:ice bucklmg. Curren~y. there ar~ l\
approaches used in the design of these coonecuons; lh~e :ire smted m AlSC Se1sm. ~
Provisions Sections F2.6c(3)(a) anJ F2.6c(3)(b}. The first approach creates enough strengt'
and rigidity in the connections to force the brnce to form plastic hinges at the ends and mi \
die of the brace under compressive forces. The second appro:icb utilizes outofpla1
buckling of the gusset plate such that plastic hinges occur in the gusset plate a l the brae'
ends with a hinge stlll occurring at the midpoint of the brace. This usually is accommodDIW
in one o f two ways. As one opt.ion, the connection can. be detailed such 1hnt the end ~f ti
brace is located a distance of at least two times the thickness of the gusset from the intc
section of the gusset and the beam or column. This configuration is shov. n in Al SC Seismic
Provisions Commentary Figure CF2.9. The value.of two rim~ the thickn.es~ of th.e gus~ I
bas been developed through research and analysis. Ahemauvely, an cllipucal yield b. !
approach can be u~d (Lehman et al., 2008). AISC Seismic PM is1ons Section F2.t.c
addresses beamtocolumn connection issues related to the accommodation of large seismic
drifts associated with the yielding and buclcling of the braces. Tb.is provision is iliscussed
gre:iter detail in the following.
.
The design requirements for most btiSic frnme configuratjons are covered hy Lhe conditions listed earlier in thls section. V~yPe and in~ert~ Vty~ frames,_ however, ~re requir1"' \
to meet additional criteria, as noted in AISC Se1sm1c Prov1sio1is Secuon F2.4b.
The.~ requfrements are intended to reduce the effect of a loss in strength of tl1c comprc... .,
sion brace relati"ve 10 the tension brace in the postbuckling f3Jlgc. as shown in Figure 59. A
the compression brace buckles under !~ad, its capab~lity to re~ist the \ertical load i~ climi
ished relative to the strength of the tenStOn br.l<:e. This results ID an unblllanced verucal Jo;
between the two members. which exens additional ,ert.ical force on the beam. Braced framtconfigu:rotions utilizing zipper columns and twostory X configurations. as shown in Figures
59(b) and 59(c), distribute this unbalanced vertical load to other levels that are not expt
encing b.igh seismic demands, providing for better overall frame performance.
Another check covered in the AJSC Seismic Provisions relates to columns that are part or
the SCBF system. Columns are required to meet the highly ductile widthtothickness cri1
ria according to AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5a. and have special considerations r
their splices. According to AISC St!ismic Provisions Se.ction P2.6d, column splices mus:,
develop :i required shear strength equal LO W pclHc for LRFD and rJ.1pcl(l.5llc) for ASD.
This requirement is intended to accOODt for the possibility of the columns sbanng some
the lateral force demand through frame action as the brace elements defoon inclastical
deflecting the frnmes beyond what elastic calcul.uions might predict. Additionally.
l
i
;I
584
BRACED FRAMEs
h.. ~ .
r I
f I
noted I.bat the column splices m~st be located at least 4 ft from the beamtocolumn flange
connections in AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5a.
,
<i.
;
l
~ I
1::
AISC qeismic Provisions Section F2.6b requires that gusseted beamtocolumn connections .!>e designed to accoffiinodate demands corresponding to large drifts. In the contex;
of this provision, the connectiqi;i consjsts of the gusset plate, the affected parts of the beam
a.nd c.otumn, and any other connectj1;m .ma~erial, such as angles and plates, interconnect
L.\
I
.:!:
!.H
..
sJ
...
~
':J; ,
tl
..,
.~.
Yielding
brace
Yielding
brace
;~
~;
t: l
~~
,,"... .
g
:~
:~
.....
'
~
:;,
~;
~:
Yielding
brace
I.
Buckled
brace ~
,.;;.
(
the AISC Manual and meeting the rotational ductility checks described in Part 9 of the AISC
Manual can be assumed to provide a minimum. of 0.03 rad and satisfy the intent of the AISC
Specification Section B3.6a for simple connections. TI1e Part 9 rotational if~ctility che~ks
are intended for use with connections between 6 in. and 36 in. deep and with gcometnes
similar to those shown in che AISC Mo.nu.al. 'J;'he use of deeper connectio~, smaller.ser.:off
distances ~tween the supported and supporting members, or smaller edge distances can
affect the ability of connections to accommodate large rotations in a ductile manner.
It is important to nore that these bounds apply to the connection as a whole. For example,
if the colUlection at the column face consists of a dollbleangle connection from column
flani>ecogusset and a doubleangle connection from column flangetobeam web, the two
as rotating about a single point and the entire depth of the assembly should not exceed 36
in. in order for the roration requiremeocs to be deemed satisfied in the absence of further
demonstration. Physical testS can also be used to demonstrate adequate rotation capacity.
The second method of accommodating demands cotTesponding to large drifts is described
inAJSC Seismic Provisions Secrion F2.6b(b). Rather than aUempting to detef11Une the actual
d~mand placed on gusseted connections by seismic drifts, this method establishes an upper
bound demand based on flexural yielding of either the beam or the column. It .is assumed
that these members have sufficient rotationarductility to maintain their function aS bracedframe members when subjected to 'inelastic rotation. The connection is designed to re'.sist a
moment corresponding to the lesser of 1.1 times the expected beam flexural strength and l. l
times the sum of the expected column flexural strength above and below the connection.
This moment is considered in conjunction with the brace forces corresponding to the brace
expected strength. Connection assemblies may be designed to resist this moment i~ one of
two ways. The enpre assembly may be analyzed wic~ the required moment and axial force
applied and all connection elements designed for the correspon~ing forces. Conn~ct~g the
beam itself to the column by a fully restrained moment connection capabl~ of resisting the
expected flexural strength of the beam is.another option. Wirh this option the gusset plate
and related connection elements may be designed for forces derived considering ~e brace
\
.
connection required strength.
Thus, there are three methods of complying with AJSC Seismic Provisions SectJon F2.6b
presented in this Manual. :gach of these m.etbods is presented in a different connectio~ exampleExamples 5.3.10, 5.3.11 and 5.3.12. These examples also illustrate three d1fferent
methods of accommodadng the rotation associated with brace buckling as required by
Section F2.6c(3). There is no correlation between the inethod of accommodating frame drift
and the method of accommodating brace rotation due to buckling, i.e., any method of com
plying with Section F2.6b may be used in conjunction witb. any method of complying with
Section F2.6c(3). Examples 5.3.10, 5.3.11 ~nd 5.3.12 are configured as follows:
Example
5.3.!0
5.3.ll
5.3.12
Fig.'59. Assumed inel.astic defomiation. of various bracedfrwne co11jiguration.s.
AM.ERICAN
S85
BRACED FRA\.fF.S
E:<amples 5.3.J through 5.3.6 address analysis and SCBF rncmber design issues. Example
5.3.7 dcmons1rates how to determme the maximum force on the sys1cm wbcn limited by
foundation uplift. Examples 5.3.8 and 5.3.9 address b.racetobeam connection de.~ign.
I'
Refer to Brace BR l in Figure 511. Select an ASThl A500 Grade B round HSS to resist the
following ;Wal lo3d~
=85 psf
Drocf =68 psf
Dflcor
Po
=18.0 kips
The applicable building code specifies lhe use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of lo:ids. The
Relevant seismic design parameters were given in the SCBF Design Example Pl:in and
Elevation section.
from an elastic analysis, the firstorder inten.tory drift between the base and the second level
is !J.H =0.200 in.
~
1=~'t.
From ASCFJSEI 7, the Seismic Design Category is D, 0 0 2.0, R =6, p =J .3, and Sos=
LO. Assume that the effective length method of AlSC Specific01ion Appendix 7 is u~ed for
subitity design.
25'0"
~oof
~~
30'o
tH
~l+l
N'
1!1
~Ourth
I~!!:.:.:.:=~~~~~!
Level
m: l
"'"~~~
~    l ~~;~:estlgated
l~
..............
......
in Part 4.
Third
Level
Fx,= 84 kips
Column splice 48"
above finished
floor (typ.)
CD
c,
.....
l':l
= 91 kips
CD
300
30'0"
l
l
.':?
N
Second
Level
5'
.....
""'
.....J
(.)
Base
,.,.
S88
Assume that the ends of the brace are pinned and braced against translation for boib the
xx and yy axes.
~
f(
BRACED FRAMES
C::;
ii...
LRFD
Solution:
ASD
From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties are as follows:
Fy =42 ksi
Fu= 58 ksi
P0 =[0.60.14(1.0)](18.0 kips)
+ 1.3(197kips)+1.6(0 kips)
= 244 kips
:::::171 kips
Required Strength
The unbraced length of the brace from work pointtowork point is:
LRFD
...
:
r},
= 18.8 ft
ASD
This length has been determined by calculating the distance between che work points base<l
on the intersection of the centerlines of the brace, column and beams. Shorter unbraced
lengths of the brace may be used if justified by the engineer of record.
'.
:::
by Section 12.4.2.3)
~11
(1.0 + 0.l4Svs)D
~;
AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.4a requires that between 30% and 70% of the tots! hor
izontal force is resfated by brace~ in tension. From analysis, the.total horizontal force in the
+ H + F + O)pQE
line of the braced frame is 91 kips + 84 kips + 57 kips + 30 kips =262 kips. The horizontal
component of the axial force due to earthquake force in Brace BR1, when it is in tension is:
12 5
ft )(l97 k.ips) =131 kips
( 18.8
ft
.
LRFD .
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3
 "..
ASD
+O kips+O kips
+ 0.7(1.3)(197 kips)
From AISC Manual Table 113, the geometric properties are as follows:
+ 1.3(197 kips)
=286 kips
which is 50% of the total horizontal force in the line of the braced frame. Therefore, it meets
the lateral force distribution requiremepts in AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.4a.
D= 8.625 in.
[:::: 100 in.~
0.500 in.
r= 2.89 in.
lncm =
tdes
=0.465 in.
A :::: 11.9.in..,
:::200 kips
WidthtoThickness Umitations
.I
According to AISC Seismic Pro'Visions Section F2.5a, braces must sa~sfy the requirements
for highly ductile members. Elements .in the brace members must not ~xceed AmJ width
tothickness ratios in AISC Seismic Provisions Table D 1.1.
,,
ASD
8.625 in.
=0.465
  in.
Ide$
[l.2+0.2(1.0)]
+ 0.2(20 psf)
p .2+0.2(1.0)J
~26:2
Ides
=9,000 ft 2
l[L0+0.14(1.9)]
x[68 psf+3(85 psf)]
[t.o+o.14ci.o)]
ductile members.
J:
I l!
x(l kip/l,000.Jb)
= 3,630 kips
Smee 
P.riory
A.ht! = 0.038.. F,
= 18.5
1 ,,
= 5,160 kips
. _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _......__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ . , j
Alternatively, using Table 16, it can be seen that the HSS8.625x0.500 will satisfy the
widthtothickness requirements for an SCBF brace.
Brace Slenderness
Use K= I .0 for both. the xx and yy axes. According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section
The total story shear, H, with t':VO bays of bracing in che direction under consideration.
where each bra~ed.frame is designed to resist the seismic loads shown in Figure 511, i s
determined as follows. From an elastic analysis, the firstorder interstory drift is D.H ;,
0.200 in.
, ,.
l
h
'
L =14.0 ft
2.89 in.
o.k.
HL
Pe.r1ory=R1t1
6.H
SecondOrder Effects
the
Follow
procedure of AISC Specification Ap~n<Jb: 8.
only the following equation need be checked.
....
=~40,000 kips
Calculaie 82
To detennine P~llJry use an area of 9,000 ft2 on each floor and the gravity loads !riven in the
SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation section. Use load combinations that ;elude seismic effects; in this case, Load Combination 5 from ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3 for LR.FD
and ASD governs.
LRFD
lh=>1
l_
a.P11ory 
ASD
Bi=
1
l aPstory
Pe s10ry
1
= _ 1.00(5,160 kips)
1
440,000 kips
~1
Pestory
=
1. 60(3,630~kips)
1
,
== 1.01 ~ l
1:
440,000 kips
=1.01~1
Because B2 S 1.5, 1he effective length method is a valid way 10 check stability according 10
AISC Specification Appendix 7.
yield strength oflhe brace in tension, a 13% decrease in brace area would reduce th~ require.
connec1ion strength.
The required axial compressive Sl.J'Cllgth of the brace including second order effects is, from
AISC Specification Equation A82:
LRFD
ASD
Pa =IL0+0.14(1.0)]Po
+ Pn +PF+ 0.7pBzPa,;
+0.5L+0.2S
..
Give'n :
Refer to the braced frame elevation and sizes shown in Figure 512. All braces' are ASTM
A500 Grade B round HSS. Perform an analysis to determine the expected strengths in 1ension and compression of tl1e braces according to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3.
Some engineers may choose not to change the brace size at every level, but they are different a1 every level in these design examples to fully illustrate 1he AJSC Seismic Provisions
=!l.0+0.14(1.0)J(l8.0 kips)
+ 0 kips+O kips
requirements.
+ 0.7(1.3)(1.01)(197 kips)
= 202 kips
Solution:
From AJSC Manual Table 24, 1he material properties are as follows:
As stated previously, use L = 18.8 ft for the unbraced length of the brace.
From AISC Manual Table 45 for !he HSS8.625x0.500 brace with KL= 18.8 ft (using
interpolation), the available compressive strength is:
LRFD
Roof
o.k.
<'?
N
,
o.k.
Fourth
Level
~c
'9
Prom AISC Manual Table 56 for the HSS8.625x0.500 brace, the available tensile yielding strength is:
LRFD
....
Third
Level
ASD
25'0"
ASD
"
o.k.
P.
<.OI
N
,
o.k.
Second
i::
~~.
Level
Tensile rupture on the. net section must also be checked at the connection; see Examples.
"'Base
Comments:
f
,,
...::.
'
The engineer of record may be able to justify a shorter unbraced length for the brace. In this
ex.ample, if an unbraced length of 14 ft could be justified, an HSS7.500x0.500 could have
been used for !he brace. Because the end connections may be designed to resist the expected
..
F2 6c(3)(b)] by allowing 3 2 1 clearance between the end of the brace and the line of
res.tr:iint. ll is likely that the actu3.l length from brnce endtobrace_ end .between the con.
11 be ifi ti less than the work pointtowork point distance calcul:Hed
necnons w1
sign can y
.
t I 12
reviously. Example 5.3.8 verifies that the actual lengtl' of the brace 1s appro~una e Y
~o 13 ft; therefore, use a length of 12 ft for determining the expected strength U1 compres
0 =42 ksi
Fu= 58 ksi
Prom AISC Manual Table 1 13, the geometric properties of the br:ices are:
. '
r=2.02 in.
HSS6.875x0.500
A= 9.36 in.2
r = 2.2,7 in..
The following Tubles 51 and 52 show the expected strengths in tension a~d ~e e~pected
and postbuckling strengths in compression of all braces. A s~ple calculauon is given for
the HSS6x0.312, and a similar procedure is used to detemune the strengths of the other
braces. From AISC Seismic Provisions Table A3. l:
r= 2.49 in.
f .h b
. t
Ry= 1.
From AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, the expected strength o l c race m en
HSS7.500x0.500
A= 10.3 in. 2
HSS8.625x0.500
A= 11.9 in. 2
\:
sion is:
r= 2.89 in.
Pr~n.sion =
According to AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, the required strenglhs of columns,
beams and connections are based on the load combinations in the applicable building code.
where the amplified seismic load, Emh. is based on the larger force determined from the following two analyses:
(i) An analysis in which all braces arc assumed to resist forces corresponding to their
In order to study the effects of analyses (i) and (ii) on the rest of the frame, the expected
compres~ion
the postbuckling strength in compression must be
strengths in tension
determined for all of the braces.
and
1
\:
HSS6x0.312
A =5.22 in. 2
and
RyFyAg
,
..,i:
=307 kips
4.7 1~ RyFy
E =4.7 1
29,000 ksi
1.4(42 ksj)
I
\
For detennining the expected strength in compression, AJSC Seismic Provisions Section
F2.3 requires that the brace length used shall not exceed the distance from brace endtobrace
end. The work poinHowork point length of the typical brace above the base level is:
L=Jo2.5 ft)
= 105
Because 71.3 < 105, AISC Specification Equation .E3~2 applies,
an~
Fcre is determined as
follows:
..l
+ (12.5 ft)2
= 17.7 ft
The work pointtowork point length of the brace al the base level is:
L
: 18.8 ft
= 56.3 ksi
(71.3)
The brace length will be less than lhis distance because of the column and beam depth and
because I.he gusset will accommodate brace buckling [AISC Seismic Provisions Section
...
S96
Fett= 0.658
In Examples 5.3.3 through 5.3.6, the forces generated in this :inalysis wiU be considered in
the dc~ign of the beam. column and colulTUI splice connection. The diagram in Figure 513
shows the forces imposed on the frame from buckJing and yielding of U1e braces. For the
analysis provisions of AISC Seismic Provisions F2.3(ii), che expected strengths of the braces
in compression shown in Figure 5l3a nre multiplied by 0.3 (expected postbuckling brace
!!Li
(from Spec. Eq. E32)
RyF1
F.
1.4(42 ksi)
...
(1.4)(42 ksi)
From AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, U1e expected strength of che brace in compression is:
..
;.:
~:
Roof
=226 kips
3~
Fourth
Level
R1 F1 A9
kips
HSS6x0.312
5.22
307
Third
HSS6.875l<0.500
9.36
550
Level
HSS7.500x0.500
10.3
606
HSS8.625x0.500
11.9
700
Expected Strength
~..
: .
:>
In Compression
Brace
Member
A=A1
'
Length
in.i
In.
ft
Kl.Jr
F.,..
ksl
HSS6l<0.312
5.22
2.02
12.0
71.3
38.0
63.4
41.6
1.14F4,
kl)ls
226
Expected PostBuck/irig
Strength in Compression
0.3(1.14F.,..Ag)
kips
67.8
2.27
12.0
444
133
HSS7.500x0.500
10.3
2.49
12.0
57.8
44.1
518
155
HSS8.625x0.500
11.9
2.89
12.0
49.8
47.5
644
193
HSS6.875x0.500
9.36
.
0
!~
.
I
~
,....
Base
444 kips
"' ""'/
518 kips
Table 52
307 kips
<9
1..
550 kips
Second
Level
/""
t:>
A
ln.2
Brace
Member
l ~I
226 kips
Table 51
;'. 1
"' ""'/
<9
"
   y:;
25'0"
I
\
/"" .
700 kips
""'/
606 kips
644 kips
""
..

BRACED FRA..~fES
.r ~v
~
.
'.
Roof
(Cl
N'
Fourth
Level
~
N
25'0"
""'
550 kips
Third
Level
Second
l evel
Base
2(a) in Section F2.3 will also be considered. There are two additional Exceptions: 2(b)
forces corresponding 10th~ resistance of the foundation to overturning uplift, and 2(c) force!
determined from nonlinear anaJysis. Exception 2(b) will be considered in Example 5.3.6.
I;
Assume that the ends of the column are pi110ed and braced against translation for both the
Solutio n:
From AJSC Manual Table 24, the material properties a.re as follows:
ASTMA992
F_..,
=50 ksi
'
Fu= 65 ksi
133 kips
"'/
606 kips
/""
700 kips
307 kips
""' "'/
155 kips
~
..
"'/
/""
67.8 kips
s9
Required Strength
i:
Determine the required strength of the column from A/SC Seismic Provisions
Section F2.3 (Mechanism Analysis)
According to AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, the required strengths of columns are I
based on the load combinations in the applicable building code, where the amplified seis f':
mic load, Emh, is based on an analysis in which all braces are assumed to resist force~
corresponding to their expected strengths in compression or in tension. The analysis in
which the compression braces are at their postbuckling strength does not govern here.
\
193 kips
"'
"
Figure 5 14 shows the forces from the expected strengths of the braces :is detemuned ir. '.
Example 5.3.2. These forces can be considered as applied loads acting on the columns and
as applied loads on the beam, which :ire :shown here as beam shears acting on rhe column. b
Because seismic forces must be considered in both directions, both columns in the frame
must be designed both for the maximum tension, shown for the column on gridline B, and
for the maximum compression, shown for i.he column on gridline C.
The axial compression force in the col'iunn frQm this analysis is, with forces that produce
PE.A
Given :
Refer to Column CL l in Figure 51 l. Select an ASTM A992 Wshape with the available
strength required by the AISC Seismic Provisions.
Relevant seismic parameters were given in the SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation
section. The column forces from gravity and snow loads are the following:
Ps = 7 .00 kips
The seismic force in Column CL1 from tbe seismic forces stipulated by the app.licable
building code using an equivalent lateral force analysis, n9t including lbe Q,, amplification,
was determined from analysis to be PQr 248 kips.
The forces resulting from the expected strengths of the braces defined in AlSC Seismic
Provisions Section F2.3 and calculated in Eltample 5.3.2 must be considered. The Exception
'.;:
The axial tension forc.e in the' column from this analysis is, with forces that produce tension
in the column shown as negative:
BRACED FRAMES
with the. anaJysis described in Section F2.3, the required uial compres~ive ~rrength of lhe
column 1s.
L,
LRFD
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCf/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
(including lhe 0.5 facror on l permitted
in Se.ction 12.4.3.2)
..
.;.
._
  .... ~'.:":1
..
l9
N
.....
level
fl
<
...
I""' ,,
226 kips
18~~~
Fourth
<O

..
550 kips
Third
level
t
"~518 kips
N
..
"
, 11.3 kip;'
,,/'
..,.

Base
700 kips
. 
307 kips
/
~84 Id~_!
'
444 kips
~
/
606 kips
:'.!ldpsl
=10.6o.14{Lo)J(t47 kips)
Determine the required strength of the column from A/SC Seismic Provisions
Section F2.3 Exception (2)(a)
AISC Stismic Provisions Section F2.3 Exception l2)(a) sl.1tcs that the required strength of
columns need not exceed t~ forces determined using load combinations stipularcd by the
applicable building code including the amplified seismic load, applied to a building frame
model in which all compression braces have been removed. For exterior columns (columns
at lhe cods of a br:iced frame or at the ends of sevtra.I bays 0 1 bracing), forces determined
using this exception may be lower lhan rho:.e required by AISC Seismic Provisions Sc:<:tion
Dl.4a(2), in which case it might not be prudent to use this ex.ctption. In this example wit.h
a 2srory X configuration, the required st.reng<h of the column detemunei.l from a model m
which compression braces have been removed resulcs in required strengths in tension that
are significantly lt:ss than forces detennined from the 11nalysis provisions of ATSC Seismic
Provisions Section F2.3.
For tlus example and for other rypical frrunes, a model that includes all brae.es can be used
with the load combinations including lhe codebased amplified seismic load to determine
the appropriate required strength of exterior columns. However. it mould be noted that for
interior c0lumns in muJtibay braces, a building frame model in which all compression
braces have been removed should be used.
Figure 511 shows the forces from an equivalent lateral force analysis, before the overstrength factor is applied. The seisllUc force in Column CL1 from the seislll.lc forces
stipulated by rhe applicable building code using an equivalent lateral force analysis, not
including the 0 0 amplification, was determined from Malysis to be Par =248 !Ops.
Pa6
644 kips
""'
+(917 kips)
= 814 kips
Pa =(!0+0.14Sos)Po +PH+ Pr
+ 0.7Pr;.,.
= l,190l5ps
::
='0.90.2(1.0)](147 kips)
08oof
ASD
LRFD
Pu =(0.90.2Sos)Po +~
510!
ASD
tll
" Srm.. ~
Using these forces in the full model which includes the compression braces as an approximation of Exception (2)(a) of AISC Seismic Prrwisions Section F23, the load combinations
in ASCEISEl 7 give a requircJ axial compressive scrcngth for the coJumn as follows:
~.
LRFD
f~~~~~LRFO~~~~~~~f~~~~~~AS_D~~~~~~ 'r
ASD
+ J.01(2.0)(248 kips)
+ 0.1Q 0 PQr
=fl.2+0.2(1.0)}(147 kips)
. +B2(0.?)!laPQ1
=[L2+0.2(1.0)j(l47 kips)
+0.2Ps
+0.5Pt+0.2Ps
+ 0kips+O1dps
+ 0.2(7.00 kips)
+ 0.7(2.0)(248 kips)
\.
+ 0 k.ips + 0 kips
+ l.Ol(0.7){2.0)(Z48 kips)
+ 0.5(60.0 kips)
=!L0+0.14(1.0)](147 kips)
=IJ.0+0.14(1.~)](147 kips)
= 518 kips
'\
1
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
= 733 kips
= 515 kips
For comparison, Table 53 provides a summary of the required :ix.ial strengths of the colum
based on the cwo different analyses considered.
Try a W12x96.
LRFD
LRFD lp;id Combination 7 from
AS_CFJsw.7 Section U.4.3.2
ASD
P0
=[0.90.2(1.0))(147 k.ips)
+ 2.0(248ldps)+1.6(0 kips)
= 393 kips
Use K = 1.0 for both the xx and yy axes. From AISC Manual Table 4 l, the avail.ab!
strength in nial compression for a W12><96 with KL= 14 ft:
= 280 kips
Because these required strengths are less than those determined from the mechanism analysis of AlSC Seismic Provisions Section P2.3, they will be used for lhe design of the col umil.
:.
SecondOrder Effects
Because the column is designed for codebased forces rather than lhe mechanism analysis
requirements of AISC Seismic Pn:wisions Section F2.3, second~rder effects should be considered. From Example 5.3. l for the brace nt this level. B2 = 1.01. Because the columD does
not have.moments, I.here is no need to calculateB1 factors.
Therefore, the h:quired axial Compressive strength of the column including secondorder
effects is, from AISC Specification Equation A82:
. ,...
$ 1 Pn
l'
ASD
LRFD
o.k.
n,
o.k.
According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5a, the stiffened and unstiffened elements
of columns musl satisfy the requirement<; for highly ductile membCrs in Section D 1.1.
From 1'able 13 of this Manual. it can be se.,~ thats W12X96 will satisfy lhe widthtothickness limits for an SCBF column (note lhac any villue of Pu mat and Pa is pennissible, as
shown in Table 13).
Use a W12x96
f9~
BRACFD FRAMES
r:
r,.:
~.,.
\"
Compre~n
Tension
S.. llb
'lllese forces arc shown in Tables 51 and 5 2, and the forces acting on bearu BM2 are
sbown in Figure 515.
Table 53
Required Strength
Determine the required axial strength of the beam based on A/SC Seismic
Temion
Corr.press!on
ASD
LRFO
ASD
LRFD
ASD
UIFO
ASO
1,190
837
a14
574
738
518
393
280
~~:
~~
Given:
Refer to Be3m BM2in Figure 511. Select an ASTM A992 Wshape with a maximum depth
of 36 in. D~ign the bc:un as a noncomposite beam for slreogth, although the composite
deck can be considered to brace the beam as discusse0 later in this example. The applicable
building code specifics the use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads.
Assume the brace sizes are as shown in Figure 5 12. Rclev31lt seismic paramerers w~re
given in the SCBF Qe.;ign Example Plan and Elevation section. The gravity i:hears and
moments on the beam. assuming a simple span from column line B to C, :ire:
Vo= 11.2 kips
,\.to= I20lciprt
This unbalanced ve111c:U force can be considered as a load acting at the midpoint of the
beam, and produces the following shear and moment:
Py
=__._
.7;....,,"11
=17.7 kips
M1.,
=100 kipfl
2
_ 17.7 kips
2
8.85 kips
PvL
Me,.,.=4
= 111 kipft
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 24. the mateiial properties arc BS follows:
ASTMA992
F1
..,,
'
,,i:
=50 ksi
Fu= 65 ksi
As required by AJSC Sti.rmic Provisio11.s Section F2.3, lhe required strength of the beams
shnll be based on the load combinations in the applicable builcling code, including the amplified seismic load. The runpl}fied seismic load is determined from the lt1rger of:
(i) An analysis in which all br.ices a.re assumed 10 resist forces corresponding to their
expected strength in compression or in tension
(ii) An analysis in which all braces in tension 3.re as:.umed to resist forces co~~ponding
to lhe1r expected strengt.h anti all braces in compression arc assumed to resist 1hcir
expected postbuckling strength
CJl>.!..O!l. 
~
~
25'0"
r:;;1
I '
I
'
!226~ps
I
I
3oi~psi
00,..~1!.u!.!.l l BM~ /
l
/ ""'
:
~ l: ss91<1ps
444'k!_ps l
.. T,'
', r
~~.L ~~   ~ ~
'
./'
/1
Stcrion F2.J(i)
25'0"
Roof
r:; :,1
~
I '
I
'~
l 67.8_klps
~;
I
I
30iKips:
~'"=.;''1 ! BM~/
/""'
:
~ l: s501<ips
133'1<!ps l
T///
', T
"""".LUJ'1.J<l~L..~~~~
Fig. 5J5. Forrts acting on Otam BM2 from a mtcha11ism analysis of AJSC Stismic
Provisii>ns Stction F1.J as carntd out in E.tamp/1! 5.J.2.
AMEIUCAJ" bls'1Tnm! <:# Snn. Cossr!wcnoN
$'RACED FR.AMES
5106
Note thaL the unbalanced vertical force from the braces is considered to act at a single point
for the purpose of evaluating member limit sl.'.ltcs in the beam. In the connection design presented iu Example 5.3.8, beam local limit states arc evaluated using intemal forces
detcnnined in the brace connection design.
To deteonine the required axial force of the beam, the horizontal component of the difference between the sum of the expected strengths of the braces below the beam aod the sum
of the expected strengths of the braces above the beam can be thought of as a "~tory force"
which the beam must deliver to the braces. Since the braced frame is in I.be middle bay of a
threebay building, half of this story force can be considered to enter the br.iccs from each
side, and is carried by Beam BM2 to the braces connected to the beam midspan. This force
could act in either direction and is shown as positive.
P:i =cos4 50
=cos45 0
. J
ASD
LRFD
Va= (1.0+0.l4Sos)Vo + VH
+ 0.5Vl + 0.2Vs
+VF+0.7VE..t,
=(l.0+0.14(1.0))(11.2 kips)
= 19.0 kips
=28.8 kips
The required Oexur:il strength of Berun BM2 according to the analysjs rcquiremencs
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:
LRFD
ASD
= 163 kips
LRFD
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCFJSEl 7 Seccion 12.4.3.2
(including the 0.5 factor on l pemritted
in Section 124.3.2)
P,, =(1.2+0.2SDS )PD + %,,..
+ 0.5Pz. + 0.2Ps
=[l.2+ 0.2(J.O)J(O k:ips)+163 kips
+ 0.5(0 .kips)+0.2(0 kips)
= 163 kips
ASD
ASD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEJ 7 Section 12.4.3.2
Mu =(1.2+0.2Sos)Mo tMe,,.,,
+0.5Ml +0.2Ms
=ll.2+0.2(1.0)]{120 kipft)
+ 1 LJ kipft+0.5(100 kipft)
+ 0.2(0 kjpft)
=329 kipft
+MF+0.1ME,...
=[l.0+0.14(1.0))(120 kipft)
+ 0 kipft+ 0 kipft
+ 0.7(111 kipft)
= 215 lcipft
Pa = (l.0+0.14Sos )Po+ Pn
+ PF+0.7Pe,..
=(1.0+0.14(10))(0 ltips)+O kips
=114 ltips
The required shear strength of Beam BM2 according to the analysis requirements of AISC
Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:
From AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii), the required axial strength of the beam
based on the braces at their expccced strength in tension and postbuckling strengths in Ct I
pression. For this analysis, the expected s1rengths of the braces in compression must
multipUed by 0.3 to approximate their postbockling strength as shown in Table 52.
The "unbalanced" vertical force is determined from the vertical component of all four br
forces.
~
P1 = (307 kips  67.8kips+133 kips550 k.ips)sin45
=126 klps
....
"t
l
5108
This unbalanced vertical force can be considered as a load acting on the beam, and produces
the following shear and moment:
BRACED FRAMES
5 1(>'
L
t
Py
=
LRFD
2
= 126 kips
2
~ I
!'
'<
!
...
l :.
The required flexural strength of Beam BM2 according to 1he analysis requirements of
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii) is:
LRFD
ASD
Using the load combinations in ASCFJSEI 7, the required axial strength ofBM2 according
to the analysis requirements of AISC Seismic Pro\i.sio11s Section F2.3(ii) is:
+ 0.2(0 kipft)
=1.010 kipft
+ 0.7(788 kipft)
=688 kipft
ASD
LRFD
I:
=56.9 kips
=82.9 kips
=109 ldps
~::
+ 0.2 (0 kips)
=11.o+o.14(LO)J(1i.2 kips)
..
r VF+0.1Ve..,..
+ 0.5Vt + 0.2Vs
P1 L
ME=
..,.  4
To determine the required axial force of the beam, the horizontal component of the difference between the sum of the expected strengths of the braces below the beam and the
sum of the expected strengths of the braces above the beam can be thought of as a "story
force" which the beam must deliver to the braces. Since the braced frame is in the middle
bay of a threebay building, half of this story force can be considered to enter the braces
from each side.
Va ={l.0+0.14Sos)Vo + V11
=788 k,ipft
~:
illlll
ASD
=63.0 kips
The required shear strength of BM2 according to the analysis requirements of AlSC
Seismic Proi:isions Section P'2.3(iJ) is:
Pa =(1.0+0.14SDs)Po +Pu
+PF +0.7Pe.,,,
=[l.0+0.140.0)J(O k.ips)+O kips
Note that the analysis of AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii), \Vith the braces acpostbuckling strength in compression, gives significantly higher required shear and moment for
the beam, and a moderately lower required axial force. The shear and moment resulting
from the analysis of Section F2.3(ii) do not act simultaneously with the axial force resulting
from Section F2.3(i).
In summary, the required strength of Beam BM2 determined by the analysis provisions of
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:
+ 0 kips+0.7(109 kips)
=76.3 kips
LRFD
ASD
1.
,.
'
1               4              i'
P., ::: 163 kips
Va
M0 =2 15 kipft
=19.0 kips
'i:
I
I
SJIO
BRACED FRAMES
The required strength of Beam BM2 determined by the analysis provisions of AISC Stismic
Provisions Section F2.3(ii) is:
LRFD
Pu = 109 kips
v. = 82.9 lcips
JI.= 1,010 kipft
S1
ASD
..
Po == 76.3 kips
Vo = 56.9 kips
Mo = 688 kipfl
From AlSC Seismic Provisions Equation D l l, the required flexural strength is:
LR.FD
ASD
M,= R1 F1 Z
M, :::: R1 F1 Z I l.5
___
. = 18,900 kipin.
.___
_ __ _
From AISC Manual Table 11, the geometric properties are as follows:
From AISC Specificarion Equation A67, the required strenglh of lateral nodal bracing is:
. W27x114
A= 33.6 in. 2
d= 27.3 in.
Sx =299 in. 3
r,.=2.18 in.
rx = 11.0 in.
h0 =26.4 in.
lw = 0.570 in.
hftw = 42.5
J = 7.33 in.4
In order to determine which limit states apply, the beam bracing requirements must be investigated.
Bracing Requirements
According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.4b(2), beams in SCBF using V and
invertedV configurations must satisfy the bracing requirements for moderately ductile
members. This beam is considere,d part.of such a configuration because it is intersected by
braces at its midspan. AISC Seismic Provisions Section DL2a requires that beam bracjng in
moderately ductile members have !i maximum spacing of:
AISC Stismic Provisioiis Section Dl.2a(a)(I) requires L!iat both flanges of lhe beam be laterally braced or the cross section be rorsionilly braced. Assume the beam shown in Figure
510, spanning between column lines 1 and 2, at midspan of lhe SCBF frame will be used
to provide lateral bracing.
Prb
=0.02(RyFyZ)Cd I ho
= 0.02(18,900 kipin.)(1.0)/26.4 in.
=14.3 kips
'
The r~uired stiffness of l:lte!al nodal bracing is, according to AISC Specific,qtion_Equatio
A68:
1A'~'.!.(IO_M_,_c_dL)_RFD
_____'_, _
Q
t'br
lbho
1
10(18,900 kipin.)(1.0)
0.75 (12.5 ft)(l2 m./ft)(26.4 in.)
=63.6 kip/in.
_.__A_=_
n_(.._l_O~,cd_A)_so_ _;__   ,'.!.
t'br
L11ho
=2 _00 [
.
ki~in.)(1.0)
10(12,600
(12.5 ft)(12 in./ftX26.4 in.)
l i
.i;
l..
...
The axial stiffness of lhe member providing bracing to the beam is:
..
AE
k=L
   
5112
BRACED FRAMES
,. e"
~~br(i.)
> 63 _6 k.i
:m
=0.790 in.2
Provide beam lateral bracing of both flanges at midspan of the beam ( 12.5 ft) with :i
minimum
of 0.790 in.2 and with an available axial co.mpressive strength of 14.3 kips
(LRFD) and 9.55 kips (ASD).
area
Note: The gravicy beam shown (but not sized) in Figure 510 should be able to provide this
lateral bracing, depending on the depth of the beam and the connection type.
Kx
= 1.0
l..x
=25.0 ft
,,".,
tt1
f:~
LRFD
.
'lJ1>Mp = l,29p1kipft
...,,,
;';.
.~.
(.
ASD
M
_]!_ =
856 kipft
Qb
_ ' 1t
2 {29,000
ksi)
(27.3)2
=384 ksi
Tbe va)ue of Fer before local buckling effects are considered is determined as follows:
Fy
50 ksi
F.
384 ksi
=:::: 0.130
.. .
For torsional buckling, the beam is considered unbraced between torsional brace points. In
this exam.pie; the lateral braces of both flanges at midspan are assumea to .provide a torsional
braced point. Therefore the unbraUd length for torsional buckling is taken as 12.5 ft. Tu
summari.Ze:
From AJSC Manual Table l 1 and AJSC Specificazion Table B4.l, the web is slender for
compression. Therefore the reduction factor for slender stiffened elements, Q0 , roust be
determined.
Because 0.130 < 2.25, use AlSC Specification Equation E32 ro detennine the critical buckling stress.
I
F"+658t ]F,
"[o.658'':. '::;;]so k~ ..
... '
=47.3 ksi
(83)
b, = l.921
IIf
0 34
1
fj
@j s. b
(bit) ~/ .
:::: 23.5
in.~ 24.2
in.
Q.,"' ~
.
Ag
= Agtw(lib,)
1
!
21
4
4
4,080 in. + 159 in. +( ~ in.r (33.6 in.2)
Ag
The value of Fer before local buckling effects are considered is determined as follows:
50 ksi
77.2 ksi
=
=0.988
Q, =1.0
Q
Because 0.648 < 2.25, use Equation E32 to determine the critical buckling S!l'ess.
1i
=77.2 ksi
1=
50ksi 1
33.6 in.
= Q,Q,,
=1.0(0.988)
1.
= 0.988
For the governing Jim.it state of constraineda.xis flexuraltorsional b~ckling, accounting fc.
slender elements, the available strength is determined as follows from AISC Specificatio
Section E7:
')
k
!
l
' }
=0.640
= 38.1 ksi
Because Fer is lower for constrainedaxis flexuraltorsional buckling, this limit state governs
over major ax.is flexural buckling.
Fa= Q 0.658 F. F1
Determine the reduction factor, Q, for slender elements
To determine the reduction factor, Q, useAJSC Specification Section E7.2, with/= Fer, and
the minimum Fer from !he two preceding limit states. The reduced effective width of the
slender web is detennined as foll.ows:
._ I .
I
Eq. E7:
I;
(Spec.
...
0.988(50 k!i)
(50 ksi),
= 37.8 ksi
b=h
;;, d2kdcs
Pn = FcrAg
2
=37.8 ksi(33.6in.
=24.2 in.
= 1,270 kips
J=F'cr
= 38.1 ksi
5116
r:
LRFD
ASD
LRFD
P,.
l,270 kips
1.67
= 760 kips
I~.....,,
.,
brace strengths in compression and tension; instead, they may be thought of as contributing
to the system reaching that state. P8 effects do apply, however. The effective length method!
+ 0 lcipft+O kipfl
+ 0.2(0 kipft)
+ 0.7(111 kipft)
=216 kipft
The required flexural strength of Beam BM2 according to I.he analysis requirements of
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii) and including secondorder effects is:
LRFD
is used.
C,,,
<'! l
1o.P,/Pti
(Spec.
rtl /.
(Spec.
(K1L)
Eq. A83)
ASD
+B10.5ML +0.2Ms
ksj)(4,080 in.
Eq. A85}
= l.Oljl.0+0.14(1.0)](120 kipft)
+ 788!tipft+1.01(0.5)(100 kjpft)
+ 0 kipft+O kipft
+ 0.2(0 kipft)
+ 0.7(788 kipft)
: 1,010 kipft
P.12
2
rt (29.000
=LOJ!L0+0.14(1.0))(1~0 kipft)
=331 kipft
Because the seismic component of the beam required strength comes from the mechanism
analysis of AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3 and is based on the expected strengths of
the braces, P6 effects need not be considered and B2 from AISC Specificario11 Appendix S
need oot be applied. P6 effects do no1 increase the forces corresponding to the expectedi
< 
+MF+0.7ME.,,.
=1.01(1.2+0.2(1.0)](129 ki!>""ft)
SecondOrder Effects
Bi =
Ma =B1(1.0+0.14SDS)Mv +MH
+B10.5ML +0.2Ms
ASD
M .. = Bi(1.2+0.2SDs)Mo+ME.,.
=
nc
511 7
=690 kipft
In summary, including secondorder effects, the required strength of Beam BM2 determined by lhe analysis provisions of AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:
= 13,000 kips
LRFD
LRFD
LO
Bi
c
ASD
B _
1
1.0
l[1.60(114 kips)/13,000 ldps]
c.
~"
=163 kips
v,,
= 28.8 kips
Mu =331kipft
Po =114 kips
Va ::::: 19.0 kips
Ma= 216 kipft
1.
::::: 1.01
Pu
ASD
The B1 factor (P<l effect) need only be applied to the firsHttder moment with the sll'Ucture
restrained against translation. The required flexural strength of Beam BM2 according 10
the analysis reqo.irements of AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) and including secondorder effects is determined from ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 Load Combination 5
for LRFD and ASD:
Including secondorder effects, the required strength of Beam BM2 determined by the
analysis provisions of AISC SeiSmic Provisio11S Section F2.3(ii) is:
LRFD
Pu
=109 kips
Vu = 82.9 kips
M., =1,010 kipft
ASD
P,, =76.3 kips
Va = 56.9 kips
Ma = 690 ki!>""ft
Combined Loading
LRFD
Pr
=
Pc
ASD
P,
163 kips
1, 140 kips
=
Pc
= 0.143
LRFD
114 kips
760 kips
LRFD
o.k.
o.k.
LRFD
ASD
109 kips
1,140 kips
=0.0956
P,
=
o.k.
Pc
=76.3 kips
760 kips
=0.100
LRFD
o.k.
According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5a, beams in SCBF must satisfy lhe
requirements for moderate! y ductile members. From Table 13 of this Manual, the W27x 114
satisfies the limiting widthtothickness ratios and Pu and P0 are less than the maximum
permitted.
ASD
=0.831
J.
Given:
Refer to Beam BM1 in Figure 511. Select_an ASTM A992 Wshape with a maximum depth
of 36 in. Design the beam as a noncomposite beam for strength, although the composite
deck can be considered to brace the beam. The applicable building code specifies the use of
ASCFJSEI 7 for calculation of loads.
1.~
o.k.
J~:
Assume the brace sizes are llS shown in Figure 512. Relevant seismic design parameters
were given in the SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation section. The gravity shears and
moments on the beam are:
Because P,IPc < 0.2, the beamcolumn design is controlled by the equation:
0.831<1,0
ASD
Pc
v.
o.k.
=0.150
P,
ASD
0.328<1.0
5119
VL
=8.50 kips
Note I.hat in Example 5.3.10, tbe bracing connections at the third level use a splice in the
beam away from the gusset plate. Based on the connection configuration, a shorter length
could have been used for the beam design, here. In lhis example, the full 25ft bay width is
used as the length of the beam.
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties are as follows:
ASTMA992
Fy = 50 ksi
F., = 65 ksi
1;
(i) An analysis in which all braces are assumed to resist forces corresponding to thei r
f.;
t .. ~1
5120
BRACED PRAMES
.,
(ii) An analysis in which alJ braces in tension are assumed Lo resist forces corresponding
to their expected strength and all braces in compression :ire assumed to resist their
expected postbuck.ling strength
These forces are shown in Tables 51 and 52, and the forces ac1ing on Beam BM1 are
shown in Figure 516.
i.
h
:.
Unlike Beam BM2 designed in Example 5.3.4, these forces do not cause shears and
moments oo the beam; the only shears arid moments are from gravity loads.
::
Required Strength
.,,s:
'\"
,.,
:~
;: ::1
~ :
~:
,.
v
~ ~
ftl
};
~
~
i:.l
!'.
>::
From AJSC Seismic Provisions Section P2.3(i), the required axial strength of the beam is
based on the braces a1 their expected strengths in tension and compression. To determine the
required axial force on the beam, the horizontal component of the difference berween the
sum of the expected strengths of the braces below the beam and lhe sum of the expected
strengths of the braces above lhe beam can be thought of as a "story force." The story for.cc
for the analysis in AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) with tension and compressio.n
braces at their expected strengths is:
~~
25'0"
.,
5121
Because the brace<l frame is in 1hc middle bay of a threebay building, half of this story
force. or 46.0 kips. can be considered to enter the braced bay from each side. From equilibrium of the joints at each end of lhe beam, this rcsultS in an ax.ial force in the beam of
Em1i =68.6 kips, as shown in Figure 5 17.
Determine the required axial strength of the beam based on
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii)
For lhis analysis, the expected strength of the braces in compression must be multiplied by
0.3 co approximate Lheir postbuckling strenglb, as shown in Table 52.
Figure 516(b) shows the forces corresponding to the tension braces at their expeccec
strengths ::md che compression braces at their postbuckling strength. Similar to Beam BM2 in Example 5.3.4, an equivalent "!>tory force"' can be determined as:
=55.2 ldps
Since the braced frame is in the middle bay of a threebay building, half of this story foro.
or 27.6 kips, can be considered to enter the braced bay from each side. From equilibriun
the joints at each end of the beam, this resulu in a axial force in the beam of E>(lh = 307 kips.
as shown in Figure 518.
The analysis of AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii) governs, in which tension braces
are at their expected strengths and compres~ion braces are at their postbuckling strengths.
~
~
~=
I
I
I
I
,.
~~;
46.0 klps
i:
:..
....
~~
t:
:;:.
~~
:~.
:; ~
!
/'
'
'
r~~,
~'
<:.
~;
',
!As.a
!""
lT
j.
(a) Forces from A/SC Seismic Provisions
Section F2.3(i)
Fig. 516. Forces on Beam BM1 from a mechanism m1alysis ofA/SC Seismic
Provisions Section F2.3 as carried out in Example 5.3.2.
559..t<1ps
'
'
444~ps
kips 68.6
51 Skips
',
'
,'
I
I
I
I
/il
606,Klps
//
',
~ ~~  1
Fig. 517. Axial force in Beam BM1 from the rr.i!chanism analysis of
A/SC Seismic Proiisions Section F2.3(i).
5 122
BRACED FRAMES
The required shear and flexural strenglh of the beam comes from gravity loads only, and
Ulerefore are the same for both analysis cases.
Using the load comb.inations in ASCE/SEI 7, the requfred $hear strength of Beam BMI
according to the analysis requirements of AISC Seismic Provisions Section Fi.3(ii) is:
LRFD
ASD
Ma=(l.O+O.I4Sos)Mv+Mu
+ 0.5A'h + 02.Ms
+Mp+0.7ME.,.
Va:::: (l.0+0.14SDS)\'D + VH
+ Vp + O.?VeiM
+ 0 kipft+0.5{100 kipft)
+ 0.2(0 kipft)
= 12.8 kips
The r~qp.ire~ flexural strength of Beam BM1 according to the analysis requirements of
AISC Seisnuc Provisions Sectfon F2.3(ii) is:
P,. =(l.2+0.2Sos)Po+PE...,,
+'PF+ 0.7P:e>M
~~~i
I
1
27.6 kips.,
'//
.<
550Kips
.r
16"1
:,
lT
kips
155'kips
'\
'
'>+
13., i..;ps
~
307
.r/
'
//
',
'l
IL ~~.r ,
Fig. 518. Axial force in Beam BM1 from the mechanism analysis of
A/SC Seismic Provisions F2.3(ii).
~ea.ms
frame.
I ..f~
I I':,:
~
within a braced
In flexure, the beam is coosider.ed continuously braced by the slab and Jateraltorsiona;. :,
::
Jn compression, the beam is considered continuously braced by the slab in the yy directio1 J.
so minoraxis flexural buckling does not apply. For majoraxis flexural buckling, the bean. ,'.?
is assumed unbraced. As expl~ed in Part 8 for collectors, torsional buckling is considered "'
because the torsional unbraced length is not equal to the minoraxis flexural bucklini
unbraced length. For torsional buckling, the beam is considered braced by the gravity bean
and its connection at midspan. Since the top flange is constrained by the composite slab, the ,
applicable torsional limit state is constrainedaxis flexuraltorsional buckling, as discussed
in Part 8 of lhis Manual
]: :
Try a W24x68.
AMERICAN lN~rrrvn; OF STa CONSTJ\UCT'ION
fi:
~j
lT
I
::
..
606A<lps
j;i
1::
.,
'Thebeamissub1ec. tto_a_)(_ia_l_a_n_d_fl_e_x_ura_l_fo_r,_ces_._S_e_e_P_art_8_an_d_T:_a_b_le81o_f_th_i_s_M_an_u_a.
I
I
/!
+ 0 ldps+0.7(307 kips)
=307 kips
b.
k:
ASD
LRFD
+ 0.5PL +o.iPs
//
,.
The required axial strength of Beam BM1 according to the analysis.requirements of AISC
Seismic Provisions Section F23(ii) is:
"
= 137 kipft
= 21s kipft
+ 0 kips+0.7{0 kips)
',
I
I;:
ASD
LRFD
51 .'
.;.,.:
AMl;RJCAfl lNSTnUT:e OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
5124
BRACED FRAMES
51 2.5
From AISC Manual Table 11, the geometric properties are as follows:
W24x68
A= 20.l in.1
{1=23.7 in.
.
lw
=0.415 in.
b1 = 8.97 io.
hltw= 52.0
Ix = 1,830 in.~
rx
=9.55 in.
1, = 70.4 in.4
h0 = 23.1 in.
J = 1.87 in.4
Cw = 9,430 in. 6
2 (29,000
?i
(3 1.4)
ksi)
=290 ksi
The value of Fer before local buckling effects are considered is determined as follows:
F
50 ksi
1
=F, 290 ksi
=0.172
beam,
..
LRFD
<?bMp = 664 kipft
Mp
n.b
'
ASD
'
'' '
it
F,=
4 =25.0ft
. ' Kx
Li
=I.O
= 25.0 ft
ftX12 inJft)
  = _1.0(25.0
...;.__''KiLi
9.55 in.
rx
=31.4
AMERJCAN INS1TllJT OP S'Y:EEL COl'ISTR\JCTION
(50 ksi)
=46.5 ksi
The unbraced lengths for flexural buckling were ?iscussed previously. To summarize:
=442 kipft
;
50ksi
= 0.658290 k s
]I l:~+I,+(d/2)2Agl.
E[Cw+.ly (d/2)
(K4 L)2
+GJ
1t2 (29,000
6
ksi) 9,430 in. + 70.4 .m. (23.7
  in.) ]
I
x
4
. .2)
1,830 in.4 + 70.4 in. + (23.7
  in.) (20 1 m
2
=56.5 ksi
(83)
1
, .
.
4
+ 11,200 ksi(l.87 in. )
'
BRACED FRAMES
The val~e of Fer before JocaJ buck.Jing effects are considered, wilh F.,
F,
Determine the available compressive strength for the governing limit state of
constrainedaxis flexural torsional buckling, accounting for slender elements
s 2.25, is:
!z.
Fer= 0.658'' F.,
~w
= 0.65856.5
bi
I .
'.,
QF1
0.942(50 bi)
=
F,
(56.5 m)
=0.834
Because 0.834 < 2.25. use AISC Specific01ion Equation E?2.
50 ksi
= 34.5 ksi
Fa
=.+.6589f.']F, .
To detennine the reduction factor Q. use AISC Specification Section E7.2, wilh f Fen using
the minimum Fe, from the two precedi11g limit states. Determine the effectjve width, be,
M~~~
b=h
(Sp.c.
Eq. E72
(Sp<e.
...".,,,.,I
Because Fa is lower for constraioedaJtis flexuraltorsional buckling, this limit slate governs
over major axis flexural buckling.
,..
,
',
=33.2 ksi
P" =F;,,A1
=33.2 ksi(20.l
in.2)
'
=667 kips
=d2kdes
fil1. fj
b., = t.921
LRFD
ASD
Pn 661 kips
=
(b I
=1.92(0.415 in.)
IIj;;, b
1)"/t
nc .
=600 !tips'
1.67
=399 kips
'I
SecondOrder Effects
Q,,=Ae
A,
=A, tw(hb~)
A,
_ 20. l in. 2 0.4 15 in.(21.5 in.18.7 in.)
20.1 in. 2
= 0.942
as= i.o
Q =QiQa
=1.0(0.942)
=0.942
'
I~
IJ
5128
BRACED FRAMES
"
51 2
ti .
rt 2 EJ
2
LRFO
Pei "'"(K1L)2
4
1t (29.000ksi)(1,830 in. )
.,
0.831<1.0
9 664 kipft
ASD
o.k.
9 442kipft
o.k.
=5,820 kips
LRFD
B1 
1.0
t [1.00(307 kips)/5,820 kips]
ASD
B1 
=l.06
vV11
The B1 factor (P5 effecc) need only be applied to the firstorder momen1 with the structure
restrained against translation. The required fle.xural strength of Beam BM1 according to the
analysis requirements of AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii) and including secondorder effeets is determined from ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12..4.3.2 Load Combination 5 for
LRFD and ASD:
LRFD
M,, = B1 (1.2+0.2Svs)Mo +Me,.
ASD
LRFD
1.0
I [J.60(215 kips)/ 5.820 kipsJ
= 1.06
=295kips>19.9 kips
o.k.
nv
o.k
13
ASD
Mo= B1(1.0+0.I4Svs)Mo +MH
+ B1 0.5M l + 0.2.l'ds
+JfF+0.1Me.,,.
+ 0kipft+1.06(0.5)(100 kipft)
=145 kipft
+ 0.2(0 kipft)
= 23 I kipft
The relevant seismic parameters were given in the SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation
section.
Combined Loading
;I
1'~.
LRFD
307 kips
P,
=215 kips
Pc
600 kips
Pc
399 kips
= 0.512
The required axial strengths of the columns due to dead (including curtain wall), live and
snow loads at the splice location are:
ASD
P,
Pv
=66.3 kips
Ps =7.00 kips
The seismic component of Lhe required axial strength of the column due to codespecified
seismic loads from the applicable .building code is:
=0.539
Assume that the ends of 1he COlumn are pinned and braced against translation for bolh l'...
xx and yy axes and the column moment produced by the gravity framing connection., '
negHg.ible.
BRACFD FRAMP.S
5130
Solution:
From AJSC Manual Table 24, the material properties are as follows:
PE..J.
ASTh'f A992
F1 =50ksi
F,, =65 ksi
From AlSC Manual Table ll, the geometric properties are as follows:
W12x45
A= 13.1 in. 2
lw
s. 131
d= 12.1 in.
= 0.335 in.
Zr  64.2 in.3
At this level, Exception 2(:1) for the column in AISC Seismic Provisio'ns Section F2.3 can be
shown not to result in reduced forces; therefore the exception is not used.
For comparison, the seismic component of the required axial strength of the column due to
codespecified seismic loads from the applicable building code is given as:
PQr.
W12x96
=45.5 kips
l
..
Required Strength
AlSC Seismic Proi;i.sions Section F2.6d requires that SCBF column splices comply with
S~tion 02.5, which states that the required strength of column splices is the greater of (a)
the required strength of tbe colunms, including that determined from Chapters E, F, G and
H, and Section Dl.4a, or (b) the required strength determined using t.he load combinations
stipulated in the applicable building code, including the amplified seismic load, but need not
e:xceed the W:Ltimum loads I.hat can be transferred to the splice by the system. Also, for
columns with net tension, three other specific conditions muse be satisfied, as stipulated jn
\
Roof
&,
'
N
Section D2.5b.
The required axial strength of columns in SCBF frames is based on the expected strength of
the braces, as defined in AJSC Seismic Pro~iswn.s Section F2.3. Example 5.3.2 provides a
desqipcion of this analysis. For the column at the lowest story, Example 5.3.3 illustrates the
determit)ation of the column force. For the splice location, only the braces at the top two sto
ries need to be considered.
From Example 5.3.2, with brace forces shown in Figure S13 and Tables 51 nnd 52, the
expected tensile strength of the HSS6x0.312 brace between level 4 and the roof is:
P1ouion = 307
Fourth
Level
226 kips
.,
l8'~~P.5;
,,
550 kips
Third
Level
'/._______
307 kips
/
~~~ ki~~
"
444 kips
""'
kips
From Example 5.3.2, in Tuble 52, the expected compressive scrength of the HSS6x0.312
kips
The vertical components of these brace expected strengths are transferred to the column. J\l
the fourth level, the brace forces at the beam midpoint connection arc carried across in beam
shear. The forces acting on the columns due 10 Lhe expec1cd s11Cngths of the braces arc ns
shown in Fig\Jre 519.
Base
Fig. 519. SCBF column forcu for splice duign from E.xomple 5.3.3.
The axial force in the column u the splice location due to sei~mic load effeclS (including the
nmplified seismic load) is:
.:
I J
t
I
;:'):'
AISC Seismic Proviswns Section F2.6d requires the column splice to develop 50% of lhe
lesser available Oexural strength of the connected members. For simplicity, use the plastic
flexural strength, $1>.Mp (LRFD) or Mp/Qb (ASD).
PE..,,= n 0 PQ1
=2.0{45.5 kips)
=91.0 kips
For the smaller column, W12x45, detennine the available flexural strength from AISC
Ma11ual Table 36:
The seismic component of the required strength of the column using the analysis requirements of AJSC Seismic Proi:isic11S Sec~on F2.3 (226 kips compre.ssion and 151 !tips
tension) is greater than that detennined from the codespecified loads (91.0 kips tension or
compression). Therefore, use the analysis requirements of AISC Seismic Provisions Section
F2.3 for design of the splice.
LRFD
LRFD
Pu =(l.2+0.2SDs)Pv +Ps,..
ASD
nb
ASD
LRFD
ASD
Ma=
Mu= 0.50(<?bMp)
0.50(241 kipft)
= 121 kipft
+PF +0.1?,,,..
=0.50(160 kipft)
= 80.0 kipft
Assuming that the entire moment is taken through the flange splices, the required strength
of each flange splice is:
=[l.0+0.14(1.0)](66.3 kips)
..
LRFD
=234 kips
+ 0.2(7.00 kips)
= 330 kips
ASD
R., = Mu
dt1
Ra=~
d11
LRFD
=[0.90.2(1.0))(66.3 kips)
+(151kips)+1.6(0 kips)
=  105 kips
i, .
..
.,
o.so(M
nov) .
P0 =(l.O+O. l4Svs)fi>+ PH
+ 0.5Pi +0.2Ps
Mp =160 kipft
Using the load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7, the required axial compressive strength of the
column is:
5133
BRACED FRAMES
ASD
=126 kips
= [0.60.14(1.0)j(66.3 kips)
Use CJP groove welds to splice the colwun flanges and web.
ASD
LRFD
As stated above, this splice is 10 be a welded splice. AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6d
requires that groove welds must be completejointpenetration (OP) groove welds.
The available strength of each CJP groove welded flange splice is controlled by the base
metal strength according to AISC Specification Table J2.5. Thus, based on tension yielding
of the flange from AI.SC Specification Section D2(a), the available strength of the CJP
groove weld is:
=75.2 kips
=83.3 kips
Rn= 0.90F>bflf
= 0.90(50 ksi)(S.05 in.)(0.575 in.)
o.k.
Rn
n=
FybJIJ
/1.67
o.k.
BRACED FRAMES
5134
He
(1) The available strength of partialjointpcnec.rntion (PJP) groove welded joints, if used,
shall be at least equal to 200% of the required strength.
(2) The avaiJnble strength for each flange splice shall be . at le!15t equal t_p 0.5RyFybf'f
(LRFD) or (0.5/1.5) R1 Fybf'J (ASD).
(3) Where butt joints in column splices are made with CJP groove welds, when the tension
stress at any location in the smaJler flange exceeds 0.30F1 (LRFD) or 0.20Fy (ASD),
. tapered mmsitions are required between flanges of unequal thickness or width.
.
j
{
in.)
(1) AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5b{l) does not apply bec~use partialjointpene
=880 kipft .
LRFD
l..Mpc
He
using the load combinations stipuJaccd in the applicable building code. includi~g 11ic a?'lplified seismic load. These additional requirements are:
=
5135
ASD
r.lv/pc
l.5Hc
880 kipft
10.3 ft
=
=85.4 kips
880 kipft
l.5(10.3 ft)
\
...:
1:
=57.0 kips
ASD
LRFD
For the limit suite of shear yielding according to AISC Specification Section G2. the available shear strength of the W12x45 colwnn is:
T.,
Ag
LRFD
ASD
R,.
0.6FyA,,.Cv
1.50
=
= 1.00(0.6)(50 ksi)
x(l2.l in.)(0.335 in.)(1.0)
o.k.
. Ta
Ag
13.l in.2
::::: 8.02 ksi
'  75.2
kips
=
.
13.l in.2
=5.74 ksi
'
=15.0 ksi
= (1/l.50)0.60(50 ksi)
x(l 2.1 in.)(0.335 in.)(1.0)
=105 kips
o.k.
,.
For the shear in the weak axis of the column, the column flanges of the smaller member
will easily be able to meet the required shear strength, since the Mp values for the columns
are smaller in this direction and the flange o.rea is sign.ificantJy larger than the web area jn
this case.
8.02ksj<15.0 ksi
=10.0 ksi
5.74 ksi < 10.0 ksi
Therefore, the requirements in AJSC Seismic ProvisioJ'!S Section D2.5b(3) need not be met.
;~
t~
5136
BRACED FRAMES
ti
YnUll
= 910
' .
.,
r
'
A =(.!.
ft)(6.50 fl)(35.0 ft)
12
=152 ft3
Given:
,
VioI oa
"
Some of the sections in the AISC Seismic Pro~isions allow the required strength of certain
members or components to be limited by the forces corresponding to a maximum force that
can be delivered by the system. One example is AISC Seismic Provisions Section P'2.3,
Exception (2)(b), which states that the required strength of the column need not exceed the
forces corresponding to lhe resistance of the foundation to overturning uplift. The max.imum
force that can be delivered is the force required to overturn the foundation. The use of
Section P2.3 Exception (2)(b) will be illustrated in this example.
V,tob ow ltUll
the SCBF eleva1ion shown in Figure 521. Determine the maximum force Lh:u cam
be delivered to (:olumn CL1 based on the foundation uplift resistance of the system. The
seismic loads at each floor are given in Figure 521. Assume a concrete density equal to
150 lb/ft3 and a soil density equal to 100 lb/ft. 3 As given in Example 5.3.3 for !he SCBF
column design, the column fore~ at the base from gravity and snow loads are: PD= 147
kips, PL= 60.0 kips, Ps 7.00 kips. The relevant seismic parameters were given in the
SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation section.
rt3
Usipg the densities given, the weights of the mat, soil and slab are:
Refer to
W,,.a,
=910 ft 3
= 137 ltips
~~~
~
.
....:..i~
25'0"
Solution:
Roof
91 kips
f,.1
W12x45
Fourth
Level
57 kips
Third
Level 
30 kips
"I,;
~..
l
.
{
(~ 1
BRACED FRAMES
.5138
S139
..:
"
The overturning momenl caused by the seismic loads given in Figure 521, and including
ovcrstrength, is:
=15.2 kips
Me,.,.
3
3
Wslab over""''= 75.8 ft ( 150 lb/ft ) I (1,000 lb/kip)
:dloL;./ih;
_
20
 + 91.0 kips(5 l.5 ft)
=11.4 kips
Summing moments at the extreme lower right comer of the mat allows estimation of the
maximum moment required to overturn the foundation.
= 19.800 kipfl
For convenience, use the concept of an effective oversirength factor, n~. determined as
follows:
Dead
Load
kips
Element
Cone. Mat
Soil over Mat
live
Load
Moment
kips
Snow
load
kips
137
15.2
11.4
147
147
60.0
60.0
7.00
7.00
Ann
Resisting
Moment (0)
Moment (L)
ft
kipft
kipft
17.5
30.0
2,400
266
200
735
4,410
300
1,800
35.0
210
8,010
2,100
245
17.5
17.5
5.00
Resisting
Resisting
Moment (S)
kipft
ASD
LRFD
n;=
Me Q
no, =0
Me_.
Me n o
Me.,.
19,800 kipft
=2.04
=1.24
From Ex.ample 5.3.3. the seismic component of the required column streo~th .based. on the
seismic loads is Pa 248 kips in tension or compression. Rather than amplifying this force
by n = 2.0 as sh~\vo in Exnmple 5.3.3, it could instead be amplified by. 1.24 (LRFD)
0
or 2.04 (ASD) as allowed by AISC Seismic Provisions Section P2.3 Excepuon (2)(b). For
determining the required ax.ial compressive strength, the controlling load combinations that
include seismic load are ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 Load Combination 5 for LRFD and
The (;Ont.rolling load combinations (for compression in the column) that include seismic load
axe ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 Load Combination 5 for LR.FD and Load Combination 6
. for ASD. Setting the ovenurn.ing moment, ME, equal to the resisting moment in these load
combinations, the overturning moment required t0 cause uplift of the foundation is:
LRFD
ASD
LRFD
(l.2+0.2Sos)Mo +Me +0.5ML
+ 0.2Ms =0
Me =1[i.2+0.2(1.o)]MD o.5MLI
0.2Ms
(1.2+0.2(1.0))(8,010 kipft)
=
 0.5(2,100 kipft)
 0.2(245 kipft)
= 12,300 Jc.ipft
+0.75ML +0.75Ms =0
i'.fe=
1{[L0+0.105(1.0)]Mv
0.75(245 kipfi)}/0.525
= 20,200 kipft
The overturning moment required to cause uplift of the foundation, Me. should be compared
~o the overturning moment caused by the seismic loads including overstrength, ME.,.. If ME
is less than Me_.. then the seismic component of the required column force in Example 5.3.3
could be reduced by the ratio of those moments.
ASD
Pu =(l.2+0.2Sos)PD + n~PQe
_ + 0.5P,. +0.2P,
=(1.2+0.2(1.0)](147 kips)
P0
"
= 545 kips
=478 kips
For determining the required axial t.ensile strength of the column, ASCEJSEl 7 S~~on
12.4.3.2 Load Combination 7 for LRFD and Load Combination 8 for ASD apply. A suru.lar
approach is used to calculate the maximum tension force in the column ~ue to foundauon
uplift. Recalcufating Me for the governing load combination for tension m the column:
.J
"'
BRACED FRAMES
...
Relevant seismic design parameters were given in lhe SCBF Design E."<ample Plan and
LR.FD
(0.90.2Sos) Mo +Mc= 0
I
I.
Mc =lI0.90.2(1.0)]Mol
ASD
Elevation section.
(0.60.14Sos)M 0 +0.1Me 0
ME =l[0.60. 14(1.0)]Mo/0.71
=l[0.90.2(1.0)j(S,010 kipft)!
=l0.46(8,010 kipft)/0.71
= 5,610 kipft
=5,260 kipfl
Solution:
From AlSC Manual Tables 24 ansl 25. the material prop<!rties are es follows:
ASTh1A36
F1 =36 ksi
F.,  58 ksi
Use an effective over:.trength factor, similar to I.be compression case, calculated as:
LR.FD
n~Mc fl 0
0 
Ms
0 0,.._
ME,..
ME.,. .
=0.567
. .
11
~.
ASD
Q
0
HSS6x0.312 brace
19,800 kipfl
=0.531
LRFD
ASD
'
+ 0.7(0.531)(248 kips)
=24.6 kips
As Stated in the Exception to AJSC SeiSmic Provisions Section F2.3, the required strength
of the columns does not need to exceed the forces corresponding to the resistance of the
foundation to overturning uplifl These forces are smaUer than. the required strengths of the
column as determined in Ex:imple 5.3.3, and could have been used as the required strengths
for tbe design of the column.
I:
t
..
~:
Given:
Refer to Joint IT I in_Figure 511. Design the connection between the braces and the beam
Use :m ASTM A36 welded gussel plate concentric to the .braces Md 70.ksi electrode:. to
connect the bmces to the beam. Use ASTM A572 Grade '50 material for braec reinforcement.
All bmces m ASTM A500 Grade B round HSS ao<l the beam is an ASTM A.992 W27x114.
The appUcable buildjng code specifies the use of ASCE/SEI 7 for calculatiOJl of loads.
5142
Therefore:
Fy =42 ksi
F.., =58 ksi
P,,,.Jton
ASTMA992
Fy =50ksi
.)
 ; ,p.:
Fu= 65 ksi
From AISC Manual Tables 11 and 113, the geometric properties are as follows:
=0.312 in.
HSS6.875x0.500
0.500 in.
"'
For the braces above the beam, the required strength of the bracing
brace is in tension is:
tc1es
=0.291 in.
A= 5.22 in.2
r=2.02 in.
Ide:
=0.465 in.
A= 9.36 in.2
r = 2.27 in.
Ptmnon
=0.570 ln.
=RyFyAg
= 1.4(42 ksi)(9.36 in. )
""550 kips
For the braces below the beam, the required strength of th~ ~m1ci.ng c~nnecti?ll wh~u the
. ; ".
' .
.
brace is in tension is:
factor (relative to the requirements of Section F2.3) applied to the required strength of Uie
connection.
For these SCBF connection examples, the .requirements of AISC Seismic Provisions
Sections B2 and F2.3 will: be used for both LRFD and ASD, except for the limit state of
compression .buc~ing on the Whitmore section, "which will use the 1.1 factor specified in
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(2}.
lbe required strength of the bracing connection due to seismic loading is based on ASCFJ
SEI 7 ~ection 12.43.2 Load Combination 5 (LRFD and ASD) with 0 0 0 = Em11, as discussed m AISC Seismic Prpvisions Section P2.3.
Pa= 0.7Emh
=0.7(307 kips)
=215 kips
fJ = 0.930 in.
AISC Seismic Provisions Sections F2.3(i) and F2.3(ii) define the two mechanism analyses:
that must be considered in determining the required stren8th of beams, columns and connections. AISC Seismic Pr.ovisions Section F2.6c specifies the required strength of bracing
connections. for the required compressive strength, Section F2.6c(2) has an additional 1.1
Ry= 1.4
when the
W27x114
lw
c~nnection
ASD
P., =l.OE,,,Jt
=LO (307 kips)
=307 !Ops
Beam
d = 27.3 in.
LRFD
=RyFyAg
=1.4(42 ksi)(s.22 in.1)
=307 kips
5143
ASD
LRFD
Pw =l.OEmh
=LO (550 kips)
= 550 kips
Pa= 0.7,,,h
= 0.7(550 kips)
'~' r
=385 kips
...
'
1
.
. .. J
Use AlSC Specifica!Wn Chapter.E with F., = RyFy to determine Pere. as follows:
KL
=
r :=
...
5144
.... 1
BRACFD FRAMES
4.71JR EF =4.71
29,000 ksi
If
1.4{42 ksi)
1 1
For the braces above the beam, the required st.renglh of the bracing connection when I.be
brace is in compression at its postbuckling strength is:
=105
:I
_ 7t
(29,000 ksi)
(71.3)2
KL
:
:
F.n"[0.658
. jn,F,
1.1l
i))
=105.
KL
~
When ~4.71
:
T
R)Fy
=38.0 ksi
The e~pected compressive strength of the braces above the beam is:
Pco.,,,pns.rion =
=
= 56.3 ksi
........
=
=47.5 kips
=67.8 kips
1t2E
(~Lr
t
..::.
P,,=0.7Emh
0.7(67.8 kips)
Pu ==1.0ErnJi
=1.0 (67 .8 kips)
1 1
f't=
ASD
LR.FD
.7JJR EF :
When: KL $; 4
s1.;s
1. 14 Fcr~Ag
rr.2E
(Spec.
F.
e(~Lr
Eq. E34)
n 2 (29,000 ksi)
(63 .4)2
= 226 kips
=71.2 ksi
0.3?.:omprmion
=0.3(226 kips)
=67.8 kips
...{d ... ,
th:
For
_braces abov~ th.e beam, the required strength of the bracing connection when the
brace ism compression is based on Em1t equal to the lesser of R F. A and 1 l 4F: A
d
ing to AISC s p . .
Y 1 g
ere 1 accor
.
.
e!S.m1c rovis1ons Section P2.3; therefore, use,,,,.= 226 kips.
f..
=41.6 ksi
The expected compressive strength of the braces below the beam is:
Pcompr~sslon
LRFD
P,,  I.OE,,.,,
>!
...
., I
l:,, '
('
ASD
Pa= 0.7...J,
=0.7(226 kjps)
= 158 kips
= I. l4Fc,.Ag
2
=444 kips
And the expected postbuckling strength is:
0.3Pto11iprmi<>1t::: 0.3(444 ldps)
=133 lcips
5 146
BRACED FRAMES.
Por ihe braces below the be~, the required strength of the bracing connection when the
brace is in compression is based on Ent11 equal to the lesser of R1 FyA1 and 1.14FcreA accord!
1
ing to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3; therefore. use E,,.,, 444 kips.
LRFD
ASD
I',, = I .OEmJo
= 1.0 (444 kips)
= 0.7(444 kips)
=311 kips
For the br~s below the beam, the required strength of the bracing connectfon when the
brace is in compression at its postbuckling strength is:
LRFD
ASD
Pu= l.OEmh
=1.0 (133 kips)
= 133 kjps
Pa =0.1Emn
= 0.7(133 kips)
= 93. 1 kips
The limit state of shear J\Jpwre in the brace wall is used to deternUne the minimum bracegusset lap length. Note that lhe expected brace rupture strength, R,F"' may be used in the
determination of lhc available strength according to AISC Seimtic Provisions Section A3.2.
Using AJSC Specification Section 14.2, including R1 from AISC Seismic Provisions Table
A3.1:
R,= l.3
(from Spec. Eq. J44)
In this equation, Anv is taken as the crosssectional area of the four walls of the brace,
Anv 4lt.us. Therefore:
Rn= 0.60R,Fu(41t,us)
.....
The lwo sets of forces are shown in Figures 523 and 524.
Pa :::.0.7EmA
=444 kips
'
5 147
"~)
..
/.650
ki~s (l.RFD)
....,,,
444 klps (l.RFO""
(compression)
kips (IBFO)
/ ~50
iss
kips (ASO)
(tension)
133 kips
(LRFO~
(compresslon)
"""'
.... 5148
~=
BRACED FRAMES
S149
.
Setting Lhe aV".i.ilable shear rupture strenglh equal to the required censile strenglh and sotv:
ing for the minimum lap length, /:
. l.
.,.
t.
LRFD
l~
:.
Pu
l~
.
:.
OPa
0.60RrF..(41deJ)
2.00(2 15 kips)
0.60(1.3)(58 ksi)(4)(0.291 in.)
~ 8.17
~7.77 in.
:.I
..
ASD
$(0.60)R,F;, (4tJu)
307 kjps
0.75(0.60)(1J)(58 ksi)(4)(0.291 in.)
Since the gross sheru area, Agv. and the net sbenr area, A,,.,, are equal in this case, the shear
yielding component, 0.60F_,A1,,, is smaller than the shear rupture component, 0.60FuAm.. and
the right side of the ~untion controls.
= 648/p
in.
=1.0F,.Dbraulp
UbsFuAnt
Note that this length is the minimum required for !he limit state of shear rupture in the
brace wall. A longer length may be used when designing the fillec welds between the brace
and the gusset plate, if desired, to allow a smaller fillet weld siz.e as is implemented in the
following.
Size the weld between the brace and the gusset plate
The s~en~th of fillet welds defined in AlSC Specijicarion Section J2 can be simplified, as
explained in Pan 8 of the AISC Manual, to AISC 1\lanual Equations 82a and 82b:
LRFD
I
307 kips
0.75(648 kip/in.+348 kip/in.)
~0.411
Rn
2.00(215 kips)
in.
0.928DI
Try Ain. fillet welds for the four lines of weld, which can be made in a single pass:
LRFD
4(1.392)Dl <::: P,,
ASD
ASD
LRFD
ASD
4(0.928)D/ <::: P0
Check required gusset width and thickness based on the limit state
of tensile yielding
Tensile yielding is checked on a section of the gusset plate commonly ~ferred to as tJ~e
Whitmore section. This section is explained in AISC Manual Part 9 (Figure 91) and m
Thornton and Lini (2011). Because the'. widtb and thickness of the gusscl plate have not yet
been chosen, the minimum area will be. determined for this limit stale. The nominal tensile
yielding strength is:
l~
307 kips
4(1.392 kjp/in.)(4 sixteenths)
<:::13.8 in.
215 kips
l <:::
4(0.928 kip/in.)(4 sjxteenths)
~
14.5 in.
Rn.Q
~P,.
QFy
307 kips
0.90(36 ksi)
<?:Pa
OPa
P,.
Use (4) 15in. long. \4in. fillet welds to connect the brace above the beam to the gusset plate.
i:.
I
~:
;::
I..
QR.
fp\Vp~
j;
ASD
LRFD
The designs in lRFD and ASD give slightly differenl required lengths of ~eld. For convenience, the more conservative result will be used in subsequent calcula1ions and in I.he
final design. ln practi~, designers should consistently use one Jllethod or the other.
~
tpWp ~F.,
~ 1.67(215 kips)
36 ksi
;::. 9.97 in. 2
I
I
_J
5150
A gmset plate IAill be chosen that has a width on the Whitmore section, wp. of 12 in. and a
thickness, tp. of~ in. This meets the minimum required gusset plate thickness for the Ii niit
The requirements of AISC Stismic Provisions Section P2.6c(3) 3re met through the use
of option (b): rotation capacity. As e.'tpl3ined in the U~r Note of that se~tion and in the
Commentary Figure CF2.9, accommodation of inelastic rotation is accomplished with the
bnice tenninating before the line of restraint. Figure 522 shows the 2r clearance beyond the
end of the brace.
The choice of a relatively small Whitmore ~ction resuJts m a tapered gu~~et, which i'I beneficial because it allows the brace to be located closer to the beam while stilJ accommodating
brace rotation by providing a 2t clearance per AfSC Sejsmic Provisions Section F2.6c(3) and
Commentary.
Check the maximum Whitmore section
As explained in AISC Manual Part 9, the maximum width of the Whitmore section that can
be considered effective is defined by a 30" spread to each side, but not exceeding the nctual
width of the gusset plate. To make sure tbat the 12.0 in. width chosen previously can be cnnsidercd effective in tension, check the maximum Whitmore section.
Wp
S Dbraa + 2L tan30.
S 6.00 io.+2(15.0 in.)tan30 = 23.3 in.
12.0 in.
23 .3 in.
o.k.
The actual angle of the gusset edge, measured relntive to the centerline of !he brace, is:
,,.  tan l[~(ll'pDbrace)]
,.. _
=11.3
Note: I.his angle I.hat is smaller than the Whitmore section angle of 30" provides a more compnct gusseL
Using 3 gap of 1,1'6 in. on each side of the brace slot to alJ~v clearance for erection:
A,, = 5.22 in.2 2[* in.+2(Yi6 in.)j(0.291 in.)
= 4 .64 in.2
From A tSC Specification Table 03.1, Case 5. because I> l.3D, U
~ =1.0(4.64 in.2 )
=4.64 in.2
race reinforcement is required. The approxilllate area of reinforcement
Because A < A g b
red
u
d A th area remoYe<l but the position of the reinforcement w1I1 uce to
requm: ' ,,., lS e
'
._,.
be b . d
less than 1.0 be.cause of its position. The required area of reuuorcement can
o ta1ne
from: (An +Am) U ~ Ag
A,
Am =Q.80A.,
=l.89 in.2
x 1 1n nat bMS with 3 total area of 2.00 in.1 AlSC Seismic Provisions Section
be t
F2.5b(J)(i) re~ that the specified .mini.mum yield strength of the reinforcement
a
lhat 1of the brace; f.herefore, use ASTM A572 Grade 50 material for the Oat bar. The
crosssectional geometry is shown in Figure 525.
ie:st
Dbroc
lui
r1 =2 l
=2.85 in.
Dbrac
1.00 in.
r2=+~
=3.50 in.
The distance to tho centroid of a pnrtial circle is given by:
.:<
From AISC Sti.rmic Provisions Section F2.5b(3), the br.ice effective net llJ"Ca, A., shall not
be less than the brace gross area, A1 .
.... ,
BRACED FRAMES
bra
= l.81 in.
'
1?
=6.64 in. 2
xA
Part
in.
111.
in.
Half of brace
One flat bar
1.81
2.32
3.50
1.00
4.20
3.50
.E
3.32
7.70
Ae =UAn
=0.845(6.64 in. 2 )
o.k.
 I.xA
x=LA
An = An(broce) +Arn
=3.50 in.
From AJSC Specification Table 03.1, Ci:ise 2, which applies to round JJSS with reinforce
.mot added:
{rc/2) rad
Detennine
.
~..
U=l1
_ 2.32 in.
1
15.0 in.
=0.845
=2. 85 ID.
sin(tt/2} rad)
. ( _......_.;.....,,'
Xbrace
7.70 in. 3
3.32 io. 2
=2.32 in.
ASD
LRFD
I
.
=36.7 !Gps
= 55.0 kips
There is a small gap of approximately 0.041 in. between the face of the pipe brace ~d the
edge of the Ont bar, as indicated in Figure 525. Since this is less than 1116 in., it can be neglected according to AWS Dl.l clause 5.22.1. A singlepass 16in. fillet weld can be used.
;:.
With two welds, the length of Y.6in. fillet welds connecting the flat bar to the brace is determined from AJSC Manual Equations 82a and 82b as follows:
LR.FD
55.0 kips
1 _
"'  2(1.392 kipfm.}(5 sixteenths)
Fig. 525. Cross section of brace abo1e ben.
at ne1 sec11on.
~11
AMEIUCAN 1NSTITUT8 OF STEEL CONSTRUCTJON
ASD
lw =
36.7 kips
2(0.928 kipfm.)(5 sixteenths)
J'
..__=_3_._9S_i_n._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.__=_3_.9_s_m.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
.O~l\\.J;:)J
!KAM.SS
Use a l in. x l in. flat bar with 16in. fillet welds; the derail extends past both sides of lli~
reduced section of the brace.
The flat bar fillet weld develops the expected strength of the bar on each side of lhe end of
the brace slot. The brace slot may be longer than the slot length by a maximum erection
clear.ince of x inches (see Figure 522), as detenni.ned by the fabricator. The length of the
flat bar wilJ be 4.00 in. + 4.00 in. + x in. 8.00 in. + x in.
From Figure 522, the buckling length, which is taken along the brace centerline {Dows well.
2006), is lb 8.00 in. (Example 5.3.10 provides an equation for calculating the length of
~ck.ling; h:re it is detem1ined graphically.) AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(2) spec1~es a required compressive strengrh for buckling limit states that is at least equal to J.1
times the expected brace strength in compression for LRFD. The stress over the \Vbitmore
section, using the 'Whltmore width of 12.0 in., is:
= 23.7 ksi
=307 kips(cos45)
=215 kips(cos45)
I'
= 152 kips
=217 ldps
ASD
=152 kips
!s:
LRFD
r=iii
t
:.i in.
=m
=0.253 in.
Recommended values for the effective length factor, K, are given in DowsweU (2006).
However, that paper doea not address t!1e case Of a single gusset plate with the 2t clearance
to accommodate brace buckling [called anextended" gusset plate io DowsweU (2006)].
Therefore, in this case, use K = 1.2 from AISC Specification Commentary Table CA7.1
assuming that the gusset plate is fixed at one end and free to translate but not rotate at ilbe
other. With 1,, = L:
KL
Va
l.2(8.00 in.)
=',
0.253 in.
ASD
=326 kipin.
= 228 kipin.
Check the gusset and design the weld at the gussettobeam flange interface
The forces are:
LRFD
ASD
Shear Vu
=217 kips
=152 kips
Normal Nu
=217 kips
=326 kipin.
Moment M.,
Normal Na
=152 kips
MomentMa=228 kip.i_n.
=37.9
LRFD
$cFcr =30.0 ksi > 23.7 ksi
ASD
o.k.
}i
= 16.6 ksi
1~~~LRFD
~~~~t~~~~AS_D~~~~,. t
i
The contact length between the gusset plate and the beam top flange, as shown in Figure
522, is 21.0 in. and the brace line of action tnisses the centroid of the contact length by 1.5
in. due to the incre<ising width of the gusset plate. Therefore, the moment on the contact sur .
face is:
Based on I.be required tensile strength of the bracing connection (which is larger than the
required compressive strength), the shear force at tbe interface of lhe gussec with the beam
flange is:
=217 kips
ASD
f; _ I. 1(226 kips)
0
"  12.0 iu.('Vs in.)
Vu
LRFD
o.k.
The momenl, Mu or Ma, and the nonnal force, N., or Na, can be combined to give an equivalent normal force, Nu,q11 tv or Na#qufv This equivalent tension assumes a plastic stres~
distribution for the moment, Mu or M0 , which is similar to the stress distribution in the welt!
assumed in the inelastic method of the AlSC Manual Part 8 eccentrically loaded weld group
tables. On one half of the contact length, the srress due to the normal force, N., or Na. anc'
the srress due to the moment are additive. On the other half, !he stresses are in oppositt
5156
BR.ACED FRAMES
directions. For convenience of calculations, one of the forces in lhe force couple (du t the
moment, M~ or Ma) is i~agined reversed so the enti.re cont<1c1 surface is in uniform ~e~ion
or compression. The equ1valent normal force is:
..
LRFD
N,,,l/ldv
=N,, + 4M,,
=217 kips+ 4(326 kipin.)
~~
=279 kips
.,
'"
21.0 in.
~~
~
LRFD
o~
o.k.
9=
_ Na;qui
aatplb
(~
195 kips
in.)(2 1.0 in.)
=10.6ksi
__
36 ksi
1.67
= 2 l.6 ksi > J0.6 ksi
..:..::;:
o.k.
ASD
~:""')
S=tao
t:in  ( N..
J(Natqui\)
Va
/.
279.kips
in.)(21.0 in.)
o.k.
LRFD
In cension
=15.2 ksi
0.60(36 ksi)
1.50
= 14.4 ksi > 8.27 ksi
ASD
In tension
. tplb
0.601~
=
The angle of the resultant force can be calculated and used in the directional strength
increase of fil1e1 welds according to AISC Specification Equation J25 as follows:
f ua z:: NH9ui
Natquiv = N a +
4Mo

.."..
~!
ASD
ASD
lb
,
LRFD
o.k.
= 52.1
=52.1
AISC Specification Section J2.4 :illows an increase in lhe available strength of fillet welds
when lhe angle of loading is not along the weld longitudinal axis, which is used in lhe following calculation.
The weld ductility factor, equal to 1.25, which is explained in AlSC Mw1ual Part 13. is
applied here. Using AlSC Manual Equations 82a and 82b, the m1mber of sixteenths of fillet weld required is:
\
LRFD
LRFD
In shear
JllY = v..
tplb
~
"
:i.
:~;
.'(:...
..."
:~
217 kips
=(~ in.)(21.0
in.)
=11.8 ksi
ASD
ASD
D,~qJ
Drtq'd 2:
In shear
l.25~N;,9.,,.., +VJ
fav = Va
t plb
152 kips
Oi i.n.)(21.0 in.)
=8.27 ksi
2:
1.25~N';,quiv +
v;
=5.87 sixteenths
'
An alternative fully plastic approach to Uie gussettobeam stresses is shown in the following cnJculations and presented in lhe !BC Sm1cturoVSeismic Design Manual (SEAOC'
2006), where lhe normal and bending stresses are assumed to act over separate portions of
tlKACCD f"RAMEs ~
.w;
/...,
tl~e ~on~ct length, lb, an.d are set equal to eacb other in order to result in a unifo
~ "'!
distnbuuon as shown in Figure 5.26.
rm strcs1 ~
From Figure 526,
lb, is:
=F'[ ;'+)(2)
l~ '~
p
I
M0
N 0 =152.kips
so,
152 kips
( 326 kipin.)
217 kips
F' =.!:!._
a+e
..I.;
= 228 kipin.
= F' (a+. e) 
ASD
LRFD
( 228 kipin.)
152 lcips
::::: 9.11 in.
= 9.10 in.
and
Therefore:
F'
lb=(ae)tp
M
00

=13.6 ksi
fub
2etp
J. ob 
....
t
.'
:;
.::;
228 kip41.
[c10.s in.)2(9.11 m.)2 J(1i i~.)
l
:
=13.6 ksi
...
152 kips
2(9.11 in.)(% in.)
= 9.53 ksi
326 kipin.
la=..
f. _
J. _ 217 kips
"  2 (9.10 in.)(* in.)
ASD
LRFD
. :~}
= 9.56 ksi
Compare this to 15.2 ksi (LRFD) and ici.6 ksi (ASD) using the simpler. method. The sim
pier method is about 12% (LRFD) or :\1% (ASD) conservative.
a 21.0
  'i11.
2
=IO.Sin.
,,;
i\:
I
ASD
LRFD
'l
1~~~~~~~~~~~.,..+~~~~~~..,~~~~~~=1
in.)
= 250 kips
0
Gussettobeam
interface
tan1(Nu~~uw)
Lit
'''~
":\
152 kips
=49.0
l
l
l.
=tanl ( N~~=uiv)
217 kips
=49.0
1'.)
'!'.~)
5160
LRFD
f,;.. l
'
ASD
2
Dreq'd
5 161
Dru/d
II.
in.)2 lJ +3(
=5.60 sixteenths
0 570 0
2
1.0
'. )1.5
27.3 m. 0.930 in.
~)(
f ~~~~"~'!..~~'
=842 kips
This result is within 5% of lhe simpler method and both will require a * in. fillet weld.
The plastic method is slightly less conservative than rhe more co~runon simple method lt
can always be used for these calculations but will not be pursued further in tl1is Manual..
Use a "1bsin. fillet weld on each side of tlle gusset at the gusset10beam connection for
brace a ove 1he beam..
lb~
ASD
LRFD
Rn
Rn = 0.75(842 kips)
= 632 kips
842 kips
2.00
= 421 K:ips
=
o.k.
'
ldps
o.k.
For a force applied at a distance from !he end that is greater than the depth of the member:
11
!{::
LRFD
l,,
"
For rhe HSS6.875x0.500 below ilie beam, the required strength of the bracing connections
was determined at the beginning of this example.
ASD
=817.kips
o.k.
Bottom.BracetoBeam Connection
The required tensile strength of !he connection is base_d on RyFyAg of the braces as stipulated in AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(l). All limit states applicable lO tension or
compression in the brace must be checked.
This completes the design of the top brace to the beam. Figure 522 shows the configuration.
Rn = 817 kips
Q
1.50
= 545 kips
o.k.
If d
""
ere 1or convenience. _es~red, the compressive strength of the brace could be used for web local crippling_
Check beam web local crippling
gusset lap length. Note that the expe~ted brace rupture strength, R1Fu, may be used
according to AISC Seismic Provisions Section A3.2.
Using AISC Specification Section J4.2, including R1 from .A.lSC Seismi~ Provisions Table
A3.l:
.
:
'
.
. .
R, =1.3
(from Spec..Eq. J44)
For a force applied greater than a distance of d/2 from the beam end:
Jn this equation, Am, is taken as the crosssectional area of the four walls of the brace,
A,.,,= 4ltdes Therefore:
R,,
=0.60R,Fu(4ltd~s)
Setting the available shear rupture strength equal to U1e.required tensile strength and solv ing for the minimum lap Jeogth, l:
.,
:~
..%
LRFD
1'2:.
~
~
ASD
P.,
I '2:.
'2:.
8.71 in.
uPa
0.60R,Fu (4rdts)
Ubs
=LO
2.00(385 bps)
Note chat this length is lhe minimum required foe 1he limit stare of shear rupture in the
brace wall. A longer length may be used when designing the fillet welds between the brace
and the gusset plate. if desired, to allow a smaller fillet weld size as is implemented in lbc
following.
U~F11 An1
=399/p
Size the weld between the brace and the gusset plate
The strength of fillet welds defined in AISC SpeciJiration Section J2 can be simplified, as
explained in Part 8 of the AISC Manual, to Equations 82a and 82b:
LRFD
tR.. =139201
Ip
0.928Dl
LRFD
/~
~
550 kips
4(0.928)D/ ~ Ta
[ ';?.
24.7 in.
385 kips
Rn
Ip ~
2.00(385 kips)
(1,080 kip/in.+ 399 kip/in )
~ 0.521
in.
in.
~R,.'<?:P.,
Ai
'2: P,.
$F,
550 k.ips
'2: 0.90(36 ksi)
The available strength for the limit state of block sh~ rupture is:
ASD
LRFD
Use (4) 25in. long, 'Ain. fillet weld! to connect the brace below the beam to the gussei
plate.
";?.25.9 in.
The designs in LRFD and ASD give slightly different required lengths of weld. Use the
LRFD result in this example. In practice, designers should consistently use one method or
the other.
550 kips
0.75(l,0&0 kip/in.+ 399 kip/in.)
~ 0.496
ASD
ASD
Using 1Aio. fillet welds for the four lines of weld so that they can be m:\de in a single pass:
ASD
LRFD
R,. '2:P.,
..
' .
UPo
A,'2:T
1
l 67(385 lcips)
'2:
36 ksi
'2: 17.9 in.
}:.
BRACED FRAMES~
Choose a reduced Whitmore width, w1 , of approximately twice the brace width. This doe3
not exceed the ma.umum Whitmore width descn'bed in AISC Manual Part 9. Therefore,
wp = 14.0 in. and the gusset plate thick:uess is:
LRFD
loJl1
5  165
ASD
Dbraet
Ag
tp~
ldu
r1::22
>Ag
fp
Wp
' wp
2
l 7.0 in.
= 14.0 in.
=l.21 in.
17.9 in.
6.875 in.
0.465 in.
=3.21 in.
14.0 in.
= 1.28 in.
Db>oce
1lh in.
6.875 in.
11h in.
+2
r2=~+2
The minimum required gusset thickness for this limit state is higher than 1he minimum
required for rb~ limit stste of block shear as calculated previously.
.,
Using the LRFD solution, a l ~in.1hick plate is selected for the gusset plate. below lhe
i~:
beam.
net area
From AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5b(3), the brace effective net area, At, should noi
be less than the brace gross are:i, Ag. Tims:
~11
. '!;"
Using a gap of Yi6 in. on each side of the slot to allow clearance for erecrlon:
2
= 8.08 in.2
_ ri sin 0
x=0
.
.
. 20 and 0 is measured in radians. Although the
f the slot as ~hown in Figure 527, use
where the total arc of the partial c1rc~c is be'
. li h I less than a full balfctrCle cause o
.
brace
1s s g t Y
. . 'ghll
servntive A more prtCi~e calculal!on
an angle, e, ofrc./2 for simplicity. This is sli
y uncon
..
could be perfonned using the ex:ict angle.
X/m1co
From AISC Specificarum Table 03. l, because l > l.3D, U =1.0, and 1he effective nee area i s:
~
= 2
=4.19 in.
. ( sin(it/2}rad)
""3.21 m.
"'2.04 in.
(1t/2)rad
=UA,,
=J,0(8.08 in.2 )
=8.08 io.2
Becaure A., <Ag. brace reinforcement is required. The approximate area of reinforcement
required, A,,., is lhe area removed, but reinforcement will reduce U 10 less than 1.0 because
of its position. The requjred area of reinforcement can be obtained from (A,.+ Am)U ~ Ag.
Assuming a value of U = 0.80:
Am = ~ A..
0.80
'
;"
.;
I~
BRACED FRAMES .
Xrt
=r2
=4.19in.
Derennine
:d
)
A
in. 2
Part
in.
Half of brace
One flat bar
4.19
4.04
2.25
6.29
2.04
R1 F1 Afb
LRFD
ASO
?,
51611
XA
in. 3
8.24
9.43
17.7
There is a smnll gap of approitimately 0.081 in. between the face of the brace nod the edge
of the flat bar as shown in Figure 527. Since chis is more than 1/16 in., the fillet weld of