You are on page 1of 439

r

"' ..

r
1

~-~
I

l
:z.:...

.;;.

,_

. . : ..un \E!<'.1i1;lv-... . ,.:._ , ;.,., ,.,,.

f
:;

;},~, ~~::.

:r
I
i

).

,'_, ,a~

'!'c ..;

ii

.'."' r -'' ,

-'~N

.~~~1'1 ~-!,; :i-< .).,i. . ~

.~ <(. ~.: 1~

.r
.,

,.

.,.,,.
., i

\ '"'-;..' ~

-~ ""-
-

-..'

i, ;.:: .

:: .-;;:"' ;

'J

J..
D

J'

..'

.;_ !

:;:

;.
-~

-.. -.

'MANUAL
.. ' . .
:

\' - .

:;~ ~. . .

' \f' : ,

AMERt'CAN 'INSTITUTE

.I
I

OF
..

STEEL CONSTRUCTION

SECOND EDITION

,.

I
i

1 General Design Considerations

2 Analysis

3 Systems Not Specifically Detailed for Seismic Resistance

4 Moment Frames

5 Braced Frames

6 Composite Moment Frames

Composite Braced Frames and Shear Walls

"" ~

8 Diaphragms, Collectors and Chords

..-

4#

9 Provisions and Standards

10 Engineered Damping Systems

Index

Ir
lI

11
J

vi

vii

,
AISC Q 2012

DEDICATION

by
..
."'" ...,~'\
\,

~~.

t~.

American Institute of Steel Consuuction


"'-:""
. .,,,.
-~
'.. ~
~.-'\
"' '
"'}./
ISBN J-56424:()61-4
;:, ~>:.
~

~;,,.. ''fl' t;

~,

I..

..

All rig~
This
part rhereo} miist nothe reproduced
in any fom1 without the written pennission of the publisher.
The AISC.~gl'
f;e~si?jd tr<jfe~fk ofA/SC.

reservia.

bobk o;rm;

%
a
-,.

.
.. .. .
..
. Th~ information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for .$~A-Yf.ll information only. While it is believed to be
accurate, this information should nott~. ~s'&I"'oc relied upon for any specific application
without competent professional exa~~Jj<?!an~ ~eji~cation of its accuracy, suitability and
applicability by a licensed professionaI:e}lgiqeey,- desjgner, or architect The publication of
the. material contained herein is not int~n~~d~l!f~ representation or warranty on the part of
the American Institute of Steel ConstrU~tioff:!:/:r,~f any other person named herein, that this
information is suitable for any general or particular use or ~f freedom from infringement of
any patent or patents. Anyone making;use_of th.is inforfuation assumes all liability arising
from such use.
'

.\

..

1.,. .
I

JJ

:,,

. Caution must be exercised when relying upon ocher specifications and codes developed by
other bodies and incorporated by reference herein since such material may be modified or
amended from time to time subsequent to the printing of this edition. The Institute bears no
responsibility for such material other than to refer to it and incorporate it by reference at the
time of the initial publication of chis edition.
Printed in the United States of America
First Prin{ipg: September 2012 .
~

.._

t.

..
., :._!.

ri~ I

...

,,,._

:J.

Clarkson ("Piiiky") W. Pinkham

This-edition of the AISC SeiSmic Design Manual is dedicated to the memory of Clarkson
W. Pinkham, a long-time member of the AISC Committee on Specifications and 'Taskr
Committee 9-Seismic Design. Mr. Pinkham, or Pinky as he was- aJ!'ectionately known to' .
his professional collea'gues, was pCC$ident ana member of the Los Angeles consulting structuial-engineering firm,. S.B. Barnes and Associates, for 62 years. He sei;ved on the AISC
(
Committee on Specifications from the mid-1970s until the yeatioo:i: and Thsk Comin.ittee .
9-Seismic Design from-the mid-1990s. until 2010. As a member of :raskComn1ittee'9 and
technical secretary for-the 1997 AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, he
was a major contributor -aiid instrumental ii1 the early development of that standard. Pinky rwas one of the fuit proponents of including composite systems. in "the AISC Seismicl
Provisioru and, for the first time; thisSeismic Design Manual includes two chapters on' such .:
systems. Pinky received the AISC Lif~time Achievement Award in 1999. Through a career
that spanned more than six decades, he\.$pent a lifetime sharing his expertise with others in j
the field. He was passionate about learning up until his death in 2012 at the age of 92. Pinky -..
was generous in sharing his abundance of structural engineering experience and knowledge
through committee involvement and with those who requested it o~ the subjects o~ ~tructural ~':
steel, concrete and masonry design, cold-formed structures, and timber. By prov1dmg solu-l:
lions and recommendations in this way, Pinky improved the integrity of numerous ~=.,
structures; in particular, their capacity to resist seismic-generated forces. He was elected
president of the Structural Engineers Association of Southern California (SEAOSC) in .
1971, and later served as president of the Structural Engineers Association of California I
(SEAOC) in 1975. He was twice given the S.B. Barnes Award for Research, and in 1994 ~
was inducted into the SEAOC College of Fellows, the highest honor awarded by SEAOC.
In 2009, the Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers~
awarded Pinky the Walter P. Moore. Jr., Award in recognition of his dedication to and tecb-l .
oical expertise in the development of structural codes and standards. AISC will always
remember his dedication to the development of standards related to the design and con- ~
stnJction of structural steel and it is especially fitting that the 2nd Edition of the AISC L
Seismic Design Manual be dedicated to the memory of Clarkson W Pinkham.

L.

I
l
I
j

,;;

. ..

i;~

viii

PREFACE

FOREWORD

..

_J

~I
I

d
'.;I
fI
:;J

11

.1

t: .

..

i.

The design

'

~x;mpl~ contained in tills f1anual

demonstiate' an ai>Pr0ach~to design, and

~nc?~ intended to suggest that' the approach presented is the oiiry approach.' The commicteifr~nsible for !he development of these desjgn examples reeognizes that Ciisigoers have
altel"ll!lt~ approaches that worlc'best for them and their'ptojects. Design approache~ that difter-~iii._iliose ~ei:ited ~ these examples iire .son'sidered viable as long as the AISC
Sped/icarii>n and AISC Sez'smic Proviswns, sound ~ngiii~ring~ and project srecific require
'
mentS are satisfied.
The.following major changes and improvements have been made in this revision:

"
t

More thorough and comprehensive design examples, updated for the 2010 AISC

Seis111ic Provisions
Side-by-side LRFD and ASD design methodologies for design examples
Addition of Part 2: Analysis
Addition of column base plate design exampl~
Extended discussion in Part 8 on collector elements
Addition of Part 10: Engineered Damping Systems
Addition of buckling-restrained bf<lCed frame systems and examples
Addition of new chapters on compP$ite moment frames and composite braced frames

By the AISC Committee on Manuals and Textbooks,

'
;

2010 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSIIAISC 341-10)


~ 2010 Prequaliji~d Connections for Special and /111ennediau Steel Moment Frames
for Seismic Applicafi9hs including' Supplement No. 1 (ANSI/AiSC 358~ 1Oand ANSl/
AlSC 358sl~l) 1 ' .
:

The Institute's objeetive is to make ;~aurai .steel the material of choice, by being the
leader in structural-steel-related technical and market-building activities, including: specificatism.and code development, research,-educa!ion, tecl!Jlical.assistance, quality e<ertification,
suw-dardiz.ation, and mar~et deyelopmenl ,
To accomplish this pbjective, the ln&titu~ publishes manuals, design guides and specificatiqns: Best known Jll)d most widely used is the Steel Construction Manual, which bolds a
highly respected positipn in. engineering literature. The Manual is based on the Specification
forStnu:tural Steel Buildings and the COOe of Sf.(),ntlnrd Practice for Steel Buildings and
Bridge;. Both standards are included in the Manual for easy reference.
11:\e Institute. also publishes lechn.ical information and timely articles in its Engineering
Journal, Design Guide series, MO<km Steel Cons~ruction magazine, and other design aids,
research reports, and journal articles. Nearly. all of the information AISC publishes is available for download from the AISC web site at www~org.

'(

This is the secood edition Q{ the AISC Seismic Design Manual, in~eoded to assist d~signers
in properly applying AISC standards and provisions in the design of steel frames to resist
high-seismic loadings. This Ma,nual is intended for use in conjunction with the AISC SruJ
111
Consm.u:tion Manual, 14th Edition.
The following consensus standards are printed in Part 9 of this Manual:

The American Institute of Steel Construction , founded in 1921, is the nonprofit technical
specifying and trade organization for the fabi:icated structural steel industry in the United
States. Executive and engineering head~ of AISC are maintained in Chicago. The
Institute is supported by four classes of membernhlp: Active Membecs engaged in the fair
rication, production and sale of structurefst~l~ ~ociate Members, who include Erectors,
Detailers, Service Consultants, Software bevel.~pers, and Steel Product Manufacturers;
Prof~sional Members, who are individu~l{~iJm~ engaged in the practice of architecture
or engineering, including arcbitecturarand~eilgfu.~iltig educators; and Affiliate Members,
who include General Contractors, Building inspCHo~ and.Code Officials. The continuing
financial support and active parti<'.ipatioti of M~~~ .in i~ engineering, research and
development activities of the Institute make PQssible,th~ publishing of this Seismic Design

Manual

Mark V. Holland, Chairman


Gary C. Violette, Vice-Chairman
Abbas Amirunansour
Charles J. Carter
Harry A. Cole
Brad Davis
Bo Dowswell
Lanny J. Flynn
Patrick I . Fortney
W. Scott Goodrich
Christopher M. Hewitt
W. Steven Hofmeister
William P. Jacobs
Bill R. Liodley, lI

Ronald L. Meng
Larry Muir
Thomas M. Murray
Rafael Sabelli
Cliffor~ W. Schwinger
William N. Scott
William T. Segui
Victor Shneur
Marc L. Sorenson
William A. Thornton
Michael A. West
Ronald G. Yeager
Cynthia J. Dun~, Secretary

Jt

Jt.

and the AISC Subcommittee on Seismic Design,


Heath E. Mitchell
Kevin s. Moore
Larry Muir '
Clinton 0. Rex
John A. Rolfes

' Wtlliam A. Andrews

Richard M Drake
Michael D. Engelhardt
Patrick J. FortneY.
Timothy P. F~~;
John L. Harri_s,."in.,:
James 0. M~ley '

SCOPE
Bren R. Manning

Rafael Sabelli, Chairman


Thomas A. Sabol, Vicc--Chairman
Allen-Adams ; " ,
:;-:Scott M. Adak
~

.. ,

William N. Scott
Victor Shneur
,Hru-old 0. Sp~gu,e ,,. .. ..
~t H. Yart11<1 . . ;

).

Leigh Arber, Sec~tary

The committee giq.tefully acknowledges the contributioqs made to ,this Manual by the following individ1,1ils.:. Eric B~lin. Areti
MariaE. Chumbiu, J~et Cummins, Thomas
Dehlin, Richard." Dfcike, Tu.<;.a ~ischer, Louis Geschwindner, .Arp,ir .Gilani, Keith Gr.u~b,
Jeroqie Hajjili-,
~an.v:inde,. ~cha,rd Kaehler, Ryan Kersting,_ Zhichao Lai, D awn
Lehman, Bre~t Leu, Kit Miyai:O()tci;
Palmer, Davis Parsons. Il, Paul Richards,
Kimberly l,lobinson, Chai:tes Ro~~~f B.randt Saxe~, Thomas Scblafly. Bahra~ Shafu.~z,
Chia-Ming Uang, and Jie Zuo.

Carter;

Ainit

Keith

The specification requirements and other dCsign recommendations and considerations summarized in this Manual apply in general to the design and construction of seismic fore(::
resisting systems in steel buildings and other structures. The AISC Seismic Design Manua f
is intended to be applied in conjunction with the AlSC Steel Construction Manual, which
provides guidance on the use of the AISC Speeijic.ation for Structural Steel Buildings.
In addition to the requirements of the AISC Specification, the design of seismic for~:
resisting sy~tems must meet the requirements in the AISC Seismic Provisions for Structurak_
Steel Buildings, except in the following cases for which use of the AISC Seismic Provisions
is not required:

f'.

Buildings and ~er structures in Seismic Design Category (SDC) A


'f.::.
Buildings and other structures in SOC B or C with R 3 systems (steel systems not
specifically detailed for seismic resistance per ASCEJSEI 7 Table 12.2-1)
Nonbuilding structures similar to buildings with R = 1~ braced-frame systems or
R 1 moment-frame systems; see ASCFJSEI 7 Table 15.4-1
'- Nonbuilding structures not similar to buildings (see ASCFJSEI 7 Table 15.4-2), which
are designed to meet the requirements in other standards entirely
..

Conversely, use of the AISC Seismic Provisions is required in the following cases:

. !

'

Buildings and other structures in SOC B or C when one of the exemptions for steel.
,
seismic force resisting systems above does not apply
Buildings and other structures in SDC B or C that use composite seismic force resistl
ing systems (those containing composite steel-and-concrete members and those
composed of steel members in combination with reinforced concrete members)
Buildi~gs. in SOC D, E ~r F
.
Nonbuildiog structures m SOC D. E or F when the exempuon above does not apply

rl
L

The Seismic Design Manual consist.S, of ten parts addressing various topics related to the;
design and construction of seismic force resisting systems of structural steel and structura(
steel acting compositely with reinforced concrete. Part I stipulates the specific editions of-"
the specifications, codes and standards referenced in this Manual, and provides a discussion
of general design considerations related to seismic design. Part 2 provides some guidancef.:
on structural analysis procedures employed. For the design of systems not detailed for seis~-
mic resistance, see Part 3. Parts 4 through 7 apply to the various types of seismic fore~.
resisting systems, including design examples. Part 8 discusses other systems, such as .
diaphragm chords and collectors, which are important in seismic design. Part 10 addresses'.
engineering damping systems. For applicableAISC seismic standards, s~ Part 9.

tr
AM1UCAN fNS1TTUl'E Of STEEL C ONSTRUCTION

'

1-;

PAf4T'1
:t:'.' \. ,,

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

..... ;-;::..:. ..
',

,"

'

J 11

. ,.

.......

~}

l"

.. . .

; . t . -~ . . '

~~'.

?-

J'

:I

~i"

Si .

!,

J"

i.:

( i

:\! _..;.

',

: ..

l.l SCOPE ........................................................... 1-4

~.2

APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS, CODES

AND OTIIER ~CES


.... 1-4
l . ..,
J

.;

Specifications, Codes and Scandards for Structural Steel Buildings . . ......... 1-4
.
.
.
. .. .
. ~;,'. :it . ... :1
..
Other AISC Reference Documents ........ . ............................. 1-5

~3 !SEISMIC DESIGN OVERVIEW AND _I>ESIGN CON~IDSRATIONS ........ 1- 5

c.

., ; ,

~t."'

l.

.' /

'~

;.

!,~J~

of f

--r '

Performance Go~ : . f . ,_ ........ : .._.. ......... ; .. . . ...... : ... .......1-5


;::.

'.'"

!Applicable Building Code .............................. .... .......... 1-6

Risk Category and Seismic Design Category ........... : .., ....' . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Earthquake Ground Motion and ResponseSpectrum .... ~ :;... ..... ..... : ... 1-7

' .:.
I

.. .
,

,.

. . .4

._,

"i'.

Systems DefinedinASCFJSEI 7 ...... . ............................... 1-10


.

:.

'l

Seismic Performance Factors ......................................... 1-12

.... -._.

'

Maximum Considered Earthquake and DeSign ~asis Eanhqu~e .. ............ 1-10

~)

.t.

-,.-:

: ~

Response Modification Coefficient, R ........ ......... ... ....... _, . . ,. 1-12


.

.,

-."

"'

. I

..

..

Redundancy Factor, p

"

Deflection A.niplifi.cation Factor, Cd ...... ." .......................... 1-14


. * ...: '
.. - "};
Overstrength Factor, n.; ............ ... ............................ 1- 14
I

._,

iii

'1

l~

.. .

=3 Applications .............................................. .1-:-1.3.


~.... . .. : .', <~.

,.

'.: .... .'.......... :..... :......

1-15

Maximum Force De~ered by the,s;st~m


... ......... ..... ... .~ ......... 1-16
I
.
Building Joints ...... . ._.,, .. ...... .,. . . _. . .. . ....... ........... , ........ 1-16
Expansion Joints .. . . ......... .................. : . ......... :.: :.. : .. : . .'l- 16
Seismic Joints ..... .".~:-'.. !

t:. .-.: .. : . .... ."...... ', : . ...... .!.-... ..

1-17
" ..
.. ~ ~
Building Separations .......... ...... ...... : .... : . : ... ............ 1-17

Building Drift ............... : . ..'.': ... : .. .... .=... . '..... :

. . . . . . . . 1-18
. . . ....
.
Deflection Compatibility ; ....... ; .. . ............. ................. 1-18
.
..
.. . .

'. l

.a

Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature . ......... , . . .. ,, . . ..... r. ..... 1- 18

Quality Control and Quality Assurance;., . .,................... " .... . , .. l- 19


Design Drawing Requirements ....... . ............................... 1-21

Structural Design Drawio~ Requirements ............................ 1-2 1


SPRS Member and Connection Material Specifications .............. . ... 1-21
! !.

Demand Critical Welds ......... ..... ........... . .... . ............ l-21


AM1!JUCAN (Ns-rmrrE OF Sn::a CoNSTRUCTION

l -2

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Locations and Dimens ions of PrOlCfJ:.ed ZoQcs ................. ... ..... 1- 22

Table 1-9a Design Coefficients and Factors for Steel and Steel and
~
Concrete Composite Seismic Force Resisting Systems ..................... 1- 5

Adclitional Structural Design


De~ Requirements
in the P}vis\ons$ r.- . : ~-,,.-i -' ' .... ..... ...... ~ . .-:~ .- , .. : ........ . 1-22

Dia.wing

' "" l .....

J ~~-

,a

.;.

l-

Tuble l -9b. Design ~ci'.Dts fuld Factors for Nonbuilding S~


:,
Si.uiilar to Buildings ... : '. :' ................................... : ...... 1-62

,..;!!

AWS 01.8 Structural Welding Code-Seismic Supplement ............ ... 1-23

.,,., i~(

'

Composite Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23

..

1.4 DESIGN TABLE DISCUSSION ........ ............. ... . .. : . ......... 1-25

. r

Seismic Weld Access Hole 'Confi&uratlon ..... .' .. .' .......... .' ........... 1-25
"~ :
~ : ).-' I
J' ' t. ..i 4;i
..,.,:"~ 't 1.
,.
: ' I

~
Mein~r D'~c'tiuty Req~f~meniS '::::: ~ ..... ~: ........... : .... :: . ." ..... 1-25
'lo

~ f '

'

.f: ~- ) .. ,,:'..

. '..;

....

Local Buckling Requirements ............... .......... . . : . : : ... .. . .. 1-25


'

" ..

....: :

}~ ..:

- -

...

"\

;:_

"'t

, ...

...,,. __, 1

.. ). ;

..

,.

Table 1-C. Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Rectangular ,._


HSS W~ls in Compression,.,,,._, :, ,~>: ~ - ; ,i,- : . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....

._. : ; :

- -

.:...

- . ._

,. \~l - ..

1-28

Table 1-D. Lirrpting Width-to-Th.i_c)gless Ratiq~ f~r ~oun_d. HSS


. ,
and Pipe Walls inCompression . : '. : .'..... .......... ... : ........ : . . . . 1-29
.
:. ... ._,;,
~ "-:
Strength of Steel Headed Stud Anchors ................................. 1-30
-

"' t .. : -

...

~ -~ ..

'

....'

. ,

.'l.' .

,.

'

t"

Table 1-2. Summary of Member Ductili.ty Requirements ...... ; ....' . : .. .... 1-34

.
;

....

..

,.

; !

.......

..,
...

.-~

* ''

.
1

Table 1-4. Sections That Satisfy Seismic Width-to-Thickness


., L
Requirements, Angles .... . ..... ...... ...... . ........... : ... : ... ~ .... 1-52

..

Table l-5a. Sections That Satisfy Seismic Width-to-Thickness


, .~ ~
Requirements, Rectangular HSS .... ... ...................... 1 , ., l-53

..

..

Table l -5b. Sections That Satisfy Seismic Width-to-Thickness


. : ,.. ,
Requirements, Square HSS ....... .. : ...................... .. : .. ..... 1-54
' :
Table 1~6. Sections That Satisfy Seisnii.c Width-to-Thickness
Requirements, Round HSS ..... . . . ... . ... .. .............. ....' . : . ..... J-55

..

: ,c.

....-, .. ''

-, ~ .

~-

:,

'

Table 1-8. Shear Stud Anchor Nominal Horizontal Shear Strength


.
and 25% Reduced Nominal Horizonw Shear Strength for
Steel Headed Stud Anchors . ........... . ... . ......................... l- 58

'

'

\ :

Table 1-7. Sections That Satisfy Seismic WidlhtOThfok:ness


Require ments, Pi~ ... . ...... . . .. .. .. . ..... . .......... ~ .. : ... : .... 1-57

A.MERIC\N

: ~,,.

Table 1-3 .. Sections That Satisfy Seismic Width-to-Thickness .


- Requirements, W-Shapes ......... : . : ..... : ...... . .... .... ....:.. .. . : . 1-36

'.
., ..

Il

DESIGN TABLES ............... ... . .' ................ -.. : ~ ... .......... l-33
Table 1-1.- Workable Seismic Weld Access Hole Configurations.............. 1-33

PART 1 REFERENCES ............. ...... .......... ...............-..... 1-31


-

!.

...- .. i

i,

';:1

~.

. ...

'

ASCEJSEI 7 Design Coefficients anaFactors for ~FRS ....._............... 1-30


-

'-

Table lB. Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Angle Legs



in Compression ... . ... . .......... .......... ! ....._. : . . . . . . . . . _. .; .. 1-27

:..I

Table l A. Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for vi.Shape Fliinge5


and Webs m Compresston .... . : .... ................. : . :: : . : . . : ... 1-26

"

.'

- ..

'l<

.$

~ \., i . \

l
r l
r

l'

~-~

:.

l.NsTmrr OF Sn;a.. Co.'1$TIWCTION

...

GENERAL D~IGN CONSIDERATIONS

1-4

1.1 SCOPE

v...-.

ii

'

, The design consderations fU~z.ed in lh:i-S Part apply .~ ~~ to the design and ~nstruction of steel buildmgs for seismic applications. The specific editions of s~j.fications,
cod~s and oilier references listed below are referenced thrOughout tills Manual. '

1.2 APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS, CODES AND


OTHER REFERENCES
1

Specifications, Codes and Standards for Structural Steel

I Buildings
a I Subject to the requirements in the applicable building code and the contract documents, the

design, fabrication and erection of structural steel buildings is governed as indicated in the
AISC Specification Sections Al and B2, and AISC Seismic Provisions Sections A2 and B2

as follows:

~
Jl

l ~l
1 ~

1. ASCE/SEI 7: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Stru~tures, ASCEI
SEI 7-LO (ASCE, 2010). Available from the _American Society of Civil Engineers,
ASCE/SEI 7 provides the general requirements for loads, load factors and load combinations.
2. AISC Specification: Specification for Srructural Steel Buildings, ANSI/AISC 360-10
(AISC, 20 lOa). This standard provides the general requirements for design and construction of structural steel buildings, and is included in Part 16 of the AISC Steel
Construction Manual and is also available at www.aisc.org.
3. AISC Seismic Provisions: Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSI!
AISC 341-10 (AISC, 20l0b). Th.is standard provides the design and construction
requirements for seismic force resisting systems in structural steel buildings, and is
included in Part 9 of this Manual and is also available at www.aisc.org.
4. ANSUAISC.358: AISC Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel
MoTMnt Frames for Seismic Applications, ANSI/AISC 358-10 (AISC, 2010c): This
standard specifies design, detailing, fabrication ~d quality criteria for connections that
'are prequalified in accordance with the AISC Seismic Provisions for use with special
and intermediate moment frames. It is .included in Part 9 of this Manual and is also
available at www.aisc.org.
5. AISC Code of StandLJrd Prac1ice: AISC Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings
and Bridges (AISC, 2010d). This document provides the standard of custom and usage
for the fabrication and erection of structural steel , and is included in Part 16 of the
AISC S1eel Construction Manual and is also available at www.aisc.org.
Other referenced standards include:

I. RCSC Specification: Specification for Struc1ural Joints Using High-Strength Bolts


(RCSC, 2009), reprinted in Part 16 of the AISC Steel _Construction Manual with the
'i>ermission of the Research Council on Structural Connections and available at
www.boltcounciLorg, provides the additional requirements specjfic to bolted joints
with high-strength bolts.

1-5

1.3 SEISMIC DESIGN OVERVIEW AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

2. AWS 01.1: Sirucfl!!Ul.Welding Co~teel, AWS Dl.11Dl.1M:2010 (AWS, 2010).


AviJ.able froQ,lJ~:J\meri~a.n Welding Spciety,._AWS Dl.lprQvi<ies additiopal i:cquirements specific 10 'Welded joints. Requirement,$ for th~ proper ~pecific!t9.Pn of welds can
be found in, AWS A2.4: Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, Md Noruie,structive
. ~tjo!f,(AWS, 2007).
": ;
3. _{'i..WS 01.8,; :Stn:turaj Welding Code-S~ismic Supplement, AWS Dl.8/Dl.8M:4009
. (AWS, 2009). Ayailable from~ .American.Welding Society, AWS D 1.8 acts as a sup'
.plemcnt to AWS Dl.1 and provides additioiiaJ. requirements. speific to welded joints
in ~c applicati9ns.. ; ..
4.. ACl 318: .Building Co<Je,&quire~nts fhr Structural Concrete, ACI 318-08 (ACI,
2008). Available from the American Concrete Institute, ACT 318 provides ad<JitiQnal
. _requireQlents for:.reinforced concrete, meluding cpmposite design an4 the design of
, . : steel-tQ-COncre~ anchorage. .
..
.

(t.

other AISC Reference Documents


"IPe !JSC Steel Cons~cti.on Manual (J}ISC,:20 ~ l ), referred to as the AISC Manual is availaple f~m AJSC at .~.aisc.Qr:g. 'I)lis puP.lication provi4~ . design fe(;ommeoda.tions and
speci.fic;atio~~ui.refll~I)ts for vljri~us topips related to ste,el b1,1ilding design and copstruction.
..... ~

~~

..

; .3 .SEISMIC"DESIGN OVERVIEW AND DESIGN ...


CONSIDERATIONS.
.... . . ,. " . . : .- . .
'

~.

F>erf'ormance Goals
- : '

., '"1

. .. !

'

'.'

.
",

'. .

....
.,

'

'.

Seismic design is the practice of proportioning and detailing a structure so that it can withstand shaking from an earthquake even:t with acceptable perfonnance. The AISC Seismic
Provisions Joi Structural Steel Buildings are intended to provide a
of designing structures constiucted to respond to maxiroll.m considered earthquake ground shaking, as defined
in ASCFJSEI 7, with low probabili~ of collapse, while potentially sustaining significant
inelastic behavior and structural damage. Fundamental to seismic design is the practice of
proportioning and detailing the structure so that it can wit11stand Iafge..de_fop:na.~9n d~m~d$.
accommodated through inelastic behavior in structural elements ihat have been specifically
deSigned to withstand this behavior acceptably. This requires carefui proportioning ofthe
sthlCtu.ral system so that inelastic behavior oecw-S in pre-selected cleinents that have apprOpnate1section properties to sustain large inelastic deformation demands without loss of
strength, and a5suring that connections of srru.Ctural elements aie adequate to develop the
strength of the connected members.

Performance apj:>ropnate to the fun~tion of the structure is a fuiidaniental consideration


for seismic design.' Potentlill conside'rations are post-earthquake reparability and serviceability for earthquakes of different severity, Most structures are designed only with an
expectation of protecting life safety, rather tlian assUring either the feasibility of repair or
post-earthquake utility. Buildings assigned .to Risk Categories ID and IV, as defined in
ASCEISEI 7, are expe.cted to withstand severe earthquakes with limited levels of damage,
and in some cases, allowpost-earthquake occupancy. 'l)le criteria of the AISC Seismic
Provisions, when ~sed together with the requirements of ASCEJSEI 7, are intended to

means

., . .

1-Q

. . .. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

t.JSEISMIC DESIGN OVERVIEW AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

provide performance appropriate to the structure's risk category 1 For some buildings,
peifOnnance that exceeds-these expectations may be appropriate. fuitbose.cases, designers
must develop supplemCJitaiy-criteria to those contained in the AISC .SeiSmic Provisions and
:ASCFJSEI ?.
:-:,
' ;~--
. ,:,. .:;: ,..
.
Building performance is not a function of the suuctural system 'alone. Man)> bi:iilding
structures have exluoited ill effects from diinage to nonstructural components;' including
breaks in fire protection systems and impaired egress, which have pre.clucted building functions-and thus impaired performance. Proper conSidei-ation of the behavior of nonstructural
eomponents is essential to enhanced building performance. Industrial and nonbuilding
structures 6ften oontairi 'elements that require :so me measure of pfotection from large
deformitions.
". ,
'~ "
"
\, Generally,' seismic :force resisting systems (SFRS) are classified into three levels of
inelastic response capability, designated as ordinary, intermediate or special, depending on
the level of ductility that the system is expected to provide. A system designated as ordinary
is designed and detailed to provide limited abity ~- e~bit in~lastiQrespoDS;C witb~fa~"
ure or collapse. The design requirements for such systems, including limits on proportioning
aD<l detailing, are not as stringent as those 'systems 1 classified as intermediate or 'sPecial.
Orllinary systems provide seismic resistance primarily through' their'strengrb. Sttuhu.&s
such :as these must be designed for higher force demands with eomrifonsurately less ~tiih~
gent ductility and membe-r stability requirements. Some steel structures achieve acceptable
seismic performance,by_-{l_ioyi.11-IDg ductility in. specific struc~r~l:e)_e_!p,ents that are d_ffoi~ed
to undergo nonlinear' deformation without strength loss and dj~sjpate seismic . eqefgy.
Examples of ductile steel structures include special moment
eccentridny 'b'ft.Ce<l
frames, and buckling-restrained braced frames. The ability of tp,~~~ ~s~c~ef~ fo.,d~~?!ID
inelastically, without strength loss or instability, pennits them
bC designCd for lower
fo~es than. structr~ with oi;dinai:y detailing.
,.
-,,.J!nhanced performance, relative to that provided by conformance to the AISC Seismic
Provisions and ASCE/SEI 7, can be a required-CQnsideration for certain nuclear structures
~d critical military structures, but is beyood the _
scope of this Manual. Critical structur~
gen~rally ~re designed to remain elastic, eve~ fQr-large infrequent seismic events.
., :,,

frafues,'

to

. :; .

Applicable Building Code

. <-. i ~ .

..

......

~ational model building ~es are published. so that state and locc authorities may adppt

the code's prescriptive provisions to standardize design and constru~tioq practices in_their
jurisdiction. The currently used model code in the U.S. for the structural des\gp of bl!ildi?_gs
and nonbuilding s_trucrures is the International Building Code (IBC), published by the
International Code Council (ICC) (ICC, 2012). Oftentimes the-84opted provisions are
amended pase4 on jurjsdictional requirements to, develop . l<><;al bl,tllding _<;odes (e.g.,
California l3uildjng Code and,IJ\e Building COOe of, ~~w York City). LOcal codes are then
enforced by law and any devia~on m.ust be apprQved by the lqcal buildil).g~thority. M the
IQC8] code provisions may chapge betweenjurjajicti9hs, the AISC Specijicaticn and AI~C
Seismic Provisions refer t6 this code as the appli~ble building <:09e. .
1

Codes have hiStOrically used occupancy category. This classification was changed

10 risk categoryin
ASCE/SEJ 7-10 and me 2012. Where class.ification by occupancy category is still employed. the more stringent of the two is used.

AMEluCMI lNST!TIJ'I' OF STEF.1.. CoHSTRUCTION

.t 1
t
f
t

l
I

I
j

1-7

The primary perfonnanc;:e objective of these model codes is that of "life safety" for building occupants for all the va4ous demands to \'(mch.lhe building will:be subjected. To satisfy
this-Objective,fof-. stiuctures required to resiststrong ground motions from earthquakes;1hese
codes reference ASCEISEI-'.7for.-&eismic analysis and design provisions:-Se.ismic design criteria iii this standard.prescribe- minimum reql!llementS for both rhe>strength and stiffness of
SFRS and the strot:tnr:il elements they include: Tue seismic design criteria in ASCFJSEI 7
for the most part are based.on the NEHRP Recommended Provisicns for Seismic Regulaticn.s
for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA, 2009).
The seismic design of nonbuilding structures is addressed separately in ASCFJSEI 7 in
Chapter 15. Nonbuilding structures are defined as all self-supportiiig structures that carry
gravify loads and that may be required to resist the effects of s~isftuc loads, with certain
exclusions. ASCEJSEI 7 develops an appropriate interface with builf!i,ng structures for those
types of nonbuilding structures that have dynamic behayiors similar to buildings. There are
other nonbuilding structures that ha_ye JJttl~. simifurily to buildings in terms of dynamic
response, which are not specifically covered by AISC documents.

l..::

.
f:

S:

..
Risk Category andS~ismic Design Category

L-

In ASCEJSEI 7, the expected perfonnance of a structure is detennined by assigning it to a


risk category. There ~ four rislC ca'tegories (I. II, ' iliand IV), base(on the risk posed to
society .a s a conseq~of suiictural failure or loss of function. In seismic design, the risk
category is used in dinjunctioh with parameters ~t define' the ilite~ity of design ground
shaking in determining the importance-factor and.the seismic design category (SDC) for
which a structure muSt be dC$igned'. The're are six SOC, designa~ by-the letters A through
L
F. Structures assig~~-to ;Seismic; Design Catego;y.A are not' ailtiC"ip~ted to experience
ground shaking of sufficientJntengity tO cause unacceptable performance, even if they are
not specifically designed for se!smic resistance.,Structu{Cs in Seismic Design Categories B If
or C can experience motion capable of producing unacceptable damage when the structures L
have not been designed for seismic resistance. Structures in Seismic Design Category D are
expected to expentooe iii~"ground\shaking, capable of produang unacceptable performance in strucni~. ~t)~_ave qnfavorable structural,. ~yste~~s ll!l~ ~which have not been r
detailed to provide b~ levels
inelastic deformation response withcn1t failure. Structures
assigned to Seismic ~i.11!! C*gooes E and F are Jocated _wi~: a few miles of major
..
$. .
- "c"otei~ ->-'~
active faults capable of producmg large magnitude earthquakes and ground motions with i-~'
peak ground accel~.~~ceeding 0.6g. Even well-designe<l structures with extensive
inelastic response capability
be severely damaged. under such conditions, requiring careful selection and proporti9ning of stru'ctures.

f- {

or

1 "'

_.

.. . ..

,. j

can

~,,.,._

Earthquake Ground Motiqn and Response Spectrum


An earthquake causes ~d mo~ons that may proJ~gate from .the} h_yp0center in any direction. These motions ~nee horizontal and vertibal ground accelerations at the earth's
surface, which in
it is
to use earthquake ::1:
ground motions ~ in past earthquakes to simulate the ~havior of structures, the
required analysis prOcedwes are complex, and the ~~:tlysis resulls are sensitive to the characteristics of the individual groi.Jnd motions selecOOcJ; ~hich may not actually be similar to
those a structure will ~rie~
~. the
future.
To
sit~plify the uncertainty and complexity
' - I .t,
i

'
.'

tum.~se stru_~_~urahcceleration8.:While

~ssible

AMEIUCAN INsmure Of $TEE1,.CoNSTRUCTION

1--8

'

...

'

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

associated with using recorded motions' 10 predict a scructure's response, response earthquake

spectra are used. A response,specti\mr.for a given earthquake ground motion indicates the
maximum (l\hsolute value), expressed either-as acceleration, velocity or displaoe.tneot, that an
elastic single--Oegrce-of-frccdom (SDOF) oscillator will experience as a function of the structures period and equivalent damping factor. Figure 1-la shows an example of an acceleration
response spectrum. On average, low-rise buildings (Figure 1-lb) tend to have short periods.
J

..;
!.

..

..

..,, .

'h

0.2s

, "!

...

1.0 s

'

Period, T

a) Accelerqtion reipo~e Jpe<:trUm

---------. ....
.
..

\ :

~ .......
r.:
I.

:
I

'

r .....,
,
. I

I.

'

,.,

........-_--;,-.------,._, l

J ...

l . ''
..... ;; ~.------If- -{
.. ,,_;, l
:
I

..,.., I

,._ l

, _-

5
> '

: ' ., -

-. I

.H

The numbers at ea~floor le~el are the~, ,

~zz~::zzzzzzzz~:':_:

G:lu11d.motion

t -9

while tall strucrures tend to be flex.ible with longei: periods (figuq:; 1-lc). For a gjven ground
motion, short period strucrurcs tend to experience higher acceleration. and th~ore, higher
inertial force (mass ti.mes ac:ccleratioo), than do longer period stru~. H~~ver, l~ng
period structures generally experience greater displacement. /

Mui.ti-story buildings are multi-<iegrce-offreedom systems with multiple~odes of vibration. Each mode bas a characteristic deflected shape and period.. Since earthquake ground
motion contains energy caused by vibration across an entire specuum of frequencies, each
acceleration frequency that corresponds to a mode impans energy into the stroctl.lre. Figure
1-2 sllo\'lts an example of a two-dimensional five-story building frame.and the modal infor
mation for the first four modes. Although the mode shapes are shown separately, the actual
building- motion will consist of combined response in each of the severitl modes. Using the
modal-shape of the structure for each mode and the effective percentage of the structure's
mass mobilized when vibrating in thac mode, it is possible' to use the same SDOF-response
spectrum discussed above to determine the maximum response for each mode. These maxima are then combined to estimate the total maximum response based on the participation
of each.mode. These rnaXi.roa for the various modes will generally occur at different points
in time. Modal combination rules approximately account for this effect. Detailed .information about structural response us ing modal analysis can be found in Chopra (2007).

., . I

1.3 SElSMJC DESIGN OVERVIEW AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

G~nd motion

relative masses that we<e used to O:lm~


the modal shapes shown

b)'Stiff structure (f..; 0.2 s)

:_ =

.:

;.

.6

L ~:::-:~-~

N-~:-=:':":::-1. J

I
I
I

,, .

I
I

I
I
I

. ---- -1

,r- ---Ir- -:- ~=::-:=""'~-'

~.

L__ ~=-=~i--4

t ---ii:-:":::"=:::-;:f. __
I

.-L. -- L-- J
~!ZZzzim.:mi
Ground motion

I-

I
I

~ - -- ~==>--~
" .I

'

~-+----+---t' "

..

I
I
- - 1
I

..

I
I
I

--,

I
I

t---...-.:=~ ---JI
I

u~m.W.m~ - J - ~

---..>

Ground motion

Model

Mode2

Frequency:

f'efiod:

0.27 Hz
3.70 8

P~:79.2%

Frequency:

0.80 Hz

Period:

1.25 a

Pafticipation: 13.8%

Mode3
Frequency: 1.42 Hz
Period:
0.71 s
Participation: 5.4%

Mode4

Frequency:
Period:

2.12 Hz

0.47 s

Participation: 1.5%

c) Flexible. structure (f > 1.0 s)


Fig. /. J. Earthquake accehrarion and srructure response.

Fig. J -2. Vibration modes for a multi-degree-of-freedom building caused by


application of a typical eartJu/~ acceleraJion design spectrunL

A.MERJCAN ~Of' STEEL~

AUl!RJCAN INS'lTT\lr6 Of' STEEL. ~0.'1

...
1-10

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

t.3 SEISMIC DESIGN OVERVIEW AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Maximum Considered Earthquake and Design


Basis Earthquake ' ,
'

:r

,.

\,

Systems Dpfi_fl~~-J r:a ASCE/_S~I ?


A steel SFRS is generally classifl~ i~t~-"iliree feveis of expected inelastic response capability, designated aS ordinary, intermediate or special, depending on the level of ductility that
the system is expected to provide. Systems designated as ordinary are designed and detailed
to provide limited ductility, but the requirements are not as stringent as those systems classified as intermediate or speciaJ. In some cases, an SFRS cap be classified as a "structure
not specifically detailed for seismic resistance" in accordance with the applicable building
code. Each classification is characterized by the following seismic performance factors:
!

composite systems designated as ordinary where the counterpart reinforced concrete syscems have designated values of R and design requirements for SOC B and C.
I
Applications where R is greater than 3
mtended for buildings that are designed to t:.:
meet the ~~irements of both, the AI~Ef ~eifmic Provisi.ons and the AISC SpecificaJiofl.
The use of R greater than 3 in the calcufanon of the seismic base shear requires the use of r
a ~isniically designed and detailed system that is able to provide the level of ductility ~m
mensurate ~ith the v~lue of R selected in the design. This level of ductility is achieved .
through a ~mbination of proper material and section selection, the use of low width-tothic~~s..roembers for the energy dissipating elements of the SFRS, decailing member
eonn~tioos to resist the local demands at the capacity of the system, and providing for ~:..
system lateral stability at the large deformations exi>ected in a major eanbqil.ike. Consider
f
the following three examples:

.i1e

Ground motion hazards in ASCFJSEf 7 are defined as maximum consjdered earthquake


ground motioos.-They are-based on the proximity of the site to active faults, the activity of
these faults, magnitude of the-event these faults can produce, and the regional and local
geology at 1l site. The design intent of ASCFJSEI 7 is- to assure that ordinary occupancy
structures (sttuctures assigned to Risk Categories I and
have not greater than a 10%
chance of collapse should they experience maXimum considered earthquake shaking. Except
for regions located withln a few miles ofmajor active faults, such as some sites in coastal
CalifOmia. the maximum considered earthquake is selected with an annuaJ frequeQcy that
will provide a unifonn collapserisk of 1% probability in 50 years (denoted MCER). In
regions close to major active faults prob~bilistic estimates of ground shaking at these annuaJ
frequencies are very. intense and impractical for use in design. Tbetefore, on such sites, the
MCER is capped by a conser.v.ative detenninistic estimate of the ground motion resulting
from a maximum magnitude earthquake.on;the nearby fault, resulting in a higher collapse
risk. Thisis a change from prior editions of AS.CEJS,EI 7. SeeASCE (2010)' commentary
and FEMA (W09)' for further infonnation.-Tue MCER is. represented by a generalized elastic acceleration response spectrum (see previous). TIUs response spectrum is subsequently
reduced by two-thirds to represent the elastic response for the design basis earthquake for
which a structure is designed. Detailed information about this reduction can be found in
FEMA (2009).

1- 11

I
,,
1
tI
It'

~1

Sped~ concentrically bqiced fame (SCBF) systems-SCBF ~ystems are generaJly (,_
configured so that energy' dissipation will occur by tension yiel~ing and/or compression buckling in the braces. The connections of the braces 10 the. columns and beams r
and between the columns and beams themselves must then be pr~portioncd to remain :
1
essentially elastic as they undergo these defonnjltions.- See Figure 1-3.
2. Eccentrically braced frame (EBF) systems-EBF systems are generally configured so

1.

r
!

that energy dissipation will occur by shear and/or flexural yielding in the link.. The
beam outside the link, connections, braces and columns must ~n be proportioned to
remain essentially elastic as they undergo !}l~se deformations. See .Figure 1-4.

3. Special moment frame (SMF) systems-SMF systems are generally configured so that .
energy dissipation will occur by flexural yielding in the girders near, but away from,
the connection of the girders to the columns. The connections of the girders to the L
columns and the columns themselves must then be proportioned to remain essentially
.
elastic as they undergo these def~nnations: See Figure 1-5.

LI

R~$ponsc modification coefficient, R


O\.erstte.ngth factor, n,,
Deflectio~ amplification f~tor,

Buckling

<;:d

these

Wheq, used in combination,


factors quantitatively outline the expected performance
'
of an SFRS. Other factors that io,fluence
the performance are the importance factor, I,, and
redundancy factor, p. These factQCS are discussed in the following.
Desigrung to meet the seismic requifements of the AISC Seismic Provisions is mandatory
for structures where they have been specifically referenced in Table 12.2- 1 of ASCFJSEl 7.
For steel structures, typically this occurs in SOC D and higher where R is greater than 3.
However, lhere are insiAoces where an R less than 3 is- assigned to a system and the
Provisions are still required. These limited cases occur in ASCE/SEI 7 Table 12.2-1 for cantilevered column systems and Table 15.4-1 for nonbuilding structures simHar to buildings.
For composite steel-concrete structures, there are .cases where the Provisions are required
in SOC B and C, as specified in Table 12~1 of ASCFJSEl 7. This typically occurs for

Yielding

Nominally elastic
elements

Fig. 1-3. Ductile bmced f rames.

I. j
L.

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1-12

Seismic Perfo"!l'ance Factors


Response MQdification CoefficietJt.

R. '

The s~ is used. along' ~ith the SFRS cype, 't~:!sra~4sh a~~~ level of inelasti~. d~
tile response that is requ~ of a structure. The correspo~g expec~ system l>Cba~or is
codified in the fonn of R-factor, whlch is~ ~ponse m~o~ factor a(>plied to .~
lateral force to adjust a structure's required lateral'strength consi~ its inelastic ~nse

an

: J
....

Capability.
. ...
. .
.
~~ .~.
. The response modification coefficient, R, sets the minimum fraction (l/R) of the ~trength
~uired to resist design earthquaJcc.sh~g.elastically for which it is permissible to :qesign
-"~<

'

P.<

,..

; a :....

'

1.3 SEISMlC DESIGN OVERVIEW AN'[) DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

a structure. SlJ'UctuJCS designed with a large value of R mst have extensive capability tu
wilhstand large inelastic defom11ltioo demands during design shaking. Structures designed
with an R approx,imating 1 are anticipated: to. experience design shaking while rcma.in,ing
esscnri.aUy elastic. F'lgure J-6 shows the relatiOO:'lhiP between R and the design-level fo'rces,
along with the corresponding lateral deformation of the suuctural system (FEMA, 2009).
Factors thatdetennine the magnitude of the response modification factor are the vulnerability of the gravity load resisting system to a failure of elements in the.SFRS, the level and
reliability of the ioelasticity the system can attain, and potential b_ackup frame resistance
such. as that which is provided by dual-frame systems. As illustrated in Figure H>. in order
for a system t<(utilize .a higher value of R, other elements of the system must have adequate
strength and deformation Capacity to remain stable at the maximum lateral deflection .levels.
If the system redundancy and system overstrength cannot be achie-:ed. a lower value of R
should be incorporated in the design and detailing of the structpre. Values of R for all st.Qlc~
tural systems are defined in Table 12.2-1 of ASCEJSEI 7. Tables l-9a and l-9b in this
Manual summarize the R-Factors and other factors specified in ASCPJSEI 7 for steel
c-0mposite systems. More detailed discussion on the system design parameters can be found
in FEMA (2009).

and

' ,

For structures assigned to SOC B and C in ASCFJSEI 7 the designer is given a choice to
either solely use the AISC Specificarion to design and detail the structure (typically assigned
an R of 3) or to assign a higher value of R to a system detailed (or seis~c resistance and to.I-

low the requirementS of the 'AISC Seismic Provisions. The resulting systems have ductility

JJ

~-I-""""""- ~ominally elastic

elements

',' ... I

=3 Applications

associated with cooventionitl steel framing not specifically detailed for hlgb seismic resistance. It is important to note, however, that even steel structures riotspeCifically designed or

Fig. 1-4. Ductile eccentrically braced frames.

c:

Yielding

Nominally
elastic

\besign

elemenfs
Lateral Deformation (Drift), !l

Fig. J-5. Ductile moment frames.

Fig. 1-6. Relationship between R. design level forces, and lateral deformo1io11.
AM.eRJCAN (N~ Of Sll?EI.. CoNSTI\lJCTIO.'I

..
1- 14

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

detailed. for seismic resistance possess some inherent amount of seismic resistance, which
may be adequate to resist a limiled amount of seismic demand.
It is rerogniz.ed that when the designer bas' the option to design a building to meet the
AISC SpecijicQtion with R 3, such a design will generally be more cost effective thanthe
same sti:ucture designed in accordance with the AISC Seismic Prrwiswns using a higher
valueof R. The extra fabrication, erection and inspection costs nee.ded to achieve the high
ductility commensura~ with the higher R. more than offset the additional st.eel toonage
requiredby theR l::::3 system.. The R 3 option is not generally available for composite steel--0oncrete systems. For
composite systems, the designer must follow the requirements outlined in Table-12.2-1 of
ASCEiSEI7.

Deflection Amplification Factor, Cd


The el.,astic story dr,ifts calculat.ed under reduced lateral ,forces are multipged by the
deflection. amplification factor, Cd, to better estimate the total story drifrs likelY. to result
f~om the design earthquake ground motion. These amplified story drifts are uSed to verify
compliance with the allowable story drift and. to deterntine seismic demands on elements
of the sti:ucture that are not part of the SFRS and on nonstructural components ~ittiin the
structure.

. ; . -~

.-; .....

Overstrength Factor,

0o

Most seisicic fQ~ resisting systems ~ly on dissipation of earthquake energy through vary.ing levels of inelastic behavior. Steel seismic system definitions in the AlSC Seismic

f.rovtsion.r,:d~j.&!late ~e elements ttendeil to dissipate the majority of this eneriY through

ductile response: and those that are intended to remain essentially elastic. The application of
an overstrengi.h factor,
is applied to some seismic load combinations in ASCFJSEI 7 and
in certain c~es in the AISC Seismic Provisions to provide a design foree that will result in
essentially elastic re8ponse for sp~cific components. These load combinations are invoked
for members or connections whose inelastic behavior may cause poor system performance.
They generally meet the following criteria: They are critical elements on the load path, and
they are not likely to perform well in the itielastic range.
Members ~d connections requiring the special seismic load combinations incoiporating
the overstrength factor,
in ASCEJSEI 7, include the following (the apptic3ble sect.ion of
ASCEJSEI 7 is provided in parentheses):

no,

no.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Elements supi)orting discontinuous "".alls or frames (Section 12.3.3.3)


Collectors f0r structures in SOC C through F (Section 12. 10.2.l)
Batter piles (Section 12.13.6.4)
Pile anchorage (Section 12.13.6.5)
5. Pile splices (Section 12.13.6.6)

In the AISC Seismic Pr,ovisions, this concept is addressed using the term, amplified seismic load. In some cases, the amplified seismic load defers to the use of the ASCfJSEl 7 load
combinations that include 0... while for other situations, the amplified seismic load is a term
defined in the AISC Seismic Provisions to meet a capacity design requirement Sections of
the AISC Seisf!liC Provisions where the amplified seismic load is invoked for the design of
certain elements or connections include:

1- 15

1.3 SEISMlC DESIGN OVERVIEW AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

I
;
I

.
Section D 1.4a- Required compressive and iensile strength of columns
Section D2.5b-Required strength of column splices
..
1
Section D2.6a-Rcquired axial strength of column bases
' . b
Section D2.6b-Required shear strength of column bases
.. : . ;.
Section D2.6c-Requircd flexural strtogth of~lumn bases
'
1 J
Section El .6b--Required shear strength of beam-to-column connections for ordinary I
-t~

moment frames

...

Sections E2.6d and G2.6d-Required shear str~ngth of ~~to-column. connections for ,.


1
.
. " intermediate moment frames and-composite intermediate moment frames
Sections E3.4a and G3.4a-Moment ratio check for special momenc frames and composite special moment frames (also referred to as the strong-column-weak-beam
calculation)
_
Sections E3.4c and G3.4c-Required column strength at unbraced beam-to-column con- ;,..
nections for special moment frames and composite special moment frames
--~
Section E3.6d and G3.6d-Required shear slrength of beam-to-column conn~tions for
special moment fran1es and e-0mposite special moment frames
Section E4.31>-Required strength of noospecial segment members and.connections for i
s~ial truss moment frames

Sbetion E5.4a- RequiCci' streilgtb of columns in ordinafY cantilevelcolumn systems


Section E6Aa-Requi.red strength ofbolLitnns in si)ecial cantilever column systems
Section Fl.2-Detenhlnation of eccentric 'inoments in members for ordinary concentri. : cally. braced frames, if an ~centricity is present " ., .. . t. . .
. S~tion Fl.4a-Detennination pf required strength of beams.'ui.V-br~ced an~ invertedV-braW:i ordinary roocentrically braced frames
~.
Section Ft.6-Diagonal br~ce connections in ordinary concentrically braced fr~es
Section F2.3-Required strength of_ c9lumns, beams and connections in s~ial concen- [
tricaJly braced frames
. .... :
. . .
,
,, .
.
Sec.tio~ F2.4a-Provides an excepti~~ to the lateral forcedistnbution i:equir~;m~nt in spe- 0
,, . cial concentrically qraced fi-!lJlle~, I' ,
.
.

Sections F3.3 and F3.6c-Required strength of diagonal braces and their ~onqections, f
beams outside links, and columns for eccentrically braced frames
Sections F4.3 and F4.6c-Required strength of beams, columns and connections in buck-
ling-restrained braced frames

,
.
Sections FS.3 and F5.6b-Required strength ofhonzontal and vertical boundary elements :~
,

u
I
and connections in special plate shear walls
,

..
. .
~-

See the applicable sections of !he AISC Seismic Provisions for specific requirements.
t"

Redundancy Factor, p

'

., ...... t

(:

Redundancy is an important prope.r ty Ioi strucrures designed with the expectation that d~- .
age will occur. Redundant structures have alternative load paths so that if some elements are ..
severely damaged and lose load carrying capacity, other elements will be able to continue to [.
provide a safe load path. Adequate redundancy is ensured when a large number of plastic
hinges must fonn tl1roughout the structure in a progressive manner before formation of a
mechanism and when no one element is required to provide the full seismic resistance of '.
the struc1urc. To encourage provision of a minimum level of redtindancy in the structure,
ASCVSEl 7 Section l 2.3.4 stipulates a redundancy factor, p, based on the structure's
AME~ICAN L'ISTrl'\fm OP STI!a CONSTRllCnON

'

~.

I
I

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

configuration and the number 9f independent seismic force resisting elements present.
When structures do not satisfy minimum criteria. this factoramplifies lhe required strength
of the Iateral system. The elastic analysis !lf ~$FR is pt.tfonned usi.n& V. the total design
lateral force, based on !he tabul~ value ofR, and pis applied to.~e resultin&Qsmember
force effects, where QE is the. effect of horizontal seismic forces. , , ,
,

l
length subject to the temperature change
!J.7 =design ttmperature change
See ~SC Manual Thble 17-ll for .additional information i:>n coefficients of eJtpansion.

Seismic Joints

...

Maximum Force Delivered by the Syster:n

Where steel framing changes direction


-
Separating wings of L, U and T shaped buildings
At additions to existing buildings
At locations where interior beating conditions change, such as where heated offices
abut an unhcar.ed warehouse
To break very long structures into shorter structures

Seismic joint.S are similar in fonn to expansion joints but are the result of very different
structural considerations. They must accommodate movement in both orthogonal directions
simultaneously and their spacing is not typically affected by building length or size. Seismic
joints 'a.re used to separate an irregular structure into multiple regular structures in an effort
to proyide better seismic performance of tile overall building.
The design of seismic joints is complex and includes efforts by all members of the design
team to assure that lhe joint is properly sized, adequately sealed from weather, and safe to
wallc on, as well as to provide for adequate movement of other systems crossing the joint
and means to mainta.i.\l the .fire ratings of the floor, roof and wall systems. Seismic joints are
costly and architecturally undesirable, so they should be incorporated with discretion.
When seismic joints are determined to be necessary or desira~le for a panicular building,
the locations of the joints are often obvio~ and inherenL Many of the locations appropriate
for expansion joints are also appropriate for seismic joints..Requirements for determining
the seismic separation between buildings are prescribed in ASCFJSEI 7.
The width of seismic joints).n IllQdem,puil9ings can vary from juSt a few inches to several feet, depending on building height and siiffness. Joints in more reoent buildings tend
to be .much widel' than !heir predecessors. ,This is due to several major factors, the most
important of which.is chrulges in the cod~. Other contributing factors are the lower lateral
stiffness of many modem build,ings and the.greater recognition by engineers of the magnitude of reaJ. la~ia,\-defonnations induced by an ~quake.
Seismic jo.i,nts o{ten result in somewhat complicated structural framing conditions. In 1be
simplest of joints, ~te columns are placed at either side of the joint to p,rovide lhe n~
essary structural support. This is comroon in parlcing struetures. When double columns are
not acceptable. lhe slrUCtUte must either be cantilevered from more widely spaced columns
or seated connec.ljom must be used. In' lhe case of seat conn~tjons, there is the temptation to limit the .travel of the sliding Clement, because longersliding surfaces using Teflon
sliders or s.imilar devices are costly and lbe seat element may in~ere with other elements
of the building. It js SJrongly ~mmeoded \hat seated coonections be designed to allow for
movements that exceed those ~cu.lated for .the design basis earthquake to allow for th~
effects of greater earthquakes and because the consequences of the sttucture falng off of
the seat may be disastrous. Wi,ete thi.s is not possible, restraint cables such as those often
used on bridges. should be considered.

11\e vyidth of an expansion joint is determined from the basic them1al expansion

Bui/ding Separations

The maximum force delivered by lhe system is a concept used in several applications in the
practice of seismic design. The ma:x.imum force deliyercd by lhe system is oftell one of the
limits for requited strength of a seismic resisting element For example, a thorough.diSC'Ussion of how this force may be detennined for SCBP brace connections is contained in the
AISC Seismic Provisicns Commentary Section F2.6c.

__...

Building Joints

..

..

Expansion Joints

.j
t

'

,.

Expansion join~ .i,n a stru~fre a,re vr.ovided t(),?YOid impairing.the function of the fac~lity or
c.ausini c~.amage to the structural ~. ~hitec~al components. 'the ~umber and l~tion of
building e)(pansion joints is a design iS.sue not fully trealed in tecfun~ai literature.

\...

(I

The Al.SC Spec_ificaJion considers expansion joints a servie&.bility issue, and. Section
L7 states that 'The effects of tbe.nnal expansion and contraction of a building shall be

considered. Damage to building cladding fu cause water penetration and may lead to
corrosion."

'
ASCE/SEI 7 also considers expansion joints a serviceability issue indicating in
Se<:tion 1.3.2 that "Structural systems, and members thereof, shall be designed to
have adequate stiffness to limit deflections, lateral drift, vibration, or any other deformations that adversely affect the intended use and P.Ctfonnance of buildings and
other struct11res."

'fypjcal locations of expansion joints include: ,

expression for lhe material used for the structural frame:

where
!J.1,

(1-1)

=change in length

a = 6.5 x 10", coefJjcient of linear expansion for steel structures

' ..

"

Separations between adjacent buildings that a.re coosuuct.ed at different times, have different ownership, or are otherwise not compatib)e with each other may be necessary and
unavoidable if bolh buildings are located at or near the common property line. ASCFJSEI 7
prescribes setbacks for property lines. An e:itception can be made where justified by ra.tion:i1
analysis based on inelastic irsponsc to design ground motions.
''"

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

l - 18

Building Drift

."\

L3 SEISMIC DESIGN OVERVIEW AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

. ...

Deflection Compatibility
ASCEISEI 7 prescribes requirements for deformation compatibilicy for Seismic Design
Categories D through F to ensure that the SFRS provides adequate defom1ation control to
protect elements of the structure that are not part of the seismicforce resisting sys~em. Thi~
is intended to c'nsure that componentS'designed as gravity supporting only can''alscnesist
P-L'J. moments, based on total story drifts:
.
.

.
Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature

QfJality Control an~ Qual!fy Assurance . .

,, . ... .

Most structural steels can fracture eitlfer in a ductile or in a brittle mariner. The mode of frac
~,ure is governed by the temperature at fracture, the rate at whidi the loads ate applied, llnd
tlle magnitude of the constraints' that would prevent plastic deformation. Fracture toughness
is a measure of the energy required to cause'an element to fiacrure; the 'm'ore energy that is
iequir~( the tougher thematerial, i.e., it takes more energy tO fracture a ductile material
than a brittle material. Additionally, lower temperatures have an adverse impact on material
ductility. Fracture toughness for materials<Can be established by using fracture-mechaili<:S
test methods.
,!
Traditionally, the fracture toughne5s for structural steels has beeri primanly characterized
by testing Chatpy V-notch (CVN) 'specimens at different temperatures [A:STM E23 (ASTM,
2007)). The CVN'test produces failures at very high1sttain rates. If testing is carried out over
a range of temperatures: the results o{energy abs6rbed versus temperature can be plotted ti:>
give an S-curve asshown in Figure1~7. Usually, three specimens. are-tested at a given temperature and' the results averaged.
.1.

' Carbon and low alloy steels exhibit a change in fracture beliavior as the temperarure falls
with the failure mode changing from ductile to brittle. At high teinperatures, the fraclUI'e is
characterized by pure ductiletearing. At low temperatures, the fracture surface is characterized by cleavage fractures. The decrease in fracture toughness at low temperatures decreaseS
the fracture capacity of the member, resulting in poorer cyclic bel)avior. (Austenitic stainless steels do not show thjs change in fracture behavior, with the fracture remaining ductile
even to very low temperatures. This is one reason ~hy these types of alloys arc ustdin cryogenic applications.)
The AlSC Seismic Provisions Commentary Section A3A acknowledges that in structures
with exposed structural steel, demand critical weids may be subject to ser\iice temperatures

'n

~ '

:".~:-.,.,,_~>.

rn

I
1

Tue International Buildiiig' Code (ICC, 20i2) refers to the 2010 AISC Specification and ihe b .
2010 AISC Seismic Provisions for all quality requirements for structural steel. The scope

m
w..

less than 50 P on a reglliaf basis. In these cases, the AISC Seismic Provision:s Commentary !r
suggests that the minimum qualification temperature provided in AWS Dl.BAnnex A be ~~
adjusted such that the test tem)'.lerarure for the CVN toughness qualifica~on tests be no more .,.,
than 20 "F above the lowest anticipated serVice temperature (LAST).
It is recognized that the LAST is defined diff~ntly in diffeicnt industries:For example, ITT:
the current AASJITO CVN't~ghness requirements are specified to avoid bri!tlc 'fracture in [H:
steel bridges abOve the LAST, which is defined.in terms of three tem~rattlre zc:>n'es. In arc-
tic offshore applications the LAs:r can be either tile minimum deiign temperature or a .w
selected value below the design tempetature, de~nding upon the consequences.of failure. j;~~
The AISC Seismic Provisions are intenoed to ensure' ductile performance for a low prob- ;;h,
ability earthquake event. The LAST is O?,WlallY .defin,ed to ensure ductile, perfOtJAance for a
low probability temperature extreme. The direct combination of two low probability events i~
would be statistically very unlikely. As a. result, the definition of LAST need'not be execs- :;~
sively restrictive for seismic applications. For purposes of the AISC Seismic Piovi.siOns, the :;..
LAST may be considered to be the lowest one-day mean temperature compiled .from ~
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data. For more information, go to !!;
www.noaa.gov and www.climate.gov.
'
':
\!~.

,, ,.. .
Story drift is the maximum lateral displacement within a story (i.e., the displacement of one
tloor relative to the floor below caefsed by the effects of seismic loads). B\'liJdingfsubjected
to earthquakes need drift control to limit damage to fragile nonstnictural elements, and to
minimize differential movement demands 0n the structure. It is expected that the desigh of
moment resisting frames, and the design of tall, narrow shear-wall or braced-frame buil~gs
will be governed at least in part by drift considerations.

The allowable story drift limits arc defined in ASCE/SEI 7 Table 1.2.12-1 and are a flJ!l~
tion of the seismic lateral force resisting system and the building risk category. The
p~~cribed story drift limits are. applicable to ea9,h story. They mus! n.ot,bi ex~ed i1;1 any
story even though the drift in other stories may be ~ell below the liril.it.

..

1-19

statement in Section Jl of the AISC Seismic Provisions gives the f~llowing explanation for ~
.
.
quality control and quality assurance:
E~
~ ~

Quiity control (QC) as specified in this chapt_e r shall be provided by the fabrlcaior,
erector, or other responsible contractor as applicabl~. Quality assuranee (QA) as specified in this chapter shall be provided by others wh~b rcq\iired oy the authority hiiving
jurisdiction, applicable building code, purchaser, owrier, or ef!gi~~r of ~ord (EOR).

.I

tt

I lnwer i lhelf

'!I

.. ransiti on Zon ll

, ..

- ..

:~

V'I>

Unr "'r She f


w
11>

1.,...1 r--; ~
'b

f~.,., 1

lli.i

d>

f:'
r.:

'. /!>

4~

41>
T

'

(D
(~~ ~ ~

(~
~I

Temperature
Fig. 1-7. Typidaz Charpy V:notch tesi results.

" t'

~{,
d.

l'!
I

LI

LI

1- 20

When ductile seismic response should be assured and the AlSC Seismic Provisions
govem the design, fabrication and erection, steel framing needs to rnecc speciaJ quality
requirements as appropriate for the various components of the structure. These requiremenis, applicable only to members of the SFRS, are provided in:
ANSI/AISC 341-10, Seismic Provisions/or Structural Steel Buildings (AISC, 2010b)
AWS Dl.8/Dl.8.M:2009, Smtcrural 'Welding Code-Seismic Supplement (AWS, 2009)
. ANSI/AISC 358-10, Prequalified Connections for Special and lnremrediare Steel
Moment Frames for Seismic Applications (AISC, 2010c)
2012 International Building Co<k, .~pter 17 (ICC, 2012)

Addition~!

The requirements of AlSC Seismic-Pfovisions Chapter J specify QC and QA special


requirem~nts for all responsiple parties related to the following:
.. .
. ,: .
.

u
0
'J

quality requfrements are sjieCified in: .

ANSI/AISC 360-10, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC, 2010a)


ATSC 303-10, Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildmgs and Bridges (AISC,
2010d) .
AWS Dl.l/D1.IM:2010, Structural Welding Code-Steel (AWS, 2010)
2009 RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using High-Srrtngth Bolts (RCSC,
2009)

Ll

GENERAL DESIGN CONSJOERA'DONS

Fabricator and erector documents


Quality assurance asency documents
Inspection and nondestructive testing personnel
Inspection tasks
.
Welding inspectj.on and nondeStructi'.ye te~ting
Inspection of high-strength bolt.4lg .
Other steel structure _inspections
Inspection of composite stnicrures
Inspection of piling

To meet the requirements of the International Building C<Xk, as part of the contract documents, the registered design professio~ in responsible charge must prepare a "statement
of special inspections~ which is termed the quality assurance plan (QAP) in the AISC
Seismic Provisions. The QAP should be prepared by the engineer of record and made a part
of the contract documents. The plan should contain, at a minimw:n, a written description of
qualifications, procedures, quality inspectie>ns, resources and records to be used to provide
assurance that the structure complies with the engineer's quality requirements, specifications and contract documents. Chapter J of the AISC Seismic Provisions provides the
minimum acceptable requirements for a QAP fo~ .the SFRS, including requJrements for the
contract documents, quality assurance agency documen~. inspection points, and frequendes, along with spec1aJ requirements for weld and bolt inspections.
AJSC Sei.rmic Provisibn.r Chapter J bas specific requirements for nondestructive testing
of welds. in addition to those in AISC Specification Section N4.5, which must be shown on
the contract documents. Quality assurance requirements for bolting include verifying that
faying surfaces meet the specifiCAtion requirements and that the bolts are properly tensioned
per the R.CSC Specification.

1.3 SEISMIC DESIGN OVERVIEW AND DESIGN CONSIDeRATIONS

Design Drawing Requirements

1-'.!l

Structural Design Drawing Requirements


For systems not requiring seismic detailing, structural design drawings are to meet the
requifements in the AISC Code of S(4ndard Practice as stip~ated in AlSC Specification
Section A4. Shop and erection drawing~ should follow design documencs to convey specified information for fabrication :md erection. for systems desi~ed to meet Lhe AISC
Seismic Provisions, additional requirements are provided in A1SC Seismic Provisions
Section A4 with supplementary discuss.ion in the Provisions Commentary Section A4. Tt is
important to define all structu1?11 elements in the building that resist seismic loads, including struts, collectors, chords, diaI?fl:agms and trusses. Also, the SFRS members should be
indicated in both plan and elevation drawings. If the SFRS includes other materials, these
elements should be defined as such where the steel connects to them. '

SFRS Member and Connection Material Specifications


SFRS material requirements are discussed in ATSC Seismic Provisions Section A3.l and in
the material sections of the various prequaJified connections in ANSI/AISC 558. Wide
flange shapes will generally be ASTM A992 material. ASTM A992 has spedfied maximum
yield stress and milximum yield-to-tensile ratio to ensure ductility along with a'!imit on the
carbon equivaJent to ensure weldabillty. Material requirements for the connection elements
must be consistent with the prequalified details in ANSI/AISC 358. Bolt materi:ll grade,
sjze, location and tensioning must be shown on the design drawings. Bolts typically are
designed as bearing-type connections with standard holes and all Q<llts are required tO' be
pretensioned and have Class A faying surfaces. AISC Seismic ProviSions Section D2.3 on
weided joints, references AISC Specification Chapter J. AISC Specijic(ltion Section 12 stij,ulates that all requirements from AWS Dl.1, including weld procedure specifications. are
applicable ~'lcept for the specific AWS D1.1 provisions cited. The AISC Seismic Provisions
Seition A3.4 requires that all welds in the SFRS. be made with filler. metals meeting the
requirements specified in clause 6.3 off.WS Dl.8. Oa~se 6.3 requires that all welds provide
a minimum Charpy V-notch toughness 6f20 ft-lb at O "F, either by test or manufacturer's certification. There are additional requirements for demand critical welds as noted below.

Demand Critical Welds


Welds ate designated demand critical' in the AISC Seismic Provisions oased on considerati~n' of tlie inelastic strain dema,td and the consequence of failure. Thel~ation of these
deriland critical welds is given in lhe AlSC Seismic Provisio.ns and in ANSIIAISC 358 in the
section applicable to Lbe designated SFRS. As specified ul AISC Se~ic Pro~isions Section
A3.4b, demand critical welds shall be. made with fil,Jer metals m~ting 'ilie requirements
of AWS D(8 clause6.3. Clause 6.3 requires a arinimum Charpy V-notch toughness of 40
ft..lb at 70 F for a LAST of 50 f C?r greater. See AWS Dl.8 for detail~ testing requirements and for a LAST less than 50 F.
There are a num9er of other quality c?nlr91 3:0d quality assurance items associated with
dCJ'.!land critical welds that are covered in the AISC Seismic Provisions and AWS D 1.8. Items
sucii as use of backing bars and run-off tabs, including requirements for trimming and fin
ishing of run-off tabs, are specifically addressed.

1-22

1.3 SEISMIC DESJGN OVERVIEW AND DESJGN CONSIDERATIONS

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

SFRS, some consideration should be gi-qen todeveloping a limited amount of base


shear either by embedment or by bearing on the anchor rods. AISe Seismic Provisions }
Section D2.6b stipulate.S the required shear strength for column bases, including those w
not designated as part of the SFRS.
'
4. Width-to-thickness ratios of SFRS members must be less than those that are resistant to
local buckling in order to achi~ve the required inelastic deformations required. While
the width-to-thickness ratios given in the AISC Specificarion Table 84.l for compact
sections are adequate to prevent buckling before the onset of strain hardening, tests have
shown that they are not adequate for the requi:J:ed inelastic perfonnance in several
SFRS. AISC Seismic Provisfons Table D 1.1 gives the limi~ng ~idth-to-thiekness ratios
for moderately ductilea:na highly ductile members.:ClassificatiQn of members as moderately or highly ductile may govern member size for the various systems.
5. Requirements for stability bracing of beams are provided for each system. The braeing required is stipufated in AISC Seismic Provisions Section Dl.2 and-depends on
,, whether the beam is moderately or highly ductile. Special. bracing is :required adjacent
to plastic !tinge locations. If the bracing_ requirement can~ot be m~t by the floor slab \
and the elements of the-moment connection, then the requrred bracmg merober(s) 'and
connection(s) should be-,shown. For example, .special moment frame beams require
_ bracing that satisfy the.provisions for highly ductile members as given inAISC S~~smic
Provisions D l.2b. While the floor slab typically will:brace the top flange, addmonal
. braces should be shown where required with the neeessaryconnections.

~

Locations and Dimensions of Protected Zones,


0

Protected zones are designated by the AJSC Seismic Provisions for different systems-and
generally are areas encompassing the plastic hinging region. The FEMNSAC testing bas
demonstrated the seiisitivity of these areaS to fracture caused by discontinuities resulting
from welding, penetrations, changes in section. or construction-caused notches (Riel es et al.,
2003). Fabrication and erection work,
the subsequent work by other trades, have the
potential _to cause discontinuities in the SFRS'. AlSC Seismic Provisi.ons Sections DI .3 and
12.1 provide detailed requirements for the protected zone.
The"loclltidns and dimensions of these protected zones for rrioment'ccinnections ~spec
ified in the AISC .Seismic Prdvisions and in ANSI/AfsC 358 for each SFRS. For e,~ample,
accbrdin'g to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5c, the prbfected zone for special concentrically braced ~rames includes "the center one-quarter of the brace length and a zone
adjacent to each conneetion equal ici the brace depth l.n the plane of buckling" as well as
"elements that connect braces to beams and columns." For eccentrically braced frames,
AISC Seismic Provisioris Section F3.5c defines
protected.zone as the Jjnk. In any case, .
the reql!ireme~ts ~n AISC SeiS1J1ic ProvisioTJS Sections D1.3 and 12.1 must be satisfied.
- When !oca~ed in the protected rone th~ ~&c.ontinuities are req~ _to be repaired by
!he .resI?onsible contractor..tQ _the satisfaction of the engi!ieer of record: The AISC Seismic
P_"rovisions r~qufre th;it t.e prot~9ted zones.,be sh9wn on the design drawings. The .s:ontractor n~s to \ise tltis information to ~ontrol ~nstru'ction activities in this area.

and

.J

.....

'

the

;l

..

<

AW~: o~-.,~ Strvc~ur~I w,eldin; ~~d~~!~m~~ Su~P.'e"'.~nt

.Additional Structural Qesign Drawing Detail Requirements


in theProvisions

'\

. .

r.

AWS DL8,. sutx;lause 1;2.1 lists the information that the engineer o~ record_ 1s r~mred to C.
protjde o~ the c0n~c~ dqcurn~nts SP,CCi.6<;ally related.to welding of t11e .SF.RS. Additipn~lly,
gouges l!Jld.notcbes.!l!e not peDUitt~,and w_lJ!le gpndipg to a flus~.cQndi.tion is not requin:d,
the contour should provide a s~oo~, tranSttio,Q.. AVf.S D1.8 p~ovtde~ xe,i::?.nynended details ~
for these areas, _ .. . .
. ,

i .
AWS D.1 ;8..con~~ a numrn;r Qf otper special r~irements tha~ sho~4 pe specifisallY
referenced j.n th~. C<?tJ;3q. dotui.nen~. .Iii. addition t_o the fill.er me.~al r~qu~~m~n~. mentioned
preyiou~.ly.!> ~e~g ~tical w~ds h~ve the following requ.trepients:, ., .. . ,:.
. .

l'.ollowing ,~t'. some of the.additional ~eci~ifements from _the AISC peismic Provisions .that
may_ .~~t c~tructural design dr~wing d,etails:
...

L SFRS column splice -requirements are given in' AISC Seismic.. Provisions Section
D25a. The splices need to be loca~ away from beam-to-column connections, with
the proviSions stipulating 4 ft otmore away from the connection; iiowever, in general,
splices should be in the middle thtrd of the column (see Exceptions in Section D2.5a).
Because of the splice strength requirements in Section D2.5, it is important that the
splice be fully detailed on the design drawings. Where bolted splices are used there
must be plates or channels on both sides of the web.
2. C~lUJllll: spl~c~ requirements for columns that are not part of the SFRS are given in the
min.imuni shear foice8 required to be
. . ;. ~IS.C $eiSmic ProVisions Section D25c.
. , .d~el~f.'?fin .th7.5e.splices .".'ill require a special column splice and this detail should
. also De snown .on the desjgn drawings.
.
3. SFRS coi~mn bases must.meet the requh;ements of AJSC Seismic Provisions Section
D2.6 and anc~or rOd embedment and re.irdorcing steel should be designed according
to ACI 318 Appendix.D. Anchor rod sizes ~d locations, along with washer require-;
.merits, hole sizes an~ base plate welds must meJt lhese design requirementS and must
be shown. Special embedment used for base fixity must also be shown on the Struc. tura1 dt:sigi;i. ilraw_ings. The Comment:Uy JO Section D2.6 gives a good discussion a!C?ng
. ' with examples of b.ow to develop these fo~ces. For column b8Ses that are not part of
. . .. . '
"
.
. ~.

1- 23

.t

ManiiractureC'~ eertificates bf c'onfonnance for fiite{met?Is . .-' .'


.

S~ial restrictions on care and exposure of elec4odes ., .. ' : - ;."'

- Suppl~~Snlar. wClaer qu~fi.cation fiir restrlct~(i''accds ~elding' for tJ?ttorl?'"!J_~g~

- weliliilg throu~ a~s liole$


.
1 " . '
i sPe<;i:iI weid sequence ror'bottom fiangewelding ihiough aceess holes
. . '' Suppiementary'teqmremenis for qrialification of ultrasonk,test\.ilg. tecluiicians

The

;,

_.. ... -

..
C~mpos ite Systems

... . .

,_....

"

- .

~'

l!iSJ

For buildings with composite inenibe/s and/or com~site SFRS_. aa importan! ch~g~ in." th
2010 AISC Seismic Provisions is tile' integration ofwhat were formerly presented separately
in Pa.rtS I (steel) and II (composite) into a combined sel of provisions. This edition of th. ~
Seismic Design Manual follows that approach by adding examples for composite systems.

i'

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

.I

.'.,
:

!JI

The 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions for the seismic design of composite structural steel
and reinforced concrete buildings are based upon the 1994 NEHRP Provisions (FEMA.
1994) and subsequent modifications made in the 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2009 NEHRP
Provisions (FEMA, 2009) and in ASCE/SEI 7. Because composite systems are comprised
of integrated steel sod concrete components, both the AISC Specification and ACI 31 g
form an important basis for provisions related to compos.ite construction.
There is, at present, limited experience in the U.S. with composite building systems sub
jected to extreme seismic loads. Extensive design and performance experience with this
type of construction in Japan clearly indicates that composite systems, due to their inher
ent rigidity and toughness, can equal or exceed the perfonnance of buildings comprised of
reinforced concrete systems or structural steel systems (Deierlein and Noguchi, 2004;
Yamanouchi et al.. 1998). Composite systems have been extensively used in tall buildings
throughout the world.
Careful attention to all aspects of the design is necessary in the design of composite systems, particularly with respect to the general building layout and detailing of members and
connections. Composite connection details are illustrated throughout this Manual to convey
the basic character of the force transfer in composite systems. However, these decails should
not necessarily be treated as design standards. The cited references provide more specific
information on the 'design of composite connections. F-0r a general discussion of these issues
and some specific design examples, refer to Viest et al. {1997).
The design and construction of composite elements and systems continues to evolve in
practice. Except where explicitly stated, the AlSC Seismic Provisions are not intended to
limit the application of new. systems for which testing and analysis demonstrates .that the
structure has adequate strength, ductility and toughness. It is generally anticipated that the
dverall behavior of the composite systems herein will be similar to that for counterpan structural steel systems or reinforced concrete systems and that inelastic deformations will occur
in conventional ways; such as flexural yielding of beams in fully restrained moment frames
or axial yielding and/or buckling of braces in' braced frames.
When systems have both ductile and nonductile elements, the relative stiffness of each
sh<'uld be properly modeled; the ductile elements can defoon inelastically while the nonductiJe elements remain noniinally elastic. When using elastic analysis, member stiffness
should be reduced to account f6r the degree of cracking the onset of significant yielding
in the structure. Additionally, it is necessary to account for material overstrength that may
alter relative strength and stiffness.
Parts 6 an~ 7 of t,his.Manual provide discussion and example problems for the design of
members and connections for composite moment frame and braced frame systems, respectively, as well as guidelines for traversing through lhe AISC Seismic Provisions alld AISC
Specification relative to
specific building system. Where possible, the e.umple problems presented were developed to be companions to the example problems presented in
other parts of this Manual. For instance, the example problem for the composite speci:ll
moment fraine system illustrates the application of the composite requirements when a concr;te-filled tube column replaces the steel column of the special moment frame strucru.re
illustrated in the example problems in Part 4 of this Manual.

at

each

::~
I :

MlERICAN lNS'ITlVlll OJ' STSl!l. CONS'!'RUCTtON

1.4 DESIGN TABLE D JSCUSSlON

-~

1.4 DESIGN TABLE DISCUSSION


Seismic Weld Access Hole Configurations
Table 1-1. Workable Seismic Weld Access HoJe
Configurations
Fourteen configurations arc given based upon the minimum scisffiic weld access bole profile. This table is intended to be used in conjunction with Table 1-3 for quick selection of
weld access hole geometry for wide-flange beams when the special seismic weld access
hole is used. A workable seismic access hole configuration from Table 1-1 is given .in Table
1-3 for each shape listed. Where a dash is shown, no configuration shown in Table 1-1 meets
all criteria.

AJSC Specification Section Jl.6 provides general requirements for weld access holes. It
should be noted that the geometries shown in Table 1-1 represent only one set of configurations that satisfy the dimensions and tolerances in AWS Dl.8 Figure 6.2. Other
configurations that comply with AWS Dl.8 Figure 6.2 may also be used. The special seismic weld access hole is required for beams in ordinary moment frames per AISC Seismic
Provisions Section El.6b(c), and for beams in welded unreinforced flange-welded web
(WUF-W) moment connections per ANSI/AISC 358. ,.

Member Ductility Requirements


Table 1-2. Summary of Member Ductility Requirements
Ductility requirements are summarized for SFRS members per Chapters E, F, G and H of
the AlSC Seismic Provisions.

Local Buckling Requirements


I
Table 1-3. Sections That ~atisfy Seismic Width-to-Thickness
Requirements, W-Shapes
"

W-shapes with F1 50 ksi (ASTM A992) that satisfy the moderately or highly ductile
width to-thickness requirements per th~ AISC Seismic Provisions Table D 1.l are indicated
with a "" in the column correspond.i.tig to the member requirements for specific SFRS.
This includes W-sbapes th:ll incorporate reduced beam section moment connections. See
Table 1-2 for a summary of the member ductility requirements for the SFRS in the AISC
Seismic Provisions. A wide-flange section satisfies these requirements if its flange and weh
width-to-thickness ratios are less than or equal to the corresponding limits listed in Table
l A, which is summarized from the requirements in Table D 1.1 of the AISC Seismi
Provisions. For cases where the limiting web width-to-thickness ratio is a function of th
member's required axial strength, P,, or P,,, the member will satisfy the width-to-lhickne
requirements if P., or P~ is less than or equal to the value tabulated for P,. maJC or Pa ,,,
respectively. The nominal axial yield strength of a member, P,, is calculated as F1 A1 . N<'"
that in these cases it is 3SSUmed that Ca= Pul9cP1 > 0.125 or D..;P0 1P1 > 0.125. Exceptic

l - 26

GENERAL DESIGN CONSlDERATfONS

for intermediate moment frame and special moment frame beams with Ca< 0.125 are i.ndicated in the footnotes of Table 1-A. Where a dash is shown, there is no limitation on the
values of Pu or P0 .
Aloo provided is the maxirol!m spacin$ ?f beam bracing for moderately ducti,le and highJy
ductile beams, L1nnu. wnere for moderately ductile beams, Lb'max= 0.l1r1 E!Fy, and highly
ductile beams, Lb mo.x =0.086ry EIF,. Note that W-shapes that do not Satisfy "either moderhighly.d1,1ctite
w.idth-to-thickness ratios
not included in Table 1-3
ately or

..

,I//

are

....

..

l i .

Table 1-A

limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for


W-Shape Flanges and. Webs in. Compression
Limiting Width-to-Thickness

Limiting Width-to-Thickness

Ratio

Ratio

Range, b/.t.

Web, hit.,

Member

01agona1
Brace

0.38P,

1.4 DESION TABLE DISCUSSION

Table 1-4. Sections That Satisfy Seismic Width-to-Thickness Recfuirements, Angres

..

>.

:s
m

a
0

::!:

..

Pu
'= -~Py

Diagonal' '

...

:;
.
Q

JZ

~ -

:i:

C,

=OcP

C>

Ratio

-::0 :::>
oC

'
(l.RFD)

~,,

.,

..

"".....

lit
'

0.38JE!F1
'

Diagonal
.,

Br~,

en<>

Chords In

:c;;
-:.: Q:::>

(ASO)

..

Olagonal
Brace

::;:

Py

o.3op,

Brace

C>

where

-;

.ii!:'

e=
.. 0

c, >0.125
C

:Limiting Widih-toThickness
Ratio
...

Wlath-to-l!lici<ness ,

Member

1.12J E I F1 (2.33- C1 )"?.1..49JEIT,"

o.33,[fff;

Column,EBF
Unk

"C

For

~-

Limiting Width-tQ-T.l)ickn~s~ Ratios for


Angle Legs in Compression

3.76,.fEI F1 (1 - 2.75C,)

Beam,'

Table 1-B

1.49J[ff;

..

,, ~'

Angles with F1 =36 ksi (A36); inctudiDg_botb single and double angle configurations, that
satisfy AJSC Seismic Prpvisiory, locaJ byckJ.i9g requirements fQr, use: fiS, diagonal b~aces 1
SCBF, OCBF, EBP, and the special segment of STMF chords are indicated wilh a "" in I}
corresponding column. An angle satisfies these requirements if the greatest leg width-tolhickness ratio is Jess than or equal to tbecorresponding limits listed in Table 1-B, which i~
summarized from the requirements in Table DI. l of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Note th.
angles that do not satisfy either moderately or highly ductile width-to-thickness ratios a1
nor included in Table 1-4.

For c, s 0.125

"'
~
:::>

I:

1 -.

bit

0.30JE1Fy

STMFSpeclal
Segment

, ..

1.49JE!F1
ffi( C, S0.125

Column,
ChOfds in
STMf SP,ecfal
Segment,EBF
Un~SPSW
VBE&HBE

..

2.45JE I F1

Beam,'

(1 - 0.93C,)

ffi(C, :>0.125

o.nJE IF, {2.93-C,)~1.49,.JE IF,

o;JOP,

Where

c. "' ..!!...
(l.RFD)
~Py

'

C,,.. OcP1 ~D)

Pr
FcrW~ beanslnSMF systemS YIMre

c.1s les:s 111an or~ 1o0.125, lhe.fmrtlno raliO 11/ 1,,shal not exceed 3.76./fff;.

Applle$ IO eBf links meeting the exctl)tlcn In SdofJ F3.5b(1).

Fcr W~ beams In SMF S)'SlemS where C. ls Im 111ar1 or~ 1o 0.125. the lmillnO Wldlll-~ ralio 11/t. .rial not

~ 2.45.fElF,.

::

.-.

-'

J
. ' ....
..... :.

}
..l

~l

1-28

I ..

GENERAL DESIGN CO:"!SJOERATIONS

Table 1-5a. Sections That Satisfy Seismic


Width-to-Thickness Requirements, Rectangular HSS

Table 1-6. Sections That Satisfy Seismic Width-to-Thickness


Requirements, Round HSS

Table 1-Sb. Sections That Satisfy Seismic .


Width-to-Thickness Requirements; Square HSS

Round HSS sections with F1 =42 ksi (ASTM A500 Grade B) that satisfy the AISC Seismic
Provisions local buckling requirements for use as braces or columns in SCBF and braces in
OCBF and EBF are indicated with a ...~ in the corresponding column. A round HSS satisfies these requirements if its width-ro-thick:ness ratio is less than or equal to the
corresponding limit listed in Table 1-D. Note that round HSS sections tlut do not satisfy
cuber moderately or highly ductile width-IO-thi.ckncss ratios are not included in Table 1-6.

Rectangular aod square HSS with F1 =46 ksi (ASlM A500 Grade B) that satisfy the AJSC
Seismic Provisions local buc.kJing ~uirements for use as diagonal braces or columns in
SCBF, and bT'aCC$ in OCBF and EBF are indicated wilh a "" in the corresponding column.
A rectangular or square HSS s.atisfies these. requirements if its flange and web width-tolhickness ratios are less than or equal 10 the corresponding limits listed in Table 1-C. which
is summariz.ed from !he requ.irernents of Table D 1.1 of the AlSC Seismic Prr:nisioru. Note
that HSS sections tha1 do not satisfy either moderately or highly ductile width-to-lhick:ness
ratios arc not included in Tables l-5a or l-5b.

r:

.
i

::.-,

Member
2::-

Bo

e=s
... <.>
'& c5

'''

::e

..~:9
,.
"

Wltttfl. to-Thidaless
Ratio

limiting Wfdth.to-Tlllcl<Mss

RaUo

Diagonal

Brace,
Beam,

bit

0.64JE IF1

'

Column

limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios


for Round HSS and Pipe Walls
in Compression
Member

s~
"8 g

Diagonal
Brace,
Beam,
Column

>- 0
~5

Diagonal
Brace,
Beam,

ii.,
~

<.>
-"' :::>
:c Cl

Width-to-Thickness
Ratio

Limiting Width-to-Thickness
Ratio

Olt

D.044 (EIF1 )1

.
Oft

Column
.

>- ..

~~

!:I
::&::
Cl

bit

o.ssJE IF1

Column

The lm#ing wlddHI>~ r1lio ot walb (JI rec:tingllal !!Id sq.11r1 HSS memlleta used as beams OI coblr.s shell not
eoaed 1.12../fF,.

0.038(EIF1 )

The li!ni1Jng dlameler-to-11lic1QvlsS ratiO of wall1 of round tlSS members used as beams OI CXllumns sllll1 not exteed 0.07 EIF,_.

Diagonal

Brace,
Beam,

Table 1-D

Table 1-C

limiting;Width-to-Thickness Ratios
for Rectangular and Square HSS Walls
in Compression

.....~=~
.

:....\

1.4 DESlGN TABLE DISCUSSION

...
I

"

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1- 30

Table 17. Sections That Satisfy Seismic Width-to-Thickness


Requirements, Pipe

Pipes with F, 3S ksi.(ASTM A53 Grade B) that satisfy AISC Seismic Provisions local
buckling requii'Cinents for use as braces columns in SCBF and braces in OCBF and EBF
are indicated with a "" in the corresponding column. A pipe satisfies these requirements if
its widthto-thickness ratio, Dlt, is less than oi equal to the corresponding limit listed in
Table 1-D. Note that pipe that do not satisfy either moderately or highly ductile width-tothickness ratios are not included in Table 1-7.

Strength

or

o! Steel Headed Stud Anchors

Table 1-8. Nominal Horizontal Shear Strength and 25%


Reduced N_
ominal Horizontal Shear Strength for One Steel
Headed S~~ ~pchor
The nominal shear strength of steel headed stud anchors is given in Table 1-8, jn accordance with AISC Specification Chapter I. This table provides the nominal shear strength
for one steel headedst)ld anchor embedded in a solid concrete slab or in a composite slab
with decklng, ~given in AISC Specification Section J8.2a.The nominal shear strength wich
the 25% reduction as specified in AISC Seismic Provisions S~tion D2.8 for intermediate
or special SFRS of Sections G2, G3, G4, H2, H3, HS and H6 is also given in Table 1-8.
. According to the. User Note in AISC Seismic Provisions Section D 2.8, lhe 25% reduction
is not necessary for gravity or collector components in structures with intennediate or special seismic force resisting systems designed for the amplified seismic load. Nominal
horizontal shear strenglh values are presented based upon the position o f lhe steel anchor,
profile of the deck, and oriental.ion of the deck relative to the steei anchor. See AISC
Specification Commentary Figure C-18. l.

~
I
I
I

t -31

PART I REFERENCES

PART 1 REFERENCES

..

ACI (2008). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACJ 318-08, American

:.Concrete Institute, Fannington Hi)Js, Ml'. '


AISC (2010a), Specification fo r Str~~,i;ral Steel Buildings, ANSTJAISC 360-10, American
Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, CL.

ATSC (2010b), Seismic Provi.rion.r for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSIIAISC 341-10,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, U..
AISC (2010c), Prequalified Connections for SpecW.I and lntennediate Steel Momeni Frames
for Seismic Applicatibns, ANSI/AISC 358-10, American Institute of Steel Construction,
Chicago, IL.
AISC (2010d). Code of SuwJard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges, American
Institute of Steel ConstJUction, Chicago, IL.
AISC (2011), Steel Con.rtrucrion Manual, 14th&!., American Institute of Steel Construction,
Chicago, n...

ASCB (2010). Minimwn Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/SEI 7-10,

AS:e~:;?::::::d~::: ~:~~::;~:;;~::;;~r

AWS (2007), Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazjng, and Nondesrrucrive Examination,

l:

Impact Testing of Metallic Maternus,


ASTM E23-07ael, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

AWS A2.4, American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

AWS (2009), Structural Welding Code-Seismic Supplement, AWS Dl.8/Dl.8M:2009,


American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

AWS (2010). Structural Welding Code-Steel, AWS Dl.1/Dl.1M:2010, Amencan Welding


Society, Miami, FL.
\

ASCE/SE' 7 [)esign CoefficiEmts and Factors for SFRS


Tab.l e 1-9a. Design Coefficients and Factors for Steel and
Steel and Concrete Composite Seismic Force Resisting
Systems
This table is based on ASCE/SEI 7 Table 12.2-I and provides design coefficients and factors for steel and composite seismic force resisting systems (ASCE, 2010).

Table 1-9b. Design Coefficients and Factors for Nonbuilding


Structures Similar to Buildings
This table is based on ASCFJSE17Table15.4-1 and provides design coefficients and factors for steel and composite seismic force resisting systems in nonbuilding sLruclures similar
to buildings (ASCE. 2010).

Chopra, A.K. (2007), Dynamics of Sb-uctures: Theory and Applications to Earthquakt


Engineering, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Deierlein, G.G. and Noguchi, H. (2004), "Overview of US-Japan Research on the Seismic
Design of Composite Reinforced Concrete and Steel Moment Frame Structures: Jouma ~
of Structural Engineering,ASCE, Vol. J30, No. 2, pp. 361-367, Reston, VA.

FEMA (1994), NEHRP Recommended Pro1risions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings
and Other Strucrures, Washington, DC.
[ ::

FEMA (2009), NEHRP Recommended Provisions fo r Seismic Regulations for

New.;~

Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA P-750, Washington, DC.


lCC (2012), lnlemational Building Code, International Code Council , Falls Cl)urch, VA.
RCSC (2009), Specification for Structural Joinls Using High-Smmgth Bolts, Research
Council on Sllllctural Connections, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, U..

t~

Ricles, J.M., Mao, C., Lu, L.W. and Fisber, J.W. (2003), "Ductile Details For Welde.
Unreinforced Moment Connections Subject To Inelastic Cyclic Loading," Journal OJ' l
Engineering Strucrures, Elsevier, Vol. 25, pp. 667-{)80.

.J:

1- 32

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN TABl.ES

Vicsi. T.M., Colaco, J.P., Furlong, R.W., Griffis, L.G., Leon, R.T. and Wyllie, L.A., Jr.
(1997), Composite Construction: Design for Bu~ldin!s, McGraw-HilVASCE, Reslon, VA.

Table 1-1

Yamanouchi, H., Nishiyama, I. and Kobayashi, J. (1998), "Development and Usage of


Composite and Hybrid Building Structure in Japan," ACI SP-174, American Concrete
Institute, pp. 151- 174.

Workable Seismic Weld Access


Hole Configurations
.

~ri

,1.

tbl

@
'

fY

..

t.

i
I

IA'

(1)Ct

11

_/

t%"min.

t/J(

.,

i
~

Dimension for weld access hole geometry In accordance with


AWS 01.8/01.SM subdause 6.10.1

Access
Hole Type

CD
degrees

G
H
I

l
M
N

2 12

3
3'/t
4

:.

,,,,

'

,I

1 r,,
1 112
.... 21h
. 31n-

'I

3
3 1/
3 3/

1/2

.1
1 114
1 1/z
Pl
2
2 11,
2 1/z
23/4

1 11
1 'lz
Pl
2
2 114

tn.

'I

'h

'I
1

0
E

in.

in. .

In.
'h

30

4 1'2

51/z
6 1/z
l!h
8 1iz
9 112

It

11
12 1'2
14

15

!
I

J- 34

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN TABLES

1- 35 }:.

Table 1-2

Summary.of Member Ductility


Requirements
System

"

Highly
Ouctile

Moderately

Aw

A.""

Dui:tile

...
..

Special Cantilever Column Systems (SCCS)


Columns

E2.5a
E2.Sa

.
.

..

Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)


Beams
Columns

F2.5a
F2.5a
F2.5a

..

'

F1.5a

Eccen~lly Braced

Frames (EBF)
Diagonal Braces
Columns
link Beams
Beams outside of the Link

F3.5a
F3.Sa
F3.5b(1)
F3.5a

ES.Sa
ES.Sa

.
'. .

E4.5c
E4.5c

IQgllly
Ductile

System

Moderately
Ductile
~

'AM

F4.5a
F4.5a
F5.5a
F5.5a
F5.5a

Composite lntennediate Moment Frames


(C-IMF)
Steel and Composite Beams
Steel and Composite Columns

seismic
PflJVislons
Section
Reference

l:

G2.5a
G2.Sa .

G3.?a
G3.5a
G3.Sa

ob

I
\

Steel Coiipllng Beams

Encase<l Comp0site ~upling Beams


Composite Special Shear Walls (CSSW)
Unencased Structural Steel Columns
C<increte Eiicased Siructural Steel Columns
Steel Coupling Beams
'
Encased C<impostte ~upling Beams

semems

I~

'

G4.5a
G4.5b

H2.5a
H2.5a
H2.5a

..
.

H3.5 & F3.5a


HJ.5& F3.5a
H3.5 & F3.5b(l)
H3.5 & FJ.Sa

. H4.5b(l)
H4:5b(1)&(2)

..

:.1

Ht.Sa

Compbsiie:Ofmary Shear Walls ~C..QSW)

Steel and COmpoSite Vertical Boundary

li

'

Composite Special Concentrically Braced


Frames (C-SCBF)
~ CompoSite Columns
steel Braces or Composite Braces
I
Steel or Composite Beams

Composite Plate Shear Walla (C-PSW)


Steel and Composite Horizontal Boundary

~;

Coniposite Partialiy Re~ained Moment


Frames (C:.fif\MF)
Steel Colrims
cOmpos~e Beams

Comj>osite EQ:entrically Braced Frames


(C-EBF)
Oi3gonaJ Braoes
- Columns
UokBeams
Beams olitside of the Link

..

..

eorTiposite Specia!. Moment Frames (CSMF)


Steel and Composite Beams
~ Steel and Composite Columns
Reinforced Concrete,Encased Beams

Bements
61.S

No Ductility
Requirements
per Seismic
Provisions

eomposite Ordinary Braced Frames (C-OBF)

..

Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames


(OCBF)
Diagonal Braces

I See exteptlon$ in Section F3.5b(1).


See extej)don In Section C>3.5a.

El.Sa

Seismic

E3.5a
E3.5a

Ordinary Cantilever Column Systems (OCCS)

Composite Ordinary Moment FramH


(c--OMF)

Special Truss Moment Frames (STMF)


Chords in Special Segment
Special Segment Diagonal Webs

Speclal Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)


Homontal Boundary Element
Vertical B6undary Element
Intermediate Boundary 8ements

Provisions
Section
Reference

Speclal Moment Frames (SMF)


Beams
Columns

Speclal Concentrlcally Braced Frames


(SCBF)
Diagonal Braces
Beams
Cotumns

Sutnmary 'of Member:DuCtility


. Requirements'
-, ~

No Ductility
Requirements
per Seismic
Provisions

Ordinary Moment Frame (OMF)


Intermediate Moment Frame (IMF)
Beams
Columns

I l;
I"

Table 1-2 (continued}

HS.Sb
HS.Sb
H.S.5c, F3.5b(1)
H5.5c,d, F3.5b(1)

'

HS.Sa

H6.5a

~=~

l~

See exceptions fn Section F3.5b(1).


See~ in Section G3.5a.

AMEluCAN INSTTI\ITE OF STSEL Cor.rST!UJCnO.~

~~

uJ:.NRAL DESIGN CONSlDER.ATJONS

..

Width"':to~Thickn~ss

i~

ll

W40x392
x331
x327
, x294
x278
c x264

x235
x211
x183
x167
X149

SMF

STMf

... .. ..

SCCS

W-Shapes

OCBF

SCBF

'

'

..
...
.

..
..

'-

... ..
.

.. . .
... ...
..
. .
. ..
.
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
.. .,. ...
.;.

I'

..
..

..
..
.

..

..
"

. ..~1J

Shape
Amd

14.5
14.5
14.4
14.3.

28.7
28.7
28.5
28.2

W44x335
x290
x262
x230

31.2
30.6
"
30.0
1~.2
15.1
29.9
15.0 29.6
15.0 29.6
14.9 29.4'
14.7., 29.1
14.9. 29.4
14.8 29.2
14.7 29.1
14.3 28.3

W40x593

11.0
10.7
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.~
10.
10.4
9.98
9.52

W40x392
x331
x327
x294
x278

15.8
15.5

;.r
l 'l

,,

'
~

"

Diagonal
Braces Columns

'A,hd

EBF

Lo- f t

. .

..

I'

Widtli~to-;;..Thickness

Fy = 50 ksi

W-Shapes

..
.. ..
.. . ..
.. ... . .. .
. . .

.
.

. .
.. .. . ..
.. .. .. ..
.. ...

. .. .. .
.. ... .. ...
i

:>

Requirements

Beams Beams
and
Diagonal Diagonal
and
Chord
Columns Columns Segment Columns Brace$ Braces Columns "Beams

W44x335
x290
x262
x230
W40x593
x503
x431
x397
x372
x362
, x324
x297
x2n
,_x_2.49
x2.15
x199

,_

..
IMF

r1

Fy = 50 ksi

. Requirements

Sections .That Satisfy Seismic

Sections JThat .Sati$fy Seismic

I
Shape

Table 1~ (continued)

:.: Table 1-3

"

21.7
2.1.1
21.2
21.0
20.7
20.7
20.9
20.6
20.5
19.7
18.8

x183
x167
x149

SPSW

Beams

HBE

and

and

Columns

VBE' .

.it....,, kips
LRFD

i..m11
4080
2540
1710
910

..
-.

..

..

'\

3790
2940 .
2110 1090
1010

G
G
G
F
E

E
E
0
i)

G
G

..

E
E

I
H

..

Web I

Auessi
Ho!es I

x503
x431
x397
x372
x362 .
x324
x297
')(ln
x249
x215
x199

x264
x235
x21 t

Unl<s

8R8F

169

2500
1790
911
043
625

F
F
F
E

0
D

1-38

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

.. Shape

Width-to~Thickness

IMF

SMF

Beams
and

Beams
and

~30

x302

x282
x262
x247
x231

W36x256
x232
x210
x194
x182
x170
x160
x150
x135

x201
W33x169
x152
x141
Xl30
x118

so k~i

W-Shapes

OCBF

SCCS

SCBF

Chord
Diagonal Diagonal
Segment Columns Braces . Braces Columns Beams
'

...

..
.. '
...
.. . ...
..
. '

.
.
...
...

..

.
. .
. .
... ..
... . .
ii .
I

.
..
..

iI
I;

'

~- ,

..

'

..

....
..

..
. ..
.

'

. ..

..
..

..
...
..
..
..

..
...
..
..
.
.
..

..
.
. ..
..

..
.
.
. .
I

Beams
and

Dlagornil
Brace$ Columns

P.,MX> kips
LRFO

BRBF

EBF

Li.maxi ft

Shape

'

x318

><221

.. ..
.. . . . .
... ..
.. ..
.. ..
. .
.. .

. .
. ..
. . .
.

.
. ...
.. ...

STMF

'

xS61

x241

Fr=

Satisfy Seismic
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

W-Shapes

x291
x263,

Fy=50 ksi

Requirements

W36X652
x529
x487
x441

W33x387
x354

Sections ~That

Sections Jhat S~tisfy Seismic

Columns Columns

TabJe 1-3 (continued)

Table 1-3 (continued)

J )<"

DESIGN TABI,BS

Unks

Columns

HBE

HoIll$

and

VB'E,

Ahd

Amd

'Au

A.,,,.,

17.0
16.6
16.5
16.3
16.1
16.0
15.9
15.9
15.8
15.6
15.5
15.4

33.7
32-9
32.5
32-2
31.9
31 .6
31.5
31.4
31 2
30.9
30.7
30.5

W36x652
x529
x487

X441
X395

11.0 21.8
10.9 21 .5
10.7 21.2
10.6 21.0
10.6 21.0
10.5 W.8
10.4 20.5
10.3 20<.3
9.89 19.6

\Y36x256

15.7
15.5
15.4
15.3
15.2
15.0
14.9
14.8 .

31.0
30.7
30.5
30.2
30.1
29.7
29.5
29.3

W33x387

IOA 20.5
10.3 20.3
10.1 20.0
9.93 19.6
9.64 19. 1

W33x169

G
G
F
F

x361
x330
x302
x282
x262
>

x247

x231
x232
x210
x194
x182
x170
x160
x150
X135

X354

x3t8
x29l

x263
x241

x221
x20f
x152
x141
x130
x118'

3650
3020
2500
2010

3690

3170
2750
2350

2810

2900
2450
1940
1610
1260
1020 .

2290

1240

805
506
I

..

..

'

262

809

160

582

..

3180
2510
1810

II
I

E
E
D
D
D
0

G
G
F
F
E
E

2650

2090

1sa;l
1170

4TT.
245
128

917
712
483

1160

D
F

1650

Web
Acc~

t.

'

t
~
f

f.i

c
c I:;
c

;.'

t
t:
,.1

U.E::SlGN TABLES

l -41

Table 1-3 (continued)

I
Shape

Table 1-3 (continued)

Sections That Satisfy Seismic


Fy = 50 ksi
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements
W-Shapes
STMF

IMF

SMF

Beams

Beams
and

SCCS

OCBF

W-Shapes
SCSF

x326

:<

:.<292
x261
><235
x211
x191
x173

:~
l

---- =

W30x148
x132
x124
x116
x108
x99
)(9t)

W27>:-5391
~

x336

x307
x281
x258
x235
x2t7
xl94
x178
X161
Xl-16

I
I

W27x1~

x11 4
x102
x94
X84

..
..
..
.

..

..

. .
. . ..
..-- ..
.. .
.. ..
. .
. .
'

..
. ..
.

..

4....,tt

EBF
Shape

Diagonal Diagonal
and
Chord
Columns Columns Segment Cotumns Braces Braces Columns Beams
W30x391
xS57

Sections:That Satisfy:Seismic
Fy = 50- ksi
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

..
..
..
..
.

. ..
.. . .

.
..
..
.
~

...
.
.

..
..
...
..
.
..
~

. .. .
. ... .
.. . .. .
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
. ..
.
.
. .. .
.. .. ..
.. . . ..
.. .. . .

... .
..

..

Diagonal
Braces Columns

BRBF

SPSVf

Beams

llBE

and

and

cor11mns

VBE

Atr.4

15.3
15.1
15.0
14.9
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.4
14.2.

30.2
29.9
29.6
29.4
29.0
28.8
28.7
28.4
28.1

W30x391

9.48
9.35
9.27
9.10
8.94
8.73
8.69

18.7
18.5
18.3
18.0
17.7
17.3
17.2

W30x148
xl32
x124

x116

30.0
28.6
28.3
28.0
'l.7.9
'l.7.6
27.4
27.3

W27x539
x368
x336 .
x307
x281
x2S8

15.2
14.5
14.3
14.2
14.1
14.0
13.8
13.8
13.7
13.5
13.4
13.3

v.o
26.7
26.5
26.3

18.2
17.9
17.7
17.4
8.60 17.0

9J9
9.06
8.94
8.81

Unks

x357
x326
~ x292
x261
x235
x211
x191
x173

x146

x84

'Ah11

H
G
G
F
E
E

2260
1670

2350
1670

1350
982
720
542

1550
1230
1010
859
701
530
235

364
171
32.4

.'

~
I

0
0

Coro

c
c
c
c
8
K
H

G
G

F
F

E
E
E
0

2110
1570

D
D

Web
Access
Holes

'Ji.mt1

W27x129
x114
xl02
x94

kips
LRFO

P11.QJJ.I)

x108
x99
x90

x235
x2l7
x194
x178
x161

2120
1690

1340

1460

965
527

1140
788

324
128

615

c
c
c

418

1-42

I
W24x370
x335

x306
x279
x250
x229
x207
x192
x176
x162
x146
x131
x117
x104
W24x103
x94
x84
x76

~
W24x62
x55
W21x201
x182
x166
x147
x132
x122
x111
x101
W21 x93
x83
x73
x68

x62
x55

Table 13 (continued)

Table 13 (continued)

Sections That Satisfy Seismic


Width-to~Thickne.ss

Fy = 50 ksi

sees

STMF

'

..
..
,.

.. '

'

.
..

..
..
.
..
..
.

.. .

. ..
..

..

..

..
..
..
.. . -
.- .

"
.
.. ..
. ..
'

'

SCBF

.
.
...
..

..

..
..

'

Lb ltl#h ft

.
..
..

..

~1
I

'

..

..

..
.
..
.
.
..
..
.
.

. .
. .

Ahd

Amd
26.9
26.5
26.3
26.0
25.8
25.6
25.3
25.2
25.0
25.1
24.7
24.4
24.2
23.9

8.27
.8.23
8.11
7.98
7.77

16.4
16.3
16.0
15.8
15.4

5.74 11.3
5.57 11.0

7.65
7.61
7.52
7.48
7.36
7.19

II
I

13.6
13.4
13.3
13.2
13.1
12.9
12.8
12.8
12.0
12.7
12.5
12.3
12.2
12.1

12.6
12.5
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.1
12.0

I
I
!
I

'

I
I

WShapes
EBF
Shape
Diagonal
Braces Columns

I ''

~J

Links

BRBF

Sf'SV/

Beams

HBE

anti

and

Columns YBE

x279
x250
>;<229
x207
x192
x176
x162
x146
x131
x117
x104

W24x103
x94
x84
x76

..

15.1
15.0
14.9
14.8
14.5
14.2

W21x93
x83
x73

x68
x62
x55

Holes
Ahd

..

E
E
D
0

1260
837

1360
1010

1110
836
506
290
114

1200
968 .
698
517
364

187
58.5

387
223

II
ll!.

I
I

c
c
c
c 1
c
c
c

r
I
A!~ j
B.

~l(
~ }

F
F

1220

1260

1060

1080
776
642
487
347

685
521
330

170

Nola 1: Unks in EBF Illa! meet ll'le exception ln the AISC Seismic ltrwlsions Section F3.5b(l) need ooly me6I the limil$ for
modately dooite memllefS.

'>..ma

W21 x201
x182
x166
x147
x132
x122
x111
x1Q)::

Web
Access

x68

W24x62
x55

UIFD

PuRtUi kips

x335

x306

I
H
G

\Y24x370

24.8
24.7
24.6
24.2
24.1
24.0
23.8
23.7

..

S.e.ctions That'-Satisfy Seismic


Width-to:Thickness
Fy =50 k;;i
Requirements

OCBF

Beams Beams
and
and
Chord
Diagonal Diagonal
Columns Columns Seg.n:ient Cotumlls Braces Braces Columns Beams

..
..
..
..

.
..
..

:i

W,Shapes
SMF

Requirements
IMF

Shape

1-43

DESIGN TABLES

GENER.AL DESION CONSIDERATIONS

c
c
c
c
c

lI'

l!

B .

AorB

.,..;:f:

,....

1-44

GENERAL DESIGN' CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN TABL6S

Table 1-3 (continued)

Table 1-3 (continued)

I
W18x311
x283
x258
x234
x211
x192
x175
x158
x143
x130
x119
x106
x.97
x86

x76
Wl8x71
x65
x60

x55
x50

Wl8x46
x40

.
I\~ I
i'

:1

; I

><35

W18x100
x89

xn

x67

W16x57
x50
x45
><40
><36

Requirements
W-Shapes

ae.rn'

SMF

STMF

SCCS

OC8F

4,.,X> ft

SC8F

. ..

..

..
.
.
.
..
...
..
.
..
..
.
.
.

EBF

llelms

Shape

Diagonal Diagonal
end
and
Chord
Columns Columns Segment Columns Braces Braces Columns Beams

Yl21x57
x50
x44

Widtli~to'-'Thickness

=50 ksi

Fy

W-Shapes
IMF

Shape

Sections That Satisfy Seismic

Sections That Satisfy Seismic


Fy =50 ksi
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

..
..
..
..
..
.
..

.
..
.
.
.

..

..
..

..
..
...
...
..
..
.
.....
..

..

.
.. .

...
...
.
..

..
..
.
.

..

..
...
..
..
.
..

...
..
..
...
..

..
.
...
...
..
..

...

..
.
..
.
.
.
.. ... ... ...
. . . .
..
..
.
.

..
.
...

...
.

.
..

..
. .

')..,,.,

Diagonal
Braces Columns

!..""'

5.61 1t.1
5.40 10.7
5.24 10.4
12.3
12.1
12.0
11.8
11.7
116
11.5
11.4
11.3
11 2
11.2
11.1
11.0
10.9
10.8
7.07
7.02
8.98
8.94
6.86

24.2
23.9
23.7
23.4
23.2
22.9
22.7
22.5
22.3
22. 2
22.1
21.9
21.8
21.6
21.4
14.0
13.9
13.8
13.7
13.6

5.36 10.6
5.28 10A
5.07 10.0

10.

20.6

t0.4
t03

20.5
20.3
20.2

10.2

6.65 13.t
6.61 131
6.53 12.9
6.53 12.9
6.32 12. 5

UnkS

BRBF

SPSW

Beams
and
COiumns

t!BE

W21x57
x50
x44

P.,.....,klps
LRFD

Holes

hfl4

1.,...,

326
176
57.6

461
330
201

Wl8x71
,.65
x60
x55
x50
\Vl8x46
x40
x35

W16xt00

xn

E
D
D
D

895

932

668
520
326

709
588

319
98.3
46.5

433

411
235
161

x50
)(45

x40

c
c
c
c
c
c

A!BI
B
AorB
AorB

l<67
W16'c.57

Aor B

F
E

)(89

Aor B
I
H
G
G
F

x283
x258
x234
x21l
x192
x175
x158
x143
x130
x1 19
x106
x97
x86
x76

Web

Access

and

VBE

W\8x311

I.

an

881

604
427

62-4
483
322
261

224
160

Sor C1

c I
B

Aor
A01
A0t " ;

1-46

GENERAL D~IGN CONSlDERAnONS

Table 1-3 (continued)

Table 1-3 (continued)

..

Fy = 50 ksi

Width-fO:.::ThicKness
Re quirements

Widttt~tO:-Thickriess

=so ksi

Requirements
W-Shapes

W-Shapes
SMf:'

JMF
Shape

Sections .ThattSatisfy~Seismic

Sections~;'That Satis~ Seismic

1-47

DESIGN TABLES

Beams Beams
,and
and
Columns C~lu[ll

. .

W16x31
.xZ6

"
_STMF

::1

SCCS

Chord

Sestnent

... '

.
..
.

...
..
.. .- ..
...
..
..

.. . .. . ..

- .

'

Diagona1 Diagonal Colunins : Braces Braces Columns Beams


4~

... .

. .

. .

..

.
.
.!.

... .. .
.
.
.. ... .. .. .
.
.
.
. .. . .
. . .. . . .
.. .. .. . . . . .
.

..
.
.
.
.

.
..
. .
.
.

x2S7
xZ33
>;<211x193
>;<176
x159

. .. ...
.

~:

1.

..

:;<14r .

..

W14x132
x120.
x109
, W14x82
'" x74
x68
x61

;.

'

W14x53"
x48
x43
W14x38

x34
x30

'

Diagonal
lmr1

4.86
4.66

9.61
9.20

W16x31
x26

15.6
15.5
15.5

30.9
30.7
30.6
; ; ..,

W14x132
x120
x109

10.3,
10.3
102
10.2

20.4
20.4
20.2
20.1

W14x82
x74

7.98 15.8
7.94 15.7
7.&6 15:5

W14x53
x48
x43

6.44 12.7
6.36 12.6
6.19 12.2

W14x38
x34

17.5
17.3
17.2
17.0
16.9
16.8
16.7
16.6
16.5

' Beams
and
Unks Columns

SPS\'l

Po maxi kips

I.RFD

Web

Access

HBE
Abd

'J..m<1
Aor B
171
77.5 AorB

N
M

t. (

....

:i:c:370

x342 .

...

- ..

x311

xZ83
x257
x233

X211

X193
x176
x159
x14s

xsS

x61 .

'

518

535

400

434
329

273
192

x30

258

Nate 1: Uni\$ in EBF ttl31


the ~xceptlon In the.AISC Seismic ProviSionsSectlon F3.5b(1) neOO only meet tne limits for
mod8f3tl!ly ductile mernllm-

me

Holes

and

VBE

60.6
13.9

..

W14x730
- x665
x605,
x550
x500
x455:
. 426
X398-

...

AMERICAN INSTITUI1l 01' STEEL CONSTJtlJCTION

!!ra<:eS Columns

38.S
38.0
37.4
36.9
36.4
36.0
35.7
35.4
35-1
34.8
345
34.3
33.9
33.7
33.4
33.3
33.0
32.9
32.7

19.5
19.2
18.9
18.7'
18.4
18.2 .
18.0
17.9
17.7_

..
..
..
.. .
. . . h.&
. . .-
. . .
.. . .-

..

Shape

'J..hd

BRBF

EBf.;

.,,,_,ft

SCBF

W14x730
x665
><&05
x550
x500
x455
x426
x398
x370
x342
x311
xZ83

OCBF

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1-48

...

DESIGN TABLES

-~S

Sections-,J hat .Satisfy Seismic


Fy = 50 ksi
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

~~

~l

~lw
:1

,,
fll

W14x26
x22
W12x336
x305
x279
x252
x230

x210
x190
x170
x152
x136
x120
x106
x96 .
x87
x79
x72
Wl2X58
x53
W12x50
x45
x40
W12x35

x30
x26

'(
~:

W12x22
x19
x16
X1 4

- -~Ml
~,.

SMF .

STMF

Requirem~nts
W.-Shapes

OCBF

SCCS

SCBF

Bms Beams
2nd
Diagonal Olagooal
and
Chord
Columns Columns Segment Columns Braces Braces .Columns Beams

. .

.
.. . ..

.. .
. .
. ... ...
. .. ..
.. . .

'

..
..
..

....

'

I 0

. ...
.
11

.
. .
. .
. ..

'

EBf

Lb,,,., ft

.,

..
.

..
.. .
.
.. .
.
.

Sections That Satisfy' Seismic


Width-to-Thickness
Fy = 50 ksi

W-Shapes
IMF

, Shape

Table 1-3 (continued)

':: t

Table 1-3 (continued)

"~T

~t~:I

,I

AM

Amd

4.49
4.32

8.87
8.55

Shape

Diagonal
Braces Columns

28.5
28.1
27.8
27.4
27.2
27.0
26.7
26.5
26.2
26.0
25.7
25.6
25.4
25.2
25.1
25.0

W12X336
x30S
x279
x252
x230
x210
x190
.. x170
x152.
x136
x120
x106

10.4
10.3

20.6
20.4

W12X58
x53

8.15 16.1
8.11 16.0
8.06 15.9

W12X50
x45
x40

6.40 12.7
6.32 12.5
6.28 12.4

W12X35
x30
x26.

6.97
6.75
6.35
6.19

SPSW

Beams
and
Columns

HBE

W14x26
x22

14.4
14.2
14.0
13.9
13.8
13.6
13.5.
13.4
13.3'
13.1 .
13.0
12.9 .
12.8
12.8
12.7
12.6

3.52
3.42
3.2J
3.13

Links

BllBF

LRFD

Wei>
ACCI!$$
Holes

and

VBE

Aha

7'ma

116
30.4

189
103

AorS
AorB

I
H

x96
x87
x79"
x72

Puma,r, kips

B
I

W12x22
x19
x16
x14

Acr .
Aor S;

267

458
309

132

200

197
110
56.4
16.0

228

453

:';

155
106
59.3

.
.

~ 1: Unks In EBF that meet t!lv excepUon In the AISC Seismic Prov/skins sectbt f3.5b(1) need only meet lhe llmllli for
mcderately cludlle meml>efs..

AMlllUCAN

lNS'ITJVlll OF STEEL CoNsnUJC'TlON

c
c
c
c
c

Acr !!'

. .

F
F
E
E
0
0

A or Bl
Aor ~ 1
Acr 2
i
Aor lJ;
A0< Bj
A

1-51

l-50

GENI:RAL DESIGN CONSDERA110NS

pESlGN TABLES

Table 1-3 (continued)

Table 1-3 (continued)

I
Shape

W10X112

xtOO
i<88

xn

x68
x60
l<54
x49

W10X45
Y39
x33
WI0-..<30

x26
x22
W10x19
x17
x15
x12
w~

x58

x48
x40

x35
x31

Sections That Satisfy Seismic


Fy =50 ksi
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

x24
Wllx2l
xl8

W-Shapes

W-Shap es
IMF

SMF

8eatn$

Beams

and

and

Columns

corum"'

...
..

..
..
...
..
.
..
..
.
..
.

.
..
..
-

..
.
.

.
. .
I

Yl8x28

Sections That Satisfy Seismic


Fy = 50 ksi
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

STMF

SCCS

OCSF

SCBF

Diagonal Dia genti


Chord
Segment Columns Braces Braces Columns Beams

...
.

.
..
..

...
.
.

..
..

..
...
..
.
.
..
.

...
..

I
I

.
..
.

'

... .. .. ..
. . .
. . .
. .

'

... .
.. .
.
. ..
.
. ...
.. .

.. ...
.. .
. .
. .
I

'Ahd

/.1114

11.1
11.0
10.9
10.8
10.8
10.7
10.6
106

220
21.8
21.6
21.4
21.3
21.1
21.0
20.9

BRBF

EBF

LtllWO ft

11.3

W10x30
x26
x22

W10x19

x17

x15
x12

Web

\V8x67
i<58
...48
x40
x35
>C31

13.3
13.2

Y.'Sx28

5.24 10.4
5.11 10.1

W8x21
xl8

275

281

21 1
169

216
179
96.0

66.4
I

8.81 17.4
8.73 17.3
865 17.1
8.48 16.8
8.44 16.7
840 166
6.73
ssg

LRFD

x54
x49

5.69
5.65
5.53

6.45

Pu,.,,., kips

x77
x68
x60

W10X45
x39
>C33

718
6.94
6.66

;cl()()

xes

16.5
16.3
15.9

3.63
3.51
3.37
3.26

.I

WtOX112

8.35
8.23
8.06

11.2
10.9

SPSW

><2.4

A Of
A
A

,l

1-52
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

("

:l
i I
,.~
,

Sections That Satisfy"SeismicWidth-to.:.Thickness


Fy = 36 ksi
Requirements

STMF

Shape

Chords

L8x8x1 1/a
xl
x 7/a
x3/4

OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces

..

L8x4x1
x1/s
x3/,

x /ts

-.:

' 1
~

l6x4x 7/s
x3/4
x5/a
xiitie
L5x5x7/a
x'I
x5/s
x 1h
L5x3112x31.
x 5/a
x 1h
LSX3x1h
L4x4x'/
x5ta.
x 1/2
x7/ts
x3/a

L4x3x5/a
x1h
XS/a

..

.. .
. ..
..

..

L31/zx3 1/2X 1'2


x 7/1s

x3/a
l31/zx3x1'2
x 7'16
x3/s

..
.

..

.
.

Sectioris That Satisfy4: Seismic


Fy =46 ks i
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

OCBF

Shape

L4x3 1hx 1/2


x%

Table .1 -5a

Rectangular HSS

L7x4x3/,
L6x6x1
x7/s
x3/4
x.5/a

SCBF
Diagonal
Braces

L8x6x1
x7/a
xl/4

1:9.r

1-53

Table 1-4

Angles

II

DESIGN TABLES

STMF

andEBF

Chords

Diagonal
Braces

. ..
.. .
.
. ..
.. .

L31/2X2 1/<X 1/2


x3/s

l3x3x'f2

x7'1s
x3/s
x51ts

L3x21'2x1/2
x7/t6
'X:l/a
x.5/la
LJxzx112
x3/a
x.5/ta

.
..
.

SCBF
Diagonal
Braces

.
..

..

..

OCBF
SCCS
and EBF
SCBF andSCBP
Diagonal Diagonal
Braces
Braces Columns

Shape

HSS10x4x.5/a

.
.

HSS9x7x5/s

HSS9x5x5/s

HSS8x6x5/s

HSS1 Ox8x5/s
HSStOx6x5/a

HSS8x6x11z
HSS8x4x.5/a
HSS8x4x1'2
HSS8x3x1'2
~7x5x1'2
~7x4x 1fl

HSS7x3x1'2
HSS6x5X1/2
x 3/a
HSS6x4x1'2
x3/e

HSS6x3x1'2
x3/a
HSS6x.2x3/a
HSS5x4x1'2
x3/a
x5/ts

HSS5x3x1'2
x3/s
x.5/ts

HSS5x2x5/a
x!/te

OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces

Shape

HSS4x3x3/a
x 5/ts
x11

.
.
.

.
.

. - ..

HSS4x2 /:zx3/e

HSS4x21/ixSfi5
x1/4

HSS4x.2x3/s
x5'16
xl/4
HSS3112X21/2x'S/a
x.5/1s
x 114
HSS31/2x2x1/,
HSS31/2X1 /zx1/4

HSS3x21"1x5/t6

x3'16

x'I

HSS3x2x5'1s
x 1/4
fiSS3x11/'tX1/4

.
..

x3fie
HSS3xlx3/ts

.
.
.

HSS2112X2x11,
x3/t&

HSS21/2X1X~/t8

HSS21/2x3/1s

HSS2x1 1hx3/10
x 1/a

' Sections also satisfy STMF truss chords.

J\..ll(EJt!CAN .INsnrors OJ' St'EEL CONSTRUCllON

..

...

..

.
..

HSS21/zx1 1hx1/4
x3/ta

..
.

...
...
.
.
..
..
.
.

SCCS
SCBF andSCBP
Diagonal
Braces
Columns

.
..

..

..

Shape

HSS10><10X5fa
HSS~/a

HSS8xexS/a

x'h
HSS7x7x5/a
xlf2
HSS6x6x5/a
xl/2
x3/a

HSS51hx5 1/:zx3/a
x5'16
HSS5><5x1'2
x3/s
x 5hs
HSS41/zx4 1lrx112
x3/a
x5f1s

Sections That Satisfy Seismic


Fy =46 ks i
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

Sections.:Yhat Satisfy Seismic


WidtH-fo-Thickness
Fy ::::42 ksi
Requirements

..
.

.
.
.
..
.

SCCS
SCBF andSCBP
Olagonal
Braces Column$

.
.
.

.
.

OCBF

..
.
.

and ESF

Shape

Olagonal
Braces

HSS4x4x1h
x3/a
x5'1&
x1/ 4
HSS31/2X3 1hx3/a
x5ho
X1/4

HSS3x3x3/a
x0/15
x1J4

x3h&
HSS21/<21/~'1s

x'I
x3h&
HSS2 /~ /11
1

x3h&

HSS2x2x1/

x3'16

..
.
.

SCBF
Dlagonal
Braces

SCCS
SCBP

~nd

Columns

..
. .
. - ..
.

. ...

..
.
.

Shape

.
.
..

SCCS
OCBF
and SCBP
and EBF
SCBF
Diagonal oragonal
Columns
Braces
Braces

HSS16x0625
HSS14x0.625
x0.500
HSS12.750><0.500
HSS10.750x0.500
HSStOx0.625
x0.500
x0.375
HSS9.625x0.500
x0.375
HSS8.625x0.625
x0.500
x0.375
><0.322
HSS7.625x0.375
x0.328
HSS7.500x0.500
x0.375
x0.312
HSS7x0.500
x0.375
x0.312
x0.250
HSS6.875x0.500
x0.375
x0.312
x0.250

.
'Soctloos also satlsty SlMF trvss c1lord requlremenn;.

Qi

Round HSS

Square HSS
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces

Table 1-6

Table 1-5b

DJ

l-55

oESJGN TABLES

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1-54

HSS6.625x0.500
x0.432
x0.375
x0.312
x0.280
x0.250

.
..

.
.
..
.
..
..
..
.
..
.
.
.
.
..
..
..

Shape

HSSE))<().500
x0.375
x0.312
x0.280
x0.250

.
.

HSS5.563x0.500
x0.375
x0.258

..
.
.
..

..

HSS5.500x0.500
x0.375
x0.258

HSSSx0.500
x0.375
x0.312
x0.258
><0.250
x0.188

HSS4.500x0.375
x0.337
x0.237
x0.188

\ .

..

..

~also sa1isty STMF 11\lSS cbofd requirements.

OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces

.
..
..

HSS4x0.313
x0.250
><0.231
x0.226
x0.220
x0.188
HSS3.500x0.313
x0.300
x0.250
x0.216
x0.203
x0.188
x0.125

..
..
..
.
.
.
..

..

.
..

secs
SCBF and SCBP
Dlagonal
Braces Columns

..
..
.

.
..
.
..

..

I
I

..
I
.
I

.. I

. I
. I

. I

OENERAL DE.SIGN CONS!DERATTONS

1-."

DESIGN TABLES

Table 1-6 (continued)

Sections.That-.Satisfyr Seismic
Width-to-Thickness
Fy =42 ksi
Requirements

0
Shape
~.250

x0.216
Xfl.203
x0.188
x0.152
x0.134
x0.125
HSS2.875x0.250
x0.203
x0.188
x0.125
HSS2.500x0.250
x0.188
x0.12.5

11

..
..
...
..
.

SCBf
Dtagonal
Braces

..
.
..
.
..
..
..

SCCS
andSCBP

Pipe
OCSF
and EBF
Diagonal

Shape

Columns

..
...
.
...

01

Sections That Satisfy Sei~mic


Fy= 35 ksi
Width-to-Thickness
Requirements

Round HSS
OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces

Table. 1-7

Braces

HSS2.375x0.250
x0.218
x0.188
x0.154
x0.125 ..
HSS1.900x0.188
x0.145
x0.120
HSS1.660x0.140

SCCS
SCBF
and SC8F'
Diagonal
Braces
Colllmns

..
..

..

.
.

.
..
..

.
.

OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal
Braces

Shape

Standard Weight (Std.)

.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.

Pipe 10 Std.
Pipe 8 Std.

Pipe 6 Sid.

'

Pipe 5 Std.
Pipe~ Std.

Pipe 31'2 Std.

Pipe 3 Std.

..

Pipe

t~

2112 Std.

Pipe 2 Std.

Pipe 11'2 Std.

.
.

Pipe 11/4 Std.

Pipe 1 Std.

.
.

Pipe 3/4 Std

SCCS
SCBF ;n~SCBP
Diagonal
Braces COiumns

Pipe

112 Std.

Braces

.
.
.
.

Pipe 12 x...strong

Pipe 1ox-Strong

Pipe 8 x-strong

.
.

Pipe 31/uStrong

Pipe 3 X~trong

.
.
.
.

Pipe 2112 x-Strong

. .
. .
'.

'\ .

secs
SCBF andSCBP
Diagonal
I
Braces
Golumr.s

Extra Strong (x-Strong)

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

OCBF
and EBF
Diagonal

Shape

Pipe 6 XStrong
Pipe 5 x-Strong
Pipe 4 XStrong

Pipe 2 xStrong

Pipe l1f2XStrong

PipeW x...strong
Pipe 1 xStrong

Plpe ,,, x-Strong


Pipe 1/2 x..str(lng

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

Double-Extra-strong (xxStrong)
'f'

~'

Pipe 8 xx-Strong

Pipe 6 xx-Strong
Pipe 5 xx-Strong

Plpe 4 xx-Strong
Pipe 9 xx-Strong

Pipe 2112 xx-Strong

Pipe 2 xx-Strong

.
.
.
.
.

.
.

.
!
I

Sections abo sat!s1y STMf truss cllold l'lqUliemenll;.

' Sectioos also utbty SllM' tl\ISS c:tiord requiremeots.

I
AMERJCAN IiosTmm! OP STEEL CONSTRUCTION

.AMERICAN l'NsTirora OF S"IE:a. CoNsi:RucnoN

J- 58

Fu= 65 ksi

Table 1-8

Table 1-9a

Shear Stud Anchor

Design Coefficients and Factors for Steel


and Steel and Concrete Composite
Seismic Force Resisting Systemsj

Qn

Nominal Horizontal Shear Strength


and 25% Reduced Nominal Horizontal

'

Shear Strength for Steel Headed Stud Anchors, kips


Normal Weight Concrete

Ugtrtwelglrt Concrete

Wc=1Gpcf

We= 110 pcf

Stud

Diameter

Deck
Condition

f~

=3 ksl

f~=

25%

Jn.

Nominal

'le

5.26
9.35
14.6
21.0
5.26
9.35
14.6
21.0
4.58
8.14
12.7
18.3
4.31
7.66
12.0
17.2
3.66
6.51
10.2
14.6
3.02
5.36
I
8.3$
12.1
5.26
9.35
14.6
21.0
4.58
8.14
12.7
18.3
3.77
. 6.70
10.5
15.1

1/2

No De<:k

5/a
3/4

~~1.5
h,

3/4

~ ~<: 1.5

h,

..

.Q

'C

0.

.a

'

..
co

~
..,

3/a
'12
5/a

""...

i::

8.

f""
~

3/a
'h
S/a
3/4
3/a

'12
S/a
3/4
3/
'h
5/a
3/4
3/a
lft
5/
3/4
3/a
l/2

5/a
3/4
3/

117

s,, .
3/
3/a .
1f1
$/a

Red~ed

4 ksl

f~ = 3

ksl

'o=41<s1

25%

25%

25%

Haminal Reduced Nominal Reduced Nominal

3.95
.5.38
7.01
9.57
11.0 " 15.0
15.8 . 21.5
. 3.95
5.38
7.01
9.57
15.0.
11~0 .
15.8
21.5
3.44
4.58
6.11
8.14
9.53
12.7
13.7
18.3'
4.31
3.23
5.75
7.66
9.00
12.0
12.9 .
17.2
2.75
3.66
4.88
6.51
7.65
10.2
11.0
14.6
2.27 . '3.02
4.02
5.36
6.29
8.38
9.08
12.1
3.95
5.38
7.01
9.57
11.0
15.0
15.8
21.5
3.44
4.58
8.14
6.11
9.53
12.7
13.7
18.3
2.83
3.n
5.03
6.70
7.88
10.5
11..3
15.1

4.04
7.18
11.3
16.1
4.04
7.18
11.3
16.1
3.44
6.11
9.53
13.7
3.23
5.75
9.00
12.9
2.75

4.88
7.65
11.0
U.1

4.02
6.29

9.08
4.04
7.18
11.3
16.1

3.44
6.11
S.53
13.7
2.83

4.28
7.60
11.9
17.1
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.1
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.l
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.l
3.66
6.51
10.2
14.6
3.02
5.36
8.38
12.1
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.1
4.28
7.60
11.9
17.1
3.n
6.70
10.5
15.1

3.21
5.70
8.93
12.8
3.21
5.70
8.93
12.8
3.21
5.70
8.93
12.8
3.21
5.70
8..93
12.8
2.75
4.88
7.65
11.0
2.2.7
4.02
6.29
9.08
J.ZI

5.70
8.93
12.8
3.21
5.70
8.93
lUJ
2.83

5.31
9.43
14.7
21.2
5.31
9.43
14.7
21.2
4.58
8.14
12.7
18.3
4.31
7.66
12.0
17.2
3.66
6.51
10.2
14.6
3.02
5.36
8.38
12.1
5.31
9.43
14.7
21.2
4.58
8.14
12.7
18.3
3.77
6.70
10.5
15.1

Redu~

3.98
7.(Ji7

11.0
15.9
3.9.8
7.07
11.0
15.9
3.44
6.1 1
9.53
13.7
3.23

5.75
9.00
12.9
2.75
4.08
7.65
11.0
U.7
4.02
6.29
9.08
3.93
7.07
11 .0
15.9
3.44
6.11
9.53

13.7
2.83

5.03
5.03
5.03.
3
7.88
7.88
7.88
11..3
11.3
tt ..3
N<M: TnDulate<I vall* n llJl)lcable only lo c:oncrete ~with ASTM C33 avgregates tor 00(~ weigllt concm.e and ASTM
C330 aoor89lltes for ~ concme.
Allweld &hear stud length$ 8$SUl1led to be ~ deck helglll + 1.5 in.
All symbols shown h dvftried in AISC $pecilication ~ l

''

l-51

DESIGN TABLES

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

SeiSmlc Force Resisting System

Resp.
Mod.
Coeff.,
R'

strength

Deflection
Amp.

Factor,

Factor,

Over

n,

cl

Seismic Oesign Category


4

NL
NL

NL
NL

160
160

160
160

100
100

: : :: ::: ::11

2
2

31/

8
7
8
7

(STMF)
Steel intermediate moment frames (IMF)
Steel ordinary moment frames (OMF)
steel special cantilever column
systems (SCCS)
Steel ordinaJ'y cantile\w column
systems (OCCS}
Steel systems not specifically detailed
for seismic resistanee

2
3
3
3
3
Jl/4

511z

NL
NL
NL

I~

NL

160
NL
160

160
NL
100

100
NL
NP

NL

NL

3S1'

NP"

tlP"

35

35

NP.

NP'

Nf'

NL

NL

NP

NP

NP

NL

NL

160

160

100

NL

NL

160

160

10i

Ii

NL

Nl

NI'

NP

NP \:

6
51/2

3
21h

NL

It

NL:

~; ~; ~~ ~~ ~ I

I
l.

COMPOSITE SYSTEMS
Steel and concrete composite
eccentrically braced frames (CEBF)
Steel and coocrete composite special
concentrically braced frames
(C-SCBF)
Steel and coocrete composite ordinary
braced frames (C-OBF}

STEB. SYSTEMS

'i

Steel eccentrically braced frames lEBF)


Steel special concentrically braced
frames tSCBF)
Steel ordinaiy concentrically braced
frames (OCBF)
Steel buckling-restrained bfaced
frames (BRSF)
Steel special plate shear walls (SPSW)
Steel siiecial moment frames (SMF)
steel special truss moment frames

Structutal System Limitations


Including Structural
Height, h,,, Limits In tt
1

8
5

Response modification coefficient, R, used lhrougllout ASCfJSEI 7 (ASCE, 201O).

..
DetleclJOn amplflcallon ractor, tor use In ASCEISEI 7 SeciSooS 12.8.6, 12.8.7 and 12.9.2
<NL= not runited and NP "not peimltted.
See ASCEJS8 7 Section 12.2.S.~ IOI' a desctlptlon Of seismic to:e resisting systems limited to bulldlng; with a structural helgto

11,. ol 240 n or lesS


See ASCEISEI 1 Sed!on 12.2.5.~ for a descr1ptlon of~ force resisting sygtems rimited to buildings with asll\ICtural llelgh ,

c,,.

hoof 100moment
nor lessframe is permitted lo be used In lieu d irQrmedlate moment frame tor SeiSmic Ot$lgn categories B or C.
1"
OrOinalY
s:eei ordill3IY conc;enlrically tnceCI frames are pennilled In ~-!tor}' buildings up to a structural heigltl, h,. of 60 fl (18.3 n .
wtiere 111e dead IOad of tile roof dOes not exceed 2.0 psi.
See ASCEISEI 7 Secbon 12.2.S.7 tor tlm4tltlons kl S1n1t11RS ;migried to Seismic Design Categones 0, E oi F.
See ASCEJS8 7 See1ion 12.2.5.6 lo< ffmlt:ltfons In "1UCUes ~ried to Seismic Design Categories 0, E or F.
1 This table Is baSed en ASCfJS8 71'1lle 12.21 and Is~ with permission from ASCE.
I

Cf.NE'RAJ.. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Table 1-9a (continued)

Table 1-9a (continued)

r
\

1-()!

DESIGN TABLES

Design Coefficients and Factors for Steel


and Steel and Concrete Composite
Seismic Force Resisting Systemsj

Design Coefficients and Factors for Steel


and Steel and Concrete.Composite
Seismic Force Resisting Systemsj
Structural Sy$1lln Limitations

Seismic Force ResiWng System

Resp.
Mod.
Coeff.,

Overstrength
Factor,
llo

tndudlng Structural
Height, h111 limits In fl

Deflection
Amp.

Factor,

Sebmlc Force Resl$ting System

Seismic ~n Category

cd-

D'

E'

__

;: j

_, ::f.,.

ii

6h
6

21'2

S'h

NL

NL

160

160

100

NL

NL

160

160

100

4112

NL

NL

NP

NP

NP

5112

NL

NL

NL

NL

NL

4112

NL

NL

NP

NP

NP

51h

160

160

100

NP

NP

2112

NL

NP

t.'P

NP

NP

OUALSYSnMs
Dual Systems with SMF c;cpabi. of
res1sting at tent 25% of
prescribed Ul$lll!C forces
Steel eccentrically braced frames
Steel special concentrically braced

rrmes

t:

!:

Steel buci<.llng-restralned braced


frames
Steel special plate shear w-.,J;s
Oual Systems with IMF capable of
l'ISlsting at least 25% ot
p<escr1bed seismic torc:es

'

:1

slren:llh
~.

R'

n.

Cl

21!1

Structural System Umitatioos


tncludlng Structural
Height, h,,, Umlts In ft'

Se1'111ic Design Category

Ei

IJt.

NL

35

NP

NP

21!2

NL

NL

NL

Ill

NL

2112

NL

NL

Nl

UL

NL

Steel aoo cooaeto comf,'W.e plate


shear waHs

71/l

21{2

ti'l

Nl

NI.

t.'L

NL

Steel and concrete composite special


shear walls
Steel and concteto composite ordln:vy
she3twalls
Dual Composite Systems with IMF
capable of resisting at least 25%
of prescribed seismic forces
Steel and concrete composite sped3I
concenUically braced frames
Steel and concrete composite ortllnary
braced frames
Steel and concrete composite ordinary
&hear walls

21h

NL

NL

NL

NL

NL

Z'h

NL

NL

NP

NP

NP

8
7

NL
Nl

Nl

Ill

NL

NL

NL
NL

NL
NL

5112

21/t

4112

~L

NL

160

100

NP

NL

NL

NL

NL

tJL

3112

21/t

NL

Hl

NP

NP

NP

61/2

NL

NL

NL

NL

NL

411z

NL

NL

NP

NP

NP

Steel tpeCial C(lllQ!Otrica!ly braced


frames'
DUAL COMPOSITE SYSTEMS
Dual Composite Systems with SMF
capable of resisting at least 25%
ol pmcrlbed seismic lotus
Steel and eooctete composite
eccentncany braced frames
Steil! end concrete composite Sl)edal
coocentrlcaJty ~ frames

Response modlflc\ltlon coelfident.11, used lll>OOhout ASOOSEJ 7 "5CE, 2010).


Oeftection ampfficatlon fac10t, ~for use In ASCEJSEI 7SdlllS12.8.6, 12 8.7 Wld 12.9.2
II. .. not dmlled and NP .. llOI permotted.
See ASCE/S8 7 Secilon 12.2.5.-4 rar ao.nptlon of seismic bte resiillnQ systems ltnl:ed 111 buildJnO$ W!lh a stnJci11111 lleigl11.
11,. a1 240 ncir i.ss
See ASCEJSB 7 Secilon 12.2.SA IClr a ~lptlcn of ~ bte resi$llnQ l'fSlems lml'.ed 111 llullc!ings wl1ll ~ height,
II. ol 160 nor less
' Orctnwy mom.Ill frame Is penni1lzd IO be ~ In lieu at ~ moment lrame fClr Selsmc Design Categcriel 8 or C.
'S1ee1 ordinary coruutrlc3l!y braced llamlf twe per1Tlllllcl In~~ up ID a m.ic:unl l'leOll. i,. crl 60 It (18.3 m)
~
dellj loml al Ille rocrl doa llOl ~ 20 ~
s.. ASGfJS8 1 ~ 122.S.7IDr1ma11ons 111 sb'udlret SS!9l8d Ill Selamlc Design Cnlgortla o. e or F.
' see ASCEIS0 7 Stcl..on 1u.s.s 1ar llnbtlOI\$ 1n struct1nS adpd 10 s.lsmiC DellQrl Cat9QOl1es o, e or F.
1 This table Is based on ASCt:/S8 Hable 12.21 and Is ~-.1!11 poonis;IOll from ASCE.

"

Mod.
Coeff.,

Oeflection
Amp.
Factor,

DUAL SYSTEMS
1

restrained moment lme$ (C.PRMF)


Steel and concrete composite 01dlnary
moment frames (COMF)

!Mr

COMPOSITE SYSTB~S
Steel and concretecomposi!e plate
shear walls CPS\'1
Steel and concrete composile spec;tsl
shear walls (CSSW)
Steel and concrete composite orornary
Shear walls (COSW)
Steel and concrete comlJOSi:V special
moment frames (CSMF)
Steel and concrete composite
11\tennedlate momem frames (C IMF)
Steel and coocrete comjl()Sile partially

Resp.

'

l-62

GENERAL DESIGN CONSrDERATIONS

PART2

Table 1-9b

l~

.,

ANALYSIS

. ,~ Design Coefficients and Factors


for Nonbuilding .Structures Similar
to Buildingse

I
2.1 SCOPE ........................................................... 2-2

Structural System Limitations


lncludlng Structural
Response
Over Deflection
Mod. . strength
Amp.
.. Height Umlts, h,.. in ft
Coeff., . Factor,
Factor,
Selsmfc Design Category
no
R
C4
B
c 0 E F

Nonbuildlng Structure Type

Steel Storage racks

Building frame syS'lems:


Steel special concentrically braced
frames (SCBF)

3112

NL

NL

NL

Nl

NL

Ductile Design Mechanism ............................................ 2-.. I::


Capacity DC$ign ......... '. ........ ....... .. . 2-3 I.

2.3 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES .......................................... 2Elastic, Inel~tic and Plastic Analysis ........ ...... .......... ........... 2-4

Stabi~ty Desi.go ~1ethods in the AISC Specification ........................ 2- ~ \,


2

Steel ordinary concentrically braced


ft3mes (OCBF)

31/4

With permitted heiljht increase

2
2

31/4

21/2

With unlimited helgllt

1''2

1''2

2112

NL

NL
NL
NL

NL

160

160

100

Direct Analysis Method ........... .... ... ... . 2-

I;

Effective Length Method ....... . ... ...... ......................... . 2-5


Method ..... '. : .. 2-

NL

35b

35b

NPb

NL
NL

160

160

100

NL

NL

NL

Firs~-Order An~ysis

Analysis ~etho<ls m ASCEJSEI 7 and the Drrect Analysis Method ............ 2-,
Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method .......... 2-6

Moment-resl$1ing frame systems:

2.2 ROLE OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS lN DESIGN .... ........... ....... . 2-

Steel special moment frames {SMF)

fNz

3
2

NL

NL NL NL
35c. NP'-d NPc.

With permitted Mfght increase

4112
21/2

NL
NL

Nl

Steel Intermediate moment frames OMF)

2112 .

NL

NL

160

With unlimited height

111z

i 1h

Steel ordinary m0ment frames (OMF)

3 12

NL
NL

NL

Wrth permitted height increase

211z

2''2

NL

NI.

100

With unlimited height

NL

NL

Ill

..

160

100
NL NL

NL
NL NPc. NP"' NP"'

Modal Response Spectrum Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method ....... . 22.4 STRUCI1JRAL MODELING .. ......... , ............... .. ..... .... ... 2-".
2
Strength of Structural Elements ... . Stiffness of Structural Elements ....... ... ......... . . ..... .............. 2-

"t

Steel Elements ................................................... 22


Compos'.te B _ements ...... \
Connecuons and Panel Zones . . , . . . : ... ............. . .......... ..... 2

100 NP'-'
NL NL

Column Bases and Foundations . .................. ........... . ...... 2-11

Diaphragms for Tbree-Dimension:h Analysis ................... : ..... . 2- \Gravity Loads ................ .................... : ............. 2-1

2=~ ~i~~~~~ ~.~~ ~~~-~~i~ ~'.~t~-~~~-~~-:::::::::: ~ l


1

PART

.
r.. not llmited illld NP .. not pennlned.
Sleel dNry tnced frames are permitted kl pipe racks up to 65 fl

~~~

'

Steel Ofdinely momen! lranle$ and lnltrmediale moment trames we pennil1ed In pipe raclls up 10 a ~I cl 65 It where Ille
moment Joint; ol llelcl COMeCtloot are constructed ol bolted end plates.
S1eol ordln&ry moment framet and lrrlennedi3te moment rrames 8te pennhted In llilJe racils up to a height ol 35 fl
This table Is based oo ASCIS8 7 Tuble 15.41 and is t11printed wl1ll permission fllJm ASCE

'.,

J-62

GENER.Al. DESIGN CONSIDEAAnONS

PART2

Table 1-9b

ANALYSIS

.:. Design Coefficients and Factors


for Nonbuilding ,Structures Similar
.
to Buildings0

.:: ..

2.1 SCOPE ........................................................... 2-2

Response
Mod.
Coeff.,

Nonbuilding Strueture Type

Steel Storage racks

Structural System Limitations


Over Odlectlon
lnduding Structural
stnngth
Amp.
Height Limits, h,,. In ft'
. Factor,
F2ctor,
Seismic Design Category

n.

Cd

3''2

NL

Nl

NL

Nl

Nl

2.2

ROL~ OP S~RU~ ANALYSIS IN DESIGN

.... .. 2-

Ductile Design Mecharusm ........................................... 2-.. ...


Capacity Design .................................................... 2-3

I
li

2.3 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES .......................................... 2Elastic Inelastic and Plastic Analysis ................ ........... ........ 2-1

'

SWlding frame sr.;tems:


Steel special concentrically braced
frames (SCBF)

NL

NL

160

160

100

Steel ordinary cof\Centrically braced


frilmes (OCBF)

31/4

2
2

31/4

NL
NL
NL

NL

J5b

35b

NP

NL
NL

160

160

100

Firs~-Order An~ysis Method ....... '. .. :. 2-

Nl

Analysis Methods m ASCE/SEI 7 and the Direct Analysis Method ............ 2-, .

..

Stability Design Methods in the AlSC Specification : 2-r


Direct Analysis Method ........................ . . : .... . ...... .... .. 2-

Effective Length Method .................. . ..... .. .. ......... . ..... 2-5


21/2
l1/2

Wrth permitted height Increase

With unlimited height

2''2

1'12

m.

NL

Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method : ........ 2-6

Moment-resisting frame sr.;tems:

Steel special moment frames (SMF)


Sieel intermediate moment frames ~MF}
Wrth permitted height Increase
With unlimited height
Steel ordinary moment frames (OMF)
With permitted height Increase
With unlimited height

8
4'12
2112
1112
3''2
2112

5'12

tll

NL

2112

Ph
3
2112

NL

NL

tll

35c.

NP"' r-:pc.

NL

NL
NL
NL

160

160

NL

NL

NL

NL
NL
NL

NL
NL
NL

l'if'C.d

NL NL
NP<.' NP''

100

100

100 NP<.'

NL

NL

NL

Modal Response Spectrum Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method ........ 22.4 STRUCTURAL MODELING .................. , ...................... 2-'.

Strength of Structural Elements .............. .. ...... : ....... : ......... 2-" ,.


Stiffness of Structural Elements ................... . ................... . 2Steel Elements ................. . ........ : . ~: .. . . . ... . ............ . 2~
Composite

Elemen~

......

~. .. .- '.; 2
I

Connections and l'anel Zones ....................................... 2

..

Column Bases and Foundations ..................................... 2-11


Diaphragms for Three-Dimensional Analysis ..... .. ......... : . 2-

Gravity Loads ...... .. ....... . ................... . : ............ . . 2-l


PART 2: : ; :

...

~i.a~~~ ~~~~ ~~~.~~i~ ~'.~t~.~~~.~~-s.:::::::::::


I

1.

' tL = not limited and NP not penritted.


' Slee! onlin8ty blaud trll1* art pelmlt1ed In pipe rac1cs up tD 65 IL
S1eel ordina(y moment frames and lnlennedlale lllOll*lt frames we pMlll:lld In lli&ll racll$ up lo a height of 6S II where Ille
moment joints (II field connet1lons art ~ of bolted encl plateL
Steel dlnaly moment fral1* IN! lntermedlale moment ftam8s are pem.:ted in lliP8 racllS up IO a height of 35 ft.
This tallle is ~on ASCflS8 7 lllllle 15.41 and is repmted Wflll pem'i$$lon lrom ASa..

'

tl
:~~

2-2

ANALYSIS

2.1 SCOPE
This Part provides an overview of the analysis provisions in ASCEJSEl 7, the AISC
Specification, and theAISC Seismic Provisions, and how they are applied to ~ismic design.

2.2 ROLE OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN DESIGN

,.
- --,

~:j
;.~

-;:

The basic role of analysis in seismic design is to provide the engineer with an understanding of the structure's behavior under design earthquakes. In itS most simple fonn, analysis
will consist of simple static linear methods and will provide information on the required
design strength and system deformation under specified loading. For some structures, analysis may include static or dynamic nonlinear methods that provide infoml3tion on tbe
nonlinear deformation of individual elements, patterns of mechanism formation, and tbe
peak demands that can be delivered to individual structural elements and their connections.
The method of analysis selected must as a minimum conform to the requirements of the
applicable buildfog code. Since the results of seismic analysis inherently depend on the
assumed properties of the structural elements, seismic analysis must often be perfonned in .
an iterative manner, initiating with assumed member sizes and configurations, and refined
as member selection is confinned.
Chapter C of the AJSC Seismic Provisions requires that analysis of a structure for strength
design of seismic force resisting components conforms to Lbe applicable building code and
the AISC Specificarion, as well as additional system-level requirements prescribed in the
respective system sections.

Ductile Design Mechanism 1

"
;

''!

design mechanisms. Thus, the design and detailing requirements of the AISC Seismi<
Provisions and ANSUAISC 358 are intended to desensitize the structu(e to earthquake
characteristics so that multiple mechanisms do not lead to undesirable modes of failure.

Capacity Design

<r"-

:~

ANALYSIS PROCED\JRF.S

Sttuctures required to resist the effects of earthquake ground motions should be designed
to allow controlled inelastic, ductile deformations of the system. Accepted design practice
is to limit these inelastic actions to certain components of the seismic force resisting system (SFRS) in order to develop a reliable ductile design mechanism that dissipates energy.
Components of the ductile design mechanism are then designed and detailed to maintain
the structural integrity of the system at.large inelastic deformations. How this energy dissipa:ion occurs depends on the structural system type used as the SFRS. Each SFRS in the
AISC Seismic Provisions includes a "Basis of .D esign" se<:tion that defines the locations
where inelastic actions are intended to occur. Accordingly, the provisions in ASCEISEl 7,
the AISC Specification, the AISC Seismic Provisions, and ANSI/AISC 358 are intended to
worktogether to ensure that the resulting frames can undergo controlled deformations in a
ductile manner and !hat those defonnations are distributed throughout the frame. Clearly
identifying the intended ductile design mechanism will provide insight oo which aspects of
lhe stn1ctural model may need detailed consideration. Many of the ductile design mechanisms shown in Part I were identified from structural behavior at large deformations from
nonlinear static analyses using lateral forces that approitimate the fundamental elastic
mode shape. Real structures in eanhquakes exhibit variability in the formation of ductile
1

The tenn, duclile design mechanism, is hnellded to c;aptW'C all possible system-specific mechanisms !hat

are di9CUSS<:d in the AJSC S<ismic Pro)'isions.

Capacity design is a design philosophy wherein inelastic actions under strong ground
motion are presumed to be concentrated in predetermined critical zones of the SFRS. The
AISC Seismic Provisions employs this methodology by stipulating that the required
strength of certain elements of 1l1e SFRS be defined by forces corresponding to the expected
capacity (based on available strength) of certain designated yielding members. The adjacent
nonyielding members and connections are then protected be.cause they are designed to
remain nominally elastic regardless of the magnitude of ground shaking; in essence. these
protected componenL<i are designed to be insensitive to lhe characteristics of the earthquake,
ensuring that the desired ductile design mechanisro(s) can develop. See AISC Seismic
Provisions Commentary Section A3.l.
ASCE/SEI 7 addresses the concept of capacity design by using a system O\'erstrength factor, 0 0 (see Part 1). ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4 modifies some of the basic load combina1fons
to address load conditions where the overstrength factor is required, but does not explicitly
provide guidance on application to steel frames. The AISC Seismic Provisions explicitly prescribe where to apply the overstrength factor or, altem:itively, an estimated maximum
seismic load detennined from a capacity design analysis outlined in the respective chapter
for each SFRS.
In many instances, ASCE/SEI 7 and the AJSC Seismic Provisions explicitly prescrib
when amplified seismic loads are to be used. Amplified seismic loads are defined u;
/
ASCE/SEI 7 as
(ASCE/SEI 7 Eq. 12.4-5
and 12.4-6)

where
'\
EmJi =DcQ.e =horizontal seismic load effect including overstrength factor
Oq = overstrength factor as defined in Tables 12.2-1 , 15.4-l and 15.4-2 of ASCE/SE! 'J
Q =effect of horizontal seismic (eanhquake-induced) force~

E,

=vertical seismic load effect

The load effect, Em11, is based on code-specified loads and the codespecified overstrengtl;
factor. However, the AISC Seismic Provisions sometimes redefines E,,,h as the forces resul
ing from the e;i;pected strengths of the designated yielding members of the SFRS.

2.3 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


To determine the required strength of structural steel systems, members snd connectio
AISC Specification Section B3.l pennits design forces to be determined by elastic, inci
tic or plastic analysis. Note that AISC Specifi.carion Appendix 1, Inelastic Design, is
intended for sejsm.ic design. For a discussion of the application of the AISC Specificath ;
AISC Seismic Provisions, and ASCEJSEI 7 in seismic analysis. see Nair et al. (201 l ).
AM.llkJCAN INs-ITTIJTll Of' STCEL CONSTl<VCTION

ANALYSIS

While non-SFRS' members and connections may be analytically assun1ed not to re:sist
horizontal ground motion (i.e., pQE from ASCE/SEI 7), they must be reliable in resisting
the vertical inertial forces induced by vertical ground motion (i.e., 0.2SDsD from ASCFJ
SEI 7). Non-SFRS members must also be designed to ensure defonnation compatibility at
large lateral displacements to maintain structural integrity of the structure. Equally, the
destabilizing effect that non-SFRS framing Cl\11 have on a stn1crure (e.g., leaning column
effects) must be addressed in the analysis and design of the stabilizing SFRS. The SFRS also
consists of diaphragms, chords and collectors.

Elastic,
In.elastic and Plastic_Analysis

.> :.
j

Elastic seismic analysis procedures in ASCFJSEI 7 reduce the seismic response by a factor
of l/R, where R is the response modification coefficient. The intent of this reduction is to
target the elastic response at the onset of the first significant yield (e.g., plastic hinge in a
beam or compression buekling of a brace). Consequently, inelastic or plastic analysis as
outlined in Append.ix I of the AISC Specification is not permitted for detennining the component design forces . from seismic effects-see the AISC Specificatio11 Commentary
to Appendix 1' for further discussion. Therefore, analytical consistency with the AlSC
Specification and the AISC Seismic Provisions is primarily maintained using an elastic
analysis procedure. Although a .nonlinear response history analysis is permitted; it is not
commonly used. to determine =member design forces, but as an assessment tool to judge
acceptance of a design: In spedfic cases, a nonlinear static analysis may be used to capture
the nonlinear ela..-tic'response of a component or coru1ection, such as when rotational springs
are tlsed to represent partially restrained connections.
AISC Specification OU.pter C requires that a rigorous second-order analysis be used to
detennine .the required strengths of components using the appropriate load combinatiollS.
The analysis must include consideration of certain effects that can influence the stability
of th~ ~tiucture and its elements, inciucling second order effects (both P-6 and P-o).
AdditjoiJal discussion can be found in Wilson and HabibuUah (1987), White and Hajjar
(1991), and Geschwindner (2002). There are different methods by which to address second-order effects, in~luding iterative or pqniterative solutions with either stationary or
incremental loading. For example, som~ computer programs use a vertical load combination in conjunction with the approximate geoJ?etric stiffness matrix to reduce the structural
stiffness to account for geometric nonlinearities. The resul~g structural stiffness from this
initial analysis is used for all subsequent load analyses (e.g., dead, live, lateral). This
method~ advantageous as it allows superposition-of individual Joad effects because the
stiffness is held constant. This approach typically captures only the P-A effect, and P-o is
either neglected or approximated by segmenting membe!'S into two or more sections. Some
programs can iterate by ramping the gravity loads in conjunction with the geometric stiffness matrix to more ac_curately capture the change in system stiffness d~ring eacp load step.
Lateral loads can then be iterated by ramping them so rhat the analysis captures the additional changes to the system stiffness during each step. In this melhod, superposition of
individual load effects is not appropriate and the vertical loads would therefore need to be
in~luded in lhe anaJysis.

With reference to seismic analysis, the structural stiffoess is constant (reduced based on
an initial analysis) when using the ASCEJSEI 7 modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA)

ANALYSlS PROCEDURES

to determine the total lateral seismic forces and linear response bist0ry analysis. The results
of these analyses are I.hen combined wiih other load effecLs based on the same reduced stifJ
ness. Th.is procedure is not applicable to a nonlinear response ti.me history analysis as tl"
structural stiffness would need to be updated at each time step based on all Joad effects
included juthe analysis.

.
Gravity loads should be ~eluded in the seismic analysis i'n order to accurately addre!
second-order effects, including the destabilizing effect generated by oon-SFRS framing, anu
the effect of these loads on the periods of a structure. A three-dimensional mathematical
model can be developed that captures all loading conditions or, in the case of a two-dime[
sional analysis, an ancillary P-Delta column, as a minir~um, can be .modeled as a substiru1
for the gravity (non-SFRS) framing system. The P-Delta column is commonly modeled to
provide no lateral stiffness to the SFRS, but could be calibrated to provide the same stiffne~~
as that provided by che gravity system.
As an alternative to a rigorous second-order analysis, second order effects can be approx
imated by amplifying the axial forces and moments in members and connections from
a first-order analysis through an approximate second-order analysis outlined in AIS
Specification Appendix 8. The provisions for performing th.is amplified first-order analys;
were developed on the basis of elastic theory and are not appropriate for inelastic analysis.

t:
..;
"

!
!i'.
::

I
I.

l
:;

Stability Design Methods in the AISC Specification


The AISC Specification outlines three stabiliiy design methods and corresponding elastic
analysis requirements (see Table 2-2 in the AISC.Manu.al) as follows:

Direct analysis method (AlSCSpeci.ficacion Sections C2 'a!id C3)


Effective fength method (AISC Specification Append.ix 7, Section 7.2)
First-order.analysis method (AISC Specification Appendix 7, Section 7.3)

ea~h ~ese meth~s sei~mic

~iscu:.

L
f{

l'

The use of
of
in
desigri is explained in the following
.,i
sions. Additional information on eachof.themethods can be found in the Commentary to"

It

the applicable sections in the AISC sp.rification.

Direct Analysis Method

Provisions for the direct analysis method (DM) are outlined in AlSC Specification Sectior
C2 and C3. This analysis procedure is permitted for all steel structures and is require t;:
when t.he ratio of ma.'timum second-order drift to maximum first-order drift, whlch can be''
taken as B2 inf\ppendix 8 using nominal stiffness properties, exceeds i.s. The PM requir"
!;'~Delta effects to be considere~ eitbe_.r
thro9gb a second~order elastic analysis 1
through an amplified fust-ord,er analysis:
.
: : :~

l
ii.

dueetly

Effecthfe Length Method

1~

- . . for the euecuve


"
., l ength me thod (ELM) are ou t1ined in
. AlSC 'SpeciijicallOd~
.
Prov1s10ns
Appendi.:< 7, Section 7 .2. When permitted by Section 7 .2.1, the.re are no deviations from the
elastic analysis provisions in ASCFJSEI 7. The ELM addresses P-Delta effects ejtti,
directly through a second-order elastic anaiysis or through an amplified first-order analysi .... J

~.

AM.EJUCAN l!<STTIUJ'E OF STE:a CONSTRUCl10N

....t"
~'

26

ANALYSTS

ln the ELM procedure, interaction between frame behavior an<l tha1 or its members is
approxirnoted by the effective length factor, K. This factor i~ used 10 reprc-<ent the influence
of the system on the ~irength of ao individual member. Wbere the flexural stiffness of a column is considered to contribute co the lateral stability and resistance co lateral loads, K for
that member is detennined from a sidesway buckling analysis. AJtemativcly, the effective
length factor may be computed using the alignment charts as discussed in detail in the
Commentary to AlSC Specification Appendix 7. It is permitted to use K 1.0 for design for
compression effects 1f 82 S I. I.

First-Order Analysis Method

..

.,;

l~
111

ti
:

::

:"""
1
,,
I.

~:

"f:
1.

:.

Provisions for the first-order analysis method (FO~i) are outHned in AISC SpecificaJion
Appendix 7, Section 7.3. With this approach, second-order effects are captured through the
application of an additional lateral load equal to at least 0.42% of the story gravity load
applied in eac~ load case. No further second-order analysis is necessary. 1nc required
strengths arc taken as lhe forces and moments obtained from the analysis and the effective
length factor is K = 1.0.

Analysis Methods in ASCE/SEI 7 and the Direct


Analysis Method
ASCE/SEl 7 Section 12.6 outlines three seismic a11alytical procedures as follows:
Equivalent lateral force analysis (ELF) (ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.8)

Modru response speccrurn annlysis (MRSA) (ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.8)


Seismic response hiStory procedures, linear and nonlinear (ASCE/SEI 7 Chapter 16)
Detailed information can be fouod in tbe conuncntary to Section 12.6 of ASCE/SEI 7 and
in the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures
(FE.\lA, 2009a). The foJiowing discussion summarizes the ELF and MRSA analysis methods and how they relate to the direct analysis method of the AlSC Specification.

Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis and the Direct Analysis Method


The provisions for the OM are consistent with the elastic analysis provisions given in ASCE/
SEJ 7 Section 12.8 for the ELF, provided th& the following conditions are maintained
throughout lhe analysis:
The mathemsticaJ model for analysis considers :ill fonns of deformation of the structural component$, including stiffness reductions and geometric imperfections in
accordance with AJSC Specijicaticn Chapter C. The stability coefficient, 9, will generally limit Bz to less than 1.7, permitting geometric imperfections to be neglected in the
analys.is for seismic load combinations. Consequently, notional loads should be applied
in 1he tnllthematical model for gravity-only load combinations (if 1he same model is
used) in lieu of mOdeling the out-of-plumbness by shi(ting work points.
The fundameo~l period of the structure. T. is limited lo T0 or C,,T,, if T 1s computed
by :maJyticru methods. lf the computed value for Tis Jess than C,,T0 then T is used as

AJllEJUCAI( f~ OJ' Srm. CONSTIUJCTION

STRUCTURAL MODELING

, .."

the fundament.11 period fhis is because T., has been statistically derived from actual
build mg ~pon.ses the1efore capturing all influential factocs. See ASCE/SEI 7 Section
12.9.4. .
Forces and deformations resulting from analysis with seismic forces reduced by
factor of 1/R, where R is the response modification coefficient. include second-order
effects either through a second -order analysis, an amplified first-order analysis, or .
hybrid combiO;lltOO of the two methods, independent of the Stabilily C<.'Cflicient, 0, in
ASCEISEJ 7
The A lSC SpecijicaJicm and the AlSC Seismic Provisions deal directly with strength
&!sign of members and connections Verification of seismic drift limits and potential postearthquake iostabiUty are nddressed 10 the spplicable building code. As such. some of the.
provisions for lbe DM arc not direcily applicable for a drift ana.lysis. However, they can Iii.:
conservatively appUed for dnft anal)~is.
Other methodologies for applying the OM have been proposed by Nair et al. (2011).

Modal Response Spectrum Analysis and the Direct


Analysis Method
The provisions for lhe OM are consistent wilh elastic analysis provisions in ASCE/SEJ 7 for
.MRSA, provided that tbe following conditions are maintained throughout tJ1e analysis:
All lhe requirements fated previously for the ELF are maintained.
Forces and drifts are ~caled as required by ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.9.4. Note that
used in this ~caliog is limited as discussed previously for the ELF.
The same procedure is followed in regards to a drift analysis. Though the scaling of drifts
is not required unless assigned to n certain seismic design category, allowable drift limits
and stability provisions of ASCE/SEl 7 are applicable.

2.4 STRUCTURAL MODELING


A mathematical model used for structural analysis is simply an interpretation of wbat co~
figuration of components, mechanical characteristics, and mass distn"bution is signific11r1
to the distribution of force:; and deformations in the syslCm. Models can be simple (such ::.'I
a tw<r<limensional fi.niie element model based on centerline dimensions) or highly sophi~
cllted (such as a lhree-<limcnsionaJ continuum model that can explicitly caprure materi<
nonlinearity and buckling). Both strength and stiffness are required to characterize the
mechanical properties of a compoocnL

Strength of Structural Elements


The strength of structural elements is typically nol a modeling consideration for elasr;.
analysis. Jnfonnntion on modeling component strengths for nonlinear dynamic analysis c
be found in NCJV (2010), Oeterleio ct al. (2010), PEER (2010), PEER/ATC (2010), FE:.
(2009b), nod ASCE (2006).

Z.-8

ANALYSIS

STRUCTURAL MODELING

Stiffness of Structural Elements


AlSC Seismic Provisions Chapter C states that stiffness properties of components for an
elastic analysis should be based on lhe elastic sections and lhat the effects of cracked sections shall be considered for composite components. AJSC Specification Chapter C and the
commentary to AISC Seismic Provisions Chapter C give recommendations for effective
stiffness vaJues to be used in analysis.

(2- 1)

..

I.

where
E, = modulus of efastkity of steel, ksi

ho
As

= l,+A,(YENA-d3'f '+(f,Q,,IF1 )(2d3+d1 -Ym-.)2 , in.4


=area of st~! cross section, in.2

(Spec. Eq. C-13- 1)

'EQ,. =sum of the nominal shear strength of steel anchors between the point of maximum

Steel Elements
The stiffness properties of steel beams, columns and braces used in lhe mathematical model
will depend upon the stability design method selecfed and, potentially, the magnitude of
slmining the member undergoes. Reduced stiffness for all members contributing to the lateral stabifay of the structure is required when using the DM to determine design forces. It
is important to note that the stiffness reduction tenns in the DM include a component representing material nonlinearity (e.g., accounting for residual srresses) and a component
reprcsencing member out-of-straightness and other uncertainties. Conseque.nLly, stiffness
reduction is separated inro a load-dependent factor and load-independent factor, complicating ii$ direct application to dynamic analysis.
Research has deinonstr:ued that residual strbsses have a lesser effect on shear stiffness
than flexural siiffness. For sunplibty; the shear modulus. a, can be reduced in proportion to
the reduction in the modulus of elasticjty, E, with no further reduction to account for axial
load effects.
It is common to model steel &earns that are part of the SFRS without composite action
because the reliability of the composite ~tiffness at large inelastic deformations is questionable due to the potential for failure of steel headed stud anchors. If composite action is taken
into account. the following applicable effects should be considered.

Composite Elements
The stiffness properties of steel members acting compositely with concrete should include
the following applicable effects: concrete cracking of the section, steel reinforcement ratio,
section configuration, material properties. of the concrete, and variations of these factors
along the member length. The flexural stiffness, Eleff, and a.-tial stiffness, E.Aeff based on a
transfonned cracked section analysis (that also accounts for variations along the member
length) should be "1Sed in lieu of EI and EA in all analysis methods. Recommendations are
provided in AISC Seismic Provisions Chapter C Commentary based on ACI 318 prov is.ions.
For steel beams with a composite slab, composite action can be included where the slab
and shear connection to the beam have been designed and detailed to provide acceptable
behavior (see Commentary to Chapter G in the AISC $eismic Provisions). For concrete.encased steel beams and beams acting compositely with a concrete slab, a plastic stress
distribution corresponding to tbe ultimate nominal strengths of each component can be
used to compute a lower-bound elastic moment of inertia, Tu. For a steel beam with a composite slab in a moment frame with double curvature bending, the effective flexural
stiffness. Eltff can be taken as lbe average of the stiffness in the positive and negative bending regions, as follows:

positive moment and the point of zero moment to either side, ldp$
=moment of inertia of steel cross section, in.4
YE.~ =distance from bottom of the steel section to the elastic neutral axis, in.
,;, [A,d3 + (T.Q,,IF1)(2d3 + d 1)]/(A, + (I:Q,./F1)J, in.
(Spec. Eq. C-13-2)
di =distance from the compression force in the concrete to the top of the steel section,
in.
=distance from the resultant steel tension force for fulJ section tension yield (P1 =

1,

b~A:: ::st:::~:: :~::~:~on,

lu,
t:
is recommended in lieu of 75% of
AISC Specification Chapter I commentary), wher~

1,~uiv

(see

(Spec. Eq. C-B-4)

t\

li

where
c1 =compression force in concrete slab for fully composite beam; smaller of A1F1 and I
0.85fc'Ac. kips
~
4
lrr =moment of inertia for the fuiJy composite uncracked cransfonned section, in.
AISC Seismic Provisions Commentary Chapter G discusses limitations on using partially
composire beams in certain composite systems.
The flexural stiffness of composite columns and braces (encased or filled) can be taken
as E/,_qprescribed in AISC Specificati~n Chapter I. The axiafstiffness can be taken as

EAJ =E A$+CJEcA.:
1

(2-2)

l!

.l

where
Ac= area of concrete slab within the effective width. in.2
Ee= modulus of e_lasticity ?f concrete, ksi
c3 = 0.4 for filled sections and 0.2 for encased sections

fquation 2-2 is taken from the LRFD ~pecificationfor Structuraf Steel !311-ildings (AISC 1-.:
2000).
:.,.;

Connections and Panel Zones .

l.

Connections and panel zones can contribute significantly to the overall l::iteral flexibility o
a system and the resulting deformations are required to be addresse<I in the analysis for
det.erminiog the distn'Dution of design forces and story drifts. In modeling moment or bracer ,.
frames. the impact of connection size and stiffness should be considered.

~o

..

~,,
~

2.-10

1:f.
:,
"'

ANALYSJS

Research (FEMA, 2000a) has demonstrated that panel zone deformations in steel moment
frames can have significant impact on earthquake-induced lateral drift. However, modeling
framing using center line-to-center line dimensions for the framing clements can approximate the effects of panel zone flexibility reasonably well for elastic analysis (see Figure
2-1 ). Zero-stiffness end offsets may be modeled to analytically provide forces at the panel
zone faces but not influence the periods of vibration. AJtematively, panel zone models that
include web doubler plates and continuity plates CAil be explicitly modeled or implicitly
included by modeling partially rigid end offsets. fully rigid offsets alone should not be
assumed to be the only source of panel zone stiffness (fsai and Popov, 1990). Several panel
zones models are illustrated in FEMA 355C (FEMA, 2000a).
.Explicit connection modeling by rotational springs is penuitted when based on analytical
and experimenml test data. Such an approach may be warranted when accounting for I.he
effects of panially restrained connections or other mechanical characteristics of a connection such as bolt slip. Alternatively, beams can be modeled with an equivalent flexural
stiffness, Eltff
Beams with reduced beam se.ctions (RBS) can be addressed by physically modeling a
prismatic or parabolic tapered section at the RBS location. If a prismatic section is used, one
possibility is to take the moment of inertia at the outer edge of the center two-thirds of the
RBS (ANSJ/AISC 358 Chapter 5). The flange width, ht.RBS is:

,..

f:"
.;~
,~.

~~:

~~:;

b1.~s =2(R- c)+b1 -2JR -(~J


2

L~

(2-3)

=center-to-center length

dJ2
c
E

~'. .llll

------. ~: 1

End offset
Zero rigidity; Flexible length
Full rigidity: Flexible length

= L,,

= 4- d~ 1

:,.

,. .,

~
~

Anal ca1 beam

~:.

!,

>
",

Actual beam

1,~'<

Actual panel zone

!1
~;

::
;.

:
;
>:
~:

'

J
1

Assumes same column depth at both ends of beam

Fig. 2-1. Modeling end offse1s aJ panel Z.Orn!S.

2.- l !

STRUCTURAL MODEJ...JNG

where

4c 2 +b 2

8c
"" radius of cut from ANS VAISC 358 Figure 5.1

This approach may be counteracted by neglecting composite action with the concrete
slab between protected zones. It is also common not to explicitly model the RBS and to use
either an Eleff for the berun or simply to amplify the elastic story drifts to account for thl!
reduced stiffness, as shown in .Example 4.3.1 of this Manual. Additional infom1a1ion on
steel moment frames can be found in ANSUAJSC 358, FEMA 350 (FEMA, 2000b), and
NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 2 (Hamburger et al., 2009). For composite
frames, the effects of cracking on the beam-to-column joint stiffness should be included.
A common question regarding connection deformations in braced frames is whether the
ends of a brace should be considered as a moment resisting or pinned connection. The
answer will depend on lhe gusset connection detailing. Fundamentally, a brace-end _connec
rion at a beam-to-column joint or at a beam interior segment can be assumed pin ri~-1
out-of-plane and fixed in-plane, because the out-of-plane stiffness of the gusset plate is si5 nificantly smaller than the in-plane stiffness.
.
Similar to beam-to-column joints in moment frames, partially restrained end zones c
ancillarv stub members can be modeled at the ends of braces to represent the increased inplane.fl~xural stiffness provided by the gusset"conne.ctions. The flexural stiffness at these
sectio~s typically ranges from 2 to 4 times that of the~ brace. The beam-to-column connection where a brace member intersects can be modeled as a fully restrained connection:
oilierwise the connection can be modeled as a simple connection depending on project specific requirements. Additional infonnation concerning steel braced frames c~ be found in
NCJV (2010) and Carter (2009).
AISC Design Guide 20, Steel Plate Shear Walls (Sabelli and Bruneau, 2006) provides
information regarding modeling practices for special plate shear walls. For composite constniction, the effects of cracking on the beamte>-columrrjoint stiffness should be included.
I

Column Bases and Foundations


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.7 states that for the purpose of detemUning seismic loads, t~i:
structure can be considered fixed at the base. That is, the base where seismic motions ar~
introduced into the structure is globally restrained horizontally, vertically and rotationally
about the horizontal axes. Altema1ively, flexibility of the supporting soil (inclucling defor
mations of the foundation components) or soil-structure interaction may be included. The
theoretical derivation of soil-structure interaction effects was developed on the basis of a
rigid foundation. Therefore, support flexibility and soil-structure interaction cannot ~
applied concurrently.

of
the
supporting
soil
is
co,mmonly
modeled
using
soil
springs
assum.in~
-~ ''
flexibility
foundation component is rigid. Alternatively, foundation components may be exp1Jc1t1
modeled to address their flexibility. For nonlinear resp'.onse history analysis, soil sprir.
should directly model the nonlinear behavior of the supporting soil.
Column base modeling is a function of frame mechanics, detailing and rigidity of 1',
foundation components, and is 001 related to the global restraint of the seismic base. Parti;~.
restrained base models may be used to more accurately capture rotational characterL~. ;,

2-12

STRUCTURAL MODELING

ANALYSIS

Diaphragms for Three-Dimensional Analysis


Diaphragms, chords, collectors and associated elements distribute seismic forces to the

diaphragm as rigid, semi-rigid or flexible depending on its in-p130e stiffness. A diaphragm


made up of a composite slab can be modeled as rigid when the diaphragm's span-to-depth
ratio is 3 or less in structures with no horizontal irregularities. This assumption simplifies
calculations because the diaphragm moves as a rig.id body about the center of rigidity of a
given story and the total mass can be assumed to be lumped at the' cemer of mass.
Alternatively, a semi-rigid diaphragm explicitly models the diaphragm's in-plane stiffness. In
either model, lateral forces are distributed to the various SFRS in proportion to their relative
elastic lateral stiffness and distance from the center of rigidity: For flexible diaphragms, an
SFRS is assumed to resist forces proportional to lbe mass that is tributary to the SFRS.
Diaphragm slabs can be modeled using either membrane or shell elements. In-plane stiffness reduction factors should be applied t.o account for cracking of the concrete and other
factor~,that decrease 1be stiffness of the diaphragm. Membranes differ .from shells in that
mem?ranes do not provide out-of-plane or rotational stiffness which c an increase the computational demand and the flexural stiffness at joints. Howe,er, membrane.edges have to be
supponed by framing.
The_axial forces developed in horizontal members on a given floor ai=e dependent on lhe
in-plane stiffness of the diaphragm model assigned to that floor. Caution should be exercised in as~igning diaphragm models where horizontal members are designed to transmit
or redistribut~ seismic forces to and between SFRS. In many ~es, these members are
requir~d to be designed !or amplified seismic loads including the overstrenglh factor:
and thereby, are intended to remain essentially elastic.
.
.
A rigid diaphragm model prevents relative fo-plane movemenc between nodes on a given
floor. Thus, axial forces will not develop in horizontal members connected to the diaphragm,
inhibiting the design of members that tiansmit forces to or between SFRS or chords of a
vertical truss spanning between levels (e.g., outriggers). The effect of this node lock will
increase forces carried by diagonal members between diaphragms. Alternatively, a semirigid diaphragm can be modeled. A disadvantage of this model is that the magnitude of lhe
axial force 1n a horizontal member wjll depend on the in-plane stiffness at the node and how
the diaphragm is modeled along the length of that member.
. Another alternative is to release nodes from the diaphragm constrrunt. This may also
include restructuring the extents of the rigid diaphragm so rhat a core area is a rigi<t
_ diaphragm and the suri-ouncling areas are semi-rigid based on srnictural properties as~igned
to the dfaphragm system.

lt is possible to mO<)el the diaphragm by decoupling a three-dimensional structure into


multiple two-dimensional analyses where lateral forces are applied as point forces at nodes
or as uniform or triangular distributed loads along horizontal members. Capturing the
required magnitude of the axial force io a three-dimensional analysis can be more challenging as zero to very low stiffness diaphragm models can lead to increases in P-6 forces

no,

1.

transferred to the SFRS and/or modeling errors. It is recommended that lhe analys1 perfo~
a parametric study wilb various diaphragm assignments and assemblies 10 determine ti
most efficient model 10 adequately capture a re3Sonable esrimate of the diaphragm behavi .
and required axial force.

of base plate connections based on e)(perimental results. Alternatively, pinned bases may be
modeled to account for connection, foundation and sou flexibility, although lhe column base
may be detailed to be fixed to the foundation component.

SFRS. The diaphragm model used in analysis should rea listically model the diaphragm's inplane stiffness and the distribution of lateral forces. ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.3.l classifies a

2-

.
'

' I

~I

Gravity Loads

't.
::

"

All gravity loads should be modeled in the analysis in order to accurately address sccondorder effecis and to capture the distribution of gravity load effects on vertical force-resisti.
members. A mathematical model is commonly analyzed as a fully constructed, cohes1
structure for each load effect or load combination. This practice is not, however, consistenl
with how a structure is built, where some load effects are distributed based on constructi""
sequence. This is particularly true for the distribution of self-weight in braced frames a
strucrures with outriggers or hat trusses where installation of diagonal members may ~
completed after the surrounding framing and floor system is constructed and at differem
story elevations. ~n _the latter case, dead load eff~cts created during construction in _exten j::
vertical force-rcs1strng members can be underesumated because these members can JO eff, ::
hang from the stiffer outrigger/truss system in the analysis, increasing the forces in the i.nte
rior vertic~I suppo~ syste~. Si~ilarl~, _gravi.ty effects can be distributed to diagonal braces\".
in proportion to lhe11 contnbuuon to JOtOt stiffness.
,
For cases when the distribution of dead load effects is a concern, a staged constrocti
analysis can be performed. In its fundamental form, the mathematical model of a complete
system is broken down in10 assemblies, commonly story levels. and the. analysis wi!l inc- 1
mentally add each group and superimpose the results onto the previous analysis. C: ;'.
should be exercised when gravity effects produce sway and when geometric imperfection .
are included in the analysis (by either method discussed previously) as a staged analysis cannot handle sway of different assemblies and superposit~on must b~ applica~le. Alternative
some analysis programs allow the analyst to automatically not mclude diagon~ memb
during the gravity lond analysis. Though this is more related to analysis than modeling, a,
altemative modeling technique wou~d be to provide axial force releases in the diagor ~t
members for 1be gravity load analysis~In these cases, the method used to address geome1
nonlinearities within the analysis program is of critical importance, and this will dictm
which technique can be used. Another consideration is clifferentjal settlement of vertic
force-resisting systems under dead load effects.

l:
r

Gravity Loads in Diagonal Braces and Special


Plate Shear Walls

l
I

,,;

The AISC Seismic Provisions stipulate that the gravity forces be neglected in braces :;:
buckling-restrained braced frames and web plates in special plate shear walls. These provisions are intended 10 restrict the use of SFRS components that are required to uissip
significant amounts of energy by i~elastic actions to simultan~ously . provide s~clt . ;
integrity of lhe structure under gravny loads. Many of the capacity design analysis pro' .
sions have been developed based on this concept.
This approach can be a concern for complex structures that ~ontain pu~_seJy slope<.
stepped non-SFRS columns or where diagonal braces are required to stabilize a struct .,.
that undergoes sidesway from gravity loads (e.g., sloping siructural system) or are require-

f.

" ANAJ..Y))lS

to directJy participate in carrying gravity loads (e.g., diagrid system). A lhtee-<limeo~ional


nonlinear dynamic analysi~ may be necessary to verify the seismic perfonnance of complex
structures. lf lateral support for other load effeclS is provided by an ancillary non-SFRS
back-up system, it should not be excluded from the mBthematical model used for seismic
analysis.

PART 2

R.EFH~<.:I~

PART 2 REFERENCES
AJSC (2000), Load and Rt!sistanu Factor Design Specification for Structural Stu/
Buildings, Amencan Jnsutu1c of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

ASCE (2006), St!isrnic Rt!IUJbilrtarion of Existing Buildings, ASCE41-06. American Society


of Civil Enginee~. Restoo, VA.

Carter. C.J. (2009). ''Origins of R =3," Proceedings of1hc 2009 Structures Congress. ASCE,
Austin. TX. April 30 May 2, 2009, pp. 1-10.
Deierlein, G.G . Rcinhom, A.M. and Willford, M.R. (2010), ''Nonlinear Strucrural Analysu
for Seismic Design," NIST GCR 10-917-5, .NEHR.P Seismic Design Technical Brief No.
4, N'EHRP Consultants Joint Venture_ pannership of the Applied Technology Council and
the Consortium of Uoiversillcs for Research in .Earthquake Engineering, National
Institute of Standards and Technology. Gaithersburg, MD.
FEMA (2000a), Stott! of thl! Art Report 011 Sysums Performance of S1eel Moment Framu
Subject to Eanhquak.e GroWJd Shaking, fEMA 355c, prepared by the SAC Joint Venture
for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.
FEMA (2000b), Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel Moment-Frame

Buildings, Fa.IA 350, Federnl Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.


FEMA (2009a). NEHRP Rt!commended Seismic Pro\'ision.s for New Buildings and Othtr
Structures, FEMA P-750, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

FE.MA (2009b), Quantification of Building Seismic Perfomwnce Factors, FEMA P-695.


Federal Emc:rgency Management Agency. Washington, DC.
Geschwindncr, LF. (2002), "A Practical Approach to Frame Analysis, Stability and Leaning
Columns," Enginuring lounUJI, AISC, Vol. 39, No. 4, 4th Quaner, pp. 167-181.
Hamburger, R.O , Kra1,1,inlcJcr, H., Malley. J.O. and Adan, S.M. (2009), "Seismic Design of
Steel Special Moment Frames: a Guide for Practicing Engineers," NIST GCR 09-917-3,
NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 2, NEHR.P Consultants Joint Venture, part
nership of che Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of Universities for
Research in Earthquake Engineering, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD.

..

...

..

Nair, S., Malley, J.O. and Hooper, J.D. (2011), "Design of Steel Buildings for Earthquake
and Stability by Application of ASCE 7 and AISC 360," Engineering loumal, AlSC, Vol.
48, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 199-204.
NCJV (2010), faa/11ation of the FEMA P-695 Merltodclogy for Quantification of Buildin.~
Seismic Perfonnance Facton, NIST GCR 10-917-8, NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture,
partnership of the Applie4,I Technology Council and l.he Consortium of Universities for
Research in Eariliquakc Engineering, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Gaithersburg, MD.

PEER (2010), Seismic Design GuuJelinesforTall Buildings, Pncific Earthquake Enginci;.;;ng


Research Center, Unjversity of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

AMEIUCAN .l Nsrm.m! OP Srw. O:lNSTRVCTION

2.-16

ANALYSIS

PEER/ATC (2010). Modeling and Acceptance Criteria for Seismic De.sign and Analy.sit of
Tait Buildings, PEER/ATC 72-1 Report, Applied Technology Council, Redwood Ci1y.
CA, October.

Sabelli, R. and Bnineau, M. (2006), Srtel Plate Shear Walls. Design Guide 20, AlSC.
Chicago, IL.

PART3

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFICALLY DETAILED FOR


SEISMIC RESISTANCE

Tsai, K.C. and Popov. E.P. (1990}, "Seismic Panel Zone Design Effect on Elastic Story Drift
lJl S1ecl Frames," Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 116, No. 12, pp.
3235-3301.

3.J SCOPE ...................... . . - - - - 3

White, D. and H~ijar, J. (1991), "Application of Second-Order Elaslic Analysi~ in LRFD:


Research to Practice," Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 28, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp.
l33- 148.

3.2 GENERAL DISCUSSION ............. .. . . . 3


3.3 DESIGN EXAMPLE PLAN AND ELEVATIONS ..... .:. .. . . ..... 3-3.4 MOMENT FR.AMES ...... .. ................ . ......... . ......... ... 3

Wilson. E.L. and Habibullah, A. (1987), "Static and Dynamic Analysis of Multi-Story

Example 3.4.1. Moment Frame Story Drift Check .... -........ -.... - - . :

Buildings Including P-Della Effects," Earthquake Spectra, Earthquake Engineering


Research Institute, Vol. 3, Issue 3.

I
J
-1

Exnmple 3.4.2. Moment Frame Column ~ign . - 3


Exnmple 3.4.3. Momenl Frame Beam Design ............. . . . 3-

Examplc J.4.4. Moment Frame Beam-to-Column Connection Design .. 3-l.3

3.5 BRACED FRAMES ... .. . . 3


faumple 3.5.l. Brace<! Frame Brace Design . ....... . .. . ... ... .. . 3Exarnple 3.5.2. Braced Frame Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 3-2

Example 3.5.3. Braced Frame Brace-10-Bcam/Colurnn Connection Design ... - . 3PART 3 REFERENCES .... . ........ 3-.

I
\

.
I

:<

A MOUC>.N {NSmVl'll OP Srnm. Co.N$TRVCTION

16

ANAl..YSJS

PEER/ATC (2010), Modeling and Acceptance Criteria for Seismic Design and Analy.fis of
Tall Buildings, PEER/ATC 72-1 Report. Applied Tcclmology Council, Redwood City,

CA, October.

Sabelli, R. and Bnineau, M. (2006), Steel Plate SMar Walls, Design Guide 20, AISC,
Chicago, IL.
'

Tsai, KC. and Popov, E.P. (1990), "Seismic Panel Zone Design Effcd on Ela.sue Story Drift
in Steel Frames." Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE. Vol. I 16, No. 12, pp.
3235-3301.
White, D. and Hiljjar, J. (J991), "Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD:
Rese:irch to Practice," Engineering Joumal, AISC, Vol. 28, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp.

133- 148.
Wilson. E.L. and Habibullah. A. (1987), "Static and Dynamic Analysis of Multi-Story
Buildings Including p. Delta EffectS," Earthquake S~ctra, Earthquake Engineering
Research Institute, Vol. 3, Issue 3.

PART3
SYSTEMS NOT SPECI FICALLY DETAILED FOR
SEISMIC RESISTANCE

3.J SCOPE .... . . - . . . .

. ... - . - .. - . - 3

3.2 GENERAL DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 3

3.3 DESlGN EXAMPLE PLAN AND ELEVATIONS ..... :.'. .... .. : . 3-....
3.4 MOMENT FRAMES .. .... .. .......... .' 3

Example 3.4. l. J\fomem Frame Story Drift Check . ................ : 3u:imple 3.4.2. Moment Frame Column Design

3-1

Example 3.4.3. Moment Frame Beam Design ................ 3-

Example 3.4.4. Moment Frame Beam-to-Column Connection Design ..... . . 3-1:


3.S BRACED FRAMES .......... 3- 1
Example 3.5. l. Brace.d Frame Brnc:.e Design ............. . . . 3fuample 3.5.2. Braced Frame Column Design ............... .... 3-2

faample 3.5.3. Braced Frame Brace-10-.Beam/Column Connection Design .... . 3-

PART 3 REFERENCES . . . ............ . 3-.

I
\

'

SVS'J'l:.MS NUT Sl'bUl-lLAL.L.X Ul:. IAlU:.U FOR SEISMIC RESISTAN<.'.il

3.3 DESIGN IDCAMt'l..t. t'l..A.N "

' .. u ~ Vi\J 1ur.:.

3.1 SCOPE
This Pan shows member and connection designs for braced and moment frame systems that
are not specifically detajJed for seismic resistance. Seismic design of the seismic force
resisting system in accordance with the AISC Seismic Provisi<>ns is referred to as "seismic
detailing" by the applicable building code. The systems in this Part are designed according
10 the requirements of the AISC Specification. The SC-Ope s1atement al the front of this
Manual discusses the differentiation between seismic force resisting systems that require
special detailing for seismic resistance and those that do not.

~
,
:

":

3.2 GENERAL DISCUSSION


'
!

t:

___..., rl::::i

Systems requiring structural Steel design in accordance with the AISC Specification only are
addressed in this Part. It is a common misconception that when seismic detailing of lhe seismic force resisting system is not required, there are no other seismic design requirements.
Regardless of the seismic detailing requirements, structures assigned to Seismic Design
Categories B through F are subjec1 ro many other seismic design considerations prescribed
in the applicable building code. For example, ASCE/SEI 7 contains numerous requirements,
such as:

:i:-m
l-'-----1----

,- -,

:r:---.-,.:r:

- - - - - - - - -....

. :J;..:.'----:r:---

_fj i

~ l ---. - -- J_ _ _ _ _ _J.\ _ _ _
_ __J~--' --.

- -------...---- - - ----. -. ..-. -----. --Braced frame investigated


in design examples. For
elevation see Figure 3-3.

Table 12.3-1, Horizontal Structural Irregularities


Table 12.3-2, Vertical Strucrural Irreguiarities
Section 12.4. Seismic Load Effects and Combinations
Section 12.5. Direction of Loading
Section 12.8.4.3. Amplification of Accident:i.1 Torsional Moment
Section 12.10.2, Collector Elements
Section 12.13, Foundation Design

\ _ Moment frame investigated


in design examples. For
elevation see Figure 3-2.

Fig. J.J. Floor plan/or Pan 3 design examples.

2
30'-0"

30'-0

30'--0"

W18x50

W18x50

W18x50

3.3 DESIGN EXAMPLE PLAN AND ELEVATIONS


The following sections consist of design examples for 3 typical building not requiring seismic detailing. See Figure 3-1 for a typical floor plan for this building with composite
flooring. D~ign Examples 3.4. l through 3.4.4 demonstrate the cf.esign of a typical moment
frame for the building. See Figure 3-2 for an elevation of the moment frame. Design
Examples 3.5.l through 3.5.3 demonst:rate the design of 3 typical braced frame for the build
mg. See Figure 3-3 for an elevation of the braced bay.
The code spccilied lo~ng is as follows:
Dftoor
D100f

= 85 psf
=68 psf

~r

=80psf
S
20 psf
Curtain wall 175 lb/fl

=
=

:
t

.'
'

Wtnd loads nre determined according to Chapter 28, Part 2 of ASCE/SEI 7. The assumed
are: 83.Sfo Wmd Speed is 115 miles per hour (3 socood gust), Wind Exposure
Category is B, topographic factor 1(1 is 1.0, 3Jld the bwlding is in Risk Category Il. Required
parametCIS

0Roof
<?

0Foorth
Level

ll

W18x50

W18x50

W18x55

W18x55

..,"'

...~
N

W1Sx50

Third

0Level

0
0

second
Level

N
.....

...

~
~

W18x55

W18x55

~...

ease
Column splk:e
4a- above finished
floof (1YP.)

Fig. 3-2. M~nt frame tW.'Olion for E.xam.ptu 3.4.1, 3.4.2, JA.3 and 3.4A.
For floor plan. stt Figure J-1 .

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFlCALLY DETAILED FOR SEJSMTC RES1STA:.'1CE

strengths from load combinations that include wind loods were shown not to govern over
load combinations that include seismic loads for both the braced frame and the moment
frame. Therefore, wind loads are not included in the design examples in Part 3,.
T he necessary parameters for determining seismic loading are given with each design

example.

~ 1

3.4 MOMENT FRAMES

Because the momeol frame in the following examples does not require seismic detailing.
it is designed in accordance with the provisions of the AlSC Specification.
.
\.:

Example 3.4.1. Moment Frame Story Drift Check


Given:
Determine if the moment frame satisfies the ASCE/SEI 7 seismic story drift requirements.

3.4 MOMENT FRAMES

!:
1

Moment frames resist lateral forces and displacements through flexure and shear in the
beams and coliunos. The necessary restraint must be provided by the moment connections
between the beam and the columns.
Moment frames tend to have larger and heavier beam and column sizes than braced
frames. The increase in member sizes and related co.sts is often accepted lo gain lhe
increased flexibility provided in the architectural and mechanical layout in the structure. The
absence of diagonal bracing members can provide greater freedom in the confilmration of
walls and in the routing mechanical ductwork and piping. Moment frames are ~ften positioned at the perimeter of the structure, allowing maxi.mum flexibility of the interior spaces.
Drift control is required by the applicable building code to help limit da1itage to both the
structural and nonstructural systems.

of

Refer to the moment frame elevation shown in Figure 3-2. The applicable bui]ding cod .:
1
specifies the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for seismic story drift requirements. In ac~rdance wit. .. :
ASCFJSEl 7:
Risk Category: Il
Seismic Design Category: C
Deflection Amplification Factor, Ca. 3
Seismic Importance Factor,/~: 1.0
Allowable Story Drift, !:>a: 0.020hsx

Solutio n:
From a second-order elastic analysis of the structure, the elastic displacement comput'
under strength-level design earthquake forces at each level are:

r f

o~

= t.87 in.

04, = 1.54 in.

8:3, = 1.03 in.


Si, =0.477 in.

2s--0

Roof

I:

I:

OM=O in.

The deflection at level xis:

Fourth

I
I

Level

(ASCFJSEl 7 Eq. 12.8-1

Column splices

48" above finished

N
....

tloOr (typ.)

Third

Tue allowable story drift al level x, from ASCEJSEI 7 Table li.12-1, is:

11 0

Level

~
N

t:
.,.,,;.

=0.020h.u

...~~
~

where
h~ = story height below level

Second

x, ft
~.

level

Between the roof level and level 4:

~
...,.

...

Cd (0,., -o.i,)
1.

Base

Fig. J-3. Braced frome elevation for Examples 3.5. I, 3.5.2 and 3.5.3.

..

\.,~"

3(1.87 in.-1.54 in.)


1.0
=0.990 in.

For floor plan, see Figure 3-J.

t:

fI

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFICALLY DETAILED FOR SEISMIC RE.SlSTANCE

6a

3.4 MOMENT FRAMES

=0.020(12.5 ft)(l2.0 in./fl)


=3.00 in.> 0.990 in. o.k.

LRFD

Between level 4 and level 3:

. ...
~

04 =Cd (84 -03,)

.,

~:
:-:

=0.020(12.5 ft)(I2.0 in.lit)


=3.00 in.> 1.53 in. o.k.

Between level 3 and level 2:

(including the 0.5 load factor on l


permitted in ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3)
from ASCE/SEI 7, this structure is assigned to Seismic Design Category C
(p = 1.0) and SDs = 0.352.
The required strengths of Column CL-1 determined by a second-order analysis including the
effects of P-o and P-a with reduced stiffness as required by the direct analysis method are:

03 =Cd (fo., -fue)

LR.FD

J,

=3(1.03 in.-0.477 in.)


~:
:~-

Aa =0.020(12.5 ft)(l2.0 in./ft)

=3.00 in.> I.66 io.

P.,

v.,

1.0
1.66 in. -

,,.;-:~
-

(1.0+0.14SDs )D+ H +F+O.?pQE

(1.2+0.2SDs)D+p!2+0.5l+0.2S

3(1.54 in.-1.03 in.)


1.0
= 1.53 in.

} '

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

le .

6a

ASD

ASD

=233 kips
35.0 kips

Pa
Va

=165 kips
= 23.4 kips

Muwp =201 kip-ft

Ma top= 131 kip-ft

Mubot=-320 kip-ft

Ma bot =-'210 kip-ft

o.k.

Between level 2 and the base level:


02 =Cd (02, -obe)
I,

= 3(0.477 in.-0 in.)

LO

=1.43 in.
Aa =0.020(14.0 ft)(l2.0 in./ft)
=3.36 in.> 1.43 in. o.k.

There are no transverse loadings between the floors in the plane of bending, and the bean::;
framing into the column weak &Jtis are pin-connected and produce negligible moments.
Solution:
From AISC ManlUll Tabie 2-4, the material properties are as follows:

ASTMA992
F1 =50 ksi
F,. =65 ksi

From AISC Manual Thble 1-1, the geometric properties are as follows:

Comment:
In this case, the member sizes resulted from strength requiremencs. The seismic story drift
requirements do oot always govern the design of moment frames.

Example 3.4.2. Mome nt Frame Column Design


Given:
Refer to Column CL-1 in Figure 3-2. Verify that a W12x87 ASTM A992 W-shape is sufficient to resist the following required strengths between the base and second levels. The
applicable building code specifies the use of ASCE/SEI 7 for calculation of loads.
The load combinations that include seismic effects ru:e:
:

:~

":

W12x87
rx= 5.38 in.

r1 =3.07 in.

Available Compressive Strength of Column CL-1

Because the member is being designed using the direct analysis method, K is taken as 1.0.

KLx

l.0(14.0 ft)(12.0 in./ft)


rx
5.38 ill.
=31.2
KLy J .0(14.0 ft)(12.0 inlft)
-;:; =
3.07 i.n.

=54.7

governs

SYSTEMS Nor SPECIFICALLY DETAJLED .FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

3.4 MOMENT FRAM.ES

From AISC Manual Table 4-J, the available compressive strength is: .

1-------L_RFD
_ _ _ _ _ _- l -_ _ _ _ __A_s_o______
LRFD

ASD

4>cPn =925 kips

Cb=

Cb=

12.5.M......,
2.5MfNJJI +3M,.. +4Ms+3Mc

Pn =616 kips

Available Flexural Strength of Column CL-1


Check the unbraced length for ffex_ure

I:
1

+3(70.8kip-ft)

+3(45.6kip-ft)

+ 4(59.4 kip-ft)+ 3(190 kip-ft)J

+ 4(39.8 kip-ft)+ 3(125 ltip-ft)]

t.

=2.19

From AIS.C Manual Table 3-10, with Lb= 14.0 ft, the availabie flexural strength of
W12x87 is:

Lr=43.lft

Lp<Lb= 14.0ft<L,

Oi, .

= 1,050 kip-ft

LRFD

=13 l kip-ft

M,, t>ct =-210 kip-ft

M(x) = M1op-(M"'P ~Mbi>, )x

.,,(

rn .t) = M10p

=201 kip-ft-(201 Jcip-ft + 320 kip-ft}:c


. 14.0 ft
201 kip-ft-(37 .2 kips):c

jM(x = 3.50 ft) I= MA

jM(x= 3.50 ft) I= M..,

-(31.2 kips)(J.so tt) 1

jM(x =7.00 ft) I= Ms

=I 131 kip-ft

-(31.2 kips)(1.oo tt) 1


=59.4 kip-ft

= 39.8 lcip-ft

=10.5 ft) I= Mc
=1201 kip-ft
-(37.2 kips)(I0.5 ft) I

=190 kip-ft
=320 kip-ft

- (24.4 kips )<1.00 ft)

=I Bl kip-ft
-(24.4 ki.ps)(10.s fl) I
= 125 lcip-ft
= 210 kip-ft

= ~cPn , as detetm.ined previously

=925kips
Pr

jM(x = J0.5 ft) I= Mc

Pc

233 kips
Pc 925 kips
=0.252

fle~ure

~SD

LRFD

jM(x= 7.00 ft) I= Me

= 1201 kip-ft

t~

Using AISC Specification Section HI( c~eck the inte~ction of compression and
Column CL-1, as follows:
\.
_

-(24.4 kips}(3.5ott)1
=45.6 kip-ft

= 70.8 kip-ft

I'

nb

Therefore, the.yieiding limit state governs.

=I 131 kip-ft

= 1201 kip-ft

M; =3~9 ~;~~696 kip-ft

Interaction of Flexure and Compression in Column CL-1

=13 1 kip-ft-(24.4kips)x
Quarter point momenlS are:

j:'.:

'------- ----------''---------- - -- - - .

= 131 ki ft-(131 kip-ft+210 kip-ft)


p14.0 ft .
x

Quarter point moments are:

l_..

Check yielding (plastic moment) limit


state; -~sing AfSC Manual Table 3-2,

QbM1 ;;: 495 kip-ft< l, 050 kip-ft

[Mt"P -l M"') x

=696 kjp-ft,

.
.:
Check yielding (plastic moment) limit
state; using AlSC Manual Table 3-2,

ASD
Ma rop

f.f

l--Qb_A-._1n.:....=_2-.2-0-(4_7_7-ki_p-_ft_)-------l-M-,.-::::-2-.1-9(_3_18- ki-.p-.....:_ft)-----=--

Calculate Cb using AISC Specification Equation Fl -1.

Mu 1op =201 kip-ft


Mwbot =-320 hp-ft

'

ASD

LRFD

Therefore, I.be member js subject to lmral-torsional buckling.

M max

Lp = 10.8 ft

jM(x

i,.

=112.5(210 kip-ftw12.5(210 kip-ft)

=:2.20

From AISC Manual Table 3-2:

12.5M__,
2.5M,._ +3M.., +4Mp +3Mc

=112.5(320 kip-ft)J/12.5(320 kip-ft)

Q,.

3-

Pr= 165 kips


Pc 616 kips
=0.268

Because P,fPc~ 0.2, use AlSC

Because P,!Pc ~ 0.2, use AlSC

Specification Equation Hl- Ia,

Specification Equation Hl-la,

("

Pc "" ~: , as determined previ9usly


=616 kips

in

'

ii

.t

3-10

SYSTEMS N<YT SPECIFICALLY DETAlLEO FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

LRFD

Mry)

320
.i!(
kip-ft + 0) = 0.827
9 495 kip-ft

0.827 < 1.0

=0 kips
v.,
=33.9 kips
M., l<ft =-316 kip-ft

P.,

Pr +
8(Mrx
Mry)
-+
- ::;;1.0

9 Mo:

Pc

Mey

210
o.26s+!(
kip-ft +o)=o 835
9 329 kipft
.
0.835< 1.0

o.k.

o.k.

.i
!

Pa

=0 kips

Va

= 23. l kips

' !

Mat~JI =-212kip-ft

Mel

McL = 58.6 kip-ft


M., nghI = 167 kip-ft

=40.6 kip-ft

Ma ,,,111=106 kip-ft

Solution:

Available Shear Strength of Column CL-7

ASD

LRFD

ASD

P, 8(Mrx+ - :s;J.O
-+Pc 9 Mex Mcy

0.252 +

3.4 MOMENT~

From A1SC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties are as follows:

From AISC. Manual Table 3-2, the available shear strength of a W12x87 is:
ASTMA992

LRFD
.

qi.v,. =193 kips> 35.o kips

Vn 1.0.,, =129 kips> 23.4 kips

-0.k.

F1 =50 ksi

ASD

'

Fu= 65 ksi

o.k.

From AISC .Manual Table 1-1, the geometric properties are as foUows:
The W12x87 is adequate to resist the required strengths gi,en for Column CL- I.

W18x55
d= 18.l in.
r11 = 2.00 in.

Note: Load combinations that do ~~t include seismic effects must also be investigated.

r...,=0.390 in.
J = 1.66 in.4

r1

Sx = 98.3 in.

Assume that the beam flanges are braced at the columns.

Given:
Refer to Beam BM-I in Figure 3-2. Verify that a W18x55 ASTM A992 W-shape is sufficient to resist the following required strengths. The applicable building code specifies the
use of ASCFJSEI 7 for calculation of loads. See the Design Example Plan and Elevation section for code specified loading.
.:

Available Flexural Strength of Beam BM- 1

From AISC Manual Table 3-2:

L,, = 5.90 ft
L,. = 17.6 ft

The load combinations that include seismic effects are:


LRFD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEJSEI 7 Section 124.2.3
(1.2+0.2SDs)D+pQe+0.5L+0.2S

Zx= 112 in.3

h 0 =17.5 in.

Example 3.4.3. Moment Frame Beam Design


4

The limit states of yielding and lateral-torsional buckling are applicable, as given in AISC
Specificaticn Section F2.

ASD

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

.'

(1.0+0. 14Sns )D+ H + F +0.1pQs

(including the 0.5 load factor on l


permitted in ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3)

Calculate Cb using AISC Specification Commentary Equation C-Fl-5, which applies !.;.
gravity loaded beams with the top flange late.rally restrained; the top flange is restrained by
the composite slab.
ASD

LR.FD

~--------+--------- -

M0 =Muufi=-3161<.ip-ft
From ASCE/SEl 7, !his structure is assigned to Seismic Design Catego.ry C (p = J.0) and
Sos=0.352.
The reqwred strengths determined by a second-order analysis including Lhe effects of P-0
and PA with reduced stiffness as required by the direct analysis method are:

II
I

=1.67 in.

Mo =Ma ltfi =-212 ltip-ft


M1 =Ma rilht

Mei.

=58.6 kip-ft

=106 kip-ft

Mel =40.6 ltip-.ft

AMl!JUCAN

lNsrmJTE OP STE!!L CONSTllOCTION

3-12

SYSTEMS NOT SPECfFJCALLY DETAll..ED FOR SEISMIC RESJSTANCE

LR.FD

=-316 kip-ft'

=-212 kip-ft

=63.1 ksi(98.3in.3)
=6. 200 kip-in.

because Mi is positive

because M1 is positive

=517 kip-ftSMp

(Mo+M1) =Mo

Cb= 3.o-~(Mi)-~/
Mel
J
3 Mo . 3 (Mo+Mif

}--!(

M,,

Cb=30-2(MiJ
-8,
Ma
.
3 M0
3 (M,,+M1f

Mp

= 3.0- ~( 167 kip-ft


58.6 kip-ft J
3 -316 lc.ip-ft . 3 -3 16 kip-ft

= 3 .o-~( 106 lcip-ft )-~( 40.6 kip-ft)

=3.85

=3.84

3 -212 kip-ft.

3--1 :

1------------L~RFD-----------i----------A-s_n__________~ I ~

ASD

(Mo+M1) =Mo

3.4 MOMENT FRAMES

3 -212 kip-ft

M,.

=62.9 ksi(98.3 in.3 )


= 6, 180 kip-in.

..
1

=515 kip-ftSMp

=F1 Z.r

Mp= F:yZx

=50ksi(112 in. 3)(1 ft/12 in.)

==50ksi(112in.3

)(l ft/12in.)

=467 kip-ft

=467 kip-ft

controls

controls

Mn

9bM,. =0.90(467 kip-ft)


o.k.

::; 420 kip-ft> 316 kip-ft

II
I

467 kip-ft
1.61

n,, =

= 280 kip-ft> 212 kip-ft

o.k.

I:

Per the User Note in AJSC Specification Section F2, the W18x55 is compact for F). = 50 ksi.
Because AISC Manual Table 3-10 does not provide a strength for a Wl 8x55 with an
unbraced length of 30 ft, calculate the strength from the AISC Specificarion. From AISC
Specifica1i01l Section F2, with compact flanges and web and lb > Lr, the applicable lirnit
states are yielding and lateral-torsional buckling.

Available Shear Strength of Beam BM-1


Prom ATSC Manual Table 3-2, the available shear strength of the W18x55 is:

LRFD
(Spec. Eq. F2-3)

..v,. =212 kips> 33.9 kips

L--(Spec. Eq. F2-4)

ASD

l.
V,, I ilv. =141kips>23.l kips
o.k.
I
- " - - -- - - - - - ~
<

o.k.

The W18x55 is adequate 10 resist the loads given for Beam BM-1.
Note: Load combinations that do not include seismic effects must also be investig::ited.

Example 3.4.4. Moment Frame Beam-to-Column


Connect~on Design

Jc

s.1io =o.ooo96s
LRFD

Fer= 3.8Snl(29,000 ksi)

r30.0 .1\(12 inJft)


2.00 in.

CT

~I+ 0.078(0.000965)130.0 ft(l~ inlft)r


2.00 ltl.

=63.1 ksi

F, _

3.84n2 (29,000 Jcsi)


[30.0 ft(l2 inJft)
2.00 in.

x 1+0.078(0.000965)130.0 ft(l~ inJft)


2.00 ltl.
=62.9 ksi

Given:
"
'
Refer to Joint JT-1inFigure3-2. Design a bolted Oange-plated fully. restrained moment connection between Beam BM-1 and Column CL-1. The beam and column are ASTM A9~ l
W-sbapes and ASTM A36 is used for the connecting material. Use ASTM A325-N bolts ai
. 70-ksi electrodes.
:,

ASD

p_le--3._4_.3_._th_e_re_q_u~__ed__str_en
__gths
__~are,._:____________________~l

-F-ro_m_Ex_am
__

LRFD
V., = 33.9 kips
Mu= 316 kip-ft

ASD
Va

=23.1 kips

Ma = 212 kip-ft

Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties are as follows:

.,,,

3-14

SYSTEMS NG'I' SPECIFICALLY DETAll..ED FOR SEJSMJC RESJSTANCE

ASTMA36
Fy 36 ksi
Fu= 58 ksi

3.4 MOMENT FRAMES

.,

J--15

The available nexuraJ strength of the W18x55 is:

ASD

LRFD

ASTMA992
Fy = 50 ksi

Mn = 0.90(391 kip-ft)

= 352 kip-ft> 316 kip-ft

Fu= 65 ksi

o.k.

Mn= 391 kip-ft


n
l.67
=234 kip-ft> 212 kip-ft

o.k.

From AlSC Manual Table 1-1, the geometric properties are as follows:

W18x55

d = 18.l in.

Single-Plate Web Connection

=0.390 in.

t,..

9"= 0.630 in.

S.r = 98.3 in.3

br= 7.53 in.

Available Flexural Strength 9f Beam BM-1

AISC Specification Secrion Fl 3 requires chat tensile rupture of the tension flange be investigated if
FuAJn < _fiFyAJg
Since Fy!F,,

=50 kSV65 ksi =0.77 < 0.8:

R,, = 48.9 kips> 33.9 kips

For cwo rows


. oO~-in.-diamerer ASTM A325-N bolts in standard boles in I.he beam tension
flange, usrng AISC Specification Section B4.3b:
=b1ti

Ajn

ASD

LRFD

y; =1.0

Ajg

The single pl:lte connection in an FR moment connection need not be designed for eccentricity on the bolts; however, AlSC Manual Table 10-lOa is appHed here for simplicity.
Conservatively, using AlSC Manual Table 10-lOa, select a 'l16in.thick ASTM A36 plate
wi!h (3) Ye-in.dfameter ASTM A325-N bolts (Group A) in standard holes connected to the
besm web, and a Y"'in. fillet weld to the column flange. The available strength of the singleplate connection is:

Rn

o.k.

=32.6 kips> 23. l kips

o.k.

Be<::ause the bolt bearing limit state is included in Table 10- lOa, the beam web is acceptable
by inspection, as the beam web thickness of 0.390 in. is greater than the plate thickness of

=7.53 in.(0.630 in.)

5/i6

=4.74 in.2

Use a s1i6-in.-thick, single-plate connection with (3) 31-in.diameter ASThf A325-N bolts in
standard holes to the beam web and \.4-in. fillet weld lo the column flange.

=.-<\r,-2(dll+ 1A6in.)r1

in.

=4.74 in. -2(1.00 in.)(0.630 in.)

Range Plate Connection

=3.48 in.
Y,FyAJg =1.0(50 ksi)(4.74 in.)
2

Determine the required number of bolts in the flange plate

The flange force is:

= 237 kips
F.,Afa

=(65 ksi)(3.48 in.2 )

LRFD

=226kips

P.

Since FuAfa < Y1FyAfg, the limit state of tensile rupture of the flange applies.

Mn = Fu~f,n S.r
A/1
= 226

kip~ (98.3 in.3)

4.74 in.

=4,690 kip-in.
= 391 kip-ft

(Spec. Eq. Fl3-J)

M ..

u1=7
= 316 ldp-ft (12.0 in./ft}
18.l in.
:::210 kips

ASD

!
I
Il

Ptt1 =Ma
d
= 212 klp-ft(12.o in.tft}
18.1 in.
= 14lkips

I
I

3-16

9r,.

- .24.3 kips/bolt

r,, /O
14lkips
=16.2 kips/bolt

= 8.64 t>olts

=8.70 bolts

210 kips

R,.

n,

x[7.00 in. -2( 1 ~'16 in.+ 1...16 in.)]Cl.0)


=218 kips >210 kips

F.,A,.U

=--

=0.75(58 k<:i)(l.00 in.)

n,,.;,. = Pat

Timflo=_!![_

Fu~
-=-n n,

9R11 =~,F.,A.t
=91F.,A,.U

ASD

P.

ASD

LRFD

From AISC Manual Tlblc 7-1 for bolt shear, the required number ofYiin.-diameter ASTM
A325-N bolts is.

LRFD

J.IJ

3.4 MOMENT FRAMES

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFICALLY DtrrAlLf:.D FOR SElSMlC 'RESISTANCE

= (l/2.00)(58 ksi)(l.00 in.)

o.k.

x[7.00 in.-2(15/1& in.+ 1116 in.)]


x{l.0)

=145kips > 141 kips

Try ten bolts on 3 4-m. gage. Using AJSC Manual Tables 7-4 and 7-5 for bearing strength
with le = 2 in. and s =3 in. the available bearing streoglh of the beam flange is:

o.k.

Using AJSC Man110I T:ibles 7-4 and 7-5 with L.. =2 in. ands= 3 in., the be<uing strength of
lhe flange pl3te is:

LRFD
~R,,

ASD

=1t(~r,. )tI
=8(102 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)

o.k.

ASD

) I

lf

= 8(68.3 kiplin.)(0.630 in.)

+2(89.6 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)


=6Tl kips>2JO kips

LRFD

n-=n nr,, )
Rn

=8(91.4 kip/in.)(l.00 in.)

+2(59.7 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)


= 419 kips> J41 ldps o.k.

+2(79.9 kip/in.)(1.00 in.)


=891 kips> '.HO kips

..

Size the flange plate for the tension force


The minimum lhickncss of a 7-in.-wide plate for tension yielding is:

R,,
(rn)
fl=JI
f2 I p
=8(60.9 kiplin.)(1.00 in.)

9Rn =n(~rn) tp

o.k.

+2(53.3 lcip/in.)(l.00 in.)


- 594 kips> 141 kips
o.k.

Check the flange plate and beam flange for block shear rupture

t;

The two cases for which block shear must be considered in the flange pl3te are shown i

LRFD
t,,.;,,

P"t

9F1 bp

ASD

210 kips
0.90(36 ksi)(7.00 in.)
= 0.926 in.

t . mm -

Figure 3-4.

Case l involves the tearout of the tw~ blocks outside of 1he two rows of bolt holes in Ll 1
flange plate. For this case, the tension area has a width of 2(1 'I.I in.). Case 2 involves Ll
tearout of the block between the two rows of boles in the flange plate. For this case, the teo
sioo area has a width of 4 in. Because lhe shear areas are the same in both cases, Case l
governs for the flange plate. The beam flange must also be cbed-ed for Case l , but need n 1~
be checked.for Case 2 due to the presence of the web.'
~:

P<lf

Fybp/ O.
141 kips

=(36 ksi)(7.00 in.)/ 1.67


=0.934 in.

Try a l in. x 7 in. plate. The avrulable tensile rupture s~ngth of the plate
according to AISC Specification Section D2 as follows:

is

determined

~nominal strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is given by AISC Specification

j.!

f.quation 14-5:
I

R,,

= 0.60F.,A..v+UbsFu~ .S:0.60F1 A,..+Vb1F A,.,


11

:i

3-18

,......,
! \
f

,Check the flange plate toiCa'se 1


From AISC Specification Equation 14-5:

LRFD
:

LR.FD
R,. UosFu.Aru
-=

$Rn = q>UbsF.A,.,
+min (cp0.60FyAgv, cp0.60F.;Anv)

'!1

-~;

...,.,
'~
~

ubs = 1.0 fc,r uniform t~nsion. ~~ess

i11

It

Shear ruplure component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3c:

cp0.6FuA;,v =2(248 kipfm.)(1 in.)

0. 6 FuA,,v = 2(165 kip/io.)(1 in.)

Tension rupture component from


. ~ISC Man,ua( Tab.le 9-3a:

+min(0.60FyAgv, 0.60Fu.Alfl')
0.
.Q

= 541kips>210 kips

o..k.

-~.

2 (15 I kip/in.) (I in.)

ASD

LRFD
$UbsFuA;,1=2(1.0)(60.9 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)

s;

Ubf-'A111

=76.7 kips

Q.6FyAgv ='2(210 kip/iu.)(0.630 in.)


. .Q

=397 hlps

=265 kips

$0.6FuA,,v = 2(278 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)

=3.So kips
1

= 2(1.0)(40.6 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)

-51.2)cips

=302 kips

::.-.-.

o.k.

=360kips>141 kips

Ubs = 1.0 for unifonn tension stress

~6.6F1Agv =2_(315 kip/in.)(0.630 in.)

~'

Check the beam flange for Case 1

=?.8.0 lops

.Q

Rn = S8.0 kips+ 302 kips

From AISC Manual Tables 9-3a, 9-3b and 9"3c for Leh= 13A in. and Lev= 2 in.:

Ubs;;Ani =2(1.0)(29.0 kip/in.)(! in.)

0.6FyAgv

=330 kips

<!>Rn= 87.0 kips+454 kips

Shear yielding component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3b:
.

$0.6FyAgv =2(227. kip'(in.)(l in.)


. ' .. -' .
=45.4 kips .

=496 kips

Tension rupture component from


AISC Manual '.fable 9-3a:.

Shear yielding component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3b:
.

ASD

Shear rupture component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3c:

U1;, = 1.0 for uniform tension stress

<WosFuAnz :=2(1.0)(43.5 ldp/in.)(1 in_.)


=87.0 kips

1;1

ASD

.
;r

3.-l MOMENT FRAMES

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFICALLY DETAILED FOR.SElSMlC RESISTANCE

0. 6FuAnv = 2(185 kip/in.)(0.630 fo.) .

'\

=233 kips

~Rn

= 76.7 kips+ 350 kips

= 427 kips> 2io kips

Flange

=284 kips> 141 kips

o.k.

Use (5) rows oO~-in.-diameter ASTM A325-N bolts in standard holes at a 4-in. gage to con
nect each flange plate to i.bebeam flange. Use 2-ID.: edge distance and 3-in .spacing for the
bolts.

PL

Check the

1~ 11
Case 1

o.k.

Rn= 51.2 kips+ 233 kips


_n
_

I/n~

Case2

Fig. 3-4. Block shear failure paths for the flange plate in Example 3.4.4.
AMERICAN L'ISTTTlTIB OP STEa CONSTR\lCTlON

flar:qe plate for the compression. rc:rce

t
r==-

.Jf2

LOO in.

=712
= 0.289 in.

3-20

SYS'feMS NOT SPECIFICAlLY DETAILED FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

From ~ISC Specification Co1nmcntary Table C-A-7.1, use K


edge distance plus !-7-in. beam setback):

=0.65, and l =2!i7 in. (2-in.

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

Tue final connection design and geometry is shown in Figure 3-5.

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

Kl = 0.65(2.50 in.)
r
0.289 in.
= 5.62

~ccording to AlSC SpecificaJion Section J4.4, because Kllr $ 25, Fer =Fy and the compressive sirength of the flange plate is:

Pn

=FyAg

(Spec. Eq. 14-6)

= (36 ksj)(7 .00 in.)(1.00 in.)

=252 kips
LRFD

ASD

Pn

9Pn = 0.90(252 kips)


= 227 kips > 210 kips

o.k.

=252 kips

Braced frames gain their srrength and their resistance to lateral forces and displacements pJ
marily from the axial strength and stiffness of the bracing members. Braced frames are arrange
such that the centerlines of the framing members (braces, columns nnd be:irns) coincide o.
nearly coincide, thus eliminating the majority of flexure that might occur due to lateral forces.
Braced-frame systems !end to be more economical than moment-resisting frames wh
material, fabrication and erection costs are considered. These efficiencies are often offset t.
reduced flexibility in floor pl:m layout, space planning, and eleclrical and mechanical rout-
ing encountered as a result of the space requirements of the brace members.
J.
Braced frames typically are located jn walls that stack vertically between floor levels. [
!he typical offi~e building, these walls generally occur in the "core" area around stair and ek
vator shaflS, central restrooms, and mechanical and electrical rooms. 'I11is generally allowe
for greater architectural flexibility in placement and configuration of exterior windows a

l
,.

-'

1.67

=151kips>141 kips

W12x87

o.k.

column

Use 1 in. x 7 in. ASTM ~6 flange plates.


Design the weld betWeen the flange plates and column flange

PL 1x1 (A36)

The directional ~trenglh increase is used in determining the required weld size. The length
of the weld, l...,, 1s taken to bet.h e width of the 7-in. plate less twice-the weld size.

@ 4" gage (top and bot.)

(10) ~ dla. A325-N bolts


in std. holes

DetermitJe the weld size


~olving for Dmin from AISC Manual Equation 8-2 and applying the directional strength
rncrease of AISC Specification Equation 12-5:

LRFD
D,,,;,, =

ASD

P1if
2(1.5)(1.392 kipfm.)lw

Dmm =
Paf
2(1.5)(0.928 lcipflll.)l,,.
141 kips

210 kips

2(1.5)(1.392 kiplin.)(5.88 in.)

=8.55 sixteenths

PL ie"x4" (~6)

2(1.5)(0.928 kipfm.}(5.88 in.)

W18x55beam

=8.61 sixteenths

L. -

Use o/i6-in. fillet welds on both sides to connect the.flange places to the column flange.
Comment:
The column must be checked for panel zone and stiffeitlng requirements. f-or further information, see AISC Design Guide No. 13, Stiffening of Wide-Flange Columns at Moment
Connections: Wind and Seismic Applicaiions (Carter, 1999).
AMRJCAN lNsrnvrs OP STESL CONSTRUCTION

~is.

(3) 3i
A325-N
bolts In std. holes

Note:
Allow fQ( finger shims as needed

Fig, 3-5. Connection as designed in Examp~ 3.4.4.

\.

...

SY~"fEMS

,....,
'

N<Jr Sl'~t:UJC...'AL.LY UCJAlLeD f.OR S~JSMlC llESlSTANCB

c~adding. ~ependiog on the plan location and the sue of lhe core area of IJ1e building, tbe torsional resistance offered by the br3Ced frames may become a controlling design p:lnUlleler
Differential drift betvcen stories at the building perio,leter rnus~ be considered with this type
of layout, as rotational displacements of the floor diaphragms may impose deformation
demand~ on the cladliing system and other nonslJUcturaJ elements of tbe building.
Because the braced f111me in the following ex.am pies docs not re<juire seismic detailing, it
is designed in accordance with the provisions of the AJSC Specification.

Assume that the cods of the brace arc pinned and braced against translation.

Example 3.5.1 . Braced Frame Brace Design

The eff~tive length of the brace is:

Ul

The governing load combinations include seismic effects :tS follows:

LRPD

ASD

Max.imum brace compression from LRFD


Load Combination 5 from ASCEISEI 1
Section 12.4.2.3

Maximum brace compression from ASD


Load Combination 5 from ASCFJSEI 7
Section 12.4.2.3

(l.O + 0.14SDs)D + H + F+0.7pQ

(1.2 + 0.2SD.S)D + pQe + 0.5l + 0.2S


(including the 0.5 factor on L permitted
by ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3)
Ma.'timum brace tension from LRFD Load
Combina1ion 6 from ASCFJSEI 7 Section
12.4.2.3

From ASCE/SEI 7. tbis structure is assigned


Sos=0.352.

(0.6-0.14SDs)D + 0.7pQ+H
10

Seismic Design Category C (p = 1.0) and

The required strengths of Brace B R-1 determined by a second-order analysis including the
effects of P-o and P-A with reductd stiffness as required by the direc1 analysis method are:

LRFD
Maximum Compression

t(:
,. ,

= 127 lcips

M:u.i.mum Tensfoo
Pu:::

89.6 kips

ASD
Maximum Compression

P. =83.~ kips
Maximum Tension
Pa= 60.2 kips

=17.7 ft
This unbraced length has been conservatively dctennined by calculating the distance
between the work points based on the interse.ction of the centedines of the brace, columr
and beams, and using K 1.0. Shorter unbraced lengths may be used if justified by the eng

oeer of record.
Brace Selection
Select a trial brace si.z.c based on the effeeti.ve length and the compressive strength of llw
brace. Based on the discussion in AJSC Specificarion Commentary Scc1ion J 1.7, it 1
assumed that the effect of the load eccentticity with rel>pect 10 the center of gravity of the
brace 1s neglig.ible and can be ignored. Use AISC Manual Table 4-9 to select Iris! brace
sections. Possible double angle brnces include 2L5x5x~. 2L6x6x%, or 2L6x4x~ LLBB.
Use a 2L6x4x~ LLBB for the trial design due lo architecrural ne.eds. From AISC Manuai
Table 4.9, the available strength of che 2L6x4x~ LLBB brace ('h-in. s~paration) in com
pression with KL= 17.7 ft is controlled by the y-y a.'tis. By interpolation:

Maximum br:lce tension from ASD Load


Combination 8 from ASCFJSEI 7 Section
12.4.2.3

(0.9 - 0.2SDs)D + pC2E + l.6H

P.,

F1 =36 ksi
F.=58 ksi

KL =( l.O)J(l2.5 ft) +(12.5 ft)

Select an ASTM A36 double-angle section to act as Brace BR-1 in Figure 3-3 :!lld resist the
following axial forces. The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCEISEl 7 for calculation of required strength. Sec the Design Example Plan and Elevation section for code
specified loacling.

- ----- ~~--.

ASTMA36

Given:

Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties sre as follows:

LRFD
$cPn ::: 143 kips> 127 kips

o.k.

ASD

Pn

nc

=94.6 ltips > 83.4 kips

o.k.

The 2L6x4x;i LLBB is adequate.

Element Slenderness
Tuble 4-9 considers che AISC Specification Section E6.2 requirement that the effective sle
demess ratio, Kalrb of each of the component shapes between fasteners may not excev
three-fourths -times lhc governing slenderness ratio of the built-up member. Per AlSt'
Manual Thble 4-9, at least twO welded or pretensioned bolled intCJ1lledinte connectors x:n
be provided.

3-24

SYSTEMS NOT SPECrPTCALLY Db"fAJt.ED FOR SEISMIC RE-.SISTANC'b

Available Tensile Strength of Brace


Prom AlSC Manual Table 5-8, the available strength of 1he 2L6x4x'A brace for tensile yield
ing on the gross section is

LRFD

From ASCEJSEI 7, this structure is nssigned to Seismic Design Dtegory C (p - I .0) and
Sos=0.352.
Tue required sll'Cngths of Column CL-2 detennined by a ~nd-order aruslysis ancluding the
effects of P-o and P-6 with reduced stiffness as required by the direct analysis method are:

ASD

91Pn =379 kips> 89.6 kips

o.k.

n, =252 kips> 60.2 kips


Pn

LRFD

ASD

Maximum Compression

Mn..'timum Compression

o.k.

P0

Pu= 35 1 !Ops

The 2L6x4~ is adequate for 1ensile yielding on 1he gross area.


See Example 3.5.3 for calculations c-0nfmniog that the ten!'ile rupture sttength on the effective net section of the brace is adequate with a single row of (5) ~-in. bolts spaced at 3 in.
coOllecting the double-angle brace to a gusset plate.

Use 2L6x4x~ LI.BB \\-jth a

3..5 BRACEO FRAMES

~-in.

11

=253 kips

Maximum Tension

Maximum Tension

PIC

If

=42.1 kips

Pa= 28.7 kips

Consider that the ends of the column are pinned and braced against translation for both ~

separation, assuming a Va-in. gusset plate, and 1wo mtermediate conne.:tors for Brace BR- l.

x-.r and y-y a.'es.

Note that the intennedinte connectors can be fastened by welding or wi1h pretensioned bolts.

Solution:

1f bolted intennediate connectors are used, a net section tensile rupture check at the con-

From AISC Man11al Table Z-4. the rnatcrial properties 3re as follows:

f~

nectors is aJso required.


ASTMA992

Example 3.5.2. Braced Frame Column Design


Given:

Fy =50 ksi
FIA= 65 k$i
Using AJSC Manual Table 4-1 with KL= 14 ft, select a W 12x50.

Refer to Column CL-2 in Figure 3-3. Select an ASTM A992 W-sbape with a nominal depth
of 12 in. to resis1 the following required strengths. The applicable building code specifies
the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for the calculation of the required strength. See the Design Example
Plan and Elevation section for code specified loadfog.

tl>cPn =384 kips> 351 kips

Maximum column compression from


LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

(1.2 + 02.sos)D + pQE + 0.5L + 0.2S


(incl uding the 0.5 load factor on L permitted by ASCEJSEl 7 Section 12.4.2.3)
Ma;wnum column tC1nsion from LRFD
Load Combination 6 from ASCFJSEJ 7
Section l2.4.2.3

(0.9. - 0.2Sos)D + pQe + t.6H

o.k.
I

T he load combinations that include seismic effects are:

LRFD

ASD

LR.FD

ASD
Maximum column compression from
ASD Load Combination 6 from
ASCEJSEI 7 Section l2.4.2.3

.!'.!!.. =255 kips> 253 kips

nc

.
o.k.

The W12x50 is adequ:tte.


There is net tension (uplift) on the column. Using AISC Manlltll Table 5-1. the availab (:.
strength of the W12x50 in axial tension is adequate.

..

Use a W12x50 for braced-frame Column CI.....2.

(1.0 + 0.lOSos)D + H + F + 0.525pQE

+'0.15L + 0.75S

Maximum column tension from ASD


Load Combination 8 from ASCEJSEI 7
Section 12.4.2.3

(0.6 - 0.14Sos)D + 0.1pQE + H

Example 3.5.3. Braced Frame Brace-to-Beam/Column


Connection Design
Given:

}:;

Refer 10 Join1 JT-2 in figure 3-3. Design the connection between the brace, beam ar.
column. Use a gusset plate concentric to the broce and welded to the benm with 70elecrrodcs. Connect the gusset and the beam to the column using 3 bolted single-pl ~
connection. Use ASTht A36 for all plate material, u~ lhe brace and column as designed

3-26

SYSTEMS NOT SPECD"ICALLY DE'l'NLED fOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

Examples 3.5.1and3.5.2, res~tively, and use an ASTM A992 W18x35 for the beam, ns
required for slreng1h and connection geometry. The applicable buiJding code specifies the
use of ASCE/SEI 7 for calculation of the required strengths. See the Design Example PJan
and Elevation section for code spedfied loading.

,.....

The required strengths are:

: I

LRFD

ASD

Beam Shear

Beam Shear

Vu :::: 4.00 kips

Va =2.63 kips

Brace Compression

Brace Compression

Pu= 127 kips

Pa= 83.4 kips

Brace Tension

'.f"':
. ~

Pa= 60.2 lcips

Using AISC Manual Table 7-3 for 'Ain.-diameter ASTM A325 (Group A) sliJK:ritical bolt~
in double shear, Class B faying surfaces, oversized holes in the gusset, and standard boles

in the brace, the available shear strength and the required number of bolls is:

LRFD

;~

Try (5)

ASTMA992
F1 =50 ksi
F.,=65 ksi

$Rn
127 kips

=4.63 bolts

at 3-in. spacing.

An= Ag - 2(dh + Vi6 io.)r


= 11.7 in.1 - 2 (7h in.)(% in.)

= 10.6 in.2

W18x35

=17.7 in.

t..,

=0.300 in.

~= 0.425 in,

kw= 0.827 in.

From AISC Specification Table 03.1:

Column

U= l- 1

W12x?O

=12.2 in.

t,., = 0.370 in.

t.J= 0.640 in.

Brace

= 1.03 in. for single angle

Jc.u, = 1.14 in.

=l-

1.03 io.
4(3.00 ill.)

=0.914

LLBB

A1 = 11.7 in.2

Rn / Cl.
83.4 kips
18.0 kips/bolt

Check brace net section for tens}te rupture strength

Beam

2L6x4x~

~-in.diameter bolts

= --

The net area of the brace is:

17m AISC Manual Tables 1-1, 1-7 and 1-15, the geometric properties are as follows:

pd .

llr~q'd

=4.72 bolts

F1 =36 ksi
F,.=58 ksi

=l.67(10.8 kip~)
= 18.o kips/bolt

26.9 kips/bolt

ASTMA36

Pu
=--

From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties are as follows:

..
t
,.

Rn

:::: 26.9 kips/bolt

nuq' d

ASD

$Rn =I.67(16.1 kips)

Fr<?m Examples 3.5.1 arid 3.5.2; the brace is an ASTM A36 2L6x4x% LLBB section with
%-in. separation for a %-in.-thick gusset plate, and the column is an ASTM A992 W12x50.

Solution:

y = 2.03 in.

Brace-to-Gusset Connection Design


Choose to use oversized holes in the gusset plnte and standard holes in lhe brace. In th
e."tample-, decisions related to hole sizes should be carefully considered. Oversized holes
could be used in all plies if required for extra tolerance. Providing different sized boles ii
various plies csn make squaring and plumbing the strucrure difficult and is therefore generally avoided. Providing consistent bole sizes in all plies allows drift pins to be used i
squaring and plumbing the structure. Providing oversized hole sizes allows for more fit-uitolerance but requires connections to be designed as slip critical. Providing standard hole~
limits the available fit-up tolerance but generally will result in fewer bolts designed based
on the bearing values.

Brace Tension

P,, =89.6 lcips

3.

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

Ae=A11U
= (10.6 in.2)(0.914)
=9.69 in.1

(Spec. Eq.

3-28

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFICALLY DETAlLEP POR SEISMlC RESISTANCE

Pn =F11Ae

(Spec. Eq. D2-2)

=(58 ksi)(9.69 in..2)


=562 lcips

~.t.

,
The available tensile strength of the brace due to the limit state of tensile rupture is determfacd from AISC Specificarior1 Section D2, as follows:

3.5 'BRACED FRAMES

~~~~~~~~~~~.,.-~~~~-A~s=o~-.-~-:---~1

LRFD
- lh
gles edge
11
earoUt Su ...og OO 3J1

(assuming I.SO in. edge distance):

4>Rn

ASD

LRFD

-=-n,

q,,Pn =0.15Pn
-

o.k.

562 kips
2.00
=281 kips> 60.2 kips

between bolts:

o.k.

Check bolt bearing on the brace and shear strength of the bolts
According to lbe User Note ih AJSC Specification Section J3.6, the strength of the bolt
group is ta.ken as the sum of the effective strengths of the individual fasteners. 1n the following calculations, the available. bearing strength and tearout strength limit states from
AISC Specification Equation J3-6a are separated for clarity. Assume that bolt hole defor-

mation is a design consideration.


LRFD.

ASD

Design shear strength per bolt from AISC


Manual Table 7-1 is:

'

q,R,. =35.8 kips/bolt

lj>R,.

= 0.75(2.4)('A

Allowable bearing strength on angles


R,.

2.4drF,.

in.)(58 ksi)

in.)(2)(-* in.)(58 ksi)


2.00
=65.3 kips

Design bearing strength on gusset


lj>R,. =$2.4dlFu
0.75(2.4)(3A in.)(3h in.)(58 ksi)
=29.4 kips

Allowable bearing strength on gusset


Rn

Tearout strength on angles, spacing


between bolts:

=143 kips

Rn =$1.214.F..

11

n
=(1/2.00)(1.2)(2)(% in.)
x(3.00 in.-H/i6 in.)(58 ksi)

in.)

Tear--0ut strength on gusset, edge.........


assume 2-in. edge distance:
Rn l.2tLcFu
-=--n
n
=(1/2.00)(1.2)(~ in.)

x(2.00 in.-%i in.)(58 ksi)

x(2.00 in.-112 in.)(58 ksi)

=30.0 kips

Tear-out strength on gusset. spacing,


between bolts:

=lj>l.2t4F.,
=0.75(1.2)(-* in.)
x(3.00 in.-1-'/i6 in.)(58 ksi)
=40.4 kips

, = 95.2 kips

Tear-out strength on gusset, edgeassume 2-in. edge distance:

=0.75(1.2)(~

I:

l.2tLcFu

x(3.00 in.- 13/16 in.)(58 ksi)

$Rn

(2.4)(~

=97.9 kjps

= 0.75(1.2)(2)(* in.)

Allowable shear strength per bolt from


AISC Manual Table 7-1 is:

- = - -in.)(2)(3h

x[l.50 in.-'h(1 ~6 in.)](58 ksi)

1
1 .

-=---

=92.4d1Fu

= (J/2.00)(1.2)(2)(-* in.)

Rn

=91.21L.:Fu

R,, = 23.9 ldpslbolt

Design bearing strength on angles

Rn l.2t4Fu
-:::--n
n

=47.6 kips

Tearour strength on angles. spacing

$Rn

""-6

u.uu.u

=71.4 kips

2.00

=0.75(562 .kips)
=422 .kips> 89.6 kips

=4>1.2U-tFu
=0.75(1.2)(2)(* in.)

Tearout strength on angles, edge


(assum:~g 1.50 J.ll
aA"'e distance);

x[l50 in.- 1h(1i6 in.)](58 ksi)

Pn

Pn

l-2'

=20.0 kips

Tear-out strength on gusset, spacing


between bolts:
R,.

1.211.;F.,.

n
= (1/2.00)(1.2)(% in.)

x(3.00 in.-.,/i6 in.)(58 ksi)


=26.9 kips
Since all bearing limit state strengths

exceed the slip-criticaJ ~trenglh of 18.0


ki,Pslbolt, bearing, does not govern.

2.4dtFu

-=--n
n

=(2.4)(~ in.)(}i in.)(58 ksi)


2.00

=19.6 kips

J.:

3-30

SYSTEMS NOT SPECTF!CALLY l)l!fAU.ED FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

Check block shear strength of brace


r" '

,..,...,
'

II

:::::

Check the gusset compression buckling strength


Using the Whitmor_e section as discussed in the AJSC Manual Part 9, the available width is

4,= 11hm.

gre.1ter than the Whitmore width determined as follows:

411= 21hfo.
I,.,
From AJSC Sptcificarion Equation J4-5:

~Rn

=21 tan 30
=2(4)(3.00 in.)tan 30

=13.9 in.

LRFD

'.
'

3.5 BRACED rRAMES

ASD

The radius of gyration of the gusset plate buckling in the weak dfrection is:

=$UbsF,,.A,,,

r=-:fii

+min(>0.60FyAgv, t0.60FuA11v)

+ . (0.60FyArv 0.60FuAnvJ
mm
n n

*in.

=J'if
=0.108 in.

Tension n1pture component from AlSC


Manual Table 9-3a:

$UbsFuAn1=2(1.0)(89.7 kjp/in.)(Y's in.)

Tension rupture component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3a:

Ub,FuAnt -2(1.0)(59.8 kip/in.)(~ in.)

=112 laps

11

;\
"..

Shear yielding component from AISC


ManUtJI Table 9-3b:
~0.60F1 A1v =2(219 kip/in.)(* in.)
=274 kips

~0.60F,,,A,,, =2(250 kip/in.)(* in.)

= 313 lcips

..-...:"

>R,, = 112 kips+274 kips


= 386 lcips > 89.6 kips

=2(166 kip/in.)(~ in.)

o.k.

..

''

Fa:::

n.:

o.k.

19.9 ksi

The design compressive strength is: \

The ~-in.

gus~et

The allowable compressive strength is:


R,.

~Rn =~/?rAg

= (29.9 ksi)(13.9 io.)(t\ in.)


o.k.
= 156 kips> 127 !tips

Use (5) ~-in. ASTh1 A325-SC bolts to connect the bmce angle m the gusset plate. Use Class
B faying surfaces, Sl.aJld.9.rd holes fn the brace, and oversized boles in the gusscl
Try a ~-in. trial gusset plate thickness.

ASD

29.9 ksi

=74.8kips+183 kips

=258 kips > 60.2 kips

=36 ksi. the available critical stress js:

LRPD
~c:Fcr =

=208 kips
R,,

From AISC M011ual Table 4-22 for Fy

2(146 kip/in.)(* in.)

Shear rupture component from AJSC


.~fanual Table 9-3c:

0.60FNAnv

0.65(6.50 in.)
0.108 in.

=39.l

=183 kips

Shear rupture component from AISC


.\.Jarmai Table 9-3c:

KL
r

Shear yielding component Crom AISC


Manual Table 9-3b:

-=---'---~

=74.8 kips

0.60FzA1v

The a\'erage length of the gusset plate beyond the connection on the Whitmore wjdth is
approximately 6.5 in. For a fixed-fixed buckling condition, K 0.65 [see Dowswcll (2006)),
and

= fc,A1
n

=(19.9 ksi)(l3.9 in.)(~ in.)


=104 kips> 83.4 kips

o.k.

plate is o.k. Additionnl checks arc required as follows.

Connection Interface Forces

The forces ~ulting from the applied brace force at !he gusset-to-beam, gusset-to-column,
and beam-to-<:olumn interfaces are determined using the Uoifonn Force Method (~.
The planes of uniform forces will be set as the vertical bolt line and the gusset/beam int.face. The assumption of a plane of uniform force at the verucru bolt line allows the bolts .
the column connection to be designed for shear only (no eccentricity}. However, this ccYcoienc assumption for connection design requires that a corresponding moment be resolw ,

3- 32

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFJCALLY DETAILED FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

in the design of !he members: In lhis case, the moment will be assigned to the beam. It
should be noted that this assumption is different than that made for the typical cases of lhe
UFM shown in the AISC Manual and is nor a requirement for this type of connection.
Appropriate work points and uniform force planes can often be selected conveniently to balance engineering, fabrication and erection economy. As is demonstrated in the following, the
application of the UF.M in tenns of equations used will remain unchanged despite lhe
change in interface location to the column bolt line.
Using the connection geometry given in Figure 3-6 and using the UFM described in AISC
Manual Part l 3, de1ermioe the connection interface forces as follows.
The beam eccentricit:y to the plane of uniform force is:

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

3-3

1.

where db is the depth of lhe beam.


The column eccentricity to lhe plane of uniform force is:

ec = 0.5dc + 2.5 in.


=0.5(12.2 in.)+ 2.5 in.
=8.60 in.

I;

where de is the depth of the column.


The horizontal eccentricity from the plane of uniform force to the cencroid of the beam-to
gusset connection is:

a= 0.5(20.75 in.)- 2.50 in.+ 0.500 in.

eb= 0.Sdb

=8.38 in.

= 0.5(17.7 in.)

=8.85 in.
~

Assuming four bolts arc used in the gusset-to-single plate connections spaced at 3 in. start
ing 3~ in. from the top of rhe beam, the vertical eccentricity from the plane of uniform fore i:
to the centroid of the gusset-to-column connection is:

1'-8%~

iL
3 50 in.+~--~
.
3(3.00 in.)
I'- .
2
=8.00 in.

12)-2"

0=45

Sinc.e the gusset-to-beam connectioo is more rigid than the g~sset-to'.-c~lumri connection, tli
beam can be assumed to resist the moment generated by eccentricity between the actual gu~

.I.

set centroids and the ideal centroids calculaled using the UFM. Thirefore:

~ = ~= 8.00 in.

a=K+~tan0

'

(Manual Eq. 13-15)

where

\I

' ..

.
(Manual Eq. 13-16)

Therefore:

Cf.

beam

a= (eb +~)tan 0-ec:


=(8.85 in.+ 8.00 in.) tan (45) - 8.60 in.
=8.25 in.
The distance from work point to centroid of gusset is:

Plane of uniform

W12x50 column

column

I .

W18x35 beam

force

Cf.

I;

r=

Jco.+ec) +(~+eb)
2

(Manual Eq. 13-1

=Jcs.25 in.+8.60 in.}2+(8.00 in.+8.85 in.)2


::23.8 in.

Fig. 3-6. Initial connectwn geometry for Example 3.S.3.

SYSTEMS NOT SPEC.lFlCALLY DETAD..EO FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

The IJ1-.in. difference between the ideal centroid, a, and the actual centr0id. Ci, determined
previously, could be neglected but is included here to illustrate the UFM procedure. From

The free body diagram forces are determined as follows.


From AISC Manual Equation 13-2:
1

Vue

AISC Manual Equation 13-17:

LRFD

=~P.,
r

ASD
Voe

8 00
= ~ (127 kips)
23.8in.

=42.7 kips

LRFD

=~Pa
r

M.JJ::::

8 00
= ~n. (83.4 kips)
23.8 m.
.
=28.0 kips

,,..

From AISC Manual Equation 13-3:

:~

ASD

v..bla-Cij

Mo11

= Vabla-01

:::: 47.2 kipsl8.25 in.-8.38 in~

= 31.0 kipsl8.25 in.-8.38 in~

= 6.14 kip-in.

= 4.03 kip-in.

Tue moments at !he column-gusset plate interface and the column-beam interface due to the
plane of unifonn force set at the ve.rtical bolt line are as follows:

1~

~:

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

'

:~
'
~--- ~:--,

Mucg = Vuce

H uc=-Pu
ec

Hac=ec P,,

60

LRFD

ASD

LRFD

~n. (127 kips)

- 3.8 ill.
=45.9 kips

r
60
8
= in. (83.4
23.8in.
=30.1 kips

ki~)

= 28.0 kips(2.50 in.)

= 107 ldp-in.

= 70.0 kip-in.

V,.be
::::: 47.2 Jdps (2.50 in.)

;:: 118 kip-in.

111

~
Vl<b=eo RII
r
8 85
in. (127 ki s)
23.8 in.
p
47.2 kips

.-.,:,.

=
=

.i;

ASD

=8.85 in. (83.4 kips)


23.8 io.
=31.0 kips

From AISC Manual Equation 13-5:

~~

ASD

LRFD

~.:

Hub =- P.,

';::

,.
,,

= 8.25 in. (l 2 7'k:ips)


23.8 in.
=44.0 kips

I
I I

Hab=-Pa
r

=8.25 in. (83.4 kips)

23.8 in.
=28.9 lcips

Mocb

=Vabe
= 31.0 kips (2.50 in.)
= 77.5 kip-in.

I
1

II

.
;

The LRFD and ASD geometry and required strengths are shown in Figures 3-7 a and 3-7b.
respectively.

..

eb

Vab =-Pa
r

Mo.<t =Voce

= 42.7 kips(2.50 in.)


Mucb::::

From AlSC Manual M_uation. P-4:

ASD

.3-36

SYSTEMS NOT SPEClFJCALLY DETA.Il..ED FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

Gusset-to-Beam Interface

p.,. .. 89.8 kips

89.8 kips

127 kips

.-------.IL kl~
89.8

107 kip-in.
42.7 kips~ '-2.7 kips
1
45.9klps\ (
v..,'- 2 1tC>s

_J

~5.9 kips

fkips
427

45.9 kips

107 kip.in.

11"825

6.14kip-ln.~

47.2 klps

Pue

=t89.8 kips

~5.9klps

118 klp-ln.

.tT.2 ldps

-.-~

lup$

=108 in.3 /in.


The forces along the gusset-to-beam 'interface are:

44.0 kips

__J

89
~

45.9 kips

59.0 kips

28.9 kips
20.75 in.
=1.39 kip/in.

vub
f..o=-

J.00 -_ vab

lw

lw

47.2 lcips

31.0 kips

= 20.75 in.

,.:::r
ti~r:~r. . .
J
~0.1

zs.otklps

kips

30.1 kips

70.0 kip.In.

~"

8.00 in.

H.i." 28.9 kip\-.-s_,--'-- - - '


v.... 31 .01c1ps
1
4.03 kip-ln. ~
4.03 kip-In.~

77.5 kip-In.

30.1

31.0

kips~

kips\ ( _J

31.0 kips

~0.11\lps

77 5 kip-in.

31.0 kips

30.1 kips

The resultant fo.rce is:

fu.pet:A

28.9 kips

30.1 kips

31 .0 kips

59.0ldps

Fig. 3-7b. ASD free body forces and nwmems.

59.0 kips

=4.03 kip-in.

108 in.3 /in.

I
\

= 0.0373 kip/in.

The resultant force is:

(1.39 kipfm.)2

='+(2.27 kiplin.+0.0569 kip(m.)2


= 3.15 kip{m.

'

fo.,xok = JJ~+(faa + fab)

=~J~:Uuo + /111>)1
(2.12 kipfm.)2

31.0~s

_J

AMEIUCAN .1Ns'muni OF STEL CoN$'TltVCI10N

=6.14 kip-in.
=0.0569~~

=a.2s in.

z...

Zw

\ +(1.49 kipfm.+0.0373 kip/in.)

=2.07 kip/in.

Mab
fob=-

fwb = M ub

108 in.3 fm.

.u 111.

,.

= 1.49 kip/in.

83.4 kips

.------.. . !L59.0 ~

fw

= 20.75 in.
=2.27 kip/in.

P,..

I..,

44.0 kips
20.75 in.
= 2.12 kip/in.

Pee = 59.0 kips

av -

47.2 klps

f, _ Hob .

f. - H ..,,
UV -

ASD

LRFD

47.2 kips

t __eb,. 8.85 in.

Fig. 3-7a. LRPD free body forces and moments.

'

neating the welds as a line:

(20.75 in.)
z... =.!.....---=--

=8.38 In.

ii " 8.00 in.

1
6.14 kip-in. '-....!._/

kips~
_J 45.9

Design the gusset-t~beam weld

/,.. =20.75 in.

H.o,. 44 Okips\. - _ ,.
-: . . - - - - '

v..,. .. 47.2kips

118 kl!Hn.
47.2
45.9 kips'\ (

I:

3-37

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

3-38

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFlCALLY DETAILED FOR SEJSMJC RESISTANCE

LR.FD

/...., =o.5(!. J"'<'k +~1:..+(f.,,-f.b)2 )


3.15 kip/in.
= 0.5
(2.12 kiplin.)2
+
+(2.27 kiplin.-0.0569 kipfm.)2

--=
f,,, a11g

J. ,,., =0.5(!. "".x +J11.+U"" -

foh)

3.15 kip/in.
3.11 kip/in.

Use a 20.75-in. long, double-sided Yi6in. fillet weld to connect the gusset plate lo the beam.

2JJ7 kip/in.

= 0.5 . /<1.39 kip/'lD.)2


[
+V+(I .49 kip/'lD. - 0.0373 kipJin.}1

A conserv:itive method to detem1ine the minimum gusset plate thickness is to set lhe shear
ruprure strength of tbe base metal of lhe gusset plate equal to the required shear rupture
strength of the weld. From AISC Manual Equation 9-3:

6.19D

6.l9D

Tm;n=~

!min=--

F,,

Fu

=1.01

Since/p<aklfavg < 1.25, the weld ductility


factor of 1.25 will be applied. For a
..
discussion of the weld ductility factor,
seeAJSC Manual Part 13.

Sincefp~a>.lfa-.>g < l.25, the weld ductility


factor of 1.25 will be appUed. For a
discussion of the weld ductility fact0r, see
AISC Manual Part 13.

Load angle:

Load angle:

=6.19(1.06 sixteenths)

_ 6.19(1.07 sixteenths)
58 ksi
=0.114 in.S:* in.

58 ksi
=0.113 in.s;% in.

o.k.

o.k.

Therefore, the gusser plate thickness of s in. is acceptable.

Check the beam web at the beam-to-gusset interface

e= tan-!( /aa~/ab)

fub)

ASD

LRFD

fa.pea>. _ 2.07 kip/in.


fa, avg - 2.04 kip/in.

= 1.01

S= tan-1(/ua ~

The weld size is controlled by the mirumum size of fillet weld given in AISC Specificatior.
T:lble J2.4.

=2.04 kipfm.

: 3.11 kip/in.
fu.~ak

ASD

3-2)

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

The nonnal and flexural forces at the gusset-to-beam interface can be converted into an
effective nonnal force in order to facilitate the web local yielding and web local crippling

=tan-1 (2.27 kipfm. + 0.0569 _kip/in.)


2.12 kip/in.

=47.7

Required weld leg. D, including the weld


ductility factor and directional weld
strength increase:

fu,avg

2$Rn [1+0.5sin 1 ~ (0)]

=1.25
x

vatively calculated as:

1.39 kip/in.

=47.7

D~ 1.25[

checks. The effective normal force for use with the full length of che gusset can be constr

=tan- t(l.49 kiplin.+0.0373 kip/in.)

3.'11 kip/in.
2(1.392 kipfm,)li+0.5sin 1.s (47.7))

= 1.06 sixteenths
For a derivation of the weld shear
strength, $Rn = 1.392 kip/in., see AISC

Manual Part 8.

4Mui,
L

N4=Vu1J+-\

=47.2 kips+ 4(6.14 kip-jn.)


D :2: l.25

20.75 in.

fa,""'

2(Rn/U)(t + 0.5sin 1s (0)]

=l.25

2.04 kip/in.
1

=48.4 kips

x 2(0.928 kipfm.)[1+0.5sin .s (47.7")J

=1.04 sixteenths
For a derivation of lhe weld shear
R
strength. ~ 0.928 kip/in., see AISC

Manual Part 8.

ASD

LRFD

Required weld leg, D, including lhe weld


ductility factor and dir:tional weld
suengtb increase:

'

4Mab
Neff =Vab+-L

_
ki
4(4.03kip-in.)
- 310
.
ps+
20.75 in.
=31.8 kips

Check beam web loC8/ yielding


The beam force is applied at a= 8.25 in. from lhe beam end. Because a< d

R.,

=Fywtw(2.5k+lb)
=(50 ksi)(0.300 io.)[2.5(0.827 in.)+20.75 in.]
=342 kips

= 17.7 in.,

(Spec. Eq. JI0-3)

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFICALLY DETAILED FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

'

LRFD
342 kips
.Rn
-=

oJc.

.Q

LRFD

ASD

<!>Rn= 1.00(342 kips)


= 342 kips> 48.4 kips

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

ASD

Tension yielding on gross section, from


AfSC Specification ~uation 14-1:

1.50

= 228 kips> 31.8 kips

o.k.

Rn

$Rn= $f).A8

=0.90(36 ksi)(l4.0 in.)(% in.)

Check beam web local crippling

::::: 170 kips> 45.9 l<lps

Since the framed beam-to-column co11Dection will provide significant restraint to the web
relative to crippling, AJSC Specification Equation Jl0-4 is used despite the fact that the
force is applied less than d/2 from the end of the beam.
'
Using AISC Manual.Table 9-4 and Equations 9-49a and 9-49b:

LRFD

FyA

r.

(36 ksi)(14.0 in.)(% in.)

8
-=-.Q
Q

o.k.

f<:~

:~

1;

1.67

=113 kips > 30.1 kips

o.k.

Check block shear relative to shear load,


n =4, Lev::::: l~ in., Leh= 2.in.

Check block shear relative to shear load,


n=4,Lev= 11hin.,41i=2in.

From ATSC Specification Equation J4-5:

From AISC Specification Equation J4-5 :

I
f:

ASD
<?Rn= ~UbsFuAnt

$R3 = 38.7 kips


<!>~

Tension yielding on gross section, from


AISC Specification Equation J4-1:

l.

=3.89 kip/in.

R3/Q=25.8 kips
R1 / .Q =2.59 kip/in.

'

~ :z2[R3/il+lb (~/Q)]

$Rn =2(<!>R3+lb(<I>~))
= 2[38.7 kips+ 20.75 in.(3.89 kip/in.))

=239 kie_s > 48.1 kips

o.k.

=2(25.8 kips+20.75 in.(2.59 kip/in.)]


=159 kips>31.8 kips o.k.

+ min($0.60FyAgv, $0.60FuAnv)

U1;s= 1:0
(

Tension rupture component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3a:
$V1>sFuAn1 = (1.0)(68.0 kip/in.)(Vs in.)

Gusset-to-Column Interface

Tension rupture component from AISC

Manual Table 9-3a:

Ubs~~nt =(LO)(45.3 kip/in.)(% in.)

=25.S kips

=17.0 kips

Check the gusset at the gusset-to-column interface


Try a length above the top of beam of 14 in. to allow for shaping of the gusset if desired.

Shear yielding component from Al~C


Manual Table 9-3b:
.
I

Shear yielding component from AISC

Manual Table 9-3b:

LRPD

ASD

Forces at interface

Vac

=28.'0 kips

Hae= 30.1 kips

Shear yielding on gross section, from


AISC Specification Equation J4-3:

=1.00(0.6)(36 ksi)(14.0 in.)('h io.)


o.k.

.-

Shear yielding on gross section from


AISC Specification Equation J4-3:

Rn

<!>Rn =.$0.6FyAgv.

-=
Q

0.6FyAgv

= (0.6)(36 ksi)(l4.0 in.)(% in.)


1.50
75.6 kips> 28.0 kips
o.k.

0. 60FyAgv

=63.8 kips

Forces at interface

Vue= 42.7 kips


Hue 45.9 kips

= 113 kips> 42.7 kips

cp<).60FyAgv =(170 kip/in.)(% in.)

Shear rupture component from AISC


Manual Thble 9--3c:
>.60FuA,,,,

=(194 kip/in.)(% in.)

=(l 13 kip/in.)(% in.)


=42.4 kips

She~ nipture compon~nt from AISC


Manual Table 9-3c:
0.60F,,Anv :::: (J2g kip/in.)(% in.)

=72.8 kips
tRn = 25.5 kip/in.+ 63.8 kip/in.
= 89.3 kips> 42.7 kips
o.k.

r'

=48.4 kips

Rn =17.0 kip/in.+42.4 kip/in.

=59.4 ldps > 28.0 kips

o.k.

SYSTEMS NOf SPECLFJCALLY DETAILED FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

LRFD

CaJcufa1e tension rupture component:


~Ub,F,,An1

f~
.

Block shear relative to nonnal load


Calculate tension rupture component

=0.75(1.0X58 kips~ in.)

(l / 2.00)(1.0)(58 Jcips)(}i in.)

x (10.5 in. - 3.5(0.875 in.)]

x[l0.5 in.-3.5(0.875 in.)]

= 121 kips

Calcu~te shear

Calculate shear rupture component:


{l / 2.00)(0.60) (58 ksi)(}i in.)

:l<!(2.00 in.-0.5(0.875 in.)]

=10.2 kips

q,R. = 12 t kips+ 12.2 kips

= 89.0 kips> 30.1 kips

45.9 kips) +(42.7 kips)


( 133 kips
89 3 kips

LRFD

ASD

~ =(~)'

tRn =$r11 t
= (78.3 kip/in.)(1' in.)

= 29.4kips>l7.9kips

= (52.2 kip/in.)(::i in.)

o.k.

= 19.6 kips> 11.9 kips

o.k.

=0.337 < 1.0

o.k.

The resultant forces that will be resisted by I.he bolts in the gusset plate are:

LRFD

LRFD
o.k.

Shear yielding on gross section, from


AISC Specification Equation J4-3:

R,, =J(Vuc) +(H-<)

R,, =J(Voc) +(Hoc)


2

$Rn= $0.60F1 Arv


=1.00(0.60)(36 ksi)(12.0 in.X}\ in.)
= 97.2 kips> 42.7 kips
o.k.

ASD

+(45.9 kips)

Check single plate-assume }'o-in.-thick plate

kips)

Gusset-to-single-plate connection desif)n

=6'2.7 kips

o.k.

Using ArSC Manual Tables 7-4 and 7-5 to check bolt bearing on the gusset plate withs= 3
in. and l. =2 in.. the ava.il:ible bearing strength based on one bolt is:

=J(42.7 kips)

=47.6lops>411 kips

Use (4) ~-in.-diamcter ASThl A325N bolts to connect the gusset plate to I.he column.

30.1 kips) +(28.0


( 89.0 kips
59.4 kips

=0.348 < LO

i:f!

o.k..

Single plate design

o.k.

Combined shear and nonnal block shear:

= 71.6 kips > 62. 7 kips

:; ={4)(1t.9kips)

Therefore, bolt shear governs over bolt bearing.

o.k.

Combined &bear and normal block shear:

!;

=(4)(17.9 k1p:1)

R,. =80.9 kips+S.10 kips

=133 lc.ips > 45.9 kips

From AlSC Manual Table 7-1, (4)


A325-N bolts
are required

3A-in.-diameter ASTM

x[2.00 in.-0.5(0.875 in.))

= 15.3 kips

~Rn

x(* in.)(2.00 in.)

c)0.60F,,An =0.75(0.60)(58 ksi)(* in.)

...

FromAlSCManua/Thblc 7 I, (4)
A325-N bolts
are required.

~-in.-diameter ASTM

=8.10 kips

I,

Calculate shear n1pture component:

yielding component:

0.60~,Atv = (J / 2.00)(0.60)(36 ki.i)

ci0.60.f)Ar =0.75(0.60)(36 ksiX~ in.)


.x (2.00 in.)
= 12.2 lcips

ASD

=80.9 kips

Calculate shear yielding component;

LRFD

ASD

Block shear relative 10 normal load

3.5 BRACED FRAMES

ASD
Shear yielding on -gross section, from
AISC Specification Equation 14-3:

Rn = 0.60FyAgv

=(0.60)(36 ksi)(l2.0 in.)(~ in.)


1.50
= 64.8 kips > 28.0 kips

=J(28.0 kips) 2 +(30. 1 kips) 2


=41.l kips

;:

o.k.

SYSTEMS NOT SPEClFICALLY DET.'\Il..ED FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

LRFD

ASD

Shear rupture on net section, from AISC


Specification Equation 14-4:

Shear rupture on net section. from AISC


Specification Equation 14-4:

=0.75(0.60)(58 ksi)
x[l2.0 io. - 4(0.875 in.)}(% in.)

=83.2 kips > 42.7 kips

Tensile yielding on gross section, from


AlSC Specification Equation 14--1:

$Rn=4>F1Ag.
= 0.90(36 ksi)(l2.0 in.)(}i io.)

=146 kips> 45.9 kips

F1 Ag

=(36 ksi)(12.0 in.)(% in.)


1.67

o.k.

Tensile rupture on net section, from


AISC Specificaiion Equation J4-2:

Rn:::: FuAe

$Rn=9FuAe

=0.75(58 ksi)
x[l2.0 in. - 4(0.875 in.)](% in.)
o.k.

=(1/2.00)(58 ksi)
x [I2.0 in.-4(0.875 in.)](% in.)

=92._4 kips> 30.1 kips

Block shear on single plate relative to


shear load, with n =4, 4., = 11h in.,
Le11=2'12 in.

From AISC Specification Equation 14-5:

From AISC Specification Equation J4-5:

$R'I =4>UbsFuA>ll
,,
+min (cj>0.60F,,A8 ,., ~.60F,.Anv)

06FuAm 48.4 kips, from gusset-

9Q.60FuA 111 =72.8 kips, from gussetto-column interface check

$Rn:::: 33.6 kips + 63.8 kips


=97.4 kips > 42. 7 kip$

Rn = 22.4 kips+42.4 kips

o.k.

= 64.8 lcips > 28.0 kips

Tension rupture component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3a:

UbsF,,A,u -(1.0)(59.8 kip/in.)(% in.)

=22.4 kips

o.k.

Block sbe:.tr on single plate relative to


normal load

.Block shear on single plate relative to


normal load

Calculate tension rupture component:

Calculate tension rupture component:

$UbsFuAn1 =121 kips, from gussetto-column interface check

UbsFuAnt = 80.9 kips, from gussel-

to-column interface check


Calculate shear yielding compqnent

Calculate shear yielding component:

90.60FyA8 v =0.75(0.60)(36 ksi)('h in.)


x(2.50 in.)
= 15.2 kips
Calculate shear rupture component:

ubs =t.o

$UbsF..An1 = (1.0)(89.7 kin.)(% in.)


= 33.6 kips

Shear rupture component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3c:

o.k.

.Block shear on single plate relative to


shear load, with n =4, Lev,= 11h in.,
L~h= 21h in.

Tension rupture component from AlSC


Manual Table 9-3a:

Shear rupture component from AJSC


Manual Table 9-3c:

to-column interface check

=97.0 kips > 30. l kips

=139 kips > 45.9 kips

o.k.

-=-n n

o.k.

Tensile rupture-on net section, from ATSC


Specification Equation J4.2:

0.60f).A8 .,
.
fro
---''--"'n =42.4 kips, m gusset-

=63.8 kips, from gusset-

to-column interface check

Tensile yielding on gross section, from


AISC Specifjcation Equation 14-1:

Rn

She;- yielding component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3b:

to--column interface check

=(l/2.00)(0.60)(58 ksi)
=55.5 kips> 28.0 kips

Shear yielding component from AlSC


Manual Table 93b:
~.601).Agv

x[12.0 io. - 4(0.875 in.)]{% in.)

o.k.

ASD

LRFD

Rn 0.60F,.Anv
--=

$Rn= ~.60F,,Atw

3.S BRACED FRAMES

0.60FyAgv _ 0.60(36 ksi)(% in.)(2.50 in.)


n 2.00
=10.1 kips
Calculate shear rupture component:

~A..v = (1/2-.00)(0.60)(5~ ksi)(~ in.)

9<}.60FuAnv =0.75(0.60)(58 ksi)('h in.)


x[2.50 in. - 0.5(0.875 in:))
=20.2 kips

06

$Rn= 121 kips + 15.2 kips


=136 kips> 45.9 kips

R,. = 80.9 kips+ IO. I kips


o.k.

x[2.50 in.-0.5(0.875 in.)]

' = 13.5 !Ops

}:

I".

t
1

J:

.::i

=91.0 kips> 30.1 kips

o.k.

J
I:

SYSTEMS NOT SP~CU"ICAU,Y DETAlU.!O FOR SFJSMIC RESlSTANC6

LRFD

.L'.> URALEIJ l'l<AMt:.:>

LRFD

ASD

ASD
-~

r r

Combined shear and nonnal block ~he3n-

( 42.7 kips
97-4 kips

+ ( 45.9 kips
J36 kips

=0.306 < 1.0

Combined shear and normal block ~hear:

( 28.0 kips
64.8 kips

o.k.

+( 30.1 kips
9 J.0 kips

=0.296< 1.0

lI

R" -('"
n} p

= (78.3 kjplin.)(* in.)


o.k.

= 29.4kips >17.9 kips

=(52.2 kip/in.)( ~ in.)


= 19 6 kips> 11.9 kips

o.k.

o.k.

Therefore, bolt shear governs over bearing.

I'

Use a *-in.-thick single plate.

'

Beam single-plate-to-column connection weld


Beam-to-Column Single Plate Connection

,,i,

Treating the welds as a line:

The forces on the connection are:

;:'

n-

R,. = r11tp

l,.

LRFD

,.
~

~
.-.,:,_.,,

ASD

Vu = Ru+ Vub
= 4.00 kips+ 47.2 ldps
=51.2 kips

Va = Ra+ Vob

H., = Huc

Ha = !lac

=36.0 in. ~/in .


The forces nlong the beam-to-column in1erfacc arc:
LRFD

The resohan1 force that will be resisted by

The resultant force that will be resisted

the bolts is:

by lhc bolts is:

R., =J(51.2kips) +(45 9 kips)

..

=30.1 kips
2

~.

Zw =(12.0 in.}1

=2.63 kips+ 31.0 kips


=33.6 kips

= 45.9 kips

'
,,

Ra= J(33.6 kips) +(30. l kips)

f,.

From AISC Manual Tuble 7-1, (4)

~-in.

diameler ASTM A325-N bolts are

From AISC ManualThble 7-1, (4)


diameter ASTM A325N bolts are

required.

required.

=7 1.6 kips > 68.8 k,;ps

~- in.

~ = (4)(11.9.ldps)

kips)

o.k.

ASD

= 51.2 kips

/ .,

12.0 in.
::::: 4.27 rJ p/in.

= 45. 1 kips

=68.8 kips

~Rn= (4)(17.9

=12.0 in.

fa

=45.9 kips

fo

12.0in.
= 3.83 kip/in.

118 kip-in.

= 47 .6 kips> 45. l kips

/b

= 3.28 kip(in.

Use (4) ASTM A325-N bolts to connect the beam to the column.

Using AJSC Manual Tables 7-4 and 7-5 for boll bearing on the single plate, with s 3 in.
and~= 2 in. (note that~ = 2 in. is used conservatively 10 employ Table 7-5). The avail
able bearing strength of the plate b<lsed on one bolt is:

/peak.= J1i+(J. + fb)

12.0in.
::::: 2.SO kip/ in.

=30.J kips
12.0in.

= 2.51 kip/in.

'

= 36.0 in.j lin.

_ 33.6.kips

77.5 kip-in.

=36.0 in.3 Fm.


=2.15 kip/in.

f P"k = f.,2 +(fa+ fb ) 2

= J4.27 2 +(3.83+ 3.28)

=8.29 kip/in.

=Jz.so2 +(2.51+2.15)2
=5.44 kipfin.

.i.
I

AMDJcNI [NS'TTT\)'T1! OF STt.EL CONSTR\JCl"l(I

AMl.:IUCAN

lNmnml OP Srm. eoi-snuJCTIOH

'

I.
I

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIRCALLY DETAILED FOR SEJSMJC RESISTANCE

LRFD

....

3.5 BRACED fRAMBS

~-4

LRFO

ASD

ASD

n.

Losd Angle

Load Angle

0 ::: tan-I ( 3.83 kip/ in.+ 3.28 kip/ in.)

4.27 kip/in.

9 = tan

=59.0

Tensile rup1ure on net so.:tion from AISC


Specificatior1 Equation H -2:

1(2.51

kip/ in.+2.15 kip/ in.)


2.80 kip/ in.

$Rn-$F.,A,
in.))(~

x[ 12.0 in. - 4(0.875


D?.

8.29 kip/ in.


2(1.392 IJp/ in.)j 1+0.5sinl.5 (59.0))

D~

S.44 kip/in.

= 139 kips> 45.9 kips

2
2
47.2 k1ps) +(45.9 kips.}
( 97..1 kips
136 kips
=0.349 < 1.0

Determine the single plate thickness

Try a Vs-in.-thick plate.

LR.FD

ASD
She:ll' yielding on gross section, from
AJSC Specification Equation J4-3:

=1.00(0.60)(36 kSi)( 12.0 in.)(* in.)


=97.2 kips> 512 kips o.k.

Shear rupture on nel section, from AISC


Specificario11 Equation J4-4:

= 0.75(0.60)(58 ksi)
x[l2.0 in. - 4(0.875 in.)](* in.)
= 83.2 kips> 47.2 kips

(0.60)(36 ksi)(12.0 in.)(~ in.)

1.50
=64.8 kips> 33.6 kips

Specificarion

3.83 Jdplin. + 3.28 kip/in.


0.90(36 ksi)(~ in.)

in.)](* in.)

=0.585 < 1.0

o.k.

o.k.

Tensile yielding on gross section, from


AISC Specification Equ:ition J4 I

(use stresses calculated for weld):

/"1>

2.51 kip/in.+2.15 kiplin.


F)tp / O - (36 ksi)(~ in.)/1.67
= 0.576 < l .O
o.k.

/ 04

x[l2.0 in.-4(0.875 in.)](}~ in.)


-" 92.4 kips> 30. l kips
o.k.
Combined shear and nonnsl block shear
sttcogtlls from gusset-to-column checkusing values from gusset-to-column
single plate:
2

31 .0 kips) +(30.l kips)


( 64.8 kips
9 l.O kips

=0.338<1.0

o.k.

o.k.

With beam 11:mge intnct, only axial force will caure block shear.

Block ~hear relative to normal load:

ASD
Block shear relative to normal load:

$Rn =$Ub,FuA,.,
+min($0.60F1 A1v. 0.60P.iA,.,)

. (0.60FyAgv

+mm

'

0.60~uA11v)

J-

(1/2.00)(1.0)(65 ksi)
x[9.00 io.-3(0.875 in.))

x(0.300 in.)

x(0.300 in.)

= 93.2 kips

cP().60F1 A1 v =2(0.75)(0.60)(50 ksi)


x(0.300 in.)(2.00 in.)
= 27.0 kips

,:.:

I
t;

If,~

web

UbsFuA"' = 0.75( l.OX65 k.si)


x(9.00 in. -3(0.815 in.)]

=(J/2.00)(0.60)(58 ksi)
= 55.5 kips> 31.0 kips

""c112.00)(58 ksi)

=0.60F,.A,,,.
x[l2.0 in.-4(0.875

o.k.

Tensile yielding on gross sectioo,-from


AISC Specification Equation J4- l
(use stresses cnJculatcd for weld):

o.k.

Shear rupture on net section, from AISC


Equation 14-4:

Check block shear at beam

I}
l

LRFD

n
""

R,.

Rn= ~.60F,.Anv

fua + f ub
F1 t,

R,, ..,, 0.60FyA1.,

4>Rn =~.60FyA 1.,

o.k.

Combined ~hc:ir and nonnal block ~hear


strengths from gusset-to-column checkusing values from gusset-to-column
single pla1e

A ~6-in. fille1 weld on both sides of the single plate is :idc~uate.

Shear yielding on gross section, from


AlSC Specification Equ3tion 14-3:

in.)

2(0.928 kip/in.)[ I+ 0.5sinl.5 (59 0)]

:: 2.10 sixteenths

= 2.13 sixteenths

Sp::fi:a_~_:_: Equation 14- 2:


n

=0.75(58 ks1)

=59.0

Ten~ile rupture on net sec1ioo from AISC

l
I
l

= 62.2 kips
0.60FyA,, - 2(1/2.00) (0.60)(50 k.si)

x(0.300 in.)(2.00 in.)

=18.0 kips

SYSTE'MS Ncrr SPECIFICALLY DBTAll.EO FOR S.EJSMJC RESISTANCE

>-SO

LRFD
0.60F.,Anv
Q

x[2.00 in. - 0.5(0.875 in.))


x(0.300 in.)

=2(1/2.00) (0.60)(65 ksi)


x (2.00 in.-0.5(0.875 in.))
x (0.300 in.)

=27.4 kips
::=

cl>R,, =93.2 kips+ 27.0 kips

= 120 kips> 45.9 kips

o.k.

,.
,

3.5 BRACED

3-51

FRAMES

LRFD

....

f u.b

Muct
=--

ASD

f db

z,..

= J07 kip-in.

.~

Moc8
=--

Zw

= 70.0 kip-in.
36.0 in. 3 /in.
l.94 kip/in .

36.0 in.3 /in.


= 2.97 kip/in.

18.3 kips

R,. =62.2 kips+l8.0 kips


Q
= 80.2 ldps > 30.l kips

'
~

ASD

0.60F.,A,,.. = 2(0.75)(0.60)(65 ksi)

~.

-:~

f,,,p<alc

o.k.

Since the gussel-to-column and the beam-to-c.olumn single plates are created as identical
plates, several ch&ks related to these can be combined.

=JJ:fv+(J,,,, + f,,b )"

fa. peak = [1.,+ (Joo+ f db )2

= J3 .562 + (3.83 + 2.97f

=J2.332 + (2.5 l + l.94)2

=7.68 kip/in.

= 5.02 kip/in.

e=tan-1(fua+fu1>)

Single plate to column weld design

The beam-to-column and gusset-co-column single plates will be treated as


separate connections. Conservatively, each single plate will be assumed to be 12 in. long to
maintain symmetry relative to the actual loads.
Consider only the portion of the single plate attached to the gusset, design the single plate
to column weld. Treating lhe welds as a line:

(12.0 in/
4
36.0 in?/in.

LRFD

=42.7 kips
12.0 in,

=3.56 kip/in.

r
r>:

Hw

.. I
~:

!""=-
I..,

=45.9 kips
12.0 in.
= 3.83 !tip/in.

=62.4

D>

= tan

- 1

2.33 kip/in.

= 62.4

7.68 lcip/in.

- 2(1.392 kipfm.)[l+0.5sinl.5 (62.4)]

D~

5.02 kip/in.

2(0.928 kip/in.)[ I+ 0.5sinl.5 (62.4)j

=l.91 sixteenths

Note: Since the bolts in the single plate will add ductility to the connection and also make
this interface less rigid lhan the gusset-to-beam interface, the weld ductility factor applied
to the gusset-to-beam interfuce need not be applied here.

The forces along the gusseHo-single plare interface are:

I..,

3.83 kipfm. + 2.97 kip/in.)


3.56 kipfm.

A :Y1<1-in. fillet weld on bol..h sides of lhe single plate is adequate.

JIN= Vue.

_ 1(

=1.95 sixteenths

l,,, = 12.0 in.

Z,,,.

=tan

laa;:lan )
(2.51 k:ip/in.+1.94 kip/in.)

a ::= Uln- 1(

fuv

ASD

J.av --

V,,,,
1...,
28.0 kips
= 12.0in.

=2..33 kip/in.

J.aa-_Hoc
lw

= 30. 1 kips
12.0 in.
=2.511.cipfm.

Regarding the design of the weld to the single plate, from AISC Specijicacion Table J2.4, the
m.ininrnm size fillet weld allowed for I.be pans being connected is o/16 in. The AJSC Manual
Pan 10 recommends developing the strength of the plt1ce to ensure plastic yielding of the
plate., instead of .fracture in the fillet weld. A mini.mum fillet weld of~ times 1be plate thickness for both sides of I.be plaie is needed 10 develop the plate streng1h. Since this rcquiremeni
is intended to ensure that the simple berun end rotation can be accommodated in a ductile
manner, it need not be applied 10 R = 3 bracing connections. Use a Vt6-io. fillet weld.
The final connection design and geometry is shown in Figure 3-8.

SYSTEMS NOT SPCCJFICALLY DETAil. ED FOR SElSMlC RESISTANCE

3-52

<t,

column

Y.i"

1-a~

W12x50

<(5) 3A dia. A325-SC

2>'.l"

bolts with ovs. holes


In gusset, std. holes
in brace and Class 8
faying surfaces
\

PART 3 REFERENCES

PART 3 REFERENCES
Carter. C.J. (1999), Srifftning of Wide-Flange Column at Moment Co11nec1io1u: Wind and
Seismic 1\pplicatio1u, Design Gujde I3, AISC, Chicago, IL.

Dowswell, B. (2006), "Effective Length Faciors for Gusset Plate Budding; Engineering
Jo11mal, AISC, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 91- 101.

(2) L6x4x%

%" A36PL

If.

.....u...-~11---"'- ~{8) ~ dia. A325-N

beam

W18x35 beam

bolts in std. holes

Fig. 3-8. Connection as designed in Example 3.5.3.

I
\

t
'

.l

..

.J.

..\

.1
AMWC>Ji lNsrmm! OF STEEL COl'ISTRUC'l10N

...t

3-54

SYSTEMS NOT SPECIFlCALLY DETAILED FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE

4-1

PART4
MOMENT FRAMES

4. l SCOPE .......................................................... 4-2

4.2 ORDINARY MOMENT FRA.i\tfES (OMF) ............................... 4-2


OMF Design Example Plan and Elev:ition .... , .. ......................... 4-3
Example 4.2. l. OMF Story Drift and Stability Check ...................... 4-5
Example 4.2.2. OMF Column S1rength Oteck ............................ 4-1
Example 4.2.3. O.MF Beam Strength Check ............................. 4-12
Example 4.2.4. OMF Beam-Column Connection Design ................... 4-16

4.3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES (SMF) AND INTERMEDIATE


M0?\.1ENT FRAMES (IMF) ................. ......... ................ 4-33
SMF Design Example Plan and Elevation ...... . ........................ 4-36
faample 4.3.1. SMF Story Drift and Stability Check ....... ......... ..... 4-36
Example 4.3.2. SMF Column Strength Check ......... . ... . .............. 4-42
E\ample 4.3.3. S~fF Beam Strength Check. . . . . .

. ... ........... ...... ~

Example 4.3.4. SMF Beam-Column Connec1ion Design .. ............ . .... 4-57


4.4 COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUMN BASE DESIGN E..'<AMPLES .. . .. . .... 4-76
example 4.4.l. Gravity Column SpUce Design in a Moment
Frame Building .................................................... 4-76
Example 4.4.2. SMF Column Splic~ Design ..... ........ ................ 4-90
Example 4.4.3. SMF Column Base Design . .. ........................... 4-94
Example 4.4A. SMF Embedded Column Base Design .................... 4-113
4.5 DESIGN TABLE OJSCUSSION .............................. ........ 4- 120

DESIGN TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .. ... ..... 4-122

Tuble 4-1. Comparison of Requirements for SMP, IMF and OMP ... ..... ... 4-122
Table 4-2. S:MF Design Values ....................................... 4-124
PART 4 REFERENCES ................................................ 4-138

MOMENT FRAMES

4.1 SCOPE
The following types of moment frames are addressed in this Part: ordinary moment frame
(OMF) systems, intenncdiate moment frame (IMF) systems, and special moment frame
(SMF) systems. The AISC Seismic Pro"isions requ.iremenlS and other design considerations
summarized in this Part apply 10 the design of the members and connections in moment
frames that require seismic detailing according to the AISC Seismic Provisions.
Moment frame systems resist lateral forces through the flexural aud shear strengths of the
beams and columns. Lateral displacement is resisted primarily through the flexural stiffness
of the fr:iming members and the restraint of relative rotarion between the beams and
columns at the connections, or "frame action."' Moment frame systems tend to have larger
and heavier beam and column sizes than in braced frame systems, because the beams and
columns are often sized for drift control rather than strength. The increase in member siLeS
and related costs, however, may be acceptable because of the increased flexibility in the
architectural and mechanical layout in the structure. The absence of diagonal bracing members can provide greater freedom in the configuration of walls and in the routing of
mechanical ductwork and piping. On the other hand. the flexible nature of the frames does
warrant some additional consideration of the interaction between the steel frame and more
rigid architectural cladding systems. AISC Design Guide 3, Serviceability Design
Considerations for Steel Buildings (West and Fisher; 2003), discusses recomniended drift
limits for various cladding systems.

4.2 ORDINARY M OMENT FRAMES (OMF)

4-3

(a) FR moment connections are designed for s required flexural strength equal to the
expected flexural strength of the beam multiplied by l. J, as follows:

Jhe required shear strength of the connection is determined using a shear force duo to
earthquake loads associated with the development of these expected flexural moments
simultaneously 3t each end of the beam.
(b) FR moment connections are designed for a required flexural screngtb and shear strength
equal to the max.imum moment and corresponding shear that can be transferred to the
connection by the system, including the effects of material overstrength and slrain hardening. As discussed in AISC Seismic Provisions Commentary Section E l.6b, specific
examples of potentially limiting aspects of the system include:

Flexural yielding of the column when the flexural strength of the column is less than
that of the beam
The panel zone shear strength of the column, in recognition of lhe fact that testing has
shown that panel zone shear yielding provides a fairly ductile response in this joint
The foundation uplift
The earthquake force detemtined using an R value of 1
cc) FR moment conne.ctions between wide fl:."lnge beams and the flange of wide flange
columns are designed according to the connection design requiremenis of the IMF
(AISC Seismic Provisions Section E2.6) or SMP (AISC Seismic Provisions Section
E3.6). or a connection is used that resembles the tested WUF-W or WUF-B connections
that are included in ANSI/AISC 358. See ATSC Seismic Provisions Section El .6b(c) for
detailed requirements.

(4-la)

(4-lb)

where
Ry =ratio of the expected yield stress to the specified minimum yield stress, P7
Mp= nominal plastic flexural strength of the beam
AMERICAN .INSTmrra Ol' STEEi.. Cof'l.$1"!\UCTION

}:

required to develop available strengths similar to those of FR moment connections. In addition, PR moment connections must have a nominal flexural strength no less than 0.50Mp of
the connected beam (or O.SOMp of the column for one-story structures). The strength and
fle:tibility of the connection must be considered in the design, including the effect on over

all frame stability.


OMF systems are not required to have, any special detailing of the panel zones, and have
no special requirements for the relationship between beam and column strength. This is
indicative of the overall OMF system; where the detailing requirements are reduced and the
seismic forces are larger than moment frame systems intended to provide higher ductility.
This basic design philosophy for OMF systems alJows for their use as an economical
moment frame system when OMF systems are permitted by the applicable building code.
According to ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.2.5.6, OMF frames are permitted to be used in
Seismic Design Categories D, E and F for one-story structures under certain height and
loading limitations.

OMF Design Example Plan and Elevation

or

Ma =(1.1/1.5)RyMp (ASD)

\:I

As described in AJSC Seismic Provisions Section El.6c, PR momem connections are

The only system-specific requirements for an OMF penain to the beam-to-column moment
connections. The general intent of the OMF design provisions provided in AISC Seismic
Provision$ Section El is that connection failure should not be the first significant inelastic
event in the response of the frame to earthquake loading, recognizjng that a connection failure is typically one of the least ductile failure modes of a steel frame. Thus the basic design
requ"irement is to provide a frame with strong moment connections. In accordance with
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section El.6, two connection types are permitted when designing
OMF systems-fully restrained (FR) and partially restrained (PR), as defined in AISC
Specification Section B3.6b.
AU FR connections in OMP systems must satisfy at least one of the following three
options given in AISC Seismic Provisions Section El.6b.

Mu =LIR,,Mp (LRFD)

4.2 ORDU-SARY MOMENT FRAMES

Tue following section consists of four design examples for an OMF system. See Figure 4- I
for lhe roof plan :md Figure 4-2 for lbe elevation of the building moment frames.
The code-specified gravity loading is as follows:
D

= 15 psf

=20 psf

.,

..

;l
~:l

'

MOMEm FR.AMl:S

From ASCEISEl 7, lbe following parameters apply: Risk Category IT, Seismic Design
Category D, R = 3~. !1,, = 3, Cd= 3. !< = 1.00, Sos= 0.528, and p = 1.0. According to
ASCE/SEI 7"S'ection 12.3.4.2, p = 1.0 if each story resists more 1ban 35% of 1he base shear
in the direction of interest and loss of moment resistance at the beanHo-column connections at both ends of a beam will not result in more than a 33% reduction in story strength,
nor does the resulting system have an extreme torsional irregularity. p is takenas I.0 for
this r~son.

4-5

4.2 ORDINARY MOMENT FRAMES

Example 4.2.1. OMF Story Drift and Stability Check


Given:
Refer to t.he root: plan s.hown in Figure 4-1 and the OM.P elevation shown in Figure 4-2.
Determine if the frame satisfies lhe drift and stability requirements. The applicable building
code speciJies the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for c.a.lculation of loads. The loading and applicable
ASCE para.meters are as given previously.

The seismic design story shear, V_., is 11.5 kips.

From an elastic analysis of the structure that _includes second-order effects and accounts for
panel-tone deformations, the elastic drift at the top of the story is:
01e =0.980 in.
At the base of the structure:

Obe = 0 in.

];--:--:--:--:- ,..--,---;-_,... . .,. . . ., ,.....,..--,--...,.--~ ,..-----'----'-:!

l!~'8> --

Solution:
Drift Check

CR.- - - -

2-0~~ ::e~:a~~ ~ :e~i:nexamples. For elevation, see


Figure 4-2.

"CRi--------!

--

Section 12.8.6 of ASCEJSEI 7 defines che design story drift, .1. as the largest difference of
the deflections of \'ertically aligned points at the top and bortom of the story under consideration along any of the edges of the structure. This calculated deflection includes the effects
of elastic and inelastic drift, which in this example includes second-order effects. From
ASCE/SEI 7 Equation 12.8-15:

::::: CJ(Ore-Obe)

'~

3(0.980 in. - 0 in.)


LOO
= 2.94 ill.

:::

Fig. 4-1. O/.fF roofplan.

'

~!

'

~-i-----;:;.3~f
.~-0

[
I

~:
~-

W18x40
BM-1

30.o

W18x40

FromASCEISEI 7 Table 12.12-l, the allowable story drift at level x, 6.a. is 0.020hu. where
ltn is the story height below level x. Tl is assumed in this example that t.., can be increased
to 0.025h~ because interior walls. partitions, ceilings, and exterior wan sys1ems are
designed to accommodate these increased story drifts. ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.12.l.J
requires, for seismic force resisting systems comprised solely of moment frames in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F. chat the design story drift not e.JCceed
AalP for any story. Determine the allow:\ble story drift as follows:

t:.,,
p

= 0.025hsr

l.O
0.025(17.0 ft)(12 ioJft)
1.0
= 5. l 0 in. > 2.94 in,
o.k.

Fig. 4-2. OMF tlevat-um.

'\

MOMENT FRAMES

4.2 ORDINARY MOMENT FRAMES

Frame Stability Check

Check the maximum permitted

ASCE/SEl 7 Section 12.8.7 investigates potential for instability by use of a stability coefficient. e, calculated as:

The stability coefficient may not exceed 011kn The ratio of shear demand to shear capacity
for the story between levels x and x-1 is ~. Couser'(<ltiyely, usi.ng a value of l.O for (3:

P,,D.1,'

(1::::

VJthnCa
where

P.t
A

(ASCFJSEI 7 Eq. 12.8-16)

1HAt -

o.s

~Cd

<025

t:

(ASCFJSEI 7 Eq. 12.8-17)

- .

.,

0.5
=-1.0(3)

=total vertical design load at and above level x


=design story drift occurring simultaneously with V)C

I;
I

':.

=0.167 ~ 0.25

ft ::: s~ismic importance factor


Vx ::: seismic design story shear acting between levels .t and x-1
hu ::::: story height below level :c
Cd deflection amplification factor

The adjusted stability coefficient satisfies the maximum:

0.0666 < 0.167

o.k.

Tue moment frame meets the allowable story drift and stability requirements for seismic
loading.

ASCE/SEl 7 does not explicilly specify load factors to be used on the gravity loads for determining P.,. except Section 12.8.7 does specify that no individual load factor need exceed LO.
For this example, the load combination use<l to compute the total vertical load on a given
story, Px, acting simultaneously with the hmizontal earthquake force, Vx, is l.OD + 0.2S,
taken from ASCE/SEI 7 Section 2.3 with the dead.load factor limited ro 1.0 as e.xplained.
Note that consistent with this, the same combination was used in the second-order. analysis
as used for this example for the purpose of computing the fundameptal period, base shear,
and design
story
dtift.
. .
',

Example 4.2.2. OMF .Column Strength Check


Given:

to

Refer Column CL-1 in Figure 4-2. Determine the adequacy of the ASTM A992 W12x35
column for the.following loading. The required strength of columns should be determined
in accordance with AISC Seismic Provisions Section Dl.4a. The applicable building code ~i
specifies the use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads.
~,
1

The total vertical design load is:

Px = 120 ft(75 .0 ft)[l.0(15 pst)+ 0.2(20 psf)] / 1,000 lb/kip

Tue governing load combinations that include seismic effects are:

=171 kips

LRFD .,
ASD
I :;i
1--L-RFD--L-oa_d_C_o_m_bi-n-au-o_n_5_fr_o_m_ __ -+-_A_S_D_Lo-ad_C_o_m_b_in_a_ti_o_n_6_f_ro_m
_ __ --1I

The stability coefficient, e. from ASCE/SEI 7 Equation 12.8-16 is:

l :.

=
9

171 kips(2.94 in.)(1.00)


11.5 kips(l7 .0 ft)(12 in./ft)(3)

ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3


(1.2+0.2Sos)D+pQE +0.5L+0.2S

=0.0714
Because a second-order analysis was used to compute the story drift, e is adjusted as fellows according to ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.8.7 before checking 0,,_.

J.

ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3


(l.0+0.10Svs)D-t:0.525pQE

I"':;

+H+F+0.75L
+0.75S

(including the permitted 0.5 factor l in


Section 12.4.2.3)

\.

i~
1 ...;::

L---------------L-------------~

e
0.0114
=
1+ e
1+ 0.0114

t;

From a second-order analysis including the effects of P-6 and P-o effects as well as th:
reduced stiffness require<l by the direct analysis method, the column required strengths are ~:
.

=0.0666

ASD

LRFD

Per ASCE/SEI 7, if 0 from a first-order analysis or 0/(1+9) from a second-order analysis i:s
less than or equal to 0.10, second-order effecis need not be considered for computing story
drift. Note that whether or not second-order effects on member forces must be considered
per ASCE/SEI 7 has to be verified, as it was in this example; however, Chapter C of tbe
AlSC Specificarian requires second-order effects be considered in all cases.

v..

= 15.2 kips
3.78 kips

Pa
V0

M .. U)p

:= 64.3

Ma top = 43.7 kip-ft


Ma wt= 0 kip-ft

P,..

kip-ft

M,, /xJI:;:; 0 kip-ft

~.:,.

=l7.5k.ips

=2.57 kips

MOMENT FRAMf,S

!""" The higher ASD required axial strength compared to LRFD could be explained by the higher

load factor on snow load. S. of 0.75 for ASD versus 0.2 for LRFD.

I[

According to ASCE/SEJ 7, the load combinations including amplified seismic loads (incJml
ing overstrength factor. flo) are:

.,....

i
~

From AlSC \fanual Tab!~ 3-2:


Lp=5A4 ft
L, = L6.6 ft

Lb> Lp~ therefore, the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling applies.

LRFD

ASD

LRFD Load Combinations 5 and 7 from


ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASD Load Combinations 5, 6 and 8 from


ASCE/SEJ 7 Section 12.4.3.2

( 1.2 + 0.2Sos) D + OoQe + 0.5L + 0.2S

(l.O+O.J4SDs)D+ H +F+0.70 0 Qi::

Mu wp = 64.3 kip-ft

(0.9-0.2Sos)D+ 0 0 Qt + l.6H

(l.0+0.105SDs)D + H + F+ 0.5250.,Q.e
+0.75L+0.75S

Mw bet =0 k.ip-ft

=43.7 kip-ft
Ma b<>I =0 kip-ft

Quarter point moment-: are:

Quarter point momentS arc:

(including the 0.5 factor on L penniueJ


by Section 12.4.3.2)

.; I

Calculate Cb using AJSC Specification Equation F 1- 1.

(0.6-0.14Sos)D+ 0.7Q.,(k- + H

'. I

P.

=2LO "'"'

LRFD

P.

=20.6 ljpo

ASO

M(.t = 12.75 fi) =Mc

=0.75(43.7 kip-ft)
=32.8 kip-ft

::: 48.2 kip-ft

From AISC Manual Table 2-4. the material properties are as follows:

=64.3 kip-ft

12.5M,,_
-(2.5Mmax+3MA
)
+4.\ls +3Mc

b-

1From AISC Manual Thblc I - 1. the geometric properties arc as follows:


W12x35
ry

=1.54 in.

ISection El .5a of lhc AlSC Seismic Pro\isions states that there are no tirnit:ltions on width!O thickness ratios of members of an OMF, beyond those in the AlSC Specification.

I.

Available Flexural Strength


Per the User Note in AlSC Spuificatk>n Section F2. the colwnn has compact flanges and
web. The available flexural strength is the lower value obtained according to lhe limit states
of lateral-torsional buckling and yielding.

With no interior brace poinL'I, the unbl'3Ced column length is Lt, = 17.0 ft.

C
b=

= 12.5(64.3 kip-ft)+3{16.1 k:ip-fi)

+ 4 (32.2 kip-ft)+3(48.2 kip-ft)


= 1.67

= 43.7 kip-ft

M,IUU

12.5(64.3 kip-ft)

Fu= 65 ksi

.;
'

= 21.9 kip-ft

=0.75(64.3 kip-ft)

Mmax

=5.25 in.

=0.50(43.7 kip-ft)

=12.75 ft)= Mc

Solution:

r,

M(x = S.50 ft) =Ms

= 0.50(64.3 kip-ft)
=32.2 kip-ft
M (x

ASTMA992
F1 =50 ksi

'

= l 0.9 kip-ft

= 16.1 kip-ft

There are no transverse loadings between lhe column supports in the plane of bending and
the columns are considered to be pinned at the base.

,.!~

= 0.25(43.7 kip-ft)

0.25(64.3 kip-ft}

tlI

M(x = 4.25ft) =M;.

M(.x =8.50 ft) = MB

l~

I ~:

Ma '"P

M(x= 4.25 ft) = MA

erning load combination that includes the amplified sei~mic load is:

,~

ASD

I .Rm

----~ 3
(::J' From the frame analysis, the maximum required ;Uial strength in this column from the gov

4 9

4.2 ORDINARY MOt-ff.NT I RAMES

12.5Mmar

(2.5Mma:1: +3MA

)
+4Ms +3Mc

12.5{43.7 kip-ft)

'

=12.5(43.7 kip-ft)+3(10.9 lcip-ft)ll


+4(21.9 kip-ft)+3(32.8 lcip ft)

=1.67

Check lateral-torsional buckling using AJSC Manual Table 6-1 with Lb = 17.0 ft and the
modification to bx for when Cb> 1.0 (AJSC Manual Equation 6-5).

4-10

MOMENT PRAlv!ES

LR.FD
b,,

=0.00766 (kip-ft)-J

$bMn =cb(~)[:J

Because the W12x35 is not included in AISC Manual Table 4-l, use AISC Manual Tab!."'
6-1 co determine the available compressive strength. with KLy = 17.0 fl:

ASD
b..

=0.0115 (kip-nr

4.Z ORDINARY MOl\ltENT FRAMES

LRFD

Mn =Cb(!)(.!.)
Qb
9 bx

61(!)(
l
9 o.011s(kip-rtr

=167(!)(
I
)
9 o.00166(k.ip-ftr1

-1

= 194 kip-ft

=129 kip-ft

1)

Use <!>bM,.

=192 kip-ft

- 0.0113 kips-I

0.00754 kips-

Mp

-=-

= 192 kip-ft< 194 kip-ft

nb

nb

n1>

=128 kip-ft

Available Axial Compressive Strength

P,

15.2 kips

Pc

133 kips

P, = 17.5 kips
Pc 88.5 kips

=0.198

=0.114
Because P,IPc < 0.2, use AJSC
Specificarion Equation HI -Ib:

Tue direct analysis method de.scribed in Section C of the AJSC Specification states that the
effective length factor, K, of all members-shall be taken as unity unless a smaller value can
be justified by ratiooal analysis.

~ +(Mnc + .'rf,,) s l.O

Therefore:

0.114
2

Kx = 1.0
Ky= 1.0

KxLx

=l.0(17.0 ft)(l2.0 in.Ill)


5.25 in.

rx

2Pc

Mex

Because PrlPc < 0.2., use AISC


Specification Equ~on ill-lb:

Mey

+(&u
kip-tl +o)= 0_392
192 kip-fl

0.392 < 1.0

The slenderness ratios about the strong and wealc axis are:

ASD

LRFD

The unbraced length of the column fur buckling about boch the strong and weak axis is
.0 ft. The column has slender elements according to AISC ;\la1111al Table 1-1.

17

=88.5 kips

Combined Loading
Using AlSC Specificarion Section Hl, determine whether the applicable interaction equ
tion is satisfied, as follows:

= 128 kip-ft< 129 kip-fl

Use Mn

ASD

M11

=o.oi 13 kips-

P,.
-= !le p

Check yielding using AlSC Manual Table 3-2.

$bM,. =; $bMp

= 133 kips

LRFD

ASD

=0.00754 kips-

\
'

!l_ +(Ml'%+ M"):o:t.O


2Pc
Mex M"
0.198 +(43.7 kip-ft+
2
128 !tip-ft
0.440 < 1.0

o.k.

o) =0_440

o.k.

chc~ l:

Alternatively, Section Hl.3 of the AJSC Specification ma; be used for th,e interaction
for this column since the column is only S\Jbject to bending about a singie ax.is. The interaction equations in Section Hl.3 would result in a rugher column strength than demonstrat I

t~

by this procedure.

:~;

=38.9
K1 l 1 =1.0(17.0 ft)(l2.0 in./ft)
ry
1.54; in.

=132

governs

Required Axial Strength of Column Including Amplified Seismic Loads


Determine the required axial compressive strength using load combinations includi
amplified seismic loads per Section D l.4a(2) of the AISC Seismic Provisions.

Per Section D.1.4a(2) of the AJSC Seismic Provisions, it is permitted to neglect moments

t
"

the column for detemunation of required strength because the column moments do : t
result from loads applied between points of lateral support.
~:
A1.tJUCAN

!J.ISTTIUT1? OP STD.. COl'ISTRUCJlON

MOMENT FR.AMES

4--12

Solution:
From AJSC M<1nual Table 2-4, the maicrial propenics :ire as follows:

ASD

~c =88.5 kips > Pa = 20.6 !Ops

$cP" =133 kips> P11 = 21.0 kips

ASTh1A992

Fy

Fu
Available Shear Strength

LRFD

...
~

Beam
W18x40

ASD

o.k.

Vn,x

n.

=75.0 kips> V., =2 57 kips

rx =7.21 in.
o.k.

The W 12x35 IS adequate to resist lhe required strengths given for Column CL-1.

Example 4.2.3. OMF Beam Strength Check


Refer to Beam BM- I in Figure 4-2. Determine the :1dequ:1cy of the ASTM A992 Wl 8x40
for the folloY.ing loading. The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCEISEI 1 for
c:ilculation of loads. The govemins lo:1d combinations which include ~eismic effects are:
LRFD
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

.1
....
I

1:

(1.2+ 0.2Sos )D+pQE +0.5L+0.2S


(including the 0.5 factor on L permitte<t
by Section 12.4.2.3)

!"
~=

~;

ASD

ASD Lo:id Combination 6 from


ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3
(1.0 + 0. !OSos )D + H + F + 0.525pQe
+0.15l+0.15S

From a second-order analysis considering P-a and P-o effects as well :is the reduced stiffness required by the direct :inalysis method. the beam required strengths arc:

..

ry= l.27 in.

AISC Seismic Proi;ision.r Section El.5:1 states that there are no limjtations on widLh-tolhickness ratios of members of ao OMF, beyond those in the AISC Specificarimi.
AJSC Seismic Prol-irions Sccuon El.5a also stat.es that there are no requirements for stability bracing of beams or jointS in 01\.fF, beyond those in the AlSC Specificatio11.
Available Flexural Strength

Given:

:-

=50 ksi
=65 ksi

From AlSC Manual Table 1-1, the geometric properties are as follows:

Using AJSC Manual Table 3-2, the available shear strength for a W12x35 is:

YViu = 113 kips> Vu =3.78 kips

4-! l

4.2 ORDINARY MOMENT FRAMES

Per the User Note in AJSC Spccificotion Section F2. the beam has compact flange.~ and web.
The available flexural strength is the lower V31ue obtained :iccorcling to lhc limit Slates of
lateral-torsional buckling :ind yielding.

Note: The infill befilns or joists are not described m th.is eumple. ll is presumed !hat the
combination of these memben. (with suitable connections) and a roof deck diaphragm will
provide an au equate lateral br3Ce for the top flange Of this beam. With appropriate detailing,
I.he bottom Oange of the beam could also be braced by 1he infill beams or joistS. This i~
assumed to be the case in this example.
The unbraced beam length is:

Lo (top flange in compression)= 6.00 ft (spacing of infill beams)


Lo (bottom flange in compression) =6.00 ft
From Manunl Table 3-2 for a W18x40:

.l.p=4.49ft

L,.=13.lft

Lo> Lp; lheTCforc, the limit :.tale of lateral-torsional buckling applies.


ASD

LRFD
P., =2.54 kips

M,. = 82.9 kip-ft

v.. =10.9 kips

Pa =0.784 kips
Ma = 78.0 kip-ft
Va =I 1.8 kips

The top 3Jld bottom beam flanges nre braced every 6 fl by infiJl beams.

Calculate Cb using AISC Specification Equation FJ-1.


ASD

LRFD

=78.0 kip-fl

MlfllU = 82.9 lc.ip-ft

M...u

= 67 .0 kip-ft
= 52.2 tip-ft
Mc
38.3 kip-ft

M,..

""61.0kip-ft

MB

=45.3 kip-ft

Mc

=30.9 k.ip-ft

M,..
MB

4-14

MOMENT FRAMES

LRFD

-l-15

4.2 ORDINARY MOMENT FRAMES

Usjng the AISC Manual Table 6-1 with an unbraced length of 6.00 ft in the weak ox.is, the
available axial strength is:

ASD

l2.5Mm<U'
-(2.5Mmax +3MA
)
+4Ms+3Mc

=(2.5Mmax+3.MA

12.5(82.9 kip-ft)
-12.5(82.9 kip-ft)+ 3(67.0 kip-ft)l

12.5(78.0 kip-ft)
= [2.5(78.0 kip-ft)+ 3(61.0 k.ip-fl)l

+4(52.2 kip-ft)+3(38.3 ldp--ft)

+ 4( 45.3 kip-ft)+ 3{30.9 ldp-ft)

J2.5M-.t
+4Ms +3Mc

= 1.42

ASD

LRFD

p = 0.00379 kips-I
Pn I

= 0.00252 kips-

-=-

4'cPn =-

nc

=0.00252 l<lps- 1

= 1.50

f
0.00379 kips-I

=264 kips

""397 kips
Compute the lateral-torsional buckling strength using AISC Manual Table 3-10 with
Lb= 6.00 ft: Combined Loeding

LRFD

ASD

cJ>bMn =Cb (274 kip-ft)


= J.42(274 kip-ft)
.>:.= 389 kip-ft

M,. =Cb (183 kip-ft)


nb

Pc

397 kips

Pr 0.784 l<lps
-=
Pc
264 kips

=0.00297

M,.

Mpx

nb

Qb

P,. + ( Mrx + Mry )


2Pc Mc., Mey

-=-= 196 kip-ft< 275 kip-ft


Use

Because Pr !Pc < 0.2, use AISC


Specification Equation Hl-lb:

Because P,lf>c < 0.2. use AISC


Specijicatio11 Equation HI-lb:

ASD

Use <l>bMn =294 kip-ft

2.54 kips
=0.00640

Check yielding using AISC Manual Table 3-2:

<l>bMn =bMpx
=294 kip-ft< 389 kip-ft

P,

.!!..+(Mrx
+ Mry)~I.O
2f>c
Mex Mcy

~ LO

0.00640 +(s2.9 kip-ft + o) =0_285


2
294 kip-ft

=196 kip-ft

0.28.5 < 1.0

ASD

LRFD

= l.50(183 kip-ft)
=275 kip-ft

LRFD

.0.00297 + (78.0 kip-ft+


2
196 kip-ft
0.399 < 1.0

o.k.

o) = 0 _399

o.k.

Available Axial Compressive Strength

Available Shear Strength of Beam

The infill beams provide br:icing in the bewl's weak axis and the unbraced length, Ly, is
6.00 ft The beam is not braced in the strong ax.is.

From AISC Manual Table 3-2, the available shear strength for a W18x40 is:

KxLx

1.0(30.0 ft)(l2.0 in./ft)


--=
rx
7.21 in.

=49.9
K1 L, = 1.0(6.00 ft)(l2 .0 in.lft)
r1
1.27 in.
=56.7

'

_ _ _ _ _LRFD
_ _ __ __ _1-_ _ _ _ _
A_so
_____
<1>~V,.

=169 kips> V., =10.9 kips

o.k.

V"

n,,

=113 kips > Va =11 .8 kips

o.k.

~~

Tue W18x40 is adequate to resist the required strengths given for Beam BM-1.
Note that load combinations that do not include seismic effects must also be investigated.

governs

AMIAA:AN lNSTm.ml 01' STEEi.. CONSTRUCT10N

Using AISC Specification Hl, determine whether the applicable interaction equation is satisfied, as follows:

AMERICAN .INST11VTS OF STEF;J. COl"ISTlllJCTlON

Ji

The process could be iterated until the shear and moment values converge, but the difference
is negligible between the initial calculation and the convergence. For simplicity, us~ this
value as the required flexural strength.

3bcJt1t)
Rne =0.60(1.l}R Fydcl,. (1+-1

dbdctw

'i

=0.60(1.1)(1.1)(50 ksi)(l2.5 in.)(0.300 in.)


x !1 + 3(6.56 in.)(0.520 in.)2

'

17.9 in.(12.5 in.)(0.300 in.)

'Therefore. the column panel tone shear strength controls the maximum force lhat can be
delivered by the system co the connection, in accordance with AISC Seismic Provisions
Section El.6b{b) and Commentary Section EJ.6b(b).

=147 kips
LRFD

=147 kips

ASD

Va.,= Rn~/1.5
= 147 kips/1.5
= 98.0 kips

Vue= Rne

:, I

4-19

4.2 OROlNARY MOMENT FRAMES

4-JS

Calculate the corresponding shear for the beam-to-column connection design using AISC
Seismic Provisions Section EJ .6b(b}. The required shear strength of the connection is based
on the load combinations in the applicable building code that include the amplified seismic
load. m detennining the amplified seismic load, tbe effect of horizontal forces including
overstrength, Em11, is dctennined from:
(Provisions Eq. El -l)

where
The required flexural strength is:

ii---1

Lq =clear length of the beam

LRFb
M.,.

ASD

=Vue(d11- t1)

=Vae (db -lf)

M,ie

".' 147 kips(ly_.9 in-_-0.525 in.)

=98.0 kips(l7.9 in. -0.525 in.)

=2,550 kip-in.

= l, 700 kip-in.

=30.0 ft(l2 inJft)-12.5 in.

=348 in.
Because AISC Seismic Provisions Section El.6b(b) is used, the term 1.IRy1Hp is sub~tituted
with M11.e (LRFD} or Mru (ASD) based on the panel Z\'ne strength as calculated.
The shear in the column is:

There is also shear in the column due to story shear.

ASD

LRFD
.LRFD

ASD
Mae
Voe=-H
l, 700 kip-in.
(17 .0 ft)(l2 inJft)

Vu .= M,.,

2,550 kip-in.

- (17.0 fi)(12 in./ft)


= 12.5 lcips

?M.,,,
V due to Em1r =---

Let

- 2(2,770 !tip-in.)
348 in.
= 15.9 kips

due to Em>i

2Ma.e
=-

lcJ'

I
I

2(1,850 kip-in.)
348 fu.
""10.6 kips

=8.33 kips

This shear should be added to the panel zone strength to recalculate the required flexural
strength, as follows:

ASO

LRFD
Miu =(V,,,;+ V.,c)(db -11)

Moe= (Ya+ Vac)(db-fJ)

=(147 kips+ 12.5 fjps)

= (98.0 kips+ 8.33 kips)

x(l7.9 in.-0.525 in.)

x(l7.9'in.-0.525 in.}

=2, 770 kip-in.

=1,850 kip-in.
AMERICAN lNSlTIVT'B OP STm. Co~UCOON

AMERICI ~OP SJ'Ea CONSTRUCOON

"{'

4-20

LRFD

ASD

Use ~-in.-diameter ASTM A325-N bolts in standard holes.


Cslcuhlle M,.p based on the ~-.in.-diamc1cr A325-N bolt suenglh with Ab = 0.442 in. from I,:
AlSC Manual Table 7-1. as follows:
2

Load Combination 6 from Section


12.4.3.2 with f!oQE =E1r.Ji

permitted for certain occupancies and


0.oQs= !:.',,.,;,

V,,-:: (l.2+0.2Sos)D+ Em1t +0.5L+0.2S

=[1.2+ 0.2(0.528}](4.86 kips)


+ 15.9 kips+ 0 kips+ 0.2(6.49 kips)

P,

=F,.,A.,,
= 90 ksi (0.442 in.2)
= 39.8 kips

Vo =(1.0+0.105Svs)D+H +F
+ 0.525EmJi + 0.75L+ 0.75S
"' [LO+ 0.105(0.528)](4.86 kips)

+O kips+0.75(6.49 kips)

Mnp

QM,,p= [2P, (U.,)J

= 15.6 kips

End Plate Design .

The design methodology used for 1he moment end-plate connections is taken from AlSC
Desigri cfuide 4, Extended End-Plate Moment Connections-Sei~mic and WindApplication.s
(Murray and Sumner, 2003). ANSl/AISC 358 outlines requirements and design methodology for prequalified moment end-plate connections for speciaJ and intermediale momeot
frames. However, for an ordinary moment frame, the basic design equations and methodol9gy described inAISC Design Guide 4 can be used. Note that Design Guide 4 includes only
the LRFD. method and the equations are modified here for ASD.

= 2P,(L.f,,)
2(39.8 kips}

x(22.6i~.+19.6 ~- )
+15.1 m.+12.l m.

=4,140 kip-in.

.0.

2(39.8 kips)

= 0.75

II

ASD

LRFD

+ 0 kips+ 0.525(10.6 kjps)

(22.6 in.+ J 9 .6 in. )


x +15.1 in.+12.I in.

2.00

= 2,760 kip-in.

4,140 ldp-in. > 2,770 kip-in.

o.k.

o.k.

2, 760 kip-in.> 1,850 kip-in.

l:

Bolts

Figure 4-3 illustrates the configuration ll?d key dimensions associated with thjs type of
connection.
Continuity plates
I

:;\

(when required)

d/J, rtqd

2Miu
.1t$F,.,(rdn)

'

2(2, 770 kip-in.)


rt(0.75)(90' ksi)
(22.6in.+19.6 in. )
x +15.1 in.+12.1 in.

=0.614 in.

db, rtgd

=.
~

20Mae
nF,,, (U,,)

2(2.00)(1,850 kip-in.)
7t{90 ksi)
(22.6 in.+ 19.6 in. }
x +15.I in.+12.l in.

=0.614 in.

tpl

Detemri.ne the required bole diameter, db,,... from AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.6 using
the bolt spacing provided in Figure 4-4 and ASTM A325-N bolts, as follows:
ASD

I
,'

Based upon preliminary calculations, it was determined that an eight-bolt stiffeoed end-plate
connection would be required to make the column flange work in bending.

LRFD

j,

From AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.8. the flexural design strength of the connection is:

+O kips

= 23.5 kips

l
t

The value of Fn 1, the nominal tensile strength of 1hc boll, is from AISC Specijicatio11 Thble
J3.2 and U,, is I.he srun of h1 through h4

The controlling load combinations from ASCE/SEI 7 are:

Load Combination 5 from Section


12.4.3.2, including lbe 0.5 factor on L

4-21

4.2 ORDINARY MOMENT FRAMES

MOMENT FRAMl:S

I
I
I
I
.i
I
I
I


- J.JL

Beam

w
I

Fig. 4-3. Conjigurarion for eiglu-bolt stiffened end-plate con11ection.

t.

;~

l
.t

.a..i:.

4-22

,.....

MOMENT 'FRAMES

4.2 ORDINARY MOMENT FRAMES

Determine the required end plate thickness


.
22.6
7.00 in.

The required end place lh.ickness is determined from AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.JO.
The necessary parameters are determined as follows based on Figure 4-4. From Table 3.3 of
AlSC Design Guide 4:
'

=--

"

in.( 2{1.25
, 1 in.) )+19.6 in.(-2.001-in.)

+15.1

=}__Jb;i

22.6 in. ( J.25 in.+

=!J1.oo
in. (4.00in.)
2

;,~

in.)) + 12.1 m.. (2. 65 .m.+ 3(3.00 in.)) + 4.00 .m.


4

= 232 in.

=1.25 in.

From AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.10, the required end plnte thickness is:

Because d. < s, Case I of AJSC Design Guide 4 applies. From Table 3.3 of AISC Design
Guide4:
Yp = bplhi(-)+112
(-1]+"3(-l)+ht(.!.))
1

in.)) + 19.6 m.(2.00 .m.+ 3(3.00 in.))

+ {3.00 in.)2

=3.00 in.
Pfo =2.00 in.
Pfi =2.00 in.
de

4.00111.

Pl>

_______, L~

(3 00

in.(-- )
2.65 in.

2
(
(3.00
+--.+ 15. 1 in. 2.00 in.+

=2.65 in.

...

1
in.(-)+12.1
2.00 in.

2d.

PJo

P/i

ASD

LRFD
Ip/, Y<qd

~I l

/1.1 Iq>M,,,
$

Ipl.Y<<;.I --

F, y

b yp p

/1.11(0.75)(2,770 kip-in.)
0.90(36 ksi)(232 in.)

:: .

Use a

r. stiffener

tktyp.

plate. typ. (A36)

;:;i-

:; I

Total of (16) ~
dia. A325-N bolls
(pretensioned)

Wx3stiffener
plates N.S. & F.S.
(A36)

%"thick
end plate
(A36)


W18x40
beam

. =.3
~
LJ.:J
I

Fig. 4-4. Derailed OMF co1111ec1io11.

nF y

y p

/l.ll(l.67)(1,850 kip-in.)

2.00(36 ksi)(232 in.)

=0.453 in.

=0.554 in.

/l.1 lf4Ma,

~-in.-lhick ASTM

A36 end plate.

Size the end-plate stiffener


Match the stiffener strength to the beam ~ebsctength using AISC Design Guide 4 Equation

3.15.
ts1. rcqd

=l,.b (-Fyb)
Fys
=0315 in.(so ksi)
36 ksi

=0.438 in.

Use a ?li6-inAhick ASTM A36 plate for the stiffener.


The height of the stiffener is:

It,,::::: Pfa +Pb+ d.,


=2.00 in.+3.00 in.+l.25 in.
=6.25

in.

4-24

MOMENT FRAMP.S

The length of the stiffener is detennined from AlSC Design Guide 4 Equation 2.11.
ls1

LRFD

=_.!!!!._

QvV~

tan3o

w,'4 = 2>{0.60)(Fm

6.25 in.

=--1an3o

=10.8 in.
Use Ls1 = 11.0 in.
Check for local buckling of the stiffener. The stiffener slenderness ratio is:

4-2S

4.2 ORDINARY MOMENT FR.AMES

ASD
.Q V,./0.v

)/Ji

ll'rtq

= 2(0.60)(FE.:a' )/../2
2.00(9.45 kipfm.)/1.50

1.00(9.45 kipfm.)
=2(0.75)(0.60)(70 kr.i)/Ji.

=0.212in.

=0.212 in.

2(0.60)(70 ksi)/72

Use \4-in. fille1 welds.


1.

I!

Check end-plate bolts for beam shear transfer


Per AISC Desi go Guide 4, a conservative check is to assume that only lhe bolts opposite 1he t:
compression flange of the beam transfer the shear loads. In this case, this would be a total
of (8) ~-in.-diameter ASTht A325-N bolls. From AISC Manual Table 7-1, the available J.
ihear strength of the bolts is:
..

6.25 in.
'Vt6 io.

=---

=14.3

The limiliug slenderness ratio from AISC Specificarion Table B4.1 a Case l is:
ASD

LRFD

=0.56

29,000 ksi .
36 ksi

\.

~ =n(~)

$Vn =n(<Prn)
=8(17.9 kips)

:::: 8(11.9 kips)

:::: 143 kips

=95.5 kips

,i;

=15.9
143 kips> 23.5 kips

14.3 < 15.9; therefore, the stiffener is not subject to local buckling.

o.k.

95.5 kips> 15.6 kips

o.k.

Check compression bolts bearing!tearout per A/SC Specification Section J3.10

Determine type and size of stiffener welds


AISC Design Guide 4 st.ates that the weld of this stiffener plate to the end plate :.hould be
a complete-joint-penetration groove weld if ts1 >ti in.; therefore, weld the M6-in.-thick stiffener plate to the end plate with a complete-joint-penetration groove weld.

For all eight bolts, the bearing strength' ~vhen deformation at the bolt hole at service load i~

a consideration is:

Rn =2.4dtFu
AISC Design Guide 4 states that the weld of this stiffener plate to the beam flange should
be capable of developing the shear yield strength of the stiffener plate.
For the 'V16-in.-thick ASTM A36 plate:

Vn =0.60FyAgv

1:

(Spec. Eq. 14-3)

=0.60(36 ksi)('V16 in.)

= 9.45 kip/in.
For a two-sided fillet weld, cakulate lhe requfred leg size, wr,9 by setting the available shear
yield strength of the plate equal to the available shear slfength of the weld and solving for
W~q

=2.4(3A in.)(* in.)(58 ksi)


=65.3 kips/bolt
for the s~x inn~r boll~, the tear~ul stren~th when d~fo~ation at the bolt hole at service !oar
is a cons1derauon, with le:= 3 10. - 13/16 m. = 2.19 10., is:
i
1

.l,.)

R,. = I .2lctF,,

=l..2(2.19 in.)(~ in.)(58 ksi)


= 95.3 kips/boll
For the two o~tside_ bolts'. the cearoot. sttength ~hen deforma~on ~l the bolt hole at servic""
load is a cons1deraaon, Wllh le = l \4 m. - ( 116 m.)12 = 0.844 in., is:

f
I
~.J..

MOMENT FR"-MES

4-26

Rn

=1.2/ctF.,
><'rrt

LRFD

ASD

Rn 6(65.3 kips)+2(36.7 kips)


-=
2.00
n
= 233 kips
233 kips> J5 6 kips
o.k.

=0.75(6(65.3 kips)+2(36.7 kips))


=349 kips

349 kips> 23.5 Jcips

o.k.

Design of Beam Range-to-nd-Plate Weld

The beam flange-to-end-plate weld is designed based on the recommcndatjoos of AlSC


Design Guide 4. Design tbe weld for the flange force, bu1 no less than Rn or RrJQ given as
follows:
LRFD
R,.

-=

= 0.90(0.6)(50 ksi)(6.02 in.)

=85.3 kips
Ffa = M,,,
d-t1

..

2, 770 kip-in.

=159 kips
Design beam tlangc-to-end-plate welds
for a required strength, FJil = 159 kips

!.

159 kips
=0.75(060)(70 k"i/Jl)(!.5)(11.7 in.)

2.00(106 lcips)
- (0.60}(70 k.sl/"2)(1.5)(11.7 in.)

=0.407 in.

=0.407 in.

Use t'1G-in. fillet welds (two-sided) for the beam t1ange-to-end-plate weld.
Design of Beam Web-to-End-Plate Weld
AISC Design Guide 4 requires that the beam web-to-end plate weld develop the availabi<
tensile yield strength of the web in the vicinity of the tension bolts.
1be aYailable tensile yield strength of the bc:un web anJ required weld size arc:

<

1 T,. =9,F ,.t,.

fa

= 0.90(50 ksi)(0.315 in.)

(0.6)(50 ksi)(6.02 in.)(0.525 in.)


l.67
56.8 kips

=l~.2 kip/in.

Wnq

d-t1

J,850 kip-in.
17.9 in.-0.525 in.
= 106 kips

Design beam flange-to-end-plate welds


for a required Slrenglh, Fta = 10 kips

Effective length of weld available, le. on both sides of flanges:


I, =b1+(b1- tw)
=6.02 in.+(6.02 in.-0.315 ln.)

=11.7 in.
A factor of 1.5 is applied 10 the weld strength because u)e weld is at a 90 angle 10 the load,
occording to AJSC Specification Section J2.4, as follows:

T,,

n,

F..,.1.,.

=--

n,

=(50 ksi)(0.315 in.)


1.67

=9.43 kip/in.

The t1ange force is:

F
,\.fac
ta=--

ASD

LRFD

=J7 .9 in. - 0.525 in.

.
s:

x(0525 in.)

The flange force is:

0.6F,.,,b;t1

I
I

0.60( FEXX I "2) 1.51~

=0.60(FXX/J2}1.54

ASD

~R,: 0.6FyphJIJ < Ffa

'

ASD

LRFD

'"l.2(0.844 111.)(* in.)(58 ksi)


- 36.7 kips/bolt

4>Rn

1 .2 ORDINARY \IOMCNT FRAMES

= 2~(0.60FEXX / ./2)1.5

Wreq=

2(0.60Frn/J2)1.5
2.00(9.43 kip/in.}
2[0.60(10 ksi)/ Ji]u

14.2 kip/in.
= 2(0.75)10.60(70 ksi)/ J2}1,5

= 0.213 in.

=0.212 in.

Use ~-in. fillet welds (two-sided) for !he beM1l web-to-end-plate weld.
Column Flange Flexural Strength
Wilh no column flsnge stiffeners, AISC Oaign Guide 4 Tuble 3.5 gives lhe following:

s=~Jbfc8
= !J6.56 io.(4.00 in.)
2
=2.56 in.

MOM.ENT FRAMES

Pl> =3.00

in.

Wiu1 stiffeners added, AISC ~sign Gujde 4 Table 3.5 provides the following equation:

Psa "" 2.00 in.

Pli

o!.2 ORDil'lARY MOMENT FRAMES

Y, =bi lhi(;)+~(p~)+~(p~ )+~(;)]

=2.00 in.

c ::::: p#() + P.n + tI


= 2.00 in.+ 2.00 io. + 0.525 in.
=4.53 in.

i [hi[;+~ )+~(Pz~ +:b )+h3(Psl


3

From AISC Design G~tide 4 Table 3.5:


6.56 in.

=--2

6 56
1
in. !22.6in.(-- )+12.1
2
2.56 in.
22.6 in.(3.00 in.+

+12.l

2
+ - -400 in. +15.I
4.00
2
= 205 in.

2
+--4.00 in.

~ in.+ 2.56in.)+19.6 in.( 3 ~ in.+ 45

(i

in.))

3.00 in.) + I2.1 .m. (2 .56 .m.+___,_


3(3.00
in.))
+15.lin. (2.02in.+--__
....
4
4
+(3.00 in.)2

in.)

in.( 3 ~ in.+ 4 5 ~ in.)+12.1 in.(2.56 in.)

in.(-

1
-)
2.56 in.

3 .. 00 in.)
., .
.
3(3.00
22.6 in. ( 2.56 in. +-- - + l 9.6 m. 0 - m. +
4
4

1
in.(-)J
2.56 in.

45

:b )+ pgl+

l -) + 19 .6 .w. ( - l -) + 15 .1 .m. ( - l -)
22.6 .m. (- 2j6 in.
2.02 in.
2.02 in.

+~i[hi[Pb+i+s)+h2(~ +~J+~( ~ +~)+h4(s)]+~


=

+ ~}~(s+

+ 4.00 in.
=239 .in.

in.

+ - --

From AJSC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.21, the available strength of ~e stiffened column
flange is:

From AlSC Desi~ Guide 4 Equation 3.21. the column flange flexural strength is:

LRFD
McJ

=0.90(50 k!.i)(205 in.)(0.520 in.f

2,490 kip-in.< 2.no kip-in.

n.g.

=F.EY,t}c

= 2,910 k.ip-in.

nb

J,660 kip-in. < 1,850 k.ipin.

Mcf

= 0.90(50 ks\)(239 in.)(0.520 in~)

_ (50 ksi)(205 in.)(0.520 in.)2


1.67
;: 1, 660 kip-fa.

=2,490 kip-in.

ASD

LRFD

~Mc/= <j>qFycY,t}c

ASD

~Mif = ~bF~Y,1}c

n.g,

F~YctJc
0&
(50 ksi)(239 in.)(0.520 in.)2

Assume the stiffener thickness is

Pso =Psi
c-t,
::-2
4.53 in.-~ in.

=2.02 in.

t,= !h !n Then:

=--

l.67
= 1,930 kip-in.

2.910 kip-in.> 2,770 kip-in.

o.k.

1,930 kip-in. > 1,850 kip-in.

o.lc.

~:=~~re, the connection will be adequate if stiffeners are added as designed in the fol-

J
.....

Therefore, column stiffeners must be added

Column Stiffener Plates and Welds


The stiffener design is based on lbe minimum strength determined from flange local
bending, column web local yielding. and column web local crippling. TI1e minimum available strength based on these limit states will then be subtracted from the required Oange
force, Ffa or Fto to determine the stiffener .required strength.
Calculate the available flexural strength of the flange using the available flexural srrength of
the unsti.ffened column determined previously.

u.

,, __,
MOMENT FRAMES

LRFD

~}ft)

4 2 ORDJNARY MOMl'"iT FRAMES

ASD

LRFD

ASO

'

I~

~R,. = QJfc1

R,,

-=

2,490 kip-in.
17.9 in.-0.525 in.
143 kip$

Fcu =Flit -min(R~}

n n(d-rJb)

d -If!>

Met

=159 kips

l,660 klp-in.
17.9 in.-0.525 in.
=95.5 kips

= 69.0 kips

Calculate the available column web local yielding strength opposite lhe beam flange from
AISC Design Guide 4 Equation 3.24. The parameter, C,, is 1.0 because the distance from the
top of the beam to the top of the column is greater lhan or equal to dl2 of the column.

R,,

ASD

LRFD
P. - Fa,

P. _Foo
"- 2

The available column web local yielding strength is:


~:

=46.0 kips

The required axial strength per stiffener is:

={1.0(6(0.820 in.)+ 2(~ in.)j+[0.525 in.+2f~ in.)]}(50 ks.iX0.300 in.)

= 112 kips

46.0 kips
2
=23.0 kips

= -2-= 34.5 kips

ASO

From AlSC Specification Equation J4-6, the available a.'tial strength per stiffener with ~

R,, = 112 kips


Q
J.50

=112klps

a-l

69.0 kips

LR.FD
$R,. = 1.00(112 kips}

-min(95.S, 74.7. 60.0) kips

Use 1h in. x 3 in. ASTM AJ6 stiffener plates with 'A-in. clips along the flange on both side'
of the column web and at Lhe beam top and bouom flange.

=[c, (6~c.de' +2tp )+ Njf)..,.clwc

~=~
,,S:

=106 lc.ips

-min(143, 112. 90.0) kjps

F.,=Ffe-min(~)

,:..in. clip is:

=74.7 k.ips

ASD

LRFD
Calculate the colu1nn web local crippling avrulable strength opposite lhe beam flange force.
The fl3llge force applied from the lop of the beam is located more than lhe hsJf lhe column
depth from I.be end of lhe column; therefore use AJSC Specificotio11 Equation JI 0-4.

R" :0.80'!!1+3[~][:; r::-1


..

,.

= 0.90(36 ksi)(lh in.)(3.00 in.- 3.4 in.)

=F_..tpbp
n
_ (36 ksi)(1h in.){3.00 in. - - in.)
1.67

=36.5 kips

=24.3 kips

(Spec. Eq. JI0-4)

= 0.80(0.300 in.)2!1+3(0.525.in.)(0.300 '.")1.$1


12.5 ID. 0.520 lD.

""

P,.

P11 =~Fytpbp

29,000 ksi(50 ksi)(0.520 in.)


0.300 in.

36.5 klps > 34.5 kips

o.k.

24.3 kips> 23.0 kips

o.k.

From AISC Specification Equation J4-3, the available shear strength along the column web :!

= 120 kips

ASD

LRFD
R,,

=0.75(120 kips)
=90.0 lcips

Dctermfoe the suffener required ~1rength.

Rn _ 120 kips
n
2.00
=60.0 kips

ASD

LRFD

The available column web local crippling strength is:

Vn _ 0.60F)plplp

c>V,. =~0.60Fyptplp

= 0.90(0.60)(36 k.si)('h in.)(10.0 in.)


= 97.2 kips

97 .2 kips> 34.5 kips

o.k.

n
(0.60)(36 ksi)(lh in.)(10.0 in.)
l.67
=64.7 ~ps

64.7 kips> 23.0 kips

o.k.

4-32

MOMENT FRA:-.1ES

The value of Ip= 10.0 in. is based on lhe length of concact of the stiffener places includ
~ lh
required

'
mg
a red uc t'ion ior
e comer clips
to avoid the k-area of lhe column.

=3.00 in._ ~in.= 2.25 in.:

According to AlSC Specification Section 12.4, with bp

LRFD

ASD

Pu .

:/im)

06
29(

"'rrqd

OP,

)bp (l .5)

2 (0.6(Fax )) bp(I.5)

J2

34.5 kips

=
2(0.75)[

2.00(23.0 kips)

06

(~ ksi) )(2.25 in.)(1.5}

2{ 0.6($ ksi)1(2.25 in.)(! .5)

=0.229 in.

=0.229 in.

Use 1-4-io. fillet welds (two sided).


Weld of Stiffener to Column Web

According to AISC Specificario11 Section 12.4:

LRFD
Wreqd:::

Pu
0 60
29(

!f{J()())(1.0)lp

34.5 ldps

2(0.75)[ 0.60~ ksi~J(l.0)(10.0 in.)

=0.0774 in.

ASD
w

QP0

r.qd -

Jiexx )J(l.O) tp

0 60(F.

_
2.00(23.0 kips)
.- 2 10.60(70 ksi)I
p.0)(10.0 in.)

Ji

= 0.0774 in.

Use ~in. fillet welds (two sided). Basedon AISC Specification Table J2.4, a 3/Jrin. fillet
weld is acceptable; however, 'A-in. fillet welds a.re used to be consistent with the stilJenerto-column flange welds.
The fully detailed end-plate connection is shown in Figure 4-4.

4-J..I

'

4.3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES (SMF) AND INTERMEDIATE


MOMENT f:RAMES (IMF)

Weld of Stiffener to Column Flange

Wr.qd

4.3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMEs AND INTERMEDIATE MOMENT FRAMtS

f
Special moment frame (SMF) and intermediate moment frame (WF) systems, which are
addressed in AJSC Seismic Provisions Sections E3 and E2, respectively, resist lateral forces
and displacements lb.rough the flexural and shear sirenglhs of the beams and columns.
Lateral djsplacement is resisted primarily through the flexural stiffness of the fr:uning members and the restraint of relative rotation between the beams and columns at the connections,
or "frame action." S~1F and IMF systems must be capable of providing a story drift angle
of at least 0.04 rad per AJSC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6b and 0.02 rad per AJSC
Seismic Provisions Section E2.6b, respectively. An overview of SMF behavior and design
issues js provjded by Hamburger et aJ. (2009).
SMF and IMF systems tend to have larger and heavier beam :md column sizes Utan
braced-frame systems, as the beAms and columns are often sized for drifc control rather t.han
for srrength. The increase in member sizes and related costs, however, may be acceptable
based on the increased fle."<ibility in the architectural and mechanical layout in the structure.
The absence of diagonal bracing members can provide greater freedom in configuring walls
and rouiing mechanical ductwork and piping. As with other momentframe systems, SMF
and IMF systems are often located at the perimeter of the structure, allowing maximum flexibility in interior spaces wilhout complicating the routing of building services such as
mechanical ducts beneath the frame girders. The flexible nature of the frames, however, warrants additional consideration of the interaction between the steel frame and architectural
cladding systems.
Current requirements for SNIP and IMF systems are I.he result of research and analysis I
completed by various groups. including the Federal Emergency Management Agency I?
(FE.MA). AlSC, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National
Science Foundation (NSF), and the SAC Joint Venture. These requirements include pre
qualification of the connections used, per Section Kl of the AISC Seismic Provisions, or j.:
qualification through testing in accordance with Section K2 of the AISC Seismic Provisions.
Design and detailing requirements for IJ\Oment connections prequalified in accordance with
AISC Seismic Provisions Section Kl may be found in AISC Prequalified Connections for l.:
Special and lntennediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications, herein referred to
as ANSl/AJSC 358. ANSI/AJSC 358 is included in Part 9.2 of this Manual.
A primary f~us point of lhe t~ting require~nts lies in the measurement of inelastic
defonnations of beam-to-column moment connections. Plastic rotation of the specimen was !..
used irutially as lbe basis for qualification; however, this quantity is dependent on the selectfon of plastic hinge locations and member span. To avoid confusion, it was decided to use
the centerline dimensions of the frame to defi.ne the total drift angle, which includes bolh
elastic and inelastic deformations of the connections.

Most beam-to-column moment connections for ~MF and Th.fF systems develop inelasticity ..)
in the beams and in Ute column panel :z.one, as shown in Figure 4-5. Panel zone defonnation.
while more difficult to predict, can contribute a significant amount of ductility to the frame. t:
The.re are various faciors that must be considered when accounting for panel zone deformmion
including continuity plates, doubler plates, and toughness of the k-area. In regard co these two
areas of inelastic defonn:ition-beam and panel :z.one--the AISC Seismic Provisions Se.ction
K2 requires lhat at lea.st 75% of the observed inelastic defom1mioo under testing procedures
be as intended in the design of a prototype connection. This means that if the connection is ~.t

t:

f;:

l!i

AMEIUCAN INSTITUTE OF STW.. CONSTIUJCTJON

4-34

MOMENT FRAMES

anticipated to achieve jneJasticity lhrough pl!IStic rotation in the beam, al lea.st 75% of the
acrual deformation must occur in the beamhlnge l~tions when tested.
_ _ Currently, there ;ire cwo primary methods used 10 move plastic hlngjng of the beam away
from the column. These two methods focus on either reducing the cross-sectional properties
of the beam at a defined loc;ition away from the colunu1, or special detailing of t.he beamto-column connection in order to provide adequate strength and toughness in the connection
10 force inelasticity into the beam just adjacent to the column flange. Reduced beam section
(RBS) connections are typically fabricated by trimming the flanges of the beams at a short
distance away from the face of the column in order to reduce the beam section properties at
a defined location for formation of !he plastic hinge (figure 4-6). Research has included a
straight reduced segment, an angularly tapered segment, and a circular reduced segment. A
higher level of ductility was noted in tl1e latter, and the RBS is typically fabricated using a
circular reduced segment.

i11
i

ANSI/AJSC 358 includes six prequalified SMF Md IMF connections, iocludjng the
reduced beam section illustrated in the examples. Each of these prequalified connections has
a design procedure similar to that employed in faample 4.3.4. Designers should evaluare the
requirements of their project, the abilities of local fabricators and erectors, and rhe relative
cost-effectiveness of different beam-ro-column connections to determine the most appropri
ate connection for a given project.
Special connection detailing for added toughness and strength takes many fonns using
both welded and bolted connections. In many of the connections, both proprietary and non~
proprietary, such factors as welding proc~es. weld-access-bole detailing, web-plate
attachment and flange-plate usage have been considered. For additional infonnation on the
specification of chese connections, see ANSI/AISC 358 in Part 9.2 of this Manual.
Panel zone behavior is difficult to predict and is complicated by the presence of continuity plates and doubler plates, as well as k-area toughness. Three basic approaches are most

43 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES AND rNTERMEDTArE MOMENT FR.AMES

commonly used: "strong panel," "balanced panel" and "weak panel ... These three terms
relate the strength and inelastic behavior of !he panel in relation to the strength and inelastic behavior oft.he framing members in I.he connection. In a "strong panel," the panel-zone
strength is greater than the' surrounding framing components to the point where the vast
majority of the inelastic deformation of the frame occurs in the beam. In a "weak panel," the
~trength of rhe panel-zone is low enough relative to the framing members such that the
majority of the inelastic deformation of the connection and frame occurs in the panel zone.
A "balanced panel" falls between the strong and weak panel, where inelastic defonnation in
the framing members and panel zone are similar. The requirements in the AJSC Seismic
Provisions generally provide for strong or balanced panel zone designs in S~1F. The full
range of panel zone designs are permitted for IMF and OMF.
Another consideration ill the design of SMF systems is rhe concept of "strong columnweak beam." The AISC Seismic Provisions provide for the proper proportioningof the frame
elements in Equation E3- l.

*
EMpc

--*->l.0

(Provisions Eq. E3-1)

t.Mpb
where

:C =sum of the projections of the nominal flexural strengths of the columns (includ-

EM

ing haunches where used) above and below the joint to the beam centerline with
a reduction fQr the axial force in the column

CO

I'"

L
I

.::

Plastic hinge wnes.


Hinge locations vary
depending on
connection type .

'

~:

Reduced beam
secticin

.....
K

,,~:

r
1.

'
1.

~.

~:

fig. 4-5. Areas where inelasric deformation may be expected.

Fig. 4-6. Reduced beam sectwn (RBS) connectiorL

MUM!:.Nl M<AMl--'i

4.3

S~F.CIA1- MtJMI

JI.I I t'KA.\\t:. ANU lN I tKMl:.L'll\I c ...v ..........., ... .......

I
'M;i, =sum of the projcc1io11s of the e."'pected Oexurnl strengths of the beam at the plastic hinge locations to the column centerline

7_30.o

This provisfon is Mt intended 10 elimmate all yielding m the columns. Rather, as


described in AISC Seismic Provisio11.s Co~ntary $et;tiOn E3.4a. it is intended to result in
framing systems that h11\'e distributed inelasticily in large seimuc events, and discourages
story mechanisms.
The prim11ry difference between SMF systems and IMP systems is the interstory drift
angle capadties. While this requirement differs for SMF and JMP systems. there nre many
requirements that are similar between the two frame types. This comparison is summarized
in Table 4-1 of th.is Manual located at
end of this Part.

30-0
--+-_=....::;..--+..r.i ..

l:i.....- - - -.....c8>

30~~r
'41-:i

l<

!:!

the

SMF Design Example Plan and Elevation


The following examples illustrate the d~ign of special moment frames (SMF) based on
AlSC Seismic Pro1 is ions Section E3 Design of intennediate moment frames (IMF) reflects
requirements outlined in AlSC Seismic Pro'l:isions Section E2 that are. in most instances,
similar to those in Section E3 or that do not vary from frame design requirements in the
AISC Speciftcatio11. For this reason, Part 4 does not present examples that focus exclusively
on IMF, although these examples should prove useful when designing IMP frames as well.
Table 4-1 in this Manual compares the significant design requirements for OMF, IMF and
SMF systems, and clarifies which portions of the SMF examples apply to l.MF design.
The plan and elevation are shown in Figure 4-7 and Figure 4-8, respectively. The code>:pecified gravity loading 1s as follows:

= 85 psf
= 68 p~f
Drocf
= 80 psf
LoJIO<>r
=50 psf (reduced)
lftoo,
s
= 20psf
Curtain wall = 175 lb/ft along building perimeter at every level

I...

\;
Fig. 4-7. SMF floor plan.

DJ!t>

30-0

30-0

30'-0"

W21x44

W21x44

I:

I
\

For the S}.IF examples, it has been detenruned from ASCE/SEI 7 that the followmg factors are appJjcable: Risk Category I, Seismic Design Category D. R = 8, 0 0 3.Cd 5'12,
le= LOO, Sos= JO, and p l.O(per ASCE/SEJ 7 Section 12.3.4.2, p = 1.0 if the story resists
more lb.an 35% of the base ~hear in the direction of interest, loss of one bay of SMF wilJ not
result in more than a 33% reduction in story strength, nor does the resulting system have an
extreme torsional im:gularicy).

W21x44

Roor

Fourth
0 Level

W24x76

Third

0Level

..,...
W24x76
..,. -----------i
)(

..

W24x76

,.._

'
l----'"'----------r--

Second
0Level

Example 4.3.1. SMF Story Drift and Stability Check


Given:
Refer to the floor plan shown in Figure 4-7 and the SMJ: elevation shown in Figure 4-8.
Determine if the frame satisfies the ASCE/SEI 7 drift and stability requirements based oo
the given loading.

~
)(

W24x76
><
-'<\I-+-_.:.=..;=..::"-BM-1
~
JT-1

~.
Column splice
48 aboVe rinlshed
lloor (typ.)
Fig. 4-8. SMF elevation.

The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for ca.lculatioo of loads.

. ..

4-38

MOMENT FRAMES

TI1e seismic design story shear at the third levels, Vx. is 140 kips as defined in ASCE/SEI 7
Section 12.8.4. From an elastic analysis of the structure that includes second-order effects
and accounts for panel-z~ne defom~tions, the maximum interstory drift occurs between the
third and fourth levels: Ox 04 - 03, 0.482 in.

In this example, the stability check will be perfonned for the third level. This checks the stability of the columns supporting the rhird level. The story drift between the second and third
levels is OJe - Oi. "= 0.365 in..
Solution:

From AlSC Man.ual Table 1-1, the geometric properties are as follows:
W24x76

b1=8.99 in.
Reduced beam section (RBS) connection~ are used at the frame beam-to-column connections and the t1ange cut will reduce the stiffness of the beam: Example 4.3.3 illustrates the
design of the RBS geometry and the flange cut on one side of the web is c = 2 in. Section
5.8, Step I, of ANSl/AISC 358 states that the calculated elastic drifr, based on gross beam
section properties, may be multiplied by 1.1 for flange reductions up to 50% of the beam
flange width in lieu of specific calculations of effective stiffness. Amplification of drift values for cuts less than the maximum may be. linearly interpolated.

~11

For bt= 8.~9 in., the maximum cut is:

0.5(8.99 in.)= 4.50 in.

.\ 3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES AND INTERMEDIATE MOiii.ENT FRAMES

4-39

mass at the top and bo11om of 1hc story under consideration, which in this case is the third
level.
0

=Cdou

(ASCE/SEI 7 Eq. 12.8-15)

le

5'h(0.525 in.)
LOO
=2.89 in.

From ASCFJSEl 7 Table 12.12-1, the allowable story drift at level x, f:..a, is 0.020/ts_r. where
hu is the story height below level x. Although not assumed io this ex.ample, 6.a can be
increased to 0.025hsx if interior walls. partitions, ceilings and exterior wall systems are
designed 10 accommodate these increased sLory drifts. ASCFJSEI 7 Section l 2. l 2.1.1
requires for seismic force resisting systems comprise<! solely of moment frames in structures
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or P, that the design story drift not exceed 6.afP
for aoy story. Determine Lhe allowable story drift as follows:

t. 0.020/ru
-0= - -"p
p
0.020(12.5 ft){12 in./ft)
=
1.0
=3.00 in.
D. 2.$9 in.< .\a
o.I<.

The frame satisfies the dlifl requirements.

Thus, the total 4-in. cut is:


4.00

in.) =88.9% of the maximum. cut


m.

. l 00
(~O
4 ...1

The calculated elastic drift needs to be amplified by 8.89% (say 9%).

Frame Stability Check

ASCE/SEI Section 12.8.7 provides a method for the evaluation of the P-6 effects on
moment frames based on a stability coefficient, 0, which should be checked for each floor.
For the purposes of illustration, this dt=tmple checks the stability coefficient only for the
third Jevcl. The St:ibility coefficient, 9, i~ determined as follows:

Drift. Check

(ASCE/SEI 7 Eq. 12.8-16)

From an elastic analysis of the strucrure that includes second:.Order effects, the maximum
interstory drift occurs between the lhird and fourth levels. The effective elastic drift is:

Ou

AJk><>r =A,.qq1 a75ft(J20 ft)=9,000 ft

=04e -03,

Dfio<>r

=0.482 in.

=9,000 ft2 (85 psf) /l,000 lb/kip


=765 kips

Ou IUJS =l.090xe

=1.09(0.482 in.)

DIWf =9,000 ft2 (68 psf)/(1,000 lb/kip)


=612 kips

::::0.525 io.
Per the AlSC Seismic Provisio11s Section Bl , lhe design story drift and the story drift limirs
are those stipulated by the applicable building code. ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.8.6 defines the
design story drift, t:., computed from o_., as tbe difference in the deflections at the center of

D....011

=175 lb/ft (2(75 ft+I20 ft))/ (l,000 lb/kip)


= 68.3 lcips per level

Lftoor =9,000 ft2 (50 psf)/(1,000 lb/kip)

=450 lcips
AMERJCN'I lNSlnvre OF STEEL CONSTRucnON

MOMENT FRAMES

43 SPECTAL MOMF.NT FRAMES AND INTERMEDIAT6 MOMENT FRAMES

4-41

l
I

f'
I

4=1 = 9,000 ft 2 (20psf)1 (i.ooo lb/kip)

Therefore, the stabiUty coefficient is:

=180 kips
A~~E/SEI 7 does not explicitly specify load faciors 10 be used on the gravity loads for determmmg Px, except that Section 12.8.7 does specify that no individual load factor need exceed
1.0. This means that if the combinations of ASCE/SEl 7 Section 2.3 are used, a factor of J .O
can be used for dead load raLher than the usual 1.2 factor used in the LR.FD load combination . for example. This also means that the vertical component 0.2SosD need not be
con~1dered here. T~erefore, for this example, the load combination used to compute the toL'll
ve~cal load on a given story, P;., acting simultaneously wilh the seismic design story shear,
Vx. is l .OD.+ 0.5l based on. ASCE/SEI 7 Section 2.3 includfog the 0.5 factor on L permitted by Sect10n 2.3. where l 1s the reduced live load. Note that consistent with this the same

co~bination was used in the second order analysis for this example for the purpo;e of computmg the fundamental period, base shear, and design story drift.
The total dead load in the columns supp-0rting the third level, assuming rlm 1be columns
supp-0rt cwo floors of curtain wall in addition to other dead loads, is:
l.OPv

=l.0(612 ldps + 2(765 kips)+ 2(68.3 kips)]


=2,280 kips

140 kips(12.5 ft)(12 inlft)(51h)


=0.0535

Because a second-order analysis was used 10 compute the story drift, 0 is adjusted as follows to verify compliance with 0ma.r. per ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.8.7.

0
1+0

I.,

0.0535
l+0.0535
=0.0508

According to ASCE/SEI 7, if

e is less than or equal to 0.10, second-order effects need not

be considered for computing story drift. Note that whether or not second-order effects
on member forces must be considered per ASCE/SEI 7 has to be verified, as it was in this

example; however, Chapter C of the AlSC Specification requires second-order effects be


considered in all cases in the analysis used for member design.

Check the maximum permitted e

The total live load in the columns supporting the third level is:

?-512 =

1,820 kips(2.I9 in.)(1.0)

~.5[(2)(450kips)+180 kips]

The stability coefficient may not exceed 0mo.x. In detennining 0 111 ax. Pis the ratio of shear
demand 10 shear capacity for the level being an::ilyzed, and may be conservatively t:iken
as LO.

= 540 kips

(ASCE/SEI 7 Eq. 12.$-17)

TI1erefore, the total vertical design load carried by these columns is:

=---

Px = 2,280 kips+540 kips


= 2,820 kips

1.0(5~)

.Ii'

= 0.0909 ~ 0.25
I

The seismic design story between the second and third level, including the 9% amplification
on the drift, is:
.

The adjusted stability coefficient satisfies the maximum:


0.0508 < 0.0909

~= Cdou
I,,
= 5'h(L09X0.365 in.)
LOO
=2.19 in.

(from ASCFJSEI 7 Eq. 12.8-15)

o.k.

The moment frame meets the allowable story drift and stability reqUirements for seismic
loading.

Comments:

From an elastic analysis of the structure, !he seismic design story shear at the third level
under lhe s.tory drift loa~ing using the equivaleht lat.era! force procedure is Vx = 140 kips
and the floor-to-floor heJght below lbe third level is hsx 12.5 ft.

'i

There are a total of six bays of SMF in this example. Considering the relative expense of
SMP connections and because the drift and stability limits are met, it may be more cost- ~.
effective to reduce the number of bays to four, and increase member sizes to satisfy the "-'
strength and stiffness requirements.

4 42

MOMENT FRAMES

f 0"1ENT FRAMES ANO J~:.RMEDIA'TE MOMNT !'RAMES


4.3 srFOA... ~ "'

.p

The governing load combinallOn~ for axial and Oexural sLrtngth that include seismic effects
("'

Example 4.3.2. SMF Column Strength Check


Given:
Refer to Column CL-1 oo the firs1 level in Figure 4-8. Determine the adequ:icy of the ASTM
A992 W14x176 to resist the loads given.
There is no transverse loading between the column suppol1~ in the pl:mc of bend1ng.
The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads. The
required streng1hs are determined by a second-order analysis including 1he effecLS of P-8
and Pli with reduced stiffness 3S required by the direct analysis method. The governing
load combinations for shear that include seismic effeclS are:

from ASCEJSEJ 7 are:

----- LRFD

ASD

LRFD Lo;id Combin:\lion 5 from


ASCE/SEl 7 Sc.:tion 12.4.2.3
= (l.2 + 0.2Svs )D + pQE

Pu

ASD

LRFD Load Combinalion 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3
V11

=(J.2+0.2Sos}D+pQ

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

V.,

+ 0.SL+0.2S

=(1.0+0.J4Svs )D+ H + F +0.1pQe


=22.4 kips

=32.0 lcips

P0

+0.5L+0.2S

=243 kips
=(l.2+0.2Sos)D+pQE

M.,

+0.5L 0.2S

LRFD

ASD Load Combination 6 from


ASCflSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

Mut<P

= 125 kip ft

Mu/KJI

=-298 k1pfl

,'.f 0

= (1.0+0.JOSvs)D+JJ+F
+ 0.525pQE +0.75L+0.75S

=2 14kips
= (l.0 +0.IOSDs)D+0.525pQ

+ 0.75L + 0.75S

M0 '"'P 67 .0 lop-ft
Mat-or= - 158 kip-ft

Solution:
From A1SC Manual Table 2~. t11e material properties are as follows:

ASTh1 A992
Fy =- 50 ksi
F,, = 65 ksi

(including the 0.5 factor on L permitted in


ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3)

From .A.ISC Jfamwl Table 1-1. lhe geometric properties are :is follows:
AJSC Seismic Pro1;isions Section DI Aa re~uires, with limited exceptions, that che SJJlphfied
seismic load (i.e., lhe seismic load multiplied by the overstrength factor, 120 ) be used to calculate required column axial strength. Moment need not be combined simultaneously w ith
the amplified seismic 3.'<ial load in chis case because there is no tm.osverse loading between
t'ie column suppons. The redundancy factor, p, and the overstrength fouor nCd not be
applied simultaneously.
The governing load combinations for a..:UaJ strength that include lhe amplified seismjc lo.ad
from .'\SCE/SEI 7 are:

LR.FD
:'

!.;.

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

P. =(l.2+0 .2Svs)D+ftQe
+0.5L+0.2S

=249 kips

ASD L03d Combination 6 from


ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
P.,

=(l.0+0.105SDS)D+ H tF
+ 0.525Q.Qe +0.75L0.75S

=218 kips

Column
W14x176

d - 15.2 in.
A ::: 51.8 in.2
Zx= 320 in. 3
hit..,= 13.7

in.
rx= 6.43 in.

lw= 0.830

oi= 15.7 in.

/_. =2,140 in.'

1, = 838 in.'

r1 =4.02 in.
y= l.31 in.

kde: = 1.91 in.

s.. = 281 io.3

bJl21r 5.97

Beam
W24x76
2,100 in.'

1..

Column Element Slenderness


AISC Seismic Provisio11s Section E3.5a requires that the stiffened and uns_tiffened elements
of SMF columns ~atisfy the requirements of Section DI. l for highly ducule members.

4-44

MOMENT FRAMES -.,..

From the AJSC Seismic Provisions Table D l .1. for flanges of highly ductile members:

AJuJ = 0.30

II

.~.

= 5.97 < ANJ, the flanges

satisfy the requirements for highly ductile

elements.
The limiting width-to-thickness ratio for webs of highly ductile members is determined as
follows from Table Dl. l using the goveming load case for axial load, including the amplified seismic load, as stipulated in AISC Seismic Provisions SecLion D l.4a:

LRFD

K1 L"

=0.141

Because C0 S 0.125,

1.0(14.0 ft)( 12 in./ft)


4.02 in.

f.

governs

1.67(218 kips)

QcP,.

Becaure Ca > 0.125,

JI (

1- 0.93C,,)

"J...,,d =

29,000 ksi
SOksi [1-0.93(0.107)]

O.nJI

=0.77

F1

(2.93- Ca)<!'. l .49

JI
Fy

/29 000 k~i


;Oksi (2.93-0. 141)
<!'. l.49J29.000 ksi

50 ksi
=51.7 ~ 35.9

..

= lilt..., =

ASD

LRFD

(50 ksi)(5 J.S in.2)

=53.l

elements.

1.0(14.0 ft)(l2.0 in.!ft)


6.43 in.

Using AJSC Manual Table 4-l, with K1 L1 = 14.0 ft, the available compressive strength of
the W14x176 column js:

F)Ag

= 0.107

Because A.

KxLx

--=
rx

-;:;- =
=41.8

= -=

=2.45

Available Compressive Strength


Determine v.hat the controlling slenderness ratio of the column is:

l.67?.,

kips
= 0.90(50249
ksi)(51.S in.2 )

Fy

K1 =l.O

=26.l

OcPo
Ca = - Py

P.,
0.90.F).Ag

~ 2.45

Kx =1.0

ASD

Pu
Ca =-$cPy

'Ahd

The direct :malysis mefriod in AISC Specification Section C3 states that the effective length
factor K of all members shaU be taken as unity unless a smaller value can be justified by
rational analysis. Therefore,

= 0.30 /29,000 ksi


50ksi
=7.22

Effective Length Factor

VF;

Because A. = b112fJ

4.3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES AND INTER.MEDIATE MOMENT FRAMES

Use 'AM= 51.7.

13.7 < Ahd, the web satisfies lhe requirements for highly ductile

=2,050 kips> 249 kips

P,.

nc

=1,360 kips> 218 kips

o.k.

Available Flexural Strength


1
From AISC Manual Table 3-2, determine'. for the W14x176 whether the limit state of lat
eraJ-torsional buckling applies for flexutil strength, i.e., Lb> lp.

,.
I

Lp =14.2 ft
Lr= 73.2 ft
4 =14.0 ft<!p
From AISC Specification Section F2, with comp_a ct fl~nges and web and Lb~ lp, the applicable limit state is yielding. Using AISC Manual Table 3-2, the available flexural strepgth,j.j:
of the W14x176 c:olurno is:

LRFD

Alternatively, Table 1-3 -in lhis Manual can be used to confirm that members satisfy the
requirements for highly ductile members.

o.k.

Mex= $bMpx
=1,200 kip-ft

ASD

...
M

_Mpx
C< -

!4

1;
....

.=798 kip-ft
0

.\MEJuc..v.I lNSTJl'VTE OF SrEE.. COHS'flll!CTION

r,J

I',,.
t

4-47

4 3 SPECIAi.. MOl'-tENT FRAMES AND lNTI'J~ME.OL\113 MOMENT FRAMLS

1f

Loadi~g

Combined

. .:)
Check the mtc:racuon of comprei;sion and flexure using A!SC Spuijication Section H 1. 1, ~
and the governing load case for combined loading.
l ';!
}.1 3...

,. ...

ASD

LRFD

,,

The applicable building code specifics the use of ASCPJSEJ 7 for calculation of loads. The
rcqujred )trengl.M at the face of the column and the centerline of the. RBS ti.re dct~incd by
i;ec<)nd-order analysts including the effects of P-& and P-ll wnh reduced stiffness as
3

required by the direct analysis method.


Tue governing load combinations for the requiml flexural and shc:ir ~trenglh al the face of
the column are:

243 kips
P,
-=
P, 2,050 kips
=0.119<0.2

P,
Pc

214 kips
1,360 lcips

Therefore, use AISC Spedfic<:lio11


Equation HJ I b

Therefore, use AlSC Specification


Equation Hllb

..

=0. 157 <0.2

ASD

LRFD

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEJSEl 7 Section 12.-t.2.3

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Sc.ction 12.4.2.3

.\ f0

JJ., =(I 2+ 0.2Sos )D+pOt


P,

2Pc
0.119
2

(Mrs M,.,)
+-+-
+(
+
Mrx

M.;y

298kip-ft
l, 200 kip-ft

0.308:::; 1.0

::01.0
0)- 0 308
-

+0.7pQE

+0.5L+0.2S

(M

P,
2Pc

+ _.!!.+-2..
M ) s 1.0
Mex Mey

0. 157
2

+( 798
158 kip-ft 0 )- 0 276
kip-ft + -

0.276:::; LO

o.k.

=(t.0 + 0.14Sos )D + fl + F
=- 136 kip-fl

=-273 kip-n

v., =(1.2+0.2Sos ) D + pQc

\ 'o

+0.7pQ

+0.5L + 0.2S

=22.8 kips

=33.8 kips

o.k.

=(1.0+0.l4Sos )D+ 11 + F

(including the 0.5 facmr on L permitted in


ASCEISEl 7 Section 12A.2 3)
Available Shear Strength

Using AISC Manual Table 3-2 for the W14x176 column:

.~!

Face of

ASD

LRrD

column '-..

cpv. =378 kips> 32.0 kips


The W14x176 is adequ:ite

to

o.k.

~ = 252 kips> 22.4 kips

o.k.

..">;

,,

W24x76
beam

C'y

Q:- \

resist the !oads given for Column CL- l.

Comments:
The beam and column mes selected were based on a least-weight solution for drift control;
thus, the column size is quite conservative for strength.

c = 2.00 in.

I.

2}.ib

= 12.0 in.

t--..-~~~~b~=---"18~.X-!!.ln~~~-i

Example 4.3.3. SMF Beam Strength Check

..:
j

Given:
Refer to Beam BM l in Figure 4 8. Detem1ine lhe adequ~y of I.he W24x76 ASTM A992
W-shapc to resist Lhe following Jo.1dmg. The bc:lm end connections u1ilize the reduced beam
section ~S) prequal1fied .in accordance wuh ANSl/AlSC 358 and shown in Figure 4-9.
Also, design the lateral bractng for the beam u~ing ASTM A36 angles. Assume that the beam
fl::ingcs are braced nt the columns

a= 5)2 in.

Fig. 4-9. Initial RJJS derail for Examples 4.3.J <111d 4.3.4.

MOMENf FRAMES

The governing load combinations for the required flexural and shear strength at the cen1crline of lhe RBS are:
!.

LRFD

Mu =(l.2+0.2SDs)D+pili;
+ 0.5L+0.2S
= -246 JOp-ft

ASD

Ma= (l.0+0.14SDS)D+H +F+0.7pQE


= - 168 kip-fl

4.3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES Al"ll> INTERMEDIATE MOMENT FRAMES

ANSI/AISC 358 Section 5.3.1 permits calculation of 1he width-to-thickness ratio for the
flanges based on a value of bt not Jess than the flange width :it the ends of the cen1er two1.hirds of the reduced section provided that gravity loads do not shift the location of the
plastic hinge a significanl dist31lce from the center of 1he RBS. Assuming this is the case
bere, the RBS radius of cut from ANSI/AJSC 358 Figure 5.1 and 1he dimensions given in

From ATSC MaJ1ual Table 2-4, the beam ma1erial prope11ies

3Ie

4(2.00 in/ +(18.0 in.>2


=
8(2.00 in.)
=21.3 in.

as follows:
bf.RBS=

ASTMA992

Fy =50ksi

=65 ksi

W24x76

b1= 8.99 in.


hit..,= 49.0

rt= 0.680 in.

s.. =176 in.3

= 0.440 in.
2..: =200 in.3
lw

choose a section that satisfies the dimensional constraints listed below. For this e,,ampJe,
trial values of a, band care chosen as shi;:>wn jn Figure 4-9. Example 4.3.4 demonstrates that
these dimensions are acceptable. Other dimensions that satisfy the requirements of ANSI/
AISC 358 could have been selected. Dimensii:ins that satisfy the dimensional constraints
listed below may still require adjustment to satisfy all of the requirements of ANSJ/AISC
358 Section 5.8.

0.1b111!> c ~ 0.25bbf

in.)2

bf.RBS

11.1=-2t1

6.72 in.

,,,

2(0.680 in.)

=4.94

According to the requiremenlS of ANSJ/AJSC 358 Section 5.8, Step I, lhe designer must

0.65d s b ~ 0.85d

(2-3)

=6.72 in.

h0 =23.2 in.

RBS Dimensions

O.Sb111s as 0.75bt-J

2(R-c)+b1-2~R2 -(~f

o 99 in.) - 2 (21.3 in.)2 -(18.03


= 2(21.3 in. - 2.00 in.)+ (o.

From AISC Manual Table 1-1, the beam geometric properties are as follows: .

=1.18 in.
ry =l.92in.

At the edge of the center two-thirds of che RBS. th~ reduced flange width is, from geometry:

Solution:

kdts

tl

4c2 +b 2

R = --

The required shear strength at the RBS is not given because the shear at the face of the column is greater than at the RBS and the available shear scrength is the same at each location
since the web is not modified by the RBS cut.

d= 23.9 in.

~:

~; .

Figure 4-9 is:

8c

F..

'.
I
....

(ANSI/AJSC 358 Eq. 5.8-1)


(ANSUAISC 358 Eq. 5.8-2)
(ANS.UAJSC 358 Eq. 5.8-3)

Check Beam Element Slendemess


AISC Seismic Provi.sio11s Section E3.5a requires 1h:11 th~ stiffened and unstiffened elements
of SMF beams satisfy the requirements of AfSC Seismic Provisions Section D 1.1 for h.ighly

From AISC Seismic Provisions Table DI. J, the limiting flange width-to-thickness rario for
highly ductile membe(s is:
\

AhJ

== 0.30
=0.30

ff,
29.000 ksi
50ksi

==7.22
Because A/< AJuJ, the flanges satisfy the requirements for highly ductile members.
From AISC Seismic Provisions Table D 1.1, for webs of rolled I-shaped sections used as
beams or columns, recognizingtbat C0 = P.,1(9Pn) is assumed to be zero because no a;<ial
force is presenl for the beam, the limiting widlb-to-thickness ratio is:

ductile members.

AMERICAN lNSTmfTB OF Sn!EJ.. CoNSTRUCJ10N

I;~

.v

\.I;

4-50

4.'.l SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES AND lNTERMEDtATE MOMENT FRAMES

'Aird =2.45

[I

'{~

29,000 ksi

=2.451---50 ksi

= hit,., ::: 49.0 < Ahd, !he web satisfies the requirements for highly

ductile

Alternatively, using Table 4-2 of this Manual, it can be seen that a W24x76 will satisfy the
width-to-thickness requiremenLs for an SMF beam.

Spacing of Lateral Bracing

AtSC 'seismic Provisions Seetion Dl.2b requires that both flanges be laterally braced at
intervals not to exceed:

0.086r.
>'

When designing an RBS connection, it is assumed that the flexural strength of the member
at the reduced section will control the moment strengtJ1 of the beam. According to AISC
Specificarion Section P2, where Lb $; Lp, beam strength is controlled by Mp When U1e RBS
section is proportioned and located according to the provisions of ANSJIAISC 358, the flexural strength of the RBS will control beam strength and this assumption does oot need to be
verified. In these cases, the flexural strength of the unreduced section is limited by Mp
FyZx and the Oexural strength of the reduced beam section will be MpRBS = FyZRss. where
ZRas is the plastic section modulus ac the center of the reduced beam section, as defined in
ANSJIAISC 358 Equation 5.8-4, and Z.x is the plastic section modlllus of the unreduced
beam section. However, in cases where lb > Lp, whlch is the case in this example, Lhe
assumption w111 have to be verified. Note that as a practical matter, che typical value of Cb
is greater than I .O for moment frame beams and when the limits imposed by rhe AISC
Seismic Provisions on unbraced length are considered, lateral-corsional buckling typically
will not reduce the flexural strength of the unreduced section below Mp.

=59.0
Because Aw
members.

4-51

29
(~J
=0.086(1.92
in.1( ' OOO ksi )(- 1- )
Fy
.
' 50 ksi.
12 in./ft

For tbe unreduced section, from AISC Specification Section F2, with compact flanges and
web and Lp < Lb :s; L,, the :ipplicable flexural strength limit states are yielding and later<iltorsional buckling. For the limit state of yielding and lateral-torsional buckLing, the
following equation applies.

=7.98 ft
(Spec. Eq. F2-2)

Alternatively, using Table 4-2 for a W24x76, it can be seen that Lbmax is equal to 7.98 ft.

::11.

!~:
'(

:~

The composite concrete and meta.I deck diaphragm provides continuous lateral support to
the top flange of the beam; however, !he only lateral supports for the bottom flange occur at
the end connections. Therefore, a bottom flange brace must be provided <lt least every 7.98
ft. The distance between column centerlines is 30.0 ft. If three braces are provided aiong the
length, the unbraced length of the beam, Lb. would be:

Lb,;, 30.0 ft
4
:::: 7.50 ft< 7.98 ft
Therefore, provide lateral bracing of the bottom flange at 7 .50 ft intervals.

Cb =

12.5Mmax
2.5Mmax +3MA +4Mo +3Mc

If bracing is provided at 7.50 ft on center, there are four unbraced segments along the beam,
although the two segments on each side of the beam midsp::m are symmetric assuming that
the seismic load case on the beam is considered. The moment diagram from the elastic
analysis has an approximately constant,slope such that the' values of M,~ax MA. Ms and Mc
can be obtained by proportioning the moment diagram shown in Figure 4-10. Thi.s approximation assumes that the impact of gravity load is such that it does not significantly
influence the shape of the moment diagram resulting from lateral load.

Available Flexural Strength


Check tbe available flexural strength of the beam (including tbe reduced section) as stipulated in ANSJ/AlSC 358 Section 5.8, Step l.
First, check the unbra_ced length using AISC Manual Table 3-2:

Lp:::: 6.78 ft

Lr = 19.5 ft

TI1erefore, Lp <Lb < l.;y.


This suggests that bracing must be provided more closely than 7.50 ft on center to develop
Mp in the frame beam but, as discussed in the following, recognizing that Cb > L.0 helps
establish that Mp can be developed with bracing intervals further apart than 6.78 ft.

Fig. 4-JO. Moment diagram for Beam lJM-1.

>;

ii
li

(Spec. Eq. Fl-1)

A.\fatJC.'\l'l l'.NSTITUTI! 01' STEEL CONSTRUCTION

4-52

'

MOMENT FRAMES

For the exterior segment~ of the beam, where M is the moment at the end of the beam:

Mmax = M
MA =I0.87SMJ

4-53

4.3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES AND INTERMEDIATE MOMENT FRAMES

Plastic Secuon Modulus at the Center of the RBS


At the centerline of the reduced beam section, using ANSl/AISC 358 Section 5.8, the piss-

Ma=I0.75 Ml

tic section modulus is:

Mc= 10.625.\11

(ANSJ/AISC 358 Eq. 5.8-4)

ZRBS = Zr-2ctbt(d-lbf)

Cb=

12.5M
2.SM + 3(0.875M)+4(0.75M) + 3(0.625M)
=l.25

=200 in.3-2(2.00 in.)(0.680 in.)(23.9 in.-0.680 in.)


= 137 in.3

For the interior segments of the beam:

Mmtu=O.SM
MA = 10.375.MI

Ma=I0.25

Ml

Available and Required Flexural Strength at Centerline of RBS and


Face of Column

Mc= 10.125MI

As determined previously, the nom.ioal llexural strength is the plastic moment of the beam,
Mp. At the centerline of the RBS, the nominal and available flexural strengths are:

Cb =

12.5(0.5M)
2.S(0.5M)+ 3(0.375M)+4 (0.25M)+3(0.125M)

Mn@RBS

=1.67

=FyZRBS

=50 ksi(137 in.3 )

The available flexural strength of the beam end segment is detemtined in the following. The
end segment is the governing case because the ratio of Cb values for the exterior and interior segments is Jess than the ratio of the maximum moments for the segments. From AISC
Specification Section F2.2, for the limit state of late:ral-torsionaJ buckling, with Lp <Lb:::; L,:

(Spec. Eq. f2..2)

=6,850 kip-in.

=571 kip-fl
LRFD

Mn@RBS 57 l kip-ft
=
1.67
nb

9oMn@RRS = 0.90(571 kip-ft)


=514 kip-ft

= 342 kip-ft

where

Mp =F)Zx

(Spec.

Eq. F2-1)

=50ksi(200 in.3)(1 ft/12in.)

Mu@RBs

=246 kip-ft< 514 kip-ft

o.k.

Mo@RBS

=168 kip-ft< 342 k:ip-ft

o.k.

At the face of the column, the nominal :\f\d available flexural strengths are:

=833 kip-ft

LRFD

0.7 FyS" =0.7 (50 ksi)(176 in.3 ) {l ft/12 in.)


=513 kip-ft

ASD

M11 Mp
-=-

tj>M,. =9bMp

=0.90(833 kip-ft)

For the end segment:

6
tt)( 750
ft- .78 ft)]
19.5ft-6.78ft

M"

= 1,020 kip-ft
Therefore, Mn = Mp = 83~ kip-ft because Mn csm1ot be greater than Mp (as indicated in AISC
Specification. Equation F2-1) regardless of the value of Cb and hr.icing may be provided at
7.5 fl on center to achieve Mp-

=273 kip-ft< 750 k.ip-tl

nb

= 833 kip-ft
1.67
=499 kip-ft

=750 kip-ft

Mn= us[833 ki ft-(833 ki -ft-513 ki


.
pp
p-

ASD

o.k.

M0

=136 kip-ft< 499 kip-ft

L
o.k.

'.

...

f:
AMl!JCAl< lNsTrJvn; Of' S1UL CO~TIU.ICllO.'<

MOMf.NT FRAMES

Available Shear Strength

AhcmaLively, Table 4-2 of this Manual can be used lo determine M,. The required brace
force using AlSC Specification Equauoo A-6-7 is.

Using ATSC Manual Table 3-2 for the W24x76 bcrun:

LRFD

I:.
'

I RFD

ASD

.
-v"= 210 kips

.~',

Q~Vn

=3 15 kips

:1
...'
..)

Vu

=33.8 kips < 3 15 kips

o.k.

v.,

= 22.8 kips< 210 kips

Lateral Bracing
According to lhe AJSC Seismic Provisions Section Dl.2b. which references AISC
Specification Appendix 6. the required sttengrh of nodal lateral bracing away from an
expecced plastic hinge location is determined from AlSC Specification Appendix 6 as
follows:

P,b = 0.02M,Cd

(Spec. Eq. A-6-7)

ho
R1 - 1.l from AISC Seismic Provisions Table A3.l

..::,,

C.1=1.0
where, nccording to AJSC S~ismic Prollisions Dl.2:i(a)(2):

=1.1 (50 ksi)(200 in.3 )


"' I 1,000 kip-in.

=R1 F.,Z
1.5

..:;

= 1.1 (50 ksi)(200 in. )


1.5

:;

...

= 6.32 kips

The length of the brace is a~sumed lo extend from the cenierline of lhe bottom Oange of
the W24x76 SMF beam 10 the centerline of the lop tJange of the adjacent gravity beam
The siu of the adjacent gravity beam 1s unknown, but assume for this calculation that lhe
flange thickness is the same as 1hc W24x76. The center-to-center spacing of the beams is
12 ft 6 in., as indicated in Figure 4 7. Therefore, lhc length of lhc brace is approximately:

t =

J[i 2.5 fl(I 2 in./tt))2 + {239 in. -0.680 in.)2(I/12 in./fl)

= 12.6 ft
From AISC Manuc1/ Table 4- 12 for ecceouically lo:ided single angles with the eccentricity
equal to or less than 0.75 time~ the angle thickness. uy a l5x5x$fie with K = 1.0. For
ASTM A36, 1he av:ul.ible axial s1rtngth of the single angle is found through in1erpolation
using KL= 12.6 ft.

LRFD

ASD

~ =15.0 kips

~.,P,,

= 22.9 kips

Purl>

=9.48 kips< 22.9 kips

LRFD
3

=7,330 ldp-in.

23.2 in.

o.k.

Po,11 =6.32 kips < I 5.0 kips

o.k.

bracing according to Appendix 6 of the AlSC Specification. The kicker brace selected in
this eumple is considered a nodal brace. Assuming a rig.id bmce support, from ATSC
Specificarion Equation A-6-8, the required brnce stiffness is:

ASD

_ 0.02(7.330 kip-in.Xl .O)

arb -

AISC Seismic Pr<TVisions Section 0 I .2b also specifics a minimum 51iffness for lateral

LRFD
M, =R,F1 Z

P.

= 9.48 kip~

Comment;

::=.
..

ASD

o.k

The preceding .flexural check could have been conservatively m~dc using 1he required
strength at the face of the colullUl compared to the available strength al the cenlerline of the
RBS. This approach might be useful if there is unc~rtsinty regarding the geometry of the
RBS, particul:irly the values of a and b since these arc needed 10 Jctennine 1hc location of
the RBS centerline.

flt

t 0)
P.,,.= 0.02(11 ,000
. ,kip-in.X
.
23. in .

n.,

The W24x76 is adequate to resist the loads giYen for Beam BM I.

,.

4 3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAM!:'-') -\NO L'l"TE.RME:.Dl/\11' MOMENT FRAMES

A.\iEIOCAl'f INST11V11! OP STEEL CONSTIUJCTIOH

ASD

4.3 SPEOAL MOMENT FRAMES AND INTERMEDIATE MOMENT FRA..'v!ES

4-56

LRFD
where

where

= 0.75

M,::::: 11,000 kip-in.

Mr = 7 ,330 kip-in.
Cd = 1.0
Lb = 7 .50 ft(J 2 in./ft)
::::: 90.0 in.

= 90.0 in.

ho

ho =23.2in.

~br ::::: _1_[ I 0(1 1, 000 kip-in.)( J .0)1


,

0.75

(90.0 in.)(23.2 in.)

The SMP beam-column connection design presented in this example bas been chosen to
demonstrate the application of the design pro~isions for prequalified RBS connections in
accordance with ANSI/AISC 358. This example demonstrates that the RBS geometry developed below is satisfactory. Some of the results from this example are used in Example 4.3.3.
The geometry of an RBS connection is not uniqoe and alternative configurati'ons of the RBS
geometry are possible.

=2.00

Cd = LO
Lb =7 .50 ft(J 2 inJft)
.. ...

Ex_ample 4.3.4. SMF Beam-Column Connection Design

ASD

= 23.2in.

l3t>r =

z.oo[10(7,330k.ip-in.)(1.0)1
(90.0 in.)(23.2 in.)

WD::::

e =tan

-l(

23.2in.
J 2.5 ft(12 in.Jft)

=8.79"

k = 3.07 in.2 (2~,000 ksi) cos 2 ( 8 .790)


152m.
= 572 kip/in.> l3or = 70.2 kip/in.
k > Pbr

0.84 kip/ft

})IL=

0.60 kip/ft

Procedure:
The procedure outlined below follows the order of the design procedure outlined in
ANSI/AISC 358 Section 5.8. The term ''Step i1" indicates the actual step number in
ANSI/AISC 358 Section 5 .8. The steps from ANSI/AISC 358 are augmented with some
additional checks in this example. Some of the steps listed in Table 4 -A are exe.c uted in
detail in Example 4.3.3, the SMF beam su;ength check. The procedure is defined for
LRFD only.

=AE cos2 (9)


L

Giv~n:

The stiffness of the L5x5x5/ 15 brace, with A= 3.07 in.2, in the horizontal plane is:
k

t:

Refer to Joint JT-1 in Figure 4-8. Design the connection between Beam BM-1 and Column
CL-I using the reduced beam section (RBS) shown in Figure 4-9. All beams and columns
are ASTM A992 W-shapes. Plate material is ASTM A572 Grade 50. The gravity loads on
the beam are:

=70.2 kip/in.

::::: 70.2 kip/in.,

~:

4-57

j..

In addition, panel zone and bracing requirements are checked.

o.k.

L5x5x5/1& ASTM A.36 kickers will be provided to brace the beam bottom flange at a spacing of 7.50 ft. The brace at midspan can be designed in a similar manner with Cd 2.0,
_bec;rnse it is the brace closest to the inflection point

Note t!Jat because this connection features a prequali.fied RBS moment connection supporting a concrete structural slab, according to ANSl/AfSC 358 Section 5.3.1(7) the slab pl~s
the typical lateral stability bracing provides sufficient stability so that additional bracing
adjacent to the plastic hinges is not required, provided that shear connectors are provided at
a minimum spacing of 12 in. (but omitted in the RBS protected zone).

Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the W-shape material properties are as follows:
\

ASTMA992

Fy= 50 ksi
Fu=65 ksi
From AJSC Manual Table 2-5, the plale material properties are as follows:
ASTM A572 Grade 50

Fy =50 ksi
F.,= 65 ksi

Comment:
av~ilable flexural strength is gre.ater than the required
flexural strength from code-specified load combinations at the center of the RBS, the maximum probable moment, Mpr. at the column face needs to be checked against I.be expected
moment strength of the unreduced beam section. This will be done in Example 4.3.4.

In addition to chec!Ong that the beam

A.MSRJCAN 1NS1TTVTE OF $11$1.. CONSTRUCllON

From AISC Manual Table 1-1, the geometric properties are as follows:
Colwnn

W14x176
A= 51.8 in.2
fJ= 1.31 in.
Zx= 320 io. 3

d= 15.2 in.
lfdet

=116 in.

t,. =0.830 in.


/ca,1= 2'h in.

b1= 15.7 in.


k1=l-%in.

. t1....
~:

4-58

MOMENT rR.AMES

The beam aJso sati~fies the ma.~imurn width-to-thickness ratios for the flange, mensurcd u1
the edge of the center two-thirds of the RBS. and the web specified by ANSl/AISC 358
Scc1ion .53.1(6). as ~howo in E.umple -i.3.3.

Table 4-A

RBS Design Procedure Per


ANSI/AISC 358

Beam latcml bmcing must be provided in conformance with the AlSC Seismic Provisions
This beam supports a concrete ~1ruc1ural sl.ab that is connected between the prorected zones
with welded shear connectors spaced at a maximum of 12 in. Consequently, according to the
faception in Set:tir.n 5 3 1(7) of ANSVAJSC 358, supplemental lateral bracing is not
required at the reduced )~lion . ~11mmum ~p3cing between rhe face of the column and the
first beam lateral suppon and minimum \pacing between lau~ral supports is shown 111
faample 4.3.3.

Check system limitations pe< Section 5.2.


Check prequaliflcalion linllts per ~ 5 3.
Step 1. Choose trial values for 1he RBS dimensions

a. band c. See also Example 4 3.3.

step 2. Compute plastic section modulus at tile center of RBS, z~ See Example 4 3.3.
Step 3. Com1lu'.e the pcobable maximum moment at !he cen!Er ol RSS.

The protected zone consi~ts of the portion of the beam between the fuce of tbe column :uiJ
the end of the redu..:etl beam se.;oon farthest from the face of the column. Figure 5.J of
ANSl/AlSC 358 ~hows lbc locauon of the prorwed zone. This information should be
clearly identified on the strucrurnl dct.ign drawings, on shop drawings. and on erection draw

Step 4 Compute lhe 6hear force at Ille center of lhe RBS at each end of beam
Step 5. Compute the probable nmimum moment at Ule race ot the column.
Step 6. Compute the plastic moment of Ule bfl3Jll based on e,pected yiekl Slre$S.
Step 7. Check tllat moment 81 Ille tau of Ille C-Olumn. /J~ does nol exceed availaDle strength,

-~
""

+r#,.

v,. ol beam and beam webtocolumn connection from

Step 9. Design lhe beam wet>-lc>-Clllumn connection per Section 5.6.


Step 10. Check continuity plate requirements per Chapler 2.

than a W36.

Step 11 Check cdumnbeam relotionship hrn1tations accortling to Section 5.4.

The column also ~a1isfics the m:i11;imum width 10-thickness r::llios for the flanges and the
web specified by Section 5.3.2(6), as shown in Eumple 4.3.2.

Beam
W24x76
A= 22.4 in. 2
ft= 0.680 io.

Column lateral bracmg musr conform to lhe requirements of the AISC Seismic Provisions.
Section E3.4c allows the use of a strong-column/weakbeam ratio (~SC Seismic Prorisions
Equation E3-l ) greater than 2.0 to show that a column remains elastic outside of the panel
zone at restrained beam-to-column connections. If ir can be demonstrated I.hat !he column
remains elastic outsiJe of the panel zone, Secllon E3.4c(l) requires !he column flanges tr>
be braced at the level of the beam top Oanges only. With a c-0lumn-be.am moment ratio of
I.72 in this c.xample (see calculations following). t~ column cannot be assumed to rem:.a.n
elastic and bracing as required at both the top and botcom flanges of the beam. Column
flange bracing at these locations may be provided by coatinuily pl:ites and a full-depth shelf
plate between the continuity plates al the connection of the girder framing into the weak axis
of the column.

=0.440 in.

d=23.9 in.

t,.

z.. =200 in.3

r1 =1.92 in.

br 8.99 in.

Prequalification limits per ANSllAJSC 358 Section 5.3

ANSI/AJSC 358 provides only nn LRFD design procedure for the RBS connection; there

Check beam requirements

The W24x76 beam satisfies the requirements of ANSUATSC 358 Sec1ion 5.3.J as a rolled
wide nangc member. wi1h depth less than 3 W36. weight less than j()() lb/ft, And n:mge
thickness less than I.75 in. The clear span-to-depth mtio of che beam is at least 7 as required
for an SMP system:
Clear span /dept h :::

(360 in.-15.2 in.)

23.9 in.

::: 14.4 ? 7

in gs.
Check column requirements
The W 14x176 column satisfies the requirements of Section 5.3.2 as a rolled wide Oangi>
member, with the frame beam connected to lhe column Oange and witb a column depth kss

Step 8. Determine the requll'ect Shear strength,


Equation 5.8-9.

System limitations per ANSI/A/SC 3?8 Section 5.2


The fr:une is a special moment frame and the RBS connection is prequalified for SMF and
IMF systems.

4.3 SPEClAL MOMENT fRJ\MCS 1\NO fNTERMl.!OIATE MOMENT f'RAME.S

o .k.

fore , the RBS connection must be designed using lRFD, even in the case where ASD
was used for Lhe remainder of 1he design. The following calculations illustrate the LRFD
procedure.
Trial Values for the RBS Dimensions a, b and c
(Step 1 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)
The dimensions of lhe RBS cut ~ill be determined so that the RBS has sufficient strengt1l
to resist the flexural loads pre1'Cnbed by the building code as ~ell as so that I.he probable

MOMENT F'RAMF.S

maximum moment in 1he beam at the face of the column does not exceed 1he expec1ed plastjc moment capacity of the be:im. The former check is perfom1e<l in E.,;in:iple 4.3.3, while
the latter check is pcrfonne<l in lhe following.
For the trial values of the RBS dimensions, use lhe values in Figure 4.9 and check per
ANSl/AlSC 358 Equations 5.8-J to 5.8-3.
a = 5.50 in.
0.5bt Sa S 0.15bJ
0.5bJ 0.5(8.99 in.)
4.50 in.

(ANSI/Al SC 358 Eq. 5.8 l )

=
=

(ANSJ/AISC 358 Eq. 5.8-2)

0.65d = 0.65(23.9 in.)


=15.5 in.
0.85d =0.85(23.9 in.)
=20.3 in.
15.5 in. S 18.0 in. S 20.3 in.

=8.670 kip-in.

The value of Mpr is intended to represent the m:iximum moment tha1 can occur at the center of the RBS cut when the reduced section has yielded and strain hardened.

i:

The gravity lo3d on the beam is computed from the load combination provided in ANSJ/
AlSC 358 Section 5.8, Step 4, as follows:

I~

+ 0.2(0 kip/ft)
o.k.

=1.31 kip/ft
(ANSI/AISC 358, Eq. 5.8-3)

0.1(8.99 in.)
= 0.899 in.
0.25bbf = 0.25(8.99 in.)
=2.25in.
0.899 in. S 2.00 in. S: 2.25 in.

The distance from the column face to the center of the RBS cut is determined from ANSI/
AlSC 358 Figure 5.2 as follows:

sh =a+(b/2)
=5.50 in.+{18.0 io./2)

=14.5 in.
o.k.

l..

The distance between centers of RBS culS is:

Plastic Section Modulus at the Center' of the Reduced Beam Section


(Step 2 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)

The value of the plastic section modulus at the center of the RBS,
puted in Example 4.3.3.

ZRBS

=137 in.3, is com-

Probable maximum moment at the center of the reduced beam section


(Step 3 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)

From Example 4.3.3, ZRJJs = 137 io.3 , therefore:

2F1

=1.15(1.1)(50 ksi)(I37 in. )


3

""J.2(0.840 kip/ft)+ 0.5(0.600 kip/ft)

O.lbbf Sc S 0.15b1

~1.2

(ANSl/AlSC 358 Eq. S.8-5)

Mpr =CprR>FyZRJJs

w., = 1.2D+0.5L+0.2S

c= 2.00 in.

Fy+F.

=1.1 from AISC Seismic Provisions Table A3.1

The shear force at the center of the RBS at each end of the beam is computed from a free
body diagram of the portion of the beam between the RBS centers. For this free body dfa
gram, assume the moment at the center of each RBS is equal to Mpr as compu1ed in Step 3.

o.k.

b 18.0 in.
0.65d s; b s 0.85d

Cpr =

R1

'Hll

Shear force at the center of the reduced beam sections at each end of the beam
. (Step 4 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)

0.15b1 = 0.75(8.99 in.)


=6.74 in.
4.50 in. S 5.50 in. S 6.74 in.

0.lbbf

4.3 SPECIAL MOM.ENT FRAMes i\Nl) lNTERMEDIA'l't! MUMl:.NT MtA.Mt!:S

(ANSI/AISC 358 Eq. 2.4.3-2)

50 ksi+65 ksi
2(50 ksi)
=l.15s;1.2

L1t =L-2(dcoi/2)-2S1i

=360 in.- 2{15.2 inJ2)- 2(14.5 in.)


=316 in.
Figure 4-11 shows the key beam dimensions. Figure 4-12 shows a free body diagram of the
portion of the beam between RBS cuts.

.t

As shown in Figure 4-12. V~BS and Vifusare lhe symbols used for the sbear at the center of
the RBS cuts. VRss is r.he larger of che two shear forces and VR.as is the smaller of tJ1e two.
By summing moments about the right end of this free body diagram, the shear forces can be
computed as follows:
.;.:;

l
l

l!

AMERICAN li<sTmm; OF Sn:a.. COl'STIU!Ctl0~

T
r .

MOMENT FRAMES
2Mpr Wulh
VRBs=--+--

Lh

If the gravity load on the beam is something olher than a uniform loau, the correct Shear
forces at lhe centers of I.he RBS cuts are still obtained from equilibrium of the portion of the

beam between the ccnLers of the RBS cutS {i.e., by sum.ming moments about e~~h end of lhe
free body di<1gram).

= 2(8,670 kip-in.)+ l.31 kip/ft{l ft,'12 in.)(316 in.)

316 in.

=72.l kips

If the gravity load on the beam s.s very large, lhere is a possibility tha1 the loca1jon of the
plastic hinge may shift a significant distance outside of the RBS. lf this is the case. the
design procedure in ANSI/AlSC 358 would require. some modification, sin,ce the design procedure assumes the plastic hinge forms within 1he RBS. The possibility of the plastic hinge
shifting outside of the RBS can be checked by drawing the moment diagram fQr tbc portion

Summing moments about the left end:

VfuJs

=2Mpr _ Wulh
l1t

.U SPECIAL MOMENT !'RAMES AND fl'fTERMEDlATE MO.MENT FRA."'IES

-of the beam between RBS cuts. If the point of maximum momenr is outside of the RBS and
exceeds Mp of the full beam cross section, the plastic hinge loc111fon will not fon11 in lhe
RBS, and the ANSUAISC 358 design procedure must be moclified. This is unlikely to occur
for typical spans and gravity loads, but may be a possjbility for cases of very long beam
spans and/or very large gr.Mey loads. Figure 4-13 shows the moment diagram for the portion of the beam between RBS cuts for this example. This moment diagram confinns that
the maximum moments occur at the RBS cuts, :ind therefore the plastic hinges will form in
the RBS cuts, as assumed in the ANSI/A.ISC 358 design procedure.

::::: 2(8,670 kip-in.) 1.31 kip/ft{I ft/12 in.)(316 in.)


316 in.
2
=37.6 kips

1
:J

Probable maximum moment at the face of the column


(Step 5 in ANSf/AISC 358 Section 5.8)

,,

The probable maximum moment at the face of the column, Mf. is compu1ed by taking a free
body diagram of the pon:ion of the beam between the center of the RBS cut and the face of
the column. Summing moments for the frt;e bQdy diagram results in Equation 5.8-6 in
ANSI/AlSC 358. The probable maximum moment at the face of each column is:

W24x76

L =~so

~
RBS

RBS

Fig. 4-JJ. Beam dimt!nsions.

1"r1

10,000
8,000

<lRBS

6,000

~RBS

.~

a.
:.s;:
c:
Cl)

0
~

Mpr = 8,670 kip-in.

",,,.'

L.,,= 316"
I

Fig. 412. Fret! body diagram ofporrio11 of /Jea11tbefll'cen RBS cuts.

4,000
2,000
0
-2,000
4,000
-6,000
-8,000
10,000
Distance along beam span, fl

Fig. 4-13. Probable


AMllRICAN lNSTITUT8 Of' S11lEL CONSTRUCTION

mome111 diagram

for portio11 of beam berween centers of RBS rntt.

AM1UCAN lNS'JTIVll! OP STEl?.l.. Co.HSTRUCTlON

MOMENT FRAJ\.1ES

Mf = Mpr + VRBSsh

(ANSVAISC 358 Eq. 5.8-6)

= 8.670 kip-in.+ 72. I k.ips(14.5 in.)

=9. 720 kip-in.

4.3 SPECIAi MOM!-;NT FRAMES AND INTERMEDIATE MOMEN'f FRAMES

Check that moment at the face of the column, Mt, does not exceed c;M,,.
(Step 7 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)

From ANSUAISC 358 Section 2.4.J

M/ = M pr + VkssS1i

=1.00

cpd

=8,670 kip-in.+37.6 kips(14.5 in.)

QdMrt = I O{l l,000 kip-in.)

=9,220 kip-in.
The free body diagram corresponding to Equation 5.8-6 is shown in Figure 4-14 for rhe Jefl
side of the ~-

As noted in ANSI/AISC 358, this free body diagnro and Equation 5.8-6 neglect the gravity load on lhe beam between lhe center of the RBS and the face of the column. Neglecting
this gravity load introduces little error. For this e'l;ample. Jf Lhe gra\ity load of 1.31 kip/ft
was included m the free body dfagram in Figure 4-14, lhe value of M1 would mcrea~e by
11.5 kip-in.

=11,000 kip-in.
=9. 720 kip-in.

Mt

(ANSl/AISC 358 Eq. 5 8-8)

Mt$ ~J.\ff'<
9.720 kip-in.< 11,000 kip-in.

o.k.

Because &1uauon 5.8-8 is satisfied, the preliminary valu~ of a= 5.50 in .. b = 18.0 in .. and

c:: 2.00 in. are acctptable.


lx:t~een Mt and ~dMpe ir may be possible to
rwuce the depth of lhe RBS cut. Reducing the RBS cut (the c dimension) from 2.0 in. 10
1.5 in. will ~till satisfy Equation 5.8-8, and will result in a smaller increase in story drift
ratio due to the presence of the RBS cut On the other hand, increasing lhe RBS cut would
reduce the shea.r demand on the panel wne, :is discussed in Step 9 of tJ1is example. For the
purpose of this example. continue with the RBS dimensions of a= 5.50 in.. b
18.0 in.,
and c = 2.00 in.

Because there is a significant difference


Plastic moment of the beam based on the expected yield stress
(Step 6 in ANSllAJSC 358 Section 5.8)

(ANSI/AISC 358 Eq. 5.8-7)

Mi'< =R1 Fylx


= l.1(50 hi)(200

m.3)

=11,000 kip-in.
Alternatively. using AISC Seismic Manual Table 4-2 for Lhe
ldp-fc 11,000 kip-in.

W24x76 beam,

R>MP::: 917

Required shear strength, Vu, of the beam and beam web-to-column connection
(Step 8 in ANSl/AJSC 358 Section 5.8)
The required shear strength of lhe beam and the beam-to-column connection. V,., can be calculated by taking the previously compuled value of VRss and adding the shear due to lhe
gravity load on the portion of the beam between the center of the RBS nnd the face of the
column:

<t_RBS
72.1 kips
M, = 9,720 kip-in(

V., =

VRBS

=72 I

+ w.SA
kips+ l.31 kip/ft(l ft/12 in.)(14.5 in.)

= 73.7 kips

1)

Note that lhere is liule error in taking V" = VRBS.

Thedesi&n ~hear sucngth of the W24x76 beam, v," is 316 kips fromAISC Afanua/Thble 3-6.

)
M1 =9,720 kip-Jn.
72.1 kips

'===-_.,

Mpr = 8,670 kip.in.

VR8S

=72.1 kips

sh= 14.5 in.


Fig. 4-14. Fru body diagram <>/portion of beam between center of RBS
and face of ccl"mn.

o.k.
~

1~...

Design the beam web-to-column connection according to ANSI/A/SC 358


Section 5.6 (Step 9 In ANSI/A/SC 358 SectJon 5.8)
The required shear force at the column face is V., = 73.7 kips as detennined previously.

Select a single-plate connection with a plate al lea.st 1n. lhtclc lo suppon crecllon loads,
per ANSUAJSC 358 Section 5.6(2Xa). The same secuon requires that the beam web be ,
welded to the column fl:inge using a complete-joint-penetration (CJP) groove weld.
..Jj

J,

4-66

MOMENT FRAMES

Wilb lhe single plate as backing. use a CJP groove weld to connect the beam web to the col

of this e.umple. lhe column size will not be changed and '.\.in.-thick continuity plates are
required.

From the AlSC Specification Section G2. l, the required minimum remaining web depth
between weld access holes for the 73.7 kips shear force is:

Welds between lhe continuity plate and the column flanges are required to be CJP groove
welds according to AlSC Seismic Pro1isions Section E3.6f(3).

The AISC Seismic Provisions do not specify lhe width of the continuity plate. AlSC
Spcciftc01ion Section J 10.8 S3ys that the minimum width of each con1inuity pl:11e plus tcwfl
must be greater than bbJ/3. As shown below, however, this width does not appear to be sufficient 10 stiffen 1be column flanges due to the significant clip in the plate resulting from the
column fillet.

$0.6F1 t,.,C.
73.'7 lcips
1.00(0.6)(50 ksi)(0.440 in.)(1.0)
::: 5.58 in.

By inspection, sufficient web depth remains.

From AISC Specification Section J 10.8, the minimum continuity plate width is:

o.k.

Continuity plate requirements according to ANSI/A/SC 358 Chapter 2


(Step 10 in ANSI/A/SC 358 Section 5.8)

ANSl/AlSC 358 requires conlinuity plates for the prequalified RBS connection unless the
e.xceptions of AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6f are met and both Equations E3-8 an<l
E3-9 are satisfied.

= 1.31 in.

lcJ
Ryb

=Ry.: =1. l from AJSC Seismic brwisions Table A3. l

111

(Provisions Eq. E3-8)

~ 0.4 L8(8.99 in.)(0.680 in.) ( l.l )(50 ksi)


.

1.31 in. <l.33 in.


;~

'
~;

'ef

n.g.

~!!st..
6

(Provisions Eq. E3-9)

n.g.

Use 'A-in.-thick ASTM A572 Grade 50 continuity plates on both sides of the web.

i:

Alternatively, lhe W14x176 column could be upsizcd to a W14:x211 to avoid the need
for a continuity pl:ite. The decision to upsii.c the column should also consider the need
to provide a doubler plate for the panel zone, as discussed in !he following. For !be purposes

f:

in.I "" 0.870 .

111.

4 08 in.

15.7 in. 0.830 in. _


.
--- 7.44 m.

Continuity plate

For this two-sided connection, the thickness of lhe continuity plates is required to be at least
equal to th~ thicker beam flange on either side of lhe column according to AISC Seismic
Pro11isions E3.6f(2). Therefore the minimum continuity plate thickness is 0.680 in..

).

,.... ) o.s3o
2.58 in.- f( 1~ .rn.+ 1am.
2

or it is as wide as the edge of the column flange:

Neither Equation E3-S nor Equation E3-9 is satisfied, S<? the minimum thickness requirements of Section E3.6f are not met. Therefore, continuity plates are required.

I!

While a 2Ys-in.-wide continuity plate is lhe minimum width penn.it1ed, lhis is too narrow
because the resulting conl3ct width is only 0.870 in. as shown in Figure 4-15, once the
impact of the fillet is considered. AISC Sei.mtic Provisions Section 12.4, which references
AWS D1.8 clause 4.1 , limits the corner clip to not rnore than 1,~ in. beyond the published kt
dimension. where k 1 for a W14x176 is 1Ys in. Thus, the lenglh of contact between each continuity plate and the column flange is:

8.99 in. 0.830 in.


- ---

1.31 < 1.50 in.

S.99 m. 0.830 in.


.
- -- = 2.)8 m.
3
2

The typical practice, therefore, is to set the continuity plate so !.hat it is at least as wide as
the edge of the frame beam flange:

(l .1)(50 ksi)

.,,,. 8.99 in.


lefc:c---

:..."
~

4-67

umn flange.

dmin _ 73.7 kips

:; l

4.3 SPECIAi. MOMENT FRAf..tES AND INTER.MEDlATE MOMENT FR.AMES

Fig. 4-15. Contact area between minimum-width ronti11ui1y plate and column flange.
AJ,tEJUCAN lNsTm.ml OF STEEi.. Co.~~

MOMF.NT FRAMES

4.3 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES AND lNTE.RlvtEDIATE MOMENT FRAMES

For illustration in this example, use 6.00 in. as 1he pla1e wid1h, so that the contact \\;d1b is:

)
,, JO.+ i.<
nm.
6.00 .m.- l(l~'

~Rn

0.830 in.] = 4.29 .m.


2

(Spec. Eq. J 10-11)

")( . .)l
dbdcfw

= 1.00(0.60)(50 ksi 15.2 m.)(0.830 m.

According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6f(3), the strength of the sum of the
welded joints of the continuity plates to the column web weld is the smallest of:
(a) Sum of design strengths in tension of continuity plate contact area with the column
flanges
(b) Design strength in shear of continuity plate contact area with the web
(c) Design s~ength in shear of the column panel zone
(d) Sum of expected yield strengths of the beam flanges transmitting force to the continuity plates

3befr~}
=0.60FrJ,tw ( l +
--

l+

3(15.7 in.)(I.31 in.)


)
. (
. )(O
23.9 m. 15.2 111. 830 111.

= 480 kips
Since this requirement applies

10

the entire panel zone, it will be divided by 2 when com

pared wilb requirements (a) and (b).


For continuity plate requirement (d):

T,. =2R1 Fybflf

=2(1.1)(50 ksi)(8.99 in.)(0.680 in.)


Note that (a) and (b) can be analyzed for each continuity plate to column web on either side
of the web, whereas (c) and (d) apply to the welds of both concinuity places.
Assuming a ~-in.-thick plate, for contin_uicy plate requirement (a), and using AISC
Specification Section J4. l (a), the design tensile strength is:

tP1Tn

=672 kips
Since this requirement applies to the entire panel zone, it will be divided by 2 when com
pared with requirements (a) and (b).

=~',Fy(co.nt.act area)

The concinuity plate to column web weld is based on the smallest of 290 kips, 156 kips,
.i&O kips/2 240 kips, or 672 kips/2 :::: 336 kips. Thus. the design should be based on

= 0.90(50 ksi)(2)(4.29 in.)(* in.)

156 kips.

=290 kips

To transfer 156 kips, a lh-in. double-sided fillet weld is required over the contact length.
From AISC Manual Equation 8-2a:

For continuity plate requirement (b):


AISC Seismic Provisions Section 12.4 states that continuity plates are to be detailed in accordance with AWS Dl.8 clause 4.1. The comer clip of the continuity plate along the column
web is equal to kder + 1.5 in.= 4.13 in. The contact width with the web is:
Contact width= 15.2 in. - 2(4.13 in.)
=6.94 in.
The design shear strength of !he continuity plate based on the contact area with the web,
from AISC Sp~cification Section J4.2(a), is:

l
I
.'.

156 kips
2(1.392 kip/in. per sixteenth)(6.94 in.)
= 8.07 sixteenths

Check column-beam relationships pej ANS//A/SC 358 Section 5.4


(Step 11 in ANSf/AfSC 358 Section 5.8)
AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.4a requires that SMF c-0nnections satisfy the following
strong-column-weak-beam criterion, assuming that the exceptions stated in Section E3.4a
are not met.

cj>..,V,. = v0.60Fy(contact area)

=1.00(0.60)(50 ksi)(6.94 in.)(% in,)

=156 kips
For continuiW plate reqliirement (c) and assuming that P, :S 0.75Pn the design strengch of
the panel zone, $Rn, is (note that AISC Seismic Provisions Seccion E3.6e(l) revises tlie value
of 4> to 1.00):

LM:C

(Provisions Eq. E3 1)

- -..->LO
I.Mpb

The value of M;,c in th.is example is based on projecting Mpc to the beam centerline assuming
that the column shear, Ve;, is in equilibrium with the column moment, Mpc; This is consistent
with the definition of M;,c in AlSC Seismic Provisions Section E3.4a. Alternatively, the column shear could be computed to be in equilibrium with the beam moment, Mpr The latter
approach wilJ result in a smaller value of M;,c and, when applied to Equation E3-l, will produce a slightly more conservative resulL

AlllEJUCllN lNsnTvTI! OP STl?.l!L CONSTRVCTION

,. .

70

MOMENT FRMff:S

The axial load on the column must also be considered when determining the flexural
strength of lhe column at lhe beam centerline. (For simplicity, the same axiol lood will be
used abo\'e and below the joint although ch.is is not quite accurate.} Using P., = 249 kips as
given in ~ample 4.3.2, and the height of the column to its assumed points of inflection
above {h, (12.5 fl/2)(12 inJft) = 75.0 in.] and below [hb= (14 ft/2)( 12 inlft) = 84.0 in.] the
beam centerline. r..u~ is detennine-0 as follows:

4.3 SPECLAL MOMENT l'RMIF.'l ANO INTERMl'OIAT6 MOMENT FRA.\.fES

L.M:.:

34, 100 kip

4- 7 1

in.

!M~ =19.800 kip-in.

l.72
1.72 > 1.0
o.k.
Therefore, the strong-column-weak-beam check j, sati,.fied.

(Provisions Eq. E3-2a)

+ z.lb(Fy- P,,-:)[
,\,

= 310 in 3

hb
J
hb -db '2

be calculated by summing the moment' at the column faces as determined by projecting


the expected moments at the plasuc hinge points to the column faces; in this example, MJ
and Mf.

249
(so ksi - 51.8
kips)
in.

x {[ 75.0

in~~?2~~~ in./2)]+184.0 in~-~2~~~

in./2) ]}

~ 34, I00 kip-in.

The expected fle:(Ural demand of the beam at the column centerline is defined in ANSU
AISC 358 Section 5.4 as:

''here

....

rfV"as(a+~ +; )J

L\J,,,

LH,.,

=summation of the probable ma."timum moment at the center of e:ich RBS

I.

Panel Zone Check


AI.SC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6e spt:c1fies that the required panel zone shear Mrength

From statics, it can be seen that column panel-tone shear based on the summation of the
expected moments at the column faces should be reduced by the column shear, Vr The column shear, Ve. is not from the code-specified loads but is. instead, the column shear
developed from the plastic hinging of the RBS. Assuming points of inflection at the m1dheight of the columns above and below the panel rone and as previously detcmuncd in this
enmple, M1= 9,720 kip in. o n the lert side of the beam and Mf 9,220 kip-in. on the right
s.idc, the value of Ve, ig1wring the small effect of gr::ivily loads between the ex peered p la.s11c
hinge location and the face of the column, 1s:

. - .~If+ M/
\,. - h
h
..!!. + ..!.

_ 9, 720 k.ip-in. + 9, 220 lop-m.


-,(14.0ft+12.52ft)(l2 Ill

.!.!!2

dctemlined pre\'iously

;. l
"

The term r.M 11v is the sum of the moments produced at the column centerline by the shear
at the plastic !tinges. Recalling I.he values of VRas and Vfu computed in Step 4 of tbis c'l:ample and the values of the RBS cut confinned in Step 1, r.Mw is:

= 119 kips
where
lrb

=story height above the joint, in.

h, = story heighl below tbc joint. in.

i;

The required srrenglh of the panel zone is:


~;

=(72.l kips+ 37.6 kips)(5.50 in.+ 18 ~ in.+ 15 ~ in.)

!:...

= 2,420 kip-in.

I ;i.
.!,

ITherefore, the expected flexural demand of the beam at the column centerline is:
r.'tf;/>

=2 .\/pr + r.Jf
=2(8,670 k.ip-in.)+ 2.420 kip-in.

R.. = rMt -Ve


di.-r1

== 9,720 k.ipin.+9,220.kipin. _ 119 k.ips


23.9 10. - 0.680

10.

=697 kips

llV

=19,800 kip-in.

AlSC Seismic Provision.t Section E3.6c(l) requires that the design shear strength of the panel
zone be determined in accordance with the li.nUt stale of shear yielding in AISC Spurftcario11
Section J 10.6 with~" :::: 1.00. Specifically, AISC Speciftcorion Section JI0.6(b) is applkable

4 72

.t.3 SP.EClAJ.. MOM.ENT FRAMES AND lNTl.!RMEDlAiE MOMENT FRAMES

because frame stability, includjng plastic panel-zone deformation, is considered in the analysis. Detennine 1he applicable equation as follows:

to the initiation and propagation of fracture at welded beam-to-column connections. In such


cases, sharing of inelastic deformations between beams and panel zones is not encouraged.
See Hamburger et al. (2009) for additionnl infonnation.

P,, =243 kips from Example 4.3.2

It 11as already been pointed out in this exnmple that reducing the RBS cut (i.e., dimension c)
might be possible to bring Mt closer to ~tiftf~ and reduce I.he impact of the
on frame
stiffness. Also, increasing the RBS cut dimensions would reduce shear demand on the panel
i.one and, in some cases, eliminate the need to install doubler plates.

P, <0.75Pc
P,. < 0.75F1 A1

RBS

P, <0.75(50 ksi)(5J.8 in.2)


243 kips < J .940 kips

o.k.

Size Web Doubter Plate

Therefore, the shear strength of the panel zone is given by AISC Specificario11 Equation

Jl0-11:

Rn

= 0.60Fydctw l +3bctt1'j
-f dbd<lw

II+

3{15.7 in.)(1.31 inf

(23.9 in.)(15.2 in.)(0.830 in.)

Alternatively, using Table 4-2 of this Manual for the W14x176 column:

From Table +.2 of this Manual, for the W24x76 beam:

dt
90

Wz

90
t

0.75Py= 1,940 kips

Rv2

(Provisions Eq. E3-7)

=0.250 in

From Table +.2 of this Manual, for the W14x176 column:

=480 kips

>Rv1

The minimum th.ickness of each component of the p311el zone, withour the aid of intennediatc plug welds between the column web and the doubler is:

(Spec. Eq. J 10- ll)

<flRn = 1.00(0.60)(50 ksi)(15.2 in.)(0.830 in.)

4-73

=378 kips
=2,420 kip-in.

=0.140 in.
0.250 in.+0.140 in. =0.390 in.

The column web satisfies this requirement:


t.., ""0.830 in.> 0.390 in.

4>Rv2

=<j>Rv i + - dl>

"" 378 kips+ 2,420 kip-in.

o.k.

If the doubler plate satisfies this minimurl;l thlckness, it is penniued to be applied directly to
the column web or spaced away from the web, without the use of plug welds.

23.9 in.

= 479 kips

Because Rw 697 kips> 9Rn. a column-web doubler plate is required. Note that if Ve had
not been subtracted, the required panel zone strength would have been approximately 816
kips, which is a 17% increase in demand.

The available shear strength of the panel zone is checked using AISC Specification Equation
JlQ..11 with the thickness, tw. taken as the combined thickness' of the eolumn web and doubler plate.

I.

(Spec. Eq. JI0-11)


Comments:
Tests and analyses have shown that the actual she~ strength of the panel i.one might be considerably larger than the shear force that causes global shear yielding, because of scrajn
hardening and the additional resistance provided by the column flanges bounding the panel
zone. Therefore, AISC Specification Section Jl0.6(b) pel1!lils utiliz.mion of this addi1ional
shear resistance in design when the flexibility of the panel zone js considered in analysis.
Designers should be aware, however, that significant inelastic deformntions might be associated with this increase in resistance. For connections in which beam flanges are directly
welded to column flanges, large inelastic shear distortion of 1he panel zone might contribute

Where fw used in two

plac~

is replaced by t.., + fp.

II

RCsmlnging to solve for tp:

.1

MOMENT FRAMES

4-74

<:::

.
!
697 kips

~r

0.60(50 kSi)[3(15.7 in.)(1.31 in.)2]]


(23.9 in.)
1

. 0.60(50 ksi)(IS.2 in.)

Ip

C!:: 0.476

l-0.830 in.

4.3 SPECl/\L MOMENT FRAMES AND INTERMEDIATE MOM.El\'T FRAMES

Column flnnge restraint al these locations can be provided by continuity plates and a fulldtpth shear plate between the continmty plates at the connection of the girder framing into
tlle weak ax.is of the column .
Specify Beam Flange-to-Column Ffange Connection
Per AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6c, the connection configuration must comply with
the requirements of the prequalified connection, or provisions of qualifying cyclic test
results in accordance with Section K2. ANSI/AISC 358 Section 5.5(1) requires a cqmplete-

Use a !l.!-in.-thick doubler plate.

joint-penetration groove weld,

Because the doubler plate meets the IDlmmum thickness re.quired by AISC Stismic
Provisions Equation E3-7 (0.390 in.), plug welds between the doubler and the column web
arc not required. Tiie length of the clip of the continuity plate at the doubler plate is not
required to meet AWS DLS clause 4.1. Use a 1 in. x 1 in. clip.

Use a complete-joint-p.-:netration groove weld to connect the beam flanges to the column
flange. The weld access hole geomerry is required to comply with AlSC Spt!cificarion
Section JI .6. The welds are also considered demand critical.
Tue final connection design and geometry is shown in Figure 4-16.

Extend the doubler plate 6 in. above and below the beams. Attach lhe doubler plate to the
column flanges using complete-joint-penetration groove welds, as stipulated in AISC
Seismic Provisions Section E3.6e(3)(2). A minimum-sized fillet weld may be used across
the top and bottom of the doubler plate to avoid free edges, bUt is not required.

PL '..0"x6"x12;\ wiih
corner clip per AWS
01 .8 (A572 Gr. 50)

Alrematively, two doubler plates spaced away from the colunm web can be used as shown
in AISC Seismic Provisions Commentary Figure C-E3.3(c).
Figure 4- l6 shows the final configuration of the panel zone.
Installing doubler plates can be costly, so selecting a larger column may also be considered.
Upsizing the column may potentially eliminate the need for continuity plates. The amount
that the column can be upsized without losing the savings associat~ wilh eliminating the
doubler plate varies significantly depending on the project and geographic region, but a general rule of thumb suggests that upsizing the column between 50 to 100 lb/ft might still be
more cost-effective than installing doubler plates and continuity plates. "The column would
have to be upsized to a W14x257 to eliminate both continuity plates and doubler platesa weight increase of 81 lb/ft from the W14x176 used in this example. This weight increase
is in the middle of the 50 to 100 lbtft range where upsizing might be costeffecti\'e and a discussion with a fabricator is rCGOmmended. Nevertheless, for the purposes of thi~ example,
the W14x176 column size will be retained tO illustrate the design of the doubler plate.

:.: doubler plate;


eXten<! s aboVe
and below beams
(A572 Gr. 50)

1----i--<

AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.4c allows the use of a strong-column/weak-beam ratio
(AISC Seismic Provisions Equation E3-l) greater than 2.0 to show that a column remains
elastic outside of the panel zone at restrained beam-to-column connections. If it can be
demonstrated that the column remafrls elastic outside of the panel zone, AJSC Seismic
Provisions Section E3.4<:(1) requires the column flanges to be braced at the level of the
beam top flanges only. With a ratio of l.72 in this example, the column cannot be assumed
to remain elastic and bracing is required at both the top anctbottom flanges of the beam.

CJP W24 web

%" ;Ingle-plate
connection
(A572 Gr. 50)

Column Bracing Requirements

"

4-15

W2AX/6 beam
1
" ' - Bolts as required
for erectlon

W14x176 column

Note: For weld backing requirements,

see ANSIJAISC 356 Chapter 3.

Fig. 4-16. Design Example 4.3.4 co1111ection geolrn!try.


AMEIUCAN

ltlsmvm OP STEE.. CoNSTRUCJlON

.l\MERJC/\tl .INS'ITTVTB OP STe:EI.. CoNSTRUCTlON

4-76

MOMB'IT FRAMES

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUM N BASE DESIGN


EXAMPLES
The following design examples address the design of gravity column splices, SMF column
splices, SMF column bases, and SMF embedded column bases.

Example 4.4.1. Gravity Column Splice Design in a Moment


Frame Building
Given:
Refer to the floor plan shown in Figure 4-7 and the SMF elevation shown in Figure 4-8.
Design a splice using bolted flange plates between lhe third and fourth levels for the gravity column located at the incersection of grids 2 and B. Use ASTM A572 Grade 50 for aJI
splice material. The column sizes above and below the splice are AST.M A992 W12x40 and
W1 2x58, respectively.

If
~

-1

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUMN BASE DESIGN' EXAMPLES

A!isume that the gravity column splices are at the same vertical elevation as the S.MF column splices shown in Figure 4-8. This location satisfie~ AlSC Seismic Provisions Section
D2.5a.

Required Shear Strength of Splice in Weak Axis of Column

From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the beam and column material properties are as follows:

1-~~--AS-D

~_=_~~-~--LR_FD

_ _ _....J...l_v"_=

L-1 ..

_ _ _1 ;

In the weak a.xis of the column. the required shear strengLh of the splice is:
ASD

V: _ FyZy

V. _ FyZy
ay - I.SH

uy-H
50 k.si(16.8 in.3 )

ASTMA992

r;.= 50 ksi

50 ksi ( 16.8 in.3)

=1.5(12.5 ft)(l2 in.!ft)

:z

12.5 ft(12 inJft)

Fu=65 ksi

=3.73 kips

=S.60 kips

The shear force to be resisLed by each flange splice plate is half of MpclH. Therefore, for
one splice plate:

F,.=65 ksi

W12x58-Lower shaft

Z.. =86.4 in.3

=12 A in.
Zy =32.5 io. 3

ddct

=11.9 in.

dd"

=12 in.

Z, =16.8 in.3

Vuy

=5.60 k.ips/2

=2.80 kips
1f

=0.640 in.

i
r

Vey = 3.73 kips/2

=1.87 kips

br = lO.o in.
Note that the smaller column, the W12x40, controls the required shear strength, as is stip
ulated in AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5c.

W12x40-Upper shaft

z.. =57.0 in.3

ASD

LRFD

From AlSC Manual Table 1-1, the column geometric properties are as follows:

d= 12.2 in.

From AISC Manual Table 2-5; the splice material properties are as follows:
ASTM A572 Grade 50
.Fy 50 ksi

AlSC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5c requires that, with respect to both orthogonal axes,
the column splice be able to develop a required shear st.rengtJ1 equal to:

LRFD
Solution:

~.:.

11= 0.515 in.

br= 8.01 in.

AISC Seismic Provisions Sections 02.1, D2.5a :lnd D2.5c have requirements for gravity column spikes. Note that these gravity column splice provisions are equaJly applicable to
gravity column splices in braced-frame buildings.

Check splice location

AlSC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5a requires that the splice be located a minimum of 4
ft from the beam-to-column connections. The three exceptions to this requirement do not
apply for this building.
AMERICAN lNsrnvrs OP STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Conservatively ignoring frictional resisLa.nce between the upper and lower shafts due to column dead load, this force will be resisted by the splice material.

fi
Required Compressive Strength of Splice

.)

With the upper shaft centered on the lower shaft, the dimensions of the upper shaft are sue
that it will achieve full contact bearing on the lower shaft. Therefore, the splice will not b ..
required to transfer any compressive loads iflhe upper shaft is finished to bear on the lower"'~
shaft. Because a note stating, "finish to bear," is provided on the detail, Case [-A applic
from AJSC Manual Part 14, Table 14-3.

4-78

MOJ\1ENT FRAMES

Splice Geometry

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE,\ND COLUMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

The polar inoment of inertia of the bolt group is:

Try the column splice detail from AISC Manual Parr 14, Table 14-3, Case I-A.

Iy

W12x40

~ u} = 4(2.75 iti.2-)2 (11in.2)


= 30.3 in.4 /in. 2

du=dtk1

= 12 in.

Ix"'

u-; =4(1.50 m.1)2 (ltin.2)

W12x58

=9.00 in.4 /in.2

di= d,u1

l p"" Ix+ ly

= 1214in.

d,, + IA in. 1214 in.


du+ Vs in. = 12% in,.
121,4 in. s 121A in: :::; 12% in.

o.k.

PL3/s in. x 8 in. x 1 ft 0 1h. in.

~;

gu = g1 == 51h in.

LRFD

z:

v.uySill. oo
~

n.

=1.87 kips(l.00)
4

=0.468 kips

From AISC Manual Equation 7-4a

LRFD

$:

M14

ASD

= V.,ye
=2.80 kips[1h(3in.)+1% in.]

.,

Ma= Vaye

~hat.the

eq~idistant

lrhe geometry of each bolt group is such


bolts are all
from the centroid of
their bolt group. Therefore, the moment will be shared equally between the bolts. The x-, Y
and radial distances from the center of gravity of the bolt group to the center of each bolt fol

~! rwing the procedure and definitions in AISC Manual Part 7, ate:


Cx

=rpu

COS

_ VuyCOS90"

= J.87 kips[1h(3 in.)+ PA in.]


= 6.08 kip-in.

=9.10 kip-in.

rpyu

n
=

rpasin 0

= VaySin 90

"" 2.80 kips(l.00)


4
""0.700 kips .

"
Manual and considering the eccentricity from the center of the bolt group to the column
'.:'.~ interface, this moment is:

Ir

lpxa :::::

I Be.c ~use the centroid of each ~olt group is eccentric to the column ends, there will be a
;: I moment on each bolt group. Usmg the geometry shown in Table 14-3, Case 1-A oftheAISC

ii

from AISC Mq,nual Equation 7-3b

rpxu = rpuSin 0

~l,.

lf

ASD

From AISC Manual Equation 7-3a

Splice Bolts

....,.

From AISC Manual Equation 7-2a, die direct shear force on each bolt due to the concentric
force, Vuy and Vay. applied at 90 with respect to the vertical is:

~d from Case 1-A of AISC Manual Table 14-3, use Type 2 flange pl_ates.
i:~

""30.3 in. /in.2 +9.00 in. /in.2 = 39.3 in. /in.

du + IA in. $ dt $ du + Vs in.

,.~~

4-79

FromAISC Manual Equation 74b

"

rpya ::::: rpa COS


\

= VayCOS 90

2.80 kips(O)

11
:::::

1.87 kips(O)

4
=0 kips

=0 kips

=2.75 in.
1

h(3-in.)

=1.50.in.

;:: Jc2.15 in.)2 + (1.50 in.)2


=3.13 in.

AMElllCAN

INS111111'E OF STF..EL CONSTRUCtfON

'

The additional shear force on each of the four bolts in the bolt group due to the moment
cau~cd by eccentricity is:

= 1h(5 1h in.)

Cy ;,.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE. OF

SlllEL CONSTRUCTION

4-80

MOMENT FRAMES

From AISC Manual Equation 7-6a

-[M,,c.,)

I
Bearing Strength of Splice Plate
Using AISC .\tfanual Table 7-5 with~= I 1A in., hole type = STD, F,, = 65 ksi:

_ 9.10 kip-in.(1.50 in.)

ASD

$rn =49.4 kip/in.(% in.)

(39.3 ;'.n:'!)

(39.3 ::: )
~

=0.232 kips

FromAISC Manual Equation 7-7a

From AISC Manual E.quation 7-7b

-[M.,cx)

rm)"' - - Ip

.'

_ 6.08 k:ip-in.(2.75 in.)

(39.3 ~
J
m.2
4

'

(39.3 m.2
~ )

=32.9 kip/in.(~ in.)


=12.3 kips

r,,

->ro

o.k.

o.k.
I

Bearing Strength of the Column Flanges


Since lhe column flanges are lhicker and wjder lhan lhc splice plates and their tensile strength
is equal to the splice material, the bearing strength of the column flanges is adequate.
Block Shear Rupture of the Splice Plates
A block sbear failure path is assumed as showo in Figure 4-17. The available strength for
I.be limit state of block shear rupture is given in AlSC Specification Section J4.3 as follows:

J::
1.
~

=0.425 kips

= 0.637 kips

<Prn > r,.

_ 9.10 kip-in.(2.75 in.)

rn

= 18.5 kips

_ 6.08 kip-in.(1.50 in.)

=0.347 kips

1~

From AlSC Manual E.quation 7-6b

rmw =(M;Pc,)

Ip

4-81

LRFD

riw:u- - -

4.A COLU~IN SPLICF. ANO COLUMN BASE DESTON E..XAMPLES

ASD

LRFD

(Spec. Eq. J4-5) :'

R,. = 0.60F.,Anv +UbsFuAnt ~ 0.60FyAgv + UbsFuAnt

Ubs =LO

The r~.quired strength per bolt is then:

A,,1

LRFD

r.,

=J(rP-"' + rmiu )2 + (rpyu + rmyu ) 2

=, +(O kips+ 0.637 kips)


=1.23 kips

1
( 0.468

kips+ 0.232 kips)

'+(O kips+0.425 k:ips)

o.k.

Use ~-in.-<liameter ASTM A325-N bolts in standard


, holes.

::!

ASD

nrn =11.9 kips.


rn
->r., . o.k.
n

=0.819 kips

LRFD

$rn > r.,

=2.53 in.2

2
2
r., = J(rp.xa +rmxa) +(rpya +rmya)

From AISC Ma11ual Table 7-1 for a ~in.-diameter ASTM A325-N bolt (Group A):

$rn =17~9 kips

Agv =(5 1h in.+!~ in.)(% in.)

From AISC Manual E.quation 7-8b

(0.700 kips+0.347 kips)

l.5{13/J6in.+ 1/i6 in.)Ws in.)

= 1.20 in.2

ASD

FromAISC Manual Equation 7-8a

= (3 in.+l'h in.)(lh in.) -

.
M

I ;~- 1

8"

1~1

SW

I
I
I
I

~-----------~-

I.:

~:

'

Fig. 4-17. Bloclc shear fa.ilu~ path for splice plate.


AME!ue>.N lNsTmJTE OF STEL CONS'Tll.UCTlO/'I

...

.,

1::

Ill

To

4-82

MOMENT FRAMES

An1

4.4 COLUMN SPLJCe AND COLUMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

=2 53 in. 2 -(L5)("A6 in.+ V.6 in.)(~ in.)

Shear Yielding of the Column Flanges

=2.04 in. 2

f~A"'

Because the column flanges are thicker and wider than the splice places and their yield
strength is equal 10 the splice material, the shear yielding strength of the column llanges is
adequate.

=65ksi(1.20in. 2 )

=78.0 kips
0.60FuAnv =0.60(65 ksi)(2.04 in. 2 )

Shear Rupture of the Splice Plates

The net area of one splice plate is:

::::: 79.6 kips

An:::: [8.00 in.- 2( 13/Jdn. + IA6 in.)](% in.)

0.60F).A8 ,, =0.60(50 ksi)(2.53 in. 2 )

=2.34 in.2

=75.9 kips
R.,,

+-83

=0.60F.,Anv +Ub,F,,A,, S 0.60F).Agv +Ub,F.,A,,,

From AISC Specificaiion Equation 14-4, the av:iilable strength due to the Hmit state of shear
rupture for each splice plate is:

(Spec. Eq. 14-5)

= 79.6 kips+l .0(78.0 kips)!:> 75.9kips+1.0(78.0 kips)

= 158 kips> 154 kips


Use Rn= 1_54 kips.

Vn
Q

-=

cj>Vn = ~0.60FuAnv
The available strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is:

LRFD

$Rn::: 0.75(154

kips)

Rn 154 kips
-=
n
2.00
77.0 kips
77.0 k.ips ~ 1.87 kips

=116 kips

116 kips:?: 2.80 kips

o.k.

cj> V,.

=0.60F1 A1
-Vn
=L00(0.60)(50 ksi)(* in.)(s:oo in.) n
=90.0 kips > 2.80 kips

LRFD

I
I

ASD

0.60F,A1

0.60(50 ksi)(3,i in.)(8.00 in.)


1.50

o.k.

ASD

Mrxx
v.,,.=-H

II. _ Mpcx

""F1 Zx

FyZx
=--

cu

50 ksi{57.0

=60.0 kips> I.87 kips

o.k.

o.k.

AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5c requires that the column splice be able to develop
a required shear strength in the strong 3x.is of the column equaJ to:

From '.ls~ Specification Sec[ion J4.2, the available shear strength due to the limit state of
shear y1eldmg of one splice place is:
,

0.60(65 ksi)(2.34 in. 2 )

Required Shear Strength of the Splice in the Strong Axis of the Column

o.k.

ShP.ar Yielding of the Splice Plates

LRFD

2.00
= 45.6 kips> 1.87 kips

ASD

0.60F,,Anv

=0.75(0.60)(65 ksi){2.34 in. 2 )

= 68.4 kips> 2.80 kips

ASD

LRFD

I.

-1.5H
1.5H

in.3)

12.5 ft(12 inJft)


== 19.0 kips

..

50 ksi ( 57.0 in.3)

1.5(12.5 ft)(l2 inJft)


= 12.7 kips

.B-Ollcd splice plates could be provided on the column web, but it may be possible
the strong-axis shear through weak axis bending of the flange plates.

10

resis:

Since there are two flange splice plates, the applied force on each plate is one half of ll:
shear calculated for the strong axis of the column.

AllU!RJCAN lNSTI'JVT6 OF STEEi.. CONSTRUCTION

ASD

LRFD

-..

The required flexural ~trenglh of the plate, from AlSC Ma1111al Table 3-23 Case 23: is:

ASD

LRFD

V. _ 12.7 kips
.u2
=6.35 kips

Vux = 19.0 kips


2
=9.50 kips

4-S5

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

MOMENT FRAMES

Vaxl
2
6.35 kips(l.75 in.)
=
2
"" 5.56 kip-in.

VIL\'.L
M.=-2

Ma=--

9.SO kips(l.75 in.)


2
= 8.31 kip-in.

Weak-Axis Flexural Yielding of the Splice Plate

Assuming the column is rigid enough to force all defonnation into lhe splice plate, the relative movement between the columns will cause weak-axis plate bending. The bending
behavior in the plate is that of a beam fixed at one end, free to deflect Yertically but not rotate
at the other (Case 23 of Table 3-23 in the AJSC Manual).

d
I ...e splice plates are PL~/a in. x 8 in. x 1 ft 0 1'2 in. Using AISC
As detemune previous y, '!.'
.
.
S eci cation Section Fl I, detemtine Lhe available flexural y1eldin_g strength of the P.1:ue.
:ote~at the dimension I used in AISC Specification Section Fl 1_1s parall~l to. the axis lof

~
bendmg,
and t hereiore
/ -- g.00 m. 1''or weak-axis ~bending of the splice plate m this examp e.

The limit states checked are flexural yielding of the splice plate, shear yielding of the splice
plate, shear rupture of the splice plate, and prying action on the innermost bollS.

Check the limit on Lbdlt 2:

The length of bending is the distance between the bearing plane of the columns Md the
innermost bolt line, which is 1.75 in. according to Figure 4-18.

Lbd
- 2
r

<t Upper & lower

1.75 in.(~ in.)

(8.00 in.)

= 0.0103
0.08(29,000 ksi)
50 ksi

0.08
Fy

column shaft

:::46.4

Lbd O.OSE AlSC Speciification Equation Fll-1 applies. The nominal flexura'
Because - -2 < -F-,

W12x40 column
with std. holes

yielding strength of the plate from Equation Fl 1-1 is:


PL %"x8"x1'-0Y2" (A572
Gr. 50) centered on
column flange (typ.),
with std. holes

-1

M,. = FyZ

~ I.6M1

=SO ksi (8.00 in.){~ in.)2


4
I

(2) ~ dia.
A325-N bolts @
s~ gage (typ.)

I
I
I

::::: 14. l kip-in.

l.6M1 == 1.6F1Sx

= 1.6(50 ksi)l(8.00

in.~(~ in.)21

Finish to bear

::: 15.0 kip-in.


14.l kip-in.~ 15.0 k.ip-in., therefore: M,. = 14.l kip-in.

W12x58 column
with std. holes

1
Fig. 4-18. Connection as designl!d in Example 4.4. J.

I ..

AMlUCVI ll'ISTTIVT2 Of' STEI.. CoNSTR\JCTIOl'I

~l ~86
-.: ~

MOl\.fF.NT FRAMES'

'l~

~
I

ASD
:

,...,
'111>Mn

Mn

=4>bFyZ 5: l.6My
=0.90(14.l kip-in.)

FyZ

-=-nl> .Qb

= 8.44 kip-in. > 5.56 lcip-in.

o.k.

'i

. "~

= 14. I kipin.
l.67

= 12.7 kip-in.> 8.31 kip-in.

t~

.$-87

4.4 COLUMN SPLlCE :\ND COLUMN BASE DESIGN E..'CAMPLES

;j,':!

The available flexural yielding strength is:

~Jl

-'.:

LRFD
"

~--'fl

o.k.

ASD

LRFD
T

=9.50 kips

T= 6.35 kips

2
4.75 kips

=3.18 kips

Tue available tensile strength per


bolt before prying action effects arc
considered, B, is 19.9 kips from
AISC Manual Table 7-2.

The available tensile strength per


bolt before prying action effects arc
considered, B, is 29.8 kips from
AlSC Mamuzl Table 72.

The parameters required for checking prying action are defined in AISC Manual.Part 9 and
. Shear Yielding of the Splice Plate

given in Figure 4-19 for this example.

Using ATSC Specification Equation J4-3:

LRFD
$Rn

:::i

db =Y.. in.

ASD

=$0.60FyAgv
=l.00(0.60)(50 ksi)O~ in.)(8.00 in.)

Rn

d =13/i6 in.

=0.60FyAgv
n

(Manual Eq. 9-21)

=(0.60)(50 ksi)(* in.)(8.00 in.)

=11

l.50

=90.0 k.ips > 9.50 kips

=60.0 kips > 6.35 kips

o.k.

=1.75 in.

o.k.

b' =b-db/2
=1.75 in.-.i in.(!..

=1.38 in.
a =4.50 in.
(Manual Eq. 9-27)

Shear Rupture of the Splice Plate

An= 8.00 in.(% in.)-2(1o/l6 in.+ l/i6 in.)(% in.)

-j
1

5~

=2.34 in.2

Using AISC Specific01io11 Equation 14-4:

LRFD
'..

R,. = 0.60FuAnv

$R,. =0.60F,.A,.,

=0.75(0.60)(65 k.si)(2.34 in.2)

=0.60(65 ksi)(2.34 in.2)

114"

2.00

=68.4 kips> 9.50 kips

o.k.

"'45.6 kips> 6.35 kips

---+-- .
....
o2w \

II

ASD

o.k.

';iiII

.Q

\ .P =4 1
Prying Action on the Splice Plates

recause lhe inneonost bolts wiJl dominate the resistance tO the tension fore onJ the lWO

b~lts closest to I.he interface are considered. The required strength per bolt, T. ~ tak~n as half
f the shear force at each flange plate, therefore:
AMERICAN WS1'1Tl!re OF STEEi.. CONS'T1UJCTION

Fig. 4-19. Prying action terminology.

4-88
MOMENT FRAMES

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE Al'-1) COLUMN BASE DESIGN l::XAMl'l...t:.:>

j;

where
From AISC Manual Equation 9-25. ~is:

a+db/2 = 4.50 in.+~ in/2

=4.88 in.

LRFD

1J:

ASD

and

~=~[%-1)

1.25b+d~/2=1.25(1.75 in.)+* in./2

=2.56 in.
4.88 in. > 2.56 in.

I (29.8 kips
0.539 4.75 !Ops

Use a'= 2.56 in.

TI1is tiibutary width is limited by lhe ge-0metry of the plate. The tributary width cannot be
greater than the acrual edge distance lo the end of the plate on one side and half of the bolt
gage in the other direction. Therefore, use:

= /1.67(4)(19.9 kips){l.38 in.)

/4(29.S kips)(l.38 in.)

I.

(4.00 in.)(65 ksi)

0.90(4.00 in.)(65 ksi)

=0.840 in.

Because the fitting geometry is known, the available tensile strength of the bolt including
the effecis of prying action can be determined as:
I

T1n't'JI= BQ

=1.25 i.n. + 2.75 in.

(Manual Eq. 9-31)

where Q is based on a' determined from ATSC Manual Equation 9-35.

=4.00 in.

.ASD

LRFD

The remaining variables from AlSC Manual Part 9 are as follows:


0=1-d'/p

=I .38 in./2.56 in.


=0.539

pFu

Because the splice plate is thinner than tc. prying on the bolts will occur at the bOlt ultimate
strength.

=10.5 in.

p =b'/a'

-r24Bb'

'c -

=0.838 in.

. =4.)1.75 in.(3.94 in.)

(Manual Eq. 9-24)

[( r I

a'---1- !.s_ -1
- o(i+p) c

=
(Manual Eq. 9-26)

t.

ASD

~ F.
p"

p,. =4../bC

= J - 13116 in./4.00 in.


=0.797

=9.75

-J4Bb'

le -

=3.94 .in.

l!

i)

The required plate thickness to develop the available strength of the bolt. B, with no prying
action, is calculated from AlSC Manual Equation 9-20 as:

=2.19 in.+l.75 in.

I ( 19.9 kips
= 0.539 3.18 lcips

LRFD

=4.50 in. s; 1.25b = 2.19 in. (Use a= 2.19 in.)

c =a+b

-1

l)

=9.78

To .calculate the tributary length, p, 1he AISC Manual refers 10 DowsweJ1 (20 11) as one
method to calculate the length. According 10 this reference. the tributary length, p~. can be
taken as Pe= 4./bC (Dowswell, 2011, Equation 33) where bis as defined above and where
c =a+ b, and a is limited to 1.25b. For this calculation:

~=~(; - 1)

1
((0.838 in. r-1]
0.797(1+0.539)
'ti in.

:=3.26

a' - - 1-

- 0(1+p)

[( r

!. -1
/

_
1
[(0.840in.r-1J
- 0.797(1+0.539)
3h in.
=3.28

f'

f
..

4-90

MOMENT FRAMES

,.. .
1

LRFD

ASD

Because a.'> J, use AISCManual


Equation 9-34:

Q = ( ,:

=(

~in.

Q=[,:

+0.75L+0.75S

=109 kips

The required tensile strength of the column is:

LRFD

ASD

= 10.7 kips >.4.75 kips

From ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2


LRfD Load Combination 7

= 19.9 kips(0.358)

. =7. 12 kips> 3.18 kips

. o.k.

From ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2


A.SD Load Combination 8

o.k.
1~ =(0.9-0.2Svs)D+flvQE

The final COllJ.lCCtion design and geoi:fletry for the flange connection is shown in Figure
4-18.
.
'
.

T0 =(0.6-0.14Svs)D+0.70.,QE

=8.64 kips

=15.3 kips

The required shear strength of the column is:

Example .4.4.2. SMF Column Splice Design

ASD

LRFD

Design a splice for the SMF column located on grid 4 in Figure 4-8. The column material
The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCFJSEI 7 for calculation of loads. The
required column strengths between the dJU:d and founh levels were determined by a secondorder analysis including the effects of P-o
P-ii with reduced stiffness as required by
the direct analysis me_lhod. The governing load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7, including
the overstrength factor (referred to as the amplified seismic load in the AISC Sei.smic
Provisions), follow.

and

..
...

={i.0+0.105Sns)D+0.525q,Q

(including the 0.5 factor on L permitted


in Section 12.4.3.2)

is ASTM A992.

:
;;

P.,

+ 0.5L+0.2S

Given:

..t..J

From ASCE/SEl 7 Section 12.4.3.2


ASD Load Combination 6

Tamil =BQ

= 29.8 kjps(0.360)

11

From ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

LRFD Load Combination 5

=140 kips

The available tensile strength of each


bolt is:

=BQ

4-91

ASD

P,. =(J.2+0.2Svs)D+'l,QE

(l+o)

=0.358

The available tensile strength of each


bolt is:

=(0.840
*in: r(l+0.797)
m.

(1+0.797)

=0.360

Taw1il

LRFD

Because a'> I, use AISC Manual


Equation 9-34:

(! +o)

0.838 in.

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUMN 13ASE DESlON EXAMPLES

The required compressive strength of the column is:

~;

From ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2


ASD Load Combination 6

From ASCEJSEI 7 Section J2.4.3.2


LRFD Load Combination 5

v.. =(L2+0.2Sos)D+'l,QE
+ 0.5L+0.2S
=47.2k:ips

'

v.. =(1.0+ O.lOSSns )D+0.525q,QE


=26.9 kips

from ASCFJSEI 7, use Seismic Design Category D, Oo

t
I

=3.0, p =~.O, and Sos::::: 1.0.

Assume that there is no transverse loading between the column supportS in the plane of
bending and that the connections into the column weak-axis produce negligible moments on
the column .

Solution:
ASTM A992
F1 =50 ksi
P., = 65 ksi

lNsnnrre OF STEE.. Co.><:SJ1\ucno~

I
I

+0.75L+0.75S

from AfSC Manual Tuble 2-4, the column material properties are as follows:

AMERICAN

MOMENT FRAMES

From AlSC Manual Table 1-1. 1hc column geometric properties are as follows:
W14x68-Upper Shaft
A = 20.0 in. 2
lw

d::::. 14.0 in.

= 0.415 in.

b1= JO.O in.

fJ= 0.720 in.

LRFD
Vu

=47.2 lcips

ASD
Va

=26.9 kips

Th~re. is no ~~t tensile load effect on the column; therefore, ihe requirements of AJSC
Se1sm1c Prov1srons Section D2.5b(l), (2) and (3) do not apply.
Splice Connection

According .to AISC Seismic Provisions Section E3.6g. welded splices in SMF columns shall
be made with comple1e-joim-penetra1ion (CJ'P) groo,e welds. The use of CJP groo,e welds
ensure~ that the required axial strength and the required flexural strength of the splice will
be achieved.
Use CJP groove welds 10 splice the column webs and flange.s directly :is shown in F1gure 4-20.

~
L\1pc
. d
. .
There.ore - - govems in eternunmg

H
lhe required shear strength of the splice.

~
"f..Mpc
. d
..
Th ere1ore - - governs m etemunmg
I.SH
the required shear strength of the splice.

Using AISC Specificmion Equation G2-l, I.he requfred web depth to develop this fore'
through shear yielding of the web is:

V,,
.. - ..0.6FytwC
..

d -

_
dw-

116 kips
1.00(0.6)(50 ksi){0.415 in.)(1.0)

Per AlSC Seisr:iic.Provisions Sections D2..5b, D2.5c and E3.6g, ihe required shear strength
of th~ we_b spl!cc is equ~l to lhe greater of lhe required strength determined using the load
comb1~auons m the applicable building code, including the amplified seismic load and lhe
followrng:
'

I~-~-=_LM_H_p_c~ L-R~~~~~~L.....~_=_-~
FD
~=5H~pc- ~-AS-D~~~~~~i
where LMpc ~s the sum of the nominal plastic flexural strengths of the columns above and
below the .splice. Be~ause lhis requirement is for web splices. r..Mpc in the strong a.~is of the
column will be collSldered.

LRFD

. . . . . . . __ _

=~------'--

=9.32 in.

Therefore, !he maximum lenglh of each weld access hole, th, permitied in the direc:tion
the web is:
LRFD
111

='h[d-2t1-dwJ
=1h[l4.0 in.- 2(0.720 in.)-9.32,' in,]
=1.62 in.

ASD
111

='h[d-2t1 -dwJ
=1h[l4.0 io.-2(0.720 in.)-9.35 in.]
=1.61 in.

=Fy ( Zxtop + Zxbot}


H

=(50ksi)(115 in.3 + 234 in.3 )


12.5 ft(12 in./ft)

=116 kips

I
j

Therefore, specify that lhe access holes for the flange splice welds may not extend more th
l 1h in. measured perpendicular to the inside flange surface as shown in Figure 4-20.
Location of Splice

TMpc

ASD

!Mpc

Vu = - -

D.vVa
0.6FylwCv

1.50(77.6 kjps)
(0.6)(50 ksi}{0.415 in.)(1.0)
=9.35 in.

=~-----...:-~--~

ASD

LRFD

Required Shear Strength of the Web Splice

~: .

I
!
I

Using the load combinations in ASCE/SEl 7 including the amplified seismic load, the
required shear strength is given as:

Z.. = 115in.3

W14x132-Lower Sh3fl

Z:r =234 in.

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

Vo=-l.5H

=F1 ( Zxiop + Z.rbo,)


l.5H

=(50 ksi)(11s in.3 +234 in.3)


J.5(12.5 ft)(12 inJft)
77.6 kips

AJSC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5a requires I.bat splices be located 4 ft away from .
be4lmto-column flange connection. The clear distance between the beam-to-column cc,,.,.:
nections is approximntely I0.8 ft. Because the webs and flanges nre joined by OP weklf.
AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5a(2) perm.its the splice to be located a minimum
the column depth (14.0 in.) from the beam-to-column flange connection.
. .
The column splice location shown in Figure 4-8 is acceptable.

---------<

4-94

Additional Weld Requirements


Per AIS~ Seismic Provisions Section A3.4b, the filler metal used 10 make the splice welds
must sansfy AWS Dl.8/Dl.8M clause 6.3. AdilitionaJly. AJSC Seismic Provisions Section
D2.5d requires that weld tabs be removed.
.

AlSC Specification Seccion JI .6 provides additional requiremen1s for weld access hole
geometry. The final connection design is shown in Figure 4-20.

r
)

Ex.am,ple 4.~.3. SMF Column Base Design

The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCE/SEI 7 for calculation of loads; The
required column strengths st the b,ase level were determined by a second-order, analysis
including lhe effects of P-o and P-6 with reduced stiffness as required by che direct an~y
sis method. The governing load combinations in ASCE/SEl 7, including the overstrength
factor (referred to as the amplified seismic load in the AISC Seismic Pro\lisions), follow. In
this example, two of the controlling limit states are tensile yielding in the anchor rods and
bending in the base plate. For these limit states, the axial force needs .co be minimized as this
will increase the overtumi11g (bending) in the base plate and increase' the tensile force in the
anchor rods; therefore, the required axial compressive strength is detennined from:

Given:

...

L.,

'. _J

ASD

LRFD

A992

~~

4-95

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

MOMENT FRAMES

Refer to Column CL-1 in Figure 4-8. Design a fixed coiuffin' base plate for the ASTM
W-shape. The base and other miscellaneous plate material is ASTM A572 Grade 50. The
anchor rod material is A_STM Fl554 Grade' l 05: The 21.t.1~in.-diam.eter anchor rods have an
em.b edment length, h,,f> of ;u least 25 in.. The columq i$ centered on a reinforced concrece
foundation. The foundation concrete compressive strength, fJ, is 4 ksi with ASTM A615
Grade 60 reinforcement. The anchor rod concrete edge distances, c.,1 and c112 , are both
greater than 37.5 in.

LRFD Load. Combination 7 from

ASD Load Combination 8 from

ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

P,, =(0.9-0.2SDs)D+0uQE
=98.8 kips

Pa =(0.6-0.14SDs)D+0.70 0 QE

::::64.5 kips

The required flexural stTengtb is detemuned from:

ill

column shaft
... 4 .

ASD

LRFD

ct_ tJpper & lower

ASD Load Combination 8 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

LRFD Load Combination 7 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

',;.

W14x68

Ma =(0.6-0.14S 0s)Mo+0.1~MQ.

M,,:::: (0.9-0.2SDs)M0 +0vMQc

=662 kip-ft

= 946 kipft
The required shear strength is derermin~d from:
\

ASD

LRFD
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/S.EI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

1.z" max
typ.

Weld access hole


Specification

~---+-+-- per

Sectio~ .J1.6 (typ.)

W14x132

vu = (l.2+0.2SDs)D+nuQE

'

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3. 2

'

'.

Va =(L0 +0.14Svs)D+0.70;Qe

= 67.2.kips

= 96.0 kips
..

Assume that che connection into the column weak-axis produces negligible moments on the
column.
From ASCE/SEI 7, use Seismic Design Category D,

no = 3.0, p = LO. and SM.= LO.

Use LRFD provisions for the concrete design.


Fig. 4-20. Connection as designed in Example 4.4.2
AMl!RJCAN INS11TU11! OF S"rEEl. CONSTRUCTION

...

..

J\Mllltl<:A:N WSTITTITE OP

STEEL CONSTRUCTION

4-96

MOMENT FRAMES

4.4 COI..UMN SPLICE AND COLLIMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

4-97

Solution:
LRFD

ASD

From AlSC Manual Table 2-4, the column material properties are as follows:

T.Mpc

F1 =50 ksi,
F.,= 65 ksi

where r.Mpc is the sum of lhe nominnl plastic flexural strengths of lhe columns above and ;:
below the splice, or in this case, lhe base.
Therefore:

ASTM A572 Grade 50

=50 ksi
LRFD

Fu= 65 ksi
From AlSC Manual Table 2-6, the anchor rod material properties are as follows:
ASTM Fl554 Grade 105

From ASTM A615, the concrete reinforcement properties are as follows:

ASTM A615 Grade 60


F1 =60 ksi
From AISC Ma11Ual Table I- J, the column and beam geometric propenies are as follows:
W14xl76

A= 51.8 in.2
t,;. =0.830 in.

v. -

V. - IM re
II J-1

fM,x

I.SH

- 2(50 ks.i)(320 in. )


- {12 in./ft)(I4.0 ft)

- 2(50 ksi)(320 in.3 )

=190 kips > 96.0 kips


Use Vu =190 kips.

=127 kips> 67.2 kips

- 1.5(12 in/ fl)(l4.0 f1)

Use V4

=127 kips.

AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.6c(b) requires th3t the flexural strength equal or
exceed 1he lesser of lbe load combination of the applicable building code, including th ...

amplified seismic load, or lhe following:


d= 15.2 in.
k,us

=1.91 in.

b1= 15.7 in.

, ..!;,

t1= l.31.in.

Zx= 320 in. 3

W24x76

FromAlSC Manual Table 7-17, the 2\4-in.-diameter anchor rod has an area of A"" 3.98 in.2

Required Strengths at Column Base


AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.6a.(a) defines the required axial strength as the
~equir~ strength ~cuJated using the load combinations of the applicable building code,

ASD

lRFD

1 - - - - - - - - l.lR
+
- - - - i.
F Z.x
M.,

=23.9 in.

=1.lR1 FyZx

1 1
Ma=--<--<-1.5

l.1(1.1)(50 ksi)(320 in.3)

{J2in/ ft)

= 1.610 kip-ft> 946 kip-ft


Use M.,

=946 kip-ft.

1.1(1.1)(50 ksi)(320 in. 3 )

l.5(12in./ft)
::::; i.oso kip-ft> 662 kip-ft
Use MQ

I!
~

=662 kip-ft.

including the amplified seismic load.


By reference to AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5c, which references Section D2.5b
AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.6b indirectly stipulates that the required shear stren~
of the column base be the greater of the required shear strengd:t delennined from load combinations inclucling the amplified seismic load (Section D2.5b(b)) or the required column
strength as stipulated in t.he system chapters (Section D2.5b(a)). Herc, the provisions of
Section E3.6g apply, as follows:

AM.lllUCAN lNSTITVTE OP STl!D, CONSTJ<UCTION

f.

ASD

Fu.furQ = 125 ksi

11!

'---~~----~-~-----'-~~~~---~----~~

From AISC Manual Tuble 25, lhe base plate material properties are as follows:

F1

V. _ 'flvlpc
0
1.5H

v.u - -fl-

ASTMA992

::~a~~z:1::~::::::shall

four

be large enough for the instalfation of at least


anchc
rods, as required by the Occupalional Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, 2008).

Try a plate with: N 32 in., B 32 in., and anchor rod edge clistance
of four equ:illy space.cl rods, as shown in Figure 4-23.

=4 in. Try two row

t:
\::

MOMENT FRAMES

Using tl1e recomm.endations from AlSC Design Guide l. Base Plate and Anchor Rod Design
(Fisher and Kloiber, 2010), determine the required base place thjckness and anchor rod tension force.

32.0 in.
=--2

For the calculation of the base plate eccentriciry, e, from AISC Design Guide 1 Equation
3.3.6:

LRFD

'

M,,
P,,

Ma
Pa

e=.,
:~.

,'

:
::

r1

ASD

ecrit

Pa

=---2qwu

= (946 kip-ft)(12 in/ft)


98.8 kjps
= 115 in.

64.5 kips
=---2(94.1 kip/in.)
2

98.8 kips
2(141 kip/in.)

= 15.7 in.

\VitJ1 e > ecro. lhe eccentricity meets the AJSC Desigil Guide 1 criteria for a base plate with
a large moment (Figure 4-21).

Per AlSC Design Guide I Section 3.4, the following inequality must be satisfied:
64.5 kjps

=123 in.

'N

Pr
2qT11/JX

/ +

N')

~ 2P,(e+ j)

(AISC Design Guide 1 Eq. 3.4.4)

q,n(J)C

For the calculation off

For the calculation of the critical eccentricity, ecn1:

(AISC De.sign Guide I E.q. 3.3.7)

For the calculation of the maximum plate bearing stress, qm(J)C:

= N - edge distance
2
32.0 in.
.
4 00 m.
=----.
2
12.0 in.

(AISC Design Guide I Eq. 3.3.4)

For the calculation, assume the concrete bearing frustum area ratio equals 2.0 from ACl 318
Se-etion 10.14.l:

~.,,

J=2.0

The available bearing strength is determined from AISC Specification .Equation JS-2.
LRFD

f P<.,,_) =$(0.85J:)l-

At
0.65(0.85)(4 ksi)(2.0)

ASD

Iip{max)--- 0.85f: lQ

=
= 4.42 ksi
qtntU

'

32.0 in.

=15.6 in.

={662 kjp-ft)(l2 in/ ft)

eaiJ=----

~-~
-

e=-

i:::J

P.,
2qmo.r

=---2

Base Plate Eccentricity and Critical Eccentricity

ASD

LRFD
ecr11

4-9?

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE ANO COLUMN nASE OF..SJGN EXAMPLES

=f P<.max>B
=4.42 ksi (32.0 in.)

=141 kip/in.

Ai

=0.85(4 ksi)(2.0)

iT

qmaxY

2.31

qlNVC

= 2.94 ksi
=f P<.ftllU)B
=2.?4 ksi (32.0 i n.)
=94.l kip/in.

N
Fig. 4-21. Base plate with large momtnt (Fisher and Kloiber: 2010).

MOMENT FRA.\1ES

For the calculation of the assumed bending lines at lhe bearing interface, from AlSC Design

Therefore:

(!

N) :::::
+2

[12.O m.+
.
32.0
- -in.)
2 .

Guide I Section 3.1.2:


2

m=

:::::784 in.2
ASD

2P.(e+ f)

2(98.8kipsXl15in.+12.0 in.)

2P,,(e+ f)

qmox

141 kip/in.

q,,_

=178 in.

(1 + N)2 > 2P,(e+

N-0.95d

2
32.0 in.-0.95(15.2 in.)

LRFD

=8.78 in.

=2(64.5 kips)(l23in.+12.0 in.)


94. l kip/in.
= 185 in.2

With

4-101

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

/),the inequality is satisfied and a real solution is possible.

qmill

fl=

B-0.8b1
2
32.0 in. -0.8(15.7 in.)
2

I.
"

=9.72 in.
For the calculation of the base plate cantilever bending line distance at the tension interface:

x =f _!!._+ t I

Base Plate Bearing Length

From AlSC Design Guide 1 Equation 3.4.3, the base plate bearing length is:
LRFD

(AlSC Design Guide 1 Eq. 3.4.6)

in. 1.31 in.


=12.0 i n15.2
.---+-2
2

ASD

=5:06 in.

Y=(!+~)~ (!+~r

=-h84

2P.,(e+ f)
Qmax

in.2 -.J784 in.2-178 in.2

= 3.38 in.

Y=(!+~)

Nr

/+2

2Pa(e+f)

=.J7g4 in.2 -.J784 in.2 = 3.53 in.

qmilX
d

185 in.2

-1

@
,_

Required Rod Tensile Strength


From AlSC Design Guide I Equation 3.4.2, the required rod rensile strength for t:he anchor
group on one side of the base plate is:

LRFD
Nua,,, qmnxY - P11
= 141 kip/in.(3.38 in.)-98.8 kips
= 378 kips

__

I
I

.....

=268 kips

- -1- - - D --I

c::
1-

I
I
I
I
I
....

I
I

ASD

N"=qlnlllY-P.,
=94.~ kipfm.(3.53 in.)-64.S kips

'g
co

--- II - - - - - ---

co

c::i

c:

..t

0.95d
Base Plate Thickness

Check the base plate for flexural yielding at both the bearing and tension interfaces. At the
bearing interface, the beSnng pressures between the concrete and the plate wiU cause bending for the cantilever lengths m and n as shown in Figure 4-22. At the tension interface, the
anchor rods cause bending for the cantilever length, x, as shown in Figure 4-21.

Fig. 4-22 Asswned bending li11es (Fisher and Kloiber; 2010).

.r.
AM.eluCAN

1Nsmvrs Of Sm61.. Coi'JSTlttJCTION

4- 102

For flcxurol yielding at the bearing interface and Y < max(m. n), from AISC Design Guide I
Equation 3.3.15:

LRFD

f P<.rtt1>

=2.1

J'

f p<maxJY[ m~(m,11)-i)
I p(nq)

Fy

x(9.72 in.-

=2.11 1

r::

f p(mtUJY( max(m,n)- ~J

33

~ in.)

LR.FD

=2.11

ASD

N11aX

BFy

=2.1 I /378 kips(5.06 in.)


32.0 in.(50 ksi)

=2.31 in.

fp(req)

- JNaaX
=2 .:>8
--

BF,.

=2_58 /268 kips{S.06 in.)


32.0 in.(50 ksi)

R,, > V. = 190 Jdps

Use a PL3 h in. x 32 in. x 2 ft 8 in. ASTM A572 Grade 50 for the base pl3te.
Plate Washer Bearing Strength

According to AJSC Manual Table 14-2, use a }8 in. x S1A in. x 5\4 in. pl3te washer, welded
to the top of the base plate, to transfer the shear to the anchor rods. Also, interpolating from
Table 14-2, use a 3lh-in.-diameter bole for the 2~-in.-diameter ancbor rods.
Detennine the available bearing strength assuming deformation at the bolt hole is not a
design consideration.

The clear distance to the edge of lhe bearing plate, le. is Laken as:

Rn >Va= 127 kips

o.k.

Anchor Rod Combined Tension and Shear

Using the recommendations from AlSC Design Guide l and AISC Specification Sectior,
J3.7, the available tensile stress of the anchor rod subject to combined tensile and shear load~
is checked, including the effects of bending.

Based on testing performed by Gomez et al. (2010), this approach was detennined lo provide a reasonable and conservative strength estimate for earthquake des.ign. Therefore, given
the comprehensive testing and design approach, the general anchor strength requiremenr of
AC1 318 Section D4.3 for resistance to combined tensile and shear loads can be satisfied.
The anchor rod noro.inaJ tensile slress, from AISC Specification Table 13.2:

Fni =0.15Fu
= 0.75{t25 ksi)
=93.8 ksi
The anchor rod nominal shear stress with threads not excluded from the shear plane from
AlSC Specification Table 13.2:

F,.,,

=0.450Fu
=0.450(125 ksi)

..

=56.3 ksi
The anchor rod required shear slress.frv:

_ 5'A in. - 2 1..4 in.


1c- .
2

ASD

LRFD
f,rv --~

Va

f,.,=-llvAg

n.Ag

190 kips
2

8(3.98 in. )

=5.97 ksi

.I

o.k.

2.00
=510 kips

= 2.38in.

= 1.50 in.

=765 kips

=3.32 in.

For flexural yielding at the tension interface, from AISC Design Guide l Equation 3.4.7:

fp(rtq)

R,, 1,020 kips


-=

R11 = 0.75(1.020 kips)

;~::j

ASD
I

3.53
.
x [9.72 m.--in.
2
=2.58,
50 ksi

50 ksi

(Spec. Eq. J3-6b)

LRFD

Fy

2.94 ksi(3.53 in.)

=3.2? in.

_ ____,

=2.581

R,, =1.51,tFultv S 3.0dtF.,nv


= 1.5(1.50 in.)(* in.)(65 ksi)(8)

s 3.0(21A in.)(* in.)(65 ksi)(8)


= l,020 kips< 3.070 kips

ASD

4.42 ksi{3.38 in.)

?:

4-J(i,

4.4 COLUMN SPUCE AND COLUMN BASE DESIGN l:!XAMPLES

127 kips
= 8(3.98 inh
= 3.99 ksi
AMUtlCAN INSTlTVTE OI' S-n;a CoNSTR\iCTION

4-1()4

MOMENT FRAMPS

4-105

4.-1 COLlfMN SPLICF ..\NO COLUMN BASE Df.SJON EXAMPl.S

Therefore. the nominal tensile stress from AISC Specification Equation 13-3 is:

ASD

LRFD

LRFD

ASD
f/;J

F:U

= 1.3Fn1 -

F111 f,., < F,,,

F,:,

~Fnv

= 1.3(93.8 ksi)

93.8 ksi
- 0.75(56.3 k:si) (5.97 ksi)
= 109 ksi

=l.3Fn1 - QFll( /,.,, < Fn,


Fnv
=1.3(93.8 ksi)
_ 2.00(93.8 ksi) (
')
3 99
56.3 ksi
ksi
=109 ksi > 93.8 ksi

> 93.8 ksi

Therefore use F~ = 93.8 bi

Therefore u~e F:i

F;,

F;, = 0.75(93.8 ksi}

From AISC Design Guide 1 (Fisher and Kloiber. 2010) the anchor rod be d' o

lever arm, l, is taken as:


'
n m,, moment
- Ip t,. aJ~r
l-+--

Anchor rod bending stress

Anchor rod bending stre..~

\10 1

M lb
- VIII
-

M1b=flv

11,

= 190 k.ips(2.19 in.)

=52.0 kip-in.
/rb

=--+-2
2

127 kips(2. I 9 in.)

=34.8 kip-in.

M,,,

./,

=34.8 kip-in.

t...

1.90 in.'

=27.4 ksi

=18.3 ksi

Combined stress

Combined sness

=51.l ksi < 70.4 ksi

I.f

Mw

/ib = -

:::-

J,

=23.7 ksi + 27.4 kq

~in.

26$ kips
4(3.98 in. 2)

=l6.8 ksi

J, = /u+ fib

3 1h in.

= 52.0 kip-in.
1.90 in.3

+ frb

378 kips

93.8 ksi
2.00
=46.9 ksi

The anchor rod combined tensile and bending stresses,/,, is:

,,,A,

=4(3.98 in.2)
=23.7 ksi

=93.8 ksi

/,,..--_ Naa

n1 A1

-=---

= 70.4 ksi

J, = f.a

:-!!t.

=fta+ fzb
- 16.8ksi+18.3 ksi

o.k.

=35.l ksi < .t6.9 ksi

o.k.

=2.19 in.
The anchor rod plastic section modulus,

...

z. 1s:

Z::: db
6

= (2~ in.)3

=1.90 in.3
Determine
rod tensile s tres s, assunung
tha t only the rods on one side of the b3Se
the anchor

pJate are w tension at any time.

Concrete Anchorage Strengths


The available strengths of the column base concrete clements are checked in accordanc.
with ACI 318 Appendix D. Section D.3.3.3 requires the anchor design screogth associate
wilb concrete failure modes bereduce<l by a fac1or of 0.75 for structures assigned to Seismic
Design Category C, D, E or F. The same secuon requires that the concrete be :issume<'
cracked unless it can be demonstrated othcrwi~ Section D.3.3.6 penniis the u~ of 3 O. .
factor when not designing to fail either the anchor rod or the connection to the ~ochor r' .r
per Sections D.3.3.4 and 0.3.3.5, respectively. Although longer embedmeot depths are permitted, with respect to the basic strength equl.ltion, ACl 318 Section D .5.2.2 30d th
example Jim.it the minimum effective embedrnent depth, h4 of the anchor rods to 25 in.
....,,

I
I

Design Requirements for Tensile Loading


t:
Although checked previously in ~ccordance with AlSC provisions, the following illustrah ~
lhe :mchor tensile loading checlcs in accordance with ACl 318 Appendix D provisiom. .,
Per Section 03.3.4, to ensure anchor rod ductile behavior, the design steel tensile strength.
9N,,,. must be less than the concrete breakout, 0.15,Ncbi pullout. 0.75N, and side-fa
blowour, 0.15,N,b, strengths. By inspection, 1hc side-foce blowout limit ~tatc is n !
applicable.
"

4-106

4.4 COLUMN SPUCG ANO COLUMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

The steel tensile strength of the anchor rod group of four (on one side of the base plate):
~NS4

=n As~.Nf.10

for the calculauon of A,vc<>:


(AO 318 Eq. D-6)

ANco =9'1!1

where

:::: 9(25.0 in.)2

=0.75 from ACl 318 Sec6on D4.4(a)(i)

A,,,N

0.9743)
=41t ( do--n-,
-

n,

=4.5 threads/in. from AISC Manual Table 7-17

4-10?

=5,630 in.2

from ACJ 318 Section RD.5. J.2

Por the calculation 1.1f N,,:

N,,

=16A.J/:1i;p

Therefore:

(ACI 318 Eq. D-8)


513

1t(2" .

Au,N::: -

J6(1)J4,000 psi (25.0 in.)

0.9743
I 1 0
. - -)

1,000 lb/kip

4.50 in.

= 216 kips

= 3.25-in.2

Therefore:
2

$Nsa -= 0.75(4)(3.25 in. )(125 ksi )

= 1,220 kips > N a =378 kips


11

7 430 0

~ :)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(216 kips)

Nt:bg :(

o.k.

5,630 m.

~285

For the design tensile concrete breakout strength of the anchor group:

kips

0.4(0.75)Ncbg
(AO 318 Eq. D-5)

Per ACI 318 Section 0.4.2. l provide supplemental reinforcement to restrain the concrete
breakouL From ACI 318 Section D.5.2.9:

where the following values are assumed.


'Yec.N

= 1.0 fromACI 318 Section D.5.2.4

'Y~t1,N

= 1.0 from ACI 318 D.5.2.5

=0.4(0.75)(0.75)(285 kips)
=64. l kips< 378 kips n.g.

T,,
0.75$/y

As=---

'Yc,N = LO from ACI 3 J8 D .5.2.6


'l'cp.N

cp :::: 0.75

= 1.9 from ACI 318 Section D.5.2.7

378 kips

ANc :::: [(n- l)s + 2(1.5)/rq j2{1.5)1tef from ACI 318 Figure RD.5.2. l

A.-----"-0.75(0.75)(60 ksi)
:::: 11.2 in.2

=fB-2(EdgeDisunce)]/(n-l)

=132.0 in. -

Provide at least 11.2 in. 2 of vertical reinforcing stirrups spaced within O.Shefof each anchor
rod group per ACI 318 Section Rt>.5.2.9."

2( 4.00 in.)]!( 4- J)

= 8.00 in.

For tbe design pullout srrength of the anchor group, including the additional 0.75 factor stipulated in ACT 3 18 Section 0.5.2.9 nnd 0.4 factor sti pulated in D.3.3.6:

Therefore:
ANc

=[(4-1)8.00 in.+2(1.5)(25.0 in.)](2)(1.5)(25.0 in.)


=7,430in. 2

Ii I
A.t.tBUCAN

where

$
'l'c,P

"'

I ~!

0.4 (0.75)$Npn :::: 0.4 (0.75)$n'JI c,PN p

1NS'JTTUT6 OF STEEL CoNS11UJC110N

= 0.7 from ACJ 318 Section D.4.4(c)ii for Condition B

=1.0 from ACl 318 Section D.5.3.6

AMERICAN INS'TllVra 01' S1l?a CONSTROCTION

(from AO 3 18 'Eq. D-1 ..:

4-108

MOM.ENT f'RAMES

4-109

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE ANO COLUMN BASE DESIGN EXAMPLES

For 1he calculation of Np.


(ACI 318 Eq. D-15)
For calculation of tbe anchor head bearing area Ab try" J 10 x 1.<
1.<
h

'
rz
"
... n IO. X 4 n m. plate
was er with a double heavy hex nut head on the embedded end of the anchor rod.

For rhe c:Ucul:ition of the plate washer cantilever bending moment, the plate washer cantilever distance, l, is:

=(B,.as/Jt; - Bn11.1 h~od )


2

Aorg = Aplote - Au

=(4 12 in. - 3 h

Aorg ::::: ( 4 \fi in.)2 - 3.25 in. 2

=0 ..500 in.

in.)

::::: 17.0 ~. 2

where Bnut Juad is the heavy hex nut F dimension given in AISC Manual Table 7-l9.

Np =8(17.0 in. 2 )(4 ksi)

Therefore:

= 544 kips

ASD

LRFD

Therefore:

For the plate washer load, w0 ,

For the plate washer load, Wu,

0.4(0.75)C!>Npn

=0.4(0.75)(0.7)(4)(1.0)(544 kips)
= 457 k.ips > 378 kips

N,,,,

Naa

\ V a = --

Wu=--

o.k.

,<\i,rg

=17.0 in.2

The plastic section modulus per unit width, Z, of the plate washer is:

=22.2 ksi

bd2
4

wa/2

Ma=--

Mu=--

={22.2 kip/in.)(0.500 io.)2

=0.250 in.3

The nomin:il tlexural strength of the plate washer is:

= (1s.8

::::: 2.78 kip-in.< 450 kip-in.

M,. =FyZ

'

for_a l in. strip of place:

. Wul 2

= 1.00 in.(1.00 in.)2

o.k.
\

.
l..

kipf10.)(o.so9 in.)2

2
= 1.98 kip-in.< 2.99 kip-in.

o.k.

(Spec. Eq. Fll-1)

=50 ksi(0.250

in.3 )

Therefore, from AlSC Specification Section Pl 1.l and AC! 318 Secrt"on D 3 3 6 th
1
able flexural strengtb of the plate washer is:
, e av:u -

LRFD

=0.4(0.90)(12,.5 kip-in.)
= 4.50 kip-in.

~-

Design Requirements for Shear Loading

= l 2.5 kip-in.

0.4$Mn

=17.0 in.2
=15.8 ksi

for a lin. strip of plate:

Z:::::-

.:
t:

268 kips

378 kips

Anchor Rod Head Plate Washer Flexural Strength

Abrg

ASD
0.4Mn :::: 0.4(12.5 kip-in.)

J.67

= 2.99 l<lp-in.

Although checked previously in ae<;:ordance with Al~C; provisions, the following illustrates
the shear loading checks in accordance with ACI 318 Appendix D provisions. Frictional
shear resistance developed between the base plate and the concrete is neglected in consideration of earthquake loading. By inspection, the concrete breakout strength of .the anchor
group in shear is not applicable.
The design steel shear strength of the entire anchor group, including the grout pad factor of
0.80 (AC! 318 Section D.6.J.3) is:
$Vso =cl> 0.80n0.6Au.Vfu10

t'

->

(AC! 318 Eq. D-20)

where

q, =0.65 from ACI 318 Section D.4.4(a)ii

.....,
Ai.l.61UCAN INsTmTrS OF STES. CoN~Tiu.icnoN

4-110

MOMENT FRAMES

TI1creforc:
cj>V,.,

Vu

9v10

=0.65(0.8)(8)(0.6)(3.25 in. )(125 ksi)


2

= l,O !Ok.ips>l90kips

190k.ips

190 kips
1,060 kips

Because V., s 0.29Vsa. the full strength in 1ension is permitted according to ACl 318 Section
D.7.l. Therefore. V,. is controlled by a ductile steel element
Design of Column Web-to-Base Plate Weld

1,010 kips

V<a

= 0.179 < 0.20

o.k.

For the inter3ction of tensile and shear forces. from ACI 318 Se<:1fon D.7:

l=

4-l l t

4.4 COLUMN SPLICE Ai"ID COLUMN BASE OF..SrGN EXAMPLES

The effective Jengtl1 of weld available, I,. on both sides of web, holding welds back from the

=0. 188

"IC' region, is:

Nua
378 kips
--=--Ns11 1,220 kips
=0.310

le= d-2kdu
= 15.2 in.- 2(1.91 m.)
= 11.4 in.

Because Vu s 0.2<Wso. lhe full Strength in tension is pennitted according to AC! 318 Section
D.7.1.

For the design pryout strength of the anchor .group, ACI 318 Sec1ion D.3.3.5 requires that
the streng1h be greater than tl1e shear associated with a ductile failure of 1he attachment if
the requirements of ACT 318 Section D.3.3.4 are not met Because the shear strcngrh is
based on hinging in the column, the ductile failure requirement is met if the design streng1h
exceeds the column shear strength.
As indicated previously, the anchor rods on both. sides of the base plate are provided with
supplemental reinforcement. Io the region between each anchor group, lhe supplemental
reinforcement may overlap, contributing to either group. In consideration of the concrete
breakout strength for prying, a conservative estimate considers only 75% of the supplemental lotal for both groups. Also, the Ncbg term is no"\ determined based on lhe area of
supplemental reinforcement instead of ACT 318 Appendix D. Equation D-5. Therefore, lhc
revised design pryout strength is:

From AlSC Manual Equation 8-2, the weld size in sixteenths of.an inch is:
ASD

LRFD
Dnq

Vu
= 1.392(2/e)

rtq -

l90 kips
1.392kip/in.(2Xl1.4 in.)

Va
0.928(2/e)
127 kips
0.928 kip/in.(2)(11.4 in.)

=6.00 sixteenths

= 5.99 sixte.enths

Conservatively use Yi6-in. fillet welds (two-sided) for the column web-to-base plate weld.
Design of Washer Plate to Base Plate Weld
The effective length of weld available, I,~ on each of the eight plates (two sides), is:
I

0.75 V,.p8

:::::

0.75t> kcp N,.bg

(from ACI 318 Eq. D-31)

where
~

=0.70 fromACI 318 Section D.4.4(c)jj Condition B


=2.0 from AO 318 Section D.6.3. 1
Ncbg =0.75(2)(1 I .2 in.2)(60 ksi)

I,::: 2(5 1A in.)


=10.S in.
From AISC Manual Equation 82, the weld size in sixteenths of an inch is:

kcp

Therefore:

rtq -

0.15cWcpg = 0.75(0.70)(2.0)(1,010 kips)

=1,060 kips> 190 kips

o.k.

Recheck the intcrnction of tensile and shear forces, using ACI 318 Sec1ion D.7.!, wit11
$V:o 0.75 $V,.,,., as follows:

ASD'

LRFD

= 1,010 kips

Vu
1.392(81,)

190 kips
1.392 kip/in.(8)(l0.5 in.)
= 1.62 sixteeolhs
::::

Vu

rtq -

0.928(8/e)
127 kips
0.928 kip/in.(8)(10.5 in.)
1.63 sixteenths

The minimum weld size based on the thinner part joined from AISC Specification Tabl<'
12.4 controls. Bnsed on the 0.830-in. web, use 111-in. filJet welds (two sides) for the washt f
plate-to-base piste weld.
~fERJCAl'I .lNSTmtlll OF STEEL CoNSTRllCllON

4-112

4A COLUMN SPLICE AND COLUMN BASE OESfGN E.'<A.MPLF-'>

n,ie final connection design and geometry for the moment frame column base is shown
Figure 4-23.
in

1
L

~113

'

Example 4.4.4. SMF Embedded Column Base Design

Given :
Refer to Column CL-l in Figure 4-8. Design an embedded column base plate for the ASTM
A992 W-shape. The column is centered on a 72-in.-wjde reinforced concrete foundation.
The foundation concrete compressive strength,//, is 4 ksi with ASTM A6 I 5 Grade 60
rcinforcemen1. Use ASTM A572 Gr:ide 50 plate material.

N= 2'-8"

The applicable building code specifies che use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads. The
required column strengths al 1he base level were decerrnined by a second-order analysis
including the effects of P-o and P-t:. with reduced stiffness as required by lhe direct analysis method. The goveming load combinations in ASCFJSEI 7. including the overstrenglh
factor (referred to as the amplified seismic load in the AISC Seismic Pro1isilms), follow.
PL 3~ (A572 Gr. 50)
with (8) 2J4" dia. F1554

Gr. 105 bolts

In th.is example, !he concrolling limir state is yielding of the face plates. For this limit state,
the axial force needs to be ma:<imized as this will increase the bearing force :md subsequent
bending (yielding) in the p13te~. Therefore, the required axial strength is determined from:

LRFD
4

typ.,

_J
.-----W14x176 column

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASD Load Combination 6 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

Po= (LO+ 0.105SDs )D + 0.52Sn.,QE

P,. =(1.2+0.2Sos)D+O.,QE

Leveling nut
and washer

or shim olack
3 nonshrink grout

+0.5L+0.2S
=250 kips

+ 0.75L+0.75S
= 215 kips

(including the 0.5 factor on L permitted


in Section 12.4.3.2)

l
\

The required flexural strength is detenn.ine,d from:

LRFD

c:

....
E

(.'.,

LRFD Load Combination 7 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
M,. =(0.9-0.2Sos)D+~Qs

=946 kip-ft

ASD
ASD Load Combination 8 from
ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

Ma =(0.6-0.14S.os)D+0.70.,Qe
= 662 kip-ft

''
PL 1"x4W'X4}2" (A572 Gt. 50)
washer with a double nut

Fig. 4-23. OJnnection cross section as designed in Example 4.4.3.

.. .
AMF.IUCAN lNST!TVtl! 01' STEl!J.. CONSTRUCTIOl'J
', ..
.....
\

~l

MOMENT FRA.MP.S

The required shear ~tre11g1h is detcrm.iped from:

LRFD
LRFD Load Combina1ion 5 from
ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

v.,:: (l.2+ 0.2SDs )D+ OoQe


=96.0 kips

Required Strengths at the Column Base

,_

ASD

....

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEISEI 7 Sec1ion 12.4.3.2
Vo =(l.0+0. 14Sos)D+0.70.,Qe
67.2.kips

Consider tha111te connection int.o the column weak-axis produces negligible moments on lhe
column. With rcspecc 10 lhe fo_undation, consider that the ACI 318 reinforcemenc requirements arc adequa1e for all apphcable concrete limit states including punching shear.

AlSC Seismic Pro-.ision.~ Section 02 6a requires that rhe :Wal strength equals or exceeds lhe
required strength calculated using the load combinarions of the apphcoble building code,
including lhc amplified ~J\mic load.

By reference to AISC SeiJmic Pm~isions Section D2.5c, which references Section D2.5b,
AISC Seismic Pro\'isions Section 02 6b indirectly ~tipulates that the required shear strength
of the column base be the greater of lhe required sheM strength determined frorn load combinations including the amplified seismic load (Section 02 5b(b)) or the required column
strength as stipulated in the systC'm chapters lSecuon D2.5b(~)). Here, the pro\.is1oru. of
Section E3.6g apply. as follows:

LRFD

ASD

From ASCE/SEI 7, use Seismic Design C.ategory D. n.., = 3.0. p =1.0 and Sos= 1.0.

v.,, =r.~tpc
-I.SH

Use LRFD provisions for the concrete design. The final connection design and geometry for
the embedded column base i~ shown in Figure 4-24.
Solution:

where l.M~ is the sum d the nomin.U plastic


below the splice, or in this case, the base.

From AlSC Manual Table 2-4, die column material properties 3fe as follows:

For the c."\lculation of .Hpc:

ASTMA992

= (50 ks1){ 320 in.3)(1 ft/12 in.)

From AISC Manual Table 2-5, I.be plate material properties arc as follows:

LRFD

From ASThf A615, lhe concrete reinforcement properties are as follows:

ASTM A615 Grnde 60

From AlSC Manual Table I-1, the geometric propenies arc as follows:

~: ..

.i;

Column
W14x176
A= 51.8 in.?
TJ= l.31 in.
Beam
W24X76
d 23.9 in.

IJI tx

V11=-H

2(1,330 kip-ft)

F,. = 60 ksi

ASD
I

i--

::

= l,330 kip-ft
Therefore:

ASTM A572 Grade 50


F1 == 50 bi
Fu= 65 ksi

.:~.

s1.rengths of L'1e columns above and

M pc =FyZx

F1 =50 k.si
Fu= 65 ksi

)j

11e.~ural

= 14.0 ft
=190 kips > 96.0 kips
Use 11,,

d= 15.2 in.

Zx =320 in. 3

br= 15.7 in.

1..,

=0.830 in.

=190 kips.

v. =r..upc
-I.SH
0

2(1,330 kip-ft)
1.5(14.0 ft)

=127 kips> 67.2 JUps


Use V11

:::

127 kips.

AJSC Seismic Provisions Section D2.6c(b) requires tha.t the fle.xural s~ngr.h equals or
exceeds the lesser of the load combination of the applicable building code, including I.he
amplified ~ismic lood, or I.IR> F, .t.

LRFD

M,,

o:

ASD
Mo= l.IR1 F1 Z.
1.5

J.IR,F,Z.

= J.J (1.J}(50 ksi)(320 in.3)

..

190 kips
60 ksi

1.5(12 in, ft)

'

=1,610 kip-ft> 946 .lcip-ft

Required Column Embedment Depth

Co~sider the base condition similar 10 s structuraJ steel coupling beam embedded in a coms
posne speci 3 J shear w:ill, per AISC Seismic Provisions Section H5 5c Therefi

ll~.5b(l )(3) ~ill

be used co de1ennine the embedment length. For.

embedment length, ~:

=J.54,fjj ( [>,. )

Vn

th~ calcul:~~n :~t~n


e

0.66

P1b1L, 0.58-0.22P1
0.88+-L

bi

(Pro~isio11.s

=3.17 io.2
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section H4 .5b{l)(4) requires two-thirds of this reinforcement in
the top layer. It is pennitled to use reinforcement placed for other purposes as pan of the
required longitudinal reinforcement.

=1,080 kip-ft> 662 kip-ft


UseM =662 kip-fl

Use M,, = 946 kip-ft

F,

= 1.1(1.1)(50 ksi)(320 in.3 )

(12 in./ft)

V.,

As=-

Eq.

H4~2)

2~

AISC Seismic Prrn:isions Section H5.5c requires that Ibis reinforcement be confined by
transverse reinforcement that meets the requirements for boundary members of ACI 318
Section 21.9.6. For this ex:imple, as st:itcd above, the foundation reinforeiog requirements
are considered adequate per ACI 318.
Minimum Face Bearing Plate Thickness

AISC Seismic Pro\lision.t Scc1ioo H5.5c requires face bearing plates on both sides of the column at !he foce of the foundntion and near the end of the embedded reg.ion. At a minimum.
the stiffener thickness should meet the detailing requiremcnis of AJSC Seismic Provisions
Section F3.5b(4) "here,
fmfn

where

= 0.75t.., >~ in.


=0.75(0.830 in.}
0.623 in. > Ya in.

lh = 0.85 from ACI 318 Se.ction I0.2.7.3

g = 11

= 140ft(12 in./ft)

Yielding in the Face Bearing Plates

=168 in.

The column axial force

is distributed from the column to the face bearing plates and then to

Try an embedment length, L,, of 22 in.

the fotll'ldation io direct bearing. As outl.med in AJSC Manual P:irt 14, lhe critical face plate
cantile.,.er dimension, 1, is determined 3$ the IMger of m. n or Ni' (as depicted in Figure

Therefore:

4-22). where:

V,.

~(
=l.54v'l.V
k.s1

0 66
720-.-
in ) (0.85)(l
-

15.7

IIl.

5.7 in.)( 22.0 in.) 0.58-0.22(0.85)


168 in
0.88+
.
2(22.0 in.)

m:::

'

N-0.95d

. (Manual Eq. 14-2)

2
B-0.8b1
2

(Manuol Eq. l_W)

As indicated io AJSC Seismic Provi.sions Section H4.5b(l)(3) th


L--'

.
t be 'd
e emv=ment lS consu:lered
o gm ms1 e I.he first layer of co~g reinforcement io the foundation.

. i A.f<ibi
N
=--

(from ManWJl Eq. 14-4)

Longitudinal Foundation Reinforcement


S. ecti on H4.,)V\l
~~ )(4) requu:e.s
that longitudinal foundation rein
~AISC Seismic
Provisions
.
1
olrcedment w1ht l nominal u1a1 strength equal to I.he expected shear strength of the column l>e
P ace over 1 e t'mbcdmcnt lenglh.

N=d

= 207 k:ips > 190 kips

o.k.

~-

n=

B=bt

A. = I.0 (conservative per AJSC Manual PaJt 14)

'

I
l

MUMhN I' H{A.Mm;

In

Therefore:

Therefore:

Ath ... 0.03(4 ksi)(22.0 in.)(15.7 in.)/60 ksi

15.2 in.-0.95(15.2 in.)

= 0.691 in.2

, b
be f 11 de\ cto~ \\-here they engage the embedThe pro"icion requU'CS th.it all tran.'iCT ars
u y
. r-w
.l
r AC! 318.
ded flange. For this e."tample. consider a bar length of 36 tn. fully de\.e opcc..I pe

=0.380 in.
15.7 in.-0.8(15.7 in.)

'

Use (2) 1A in. x 36 in. bar~ in cilch region.

2
=I.57 in.

(2)7t(+~ in.)2

Arb=

'An'= 1.0J15.2 in (15.7 in.)


4
=3.86 in.

=0.884 in.., > 0.69 I .in..,

o.k.

For the yielding limit state, the required minimum rh.ickness is dctermjncd from AlSC Manual
Equauons 14-7a and 14-7b:
LRFD
fmiJt

2Pu
=l - - 09FyBN
= 3.86 in.
2(250 kips)
x
0.9(50 ksi)(l5.7 in.)( 15.2 in.)

=0.833 in.

ASD

t,,,;,, =I

=3.86 in.

Section A-A

3.33(215 kips}
50 ksi(I5'.7 in.)(15.2 in.)

=0.946 in.

Due to the different load combinations used for LRFD versus ASD, lhere is a. slight d iscrepancy between the LRFD and ASD rcsulis for the required shear strength. Typically. one
.merhod should be chosen and used consistemly throughout an entire design. For the purposes of this example, the LRFD result will be used.

co<:crete foundation" '

.J

Because flexural yielding at the beruing interface controls the face plate design, the fillet

.,

.:;

:"

,,
,,
.... .

~'

weld connection provisions of AISC Seismic Provisions Section F3.5b(4) are not applicable
and the lh.ickness )hould be fully developed. Therefore, the face plates are welded to the

columns with complete-joint-penctrotion groove welds.

<>

Use }i-in.-thick ASTM A572 Grade 50 face bearing plates.

...

Required Transfer Reinforcement


AlSC Seismic Provisions Section HS.SC requires two regions of transfer reinforcement
:macbcd to both lhe embedded flanges. The area of rransfer reinforcemen t is:

..

if

, .I
...

\i

(21"" d;a. x 36"


deformed bar an

typ.

:-=~--=+-~ - L'

\
\..

~1

I
I
!

. c

e
>

=LJ_

.I

f\

reinforcement bey

"1
I'-

....

I..

PL Ye" face bearing ~,


plate. typ.
\.

-<;

""'

Note: The deformed

r:\

A.b

~ 0.03//l,,bf / F7sr

P,sr =60 k.si (dcformeJ bar anchor)

(Provisions E.q. H5- l)

bar anchor-to-column nange


connection should match the strength or the bar.
Fig. 4-24. C(Jnnection cross sl!ction as designed in mmple 4.4A.

\A

l''IVIVJt.J'I !

M<AMl'.S

The weld of the defom1ed bar to the column flange should be a flux filled ni:itcrial using an
electric :trc welding process, that develops the strength of lhe rebar according to AWS DJ. J
clause 7.

to 0.1SPc. then the vnlues of cl>Rvi and ~Rvz or Rvilfl and R.z/fl can be used to calculate the
a\-ailable panel zone shear strength. Considering st.rcngth of a column without doubler plates:

A ISC Seismic Provisions Seclion HS.Sc also requires that the not-to-exceed transfer reinforcement area is:

(Spec. Eq. JI 0-l l )

I:.A,b < 0.08~b,., - As

(Pro'l'isio11s Eq. H5-2)

< 0.08 (22.0 m.)(72.0 in.}- As


< I 27 in.2 - A,,

In AJSC Seismic Pro\ isions E.quation H5-2. As is the longirudioal area of reinforccmcnl
pro,ided over the embedment length. As noted in the Given statement, the foundation reinforcing requirements src considered ade<juate per ACI 318 Therefore. tJus check 1s pro' ided
for 1Uustrali\'e purposes only.

where
F-, = spcclfied minimum yield ~lJ'Css of the column web, ksi
bcf width of column Oangc, in.
d 11 :: depr.h of beam, in.
~
depth of column. in.
lcf = thickness of column nange, Ill.
cw =thickness of column web, in

=
=

Expanding /.JSC Specification Equnticm J10-11 yields:

The final connection de~ign and. geometry for the embedded column base is shown in
figure 4-24.

Rv1 and R,'2 are defined as:

4.5 DESIGN TABLE DISCUSSION


Table 4-1. Comparison of Requirements for SMF,
IMF and OMF
Several categories of connection and design crileria are listed in Table 4-1. The Seismic
ProiiJion.r requirements for each category are given for OMP. IMF and SMF.

Rv1 =0.60Fld,t...,
Rv2 = 0.60Fyd,t-. (

3::c?)

Substituting into the expth~ded version of AISC Specification E.quation Jl().. l l, the available
panel zone shear streng 1s:

Table 4-2. SMF Design Tables

Various values useful in the design of SMF are tabulared. Values are given for W-shapes that
meet the width-to-thickness requirements for SMF beams and colwnns with F. = SO ksi
1
(ASTM A992).
.
For cases where the limiting web ~idth-to-thickness r.itio is a function of lhe member's
required a."tial streng1h, P., or Pa. according to AlSC Seismic Provisions Table Dl.J, the
me~11ber will sausfy the width-to-thickness requirements for highly ductile members if P., or
Pa is less than or equal to the value tabulated for Pu max or Pa max respec1ivcly. The nominal
axial yield su-ength of a member, P;. is calculated as FyA1 Note that it is assumed that
Ca"" Pul9cP, > 0.125 Ol' C,, = ~Pa1P1 > 0.125. Where a dash is shown, there is no Jimiration on the values of P,, or Pa.
The value 1 JRyMp is given to aid in several calculations, including rhe derermination of the
required shear strength of SMF connections and the SlvfF column-beam moment ratio.
Several values are tabul:ttcd lo enable quick determination of coluroo panel zone shear
strength. To determine if AISC Specification Equations Jl(). J J or JJ0-12 are :ippHcable
0.75Pc is given for comparison with the required axial sr.rength, P,. If P, is less thnn or equ~

LRFD

..

ASD

Rv =

~~i

R~1 +--

di.

I.

'

R.

R,1

R..2

fldb

-=-+--

To aid in the detcnnination of the minimum pruiel-wne element thicknesses, W:/90 or dl/90
arc also tabula1ed. Therefore, the rum of the corresponding wif 90 or di/90 values for the
SMF beam anti column will detennfoe the minimum panel-zone element thicknesses per
AISC S~ismic Provisions Equation E3-7:

Values are also tabulated to aid in the determination of lateral bl':\Cing requirements. The \
value given for l-b lllAK is the maximwn distance between lateraJ. brace--; specified in AISC ~
Seismic Provisions Section Dl.2b. The required brace strength al beam-to-column c~nnec., j
tions stipulated in AISC Seismic Pro"ision.s Section E3.4c(I), equal to 0.02FybJ'J is also
given. All lateral bracing is also required 10 have a minimum stiffness based on a moment
equal to RyMp = R1 F1 Z. The value of t.h.is moment is tabulated.
,

~
AMElllCAI' l>lsmun! OP ST661. Coi;STJUJCTION

....

MOMENT FRAMES ~

4-123

DESIGN TABLES

'.':

Table 4-1

Table 4-1 (continued)

Comparison of Requirements for SMF.


'

IMF and OMF

.Comparison of Req~irements for SMF,


IMF and OMF

Special Moment
Frame {SMF)

Intermediate Moment
Ftame (IMF)

Ordinary Moment
Ftame (OMF)

0.04 rad

0.02 rad

tlo specifted minimum

Story Drift Angle


Connection Rexurat
Strength

Connection Shear
Strength

Panel Zone Shear


Strength

Performance confirmed by Performance conlinned by


testing per A/SC Seismic
testing per AlSC Seismie
Provisions Chapter K;
Provisions Chapter K;
connectioo achieves
connectioo achieves
minimum 80% of nominal minimum 80% of nominal
plastic moment of the
plastic moment of the
beam at story drift ~le
beam at story drift angle
of 0.04 rad
of 0.02 rad

fR: Develop 1.1RyMp of


beam, maximum moment
developed by system or
satisfy requirements in
NSC Seismle Provisions
Section El .6b, E2.6 and
E3.6

Special Moment
Frame (SMF)

Continuity Plates

-or -

-or-

-or-

Lesser Vpermitted if
Justified by analysis. See
also tile exception
provided Jn AISC Seismic
Provisions Section E3.6d

Lesser Vpermilted if
justified by analysis. See
alSo Ille exception
provided in AlSC Sefsmfc
ProviSfons Section E2.6d

Lesser Vpermitted if
justified by analysis

For P, s 0.7SP.,, compute


strength per AISC
Specification Eq. :.110-11
using 9;"' 1.oo (UlFDror
1.50 (ASD) .

No additional
requirements beyond
AISC~tkln

No additional

Stability Bracing
of Be;;ms

requirements beyond
AlSC Specification

'

Panel Zone Thickness

f ~ (d1 + W1 )/90

Protected Zone
..

No additional
requirements beyond
AlSC Specificauon

No additional
requirements beyond
NSC Spectncation

No additional
requirements beyond
A!SC Specification

Beams and columns


to satisfy the AISC
Seismic Provisions
Section 01.1 for hlgt\ty
ductile members

Beams and columns


to satisfy the AISC
Seismic 'Pfovisions
Section 01.1 tor
moderately ductile
members

No additional
requlrements beyond
PJSC Specification

eeam bracing required


tO ~atisfy AISC .
Seismic ProvisfDflS
Section 01 .2b for highly
ductile members

Beam bracing required


to satisfy AISC
Seismic Provisions
Section 01.2a tor
moderately ductile
members

No additional
requirements beyona
AiSC Specification

Splices shall satisfy


AISC Seismic Provisions
Section 02.5 and
E3.6g; bolts
CJP groove welds '

Splices shall satisfy


AISC Seismic Prov'.sions
Sections 02.5 and
E2.6g; bolts or
CJP groove wetds

No additional
requirements beyond
14$(; Specification

P$. established by
ANSVAISC 358 for each
prequalified connection;
generally, one-half be.am
depth beyona'centertine
of plastic,hinge

k> established by
ANSVAISC 358Jor each
prequalifled connection;
generally, one-half beam
depth beyond centerline
of plastic hinge

'

Of \

Q,"'

Provide continuity plates


as required by
AlSC Seismic Provisions
Section El.Sb

No additional
requirements beyoncl
. AISC Specification

Column Splice

. ,.

.,

Ordinary Moment
Frame (OMF)

l:M~>1 .0

l:Mp0

Witith-to-Thickness

Vfor load combination


Vtor load combination
Vtor load combination
including overstrength plus including overstrenglh plus
Including overstrength plus
shear from application 111 shear from application of
shear from appllcatJon of
Emh"' 2[1.1RyMpyLh
Em11= 2[T.1RyMpJ!lh
Em11= 2[1.TR1 MpJ/Lcr

For P,> 0.75Pc. compute


strength per A!SC
Specification Eq. J10-12 .
using 9= 1.00 (!.RFD)
0,=T.50(ASO)

To match tested
To match tested
condition 0< ANSVAISC 358 coodition or ANSVAJSC 358
Section 2.4.4
Section 2.4.4

Seam-Column
Proportion

Limi~ticms

Intermediate Moment
Frame ~MF)

..

None
,

.,

NJUMtlN J t'K.l\M_c:)

DESlGN TN:!Lt:.::.

Table 4-2
Ry= 1.1

SMf Design varues

Table 4-2

Fy =50 ksi

SMF Design Values

Fy = 50 ksi

W-Shapes

W-Shapes
Panel Zone

Panef Zone

Pu mar

,.

~Rr1

kip$

W44x335
x290
x262
x230

3900
1930
887
234

kip-ft

kips

8170
7110
6400

1360
1130
1020
914
2310
1950
1660
1500
1410
1360
1210
1110
989

3710
2600
1560

S87

333
W40x392
x331
x327
x294
x278
x264
x235
x211
x183
x167
x149

Lateral 8r.1cing

LRFO (~"' 1.00)

(I.RFD)

Shape

761
1no
1490

tO
1280
1240
1150
989
887
761
753
722

2200
1320
280
259
169

9R,.z
kfp-in.

4480

0.75Pc
kips

369()
3200
2900
2540

15700
11200
8120
7010
6090
5820
4690
3870
3550
2870
2120

6530
5550
4760
4390
4130
3980
3570
.3270
2760
2380

7090
4980
4940
4020
3540
3210
2670
2140
1530
1130
732

4350
3660
3600
3230
3090
2900
2590
2330

3550
2870
2120

Shape

90

Lmu

ho
kips

kip-ft

W44x335
x290
x262
x230

0.450
0.449
0.450
0.450

14.5
14.5
14.4
14.3

28.1
25.0
22.4
19.3

42.2
30.9
33.3
29.0

7430
6460
5820
5040

W40x593
x503
x431
x397

15.8
15.5
15.2
15.1
15.0
15.0
14.9
14)
14.9
14.8 .
14.7

53.9
45.3
38.2
35.4
33.0
32.2
28.8
26.1
25.0
22.4
19.3

76.3
64.9
55.4
' 51,0
47.9
46.7
41.8
38.3
36.1
32.4
28.1

12700
10600
8980
8250

x249
x215

Q.406
0.406
0.406
0.407
0.406
0.406
G.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
o.406

W40x392
x331
x327
x294
x278
x264
x235
x211
x183
x167
x149

0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.406
0.407
0.406
0.406

11.0
10.7
10.7
10.6
10.s
10.5
10.6 :
10:4
10.4 .
9.98'
9.52

31.2
26.0
25.8
23.2
21.7
'\ 20.6
18.8
16.8
14.2
12.2
9.79

48.1 .
40.6
40.1
36.3
34.1
32.5
29.2
26.2
22.5
20.3
17.6

noo

7520
6690
6100
5730 .
5130
4420

I l:;

7840

1,.
I ;

6550

6460
5820
545o
. 5180
4630
4150
3550
3180
2740

l:

}l

I.....

.r:
.J

, :~ ....

~-

R1 Mp

0.02M,C,

ldps

x2n

1640

!lO

UIFO

fl

x362
x324
x297

2000
1850

dz

In.

x3n

306()

Wz

-or-

I
:h.;.\ .

,..

Ry= 1.1

,J

1'
11;
J

:(.

1.1

t.

.. :~l
AMEJUC;\N 1Nsmuni OF SrEa Co;-isnucno.'I

AMl!Rlo.N lNsnrtm! OF Sn!a. CONS1'RUCTIOH

rl

MVMcJ'l l r.!<.AMJ:..S

lJ~l\.Jl'f

U\,01,.. ~

Table 4-2 (continued)

,-~

Ry= 1.1

,.. .,
,,.

...

'
.,..

.
l

~~

!:-:j
,~

:!;~
>:

flI
r:~

k"
!~

.~-

~~.

:j:
~1:

Fy

=50 ksi

SM F Design Values

Shape

W36x652
x529
x487
X441
x395
x361
x330
x302
x282
x262
x247
x231

P,,W:U
(U!FD)

i'l36x256
x232
x210

x194
x182
x170
x160
xJSO

2810
2290
1650
1240
805
506
262

1'133x387
x354
x318
x291
x263
x241

x221
x201
W33x169

x152
x141
x130

Panel Zone
LRFD (t == UlO)
~pe

3650
3020
2500
2010

1160
777
477
245

Ry= 1.1

w-~ha pes

kips
,,.

..f~

=50 ksi

Panel Zone

(:"

Fy

W-Shapes

'

Table 4-2 (continued)

SMF Design Values

14700
11700
10700
9630
8620
7810
7110
6450
6000
5550
5190
4860

Rvi

'Ryz

0.75Pc

kips

kip-in.

kips

Wz
dz
-or-

90

90

Lateral Bracing
UIFD
OJYlM1 C4

Lt llJU

0.02F,b1t1

R1 Mp

ho

in.

ft

kips

0.378
0.378
0.377
0.378
0.378
0.378
0.378
0.377
0.377
0.378
0.378
0.378

17.0
16.6
16.5
16.3
16.1
16.0
15.9
15.9
15.8 .
15.6
15.5
15.4.

62.3
50.1
45.8
41.5
37.0
33.6
30.7
28.1
26.1
23.9
22.3
20.8

69.5
64.0
57.6
52.0
47.4
43.2
39.6
36.9
. 34.1
32.0

'

kips

klpft

85.1

13300
10700
9760
8750
7840

2430
1920
1770
1590
1410
1280
1150
1060
985
930
881
832

19900
7200
13100
5850
11100
5360
9110
4880
7320
4350
6070
3980
5110
3630
4240
3340
3680
3110
3100 . 2900
2710
2720
2360
2560

W36>t652
.x529
x487

5240
\ 4720
4200
3870
3620
3370
3150
2930

1080

2820
2550
2320
. 2140
2010
1880
1760
1660

W36x256
x232
x210
x194
.x182
x170
x160
x150

0.377

11.0

21.1

32.0

0.377

10.9 .

19.0

29.0

673

3290
2680
2030
1730
1520
1310
1120
954

0.378
0.378
0.377
0.378
0.377
0.378

10.7
10.6
10.6 . 10.5 - .
10.4
10.3

16.6
15.2
14.3
13.2
12.2
11.3

26.0
24.0
22.5
20.9
19.6
18.3

7870
7160
6400
5850
5240
4740
4320
3900

1360
1240
1100
1000
900
852
788
723

7580
6330
5140
4280
3510
2800
2330
1870

4280
3900
3510
3210
2900
2670
2450
2220

W33x387
:<35-4
5<318
x291
x263
'x241
'5221
x201

0.349
0.349
0.349
0.348
0.348
0.349
0.348 .
0.349

15.7
'15.5
15.4
15.3
15.2
15.0
14.9
14.8

36.9
33.6
30.2
27.5
24.8
22.3
20.2
18.1

50.9
46.6
42.0
38.5
34.8
31.5
28.9
26.1

7150
6510
5820
5320
4770
4310
3930
3540

3170
2820
2590
2350

679
638
604
576

1540
1170
954
757

1860
1680
1560
1440

W33x169
x152
x141
x130

0.348
0.349
0.349
0.349

10.4
10.3
10.1
9.93

14.0
12.3
11.0
9.83

21.2
19.0
17.5
16.0

2880
2560
2360
2140

.,

968
914
838
790
738
702

x~I

x395
x361
x330
x302
; x282
x262
x247
x231

"

r
f:

:.

::

AMERlCAN lNsmtml OF STF..Ei:CONSTRlJCTJON

A.MSRJCAJll lNSTITUTE! OF STE!!L CONSTllU(,"llON

30.1

7foo
6460
' 5870
' 5450
5040
4720
4410
4770
4290
3820
3520
3290
3060
2s60
2660

4
vtU' 1 t".K.t\1'-U:~

DESIGN TABLES

SM F Design Values

Ry= 1.1

Fy

=50 ksi

W-Shap es
Panel Zone

p-

(l.RF1l)

Shape

kips
WJ(b(391
x357
x326
x292
x261
x235
x21 1
x191
xl73
W30x14S
x132
x 124
x116
xi OB

2260

t1tii,.l'

1670

~89t

~1~5f~
.4~

36\ <.;
242"

1350
982
720
5"2
364

x368
x336
x307
x281
x258
x235

I
1..J-

)(194
x178
x161
x146
W27x129
x114
x102
x94

klpf1

W30x391
x357
x326
x292
x261
x235
x.211
x.191
x173

0.315
0.315
0.314
0.314
0.314
0.314
0.314
0.315
0.314

153
151
15.0
149
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.4
1'6 2

38.1
34.7
31.6
28.3
25.1
22.7
19.9
17.9
16.1

51.8
47.5
43.1
38.6
34.6
31.3
27.9
25.2
22.8

6650
6050

0315
031 4
0.315
0314
031 4

9.48
9.35
9.27
910
8.9"

12.4
105

18.6
16.4
15.3
142
13.1

2290

W30x148
x132
xt24
}(116
1<108

546
497

3310
2860
2260
1800
1470
1200

5960
4090
3720
3380
3120
2850
2600
2400
2140
1970
1790
1620

W27>'539
x368
><336
x307
x281
x258
x235
x217
x194
x178
x161
x146

0282
0.283
0283
0.282
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.282
0.282
0.282
0.283
0.283

15.2
14.5
14.3
14.2
14.1
14.0
13.8
13.8
13.7
13.5
13.4
13.3

71 .7
48.9
4<19
412
37.6
34.S
31 .3
291
25.9
23.6
21 .4
19.3

8660
5680
5180
4720
4290
3910
3540
3260
2890
2610

505
467
419
395

1090
786
620
500

1420
1260
1130
1()40

W2.7X129
x114
x102

0.282
0.283
0.283
0.282

16.4
14.3
128
11 7

1810
1570
1400
1270

kips

7310

1350
1220
1110
979
882

2110
1570

2600

1340
965
527

1990
1730
1540

32'6

1400

597
599
559
530
509
"87

1320
945
817
683
546

n9
654

3580
3180
2870
2340

8360
7000

5820
4710
3720
3060
2370
1910
1550

718

3890

x217

kips

kip-in.

9530
6250
5700
5190
'720
4300

W27.x539

kips

kJps

1910
1740

ft

kip-ft

2060

R1M,

In.

0.75Pc

2520
2200

WO
O.CYlM1 C.
h.

Ltaw

Rrt

. sfT,
6~
545
. 4(5

d,

-90 or-90

R~

5340
4750
4270
3790
3400
3060

w,

Lateral Bractng

Panel Zone

LRFD I+ UlO)

1.1R1M,

6660
6000

1513.

Ry= 1. 1 .

SMF. Design Values

Fy::: 50 k si

W-Shapes

Table 4-2 (continued)

Table 4-2 (continued)

1920
1260
1130
1030
932
853
784
707
632
605

17300
8140
6830

5660
4830
4030

4310
3940
3600
3230
2890

2600
2340
2100
1910
1640
1460

1370
1280
1190

Shape

x9'6

9.19
9.06
8.9"
8.81

9,n
8.93
7.98
54.2
36.5
33.3
301
Z78
25.3

22.9
212
18.8
168
15.1
13.7
11.0
9.39
8.30
7 45

5450
4860

4320
3880
3440
3090
2780

2000
1870
17~

1590

~\

2360
2130

\
'

:.._

Af.fEIUCAN lllmT\ITI! OF STEL CONSTIUICT'ION

...

..:.......

AMl:JuCAN L"IS'TT(UTE OF Sttl!L CONSTRUC110N

MOMENT FRAMES

4-130

i:'

SMF Design Values

Ry= 1.1

Fy

=50 ksi1

"":,

W-Shapes

i:'

Shape

kips

r.

"
.::.

~:

.,
.

:~d
~:

...::.:>:~
..

:j;I J
;:
'r~

"'1

1ij

!~'.

...:..
1;:
:$,

...

~~:

~;:
l'

~:

t.

W24x370
x335
x306
x279
x250
x229
x207
x192
x176
.,x162
x146
x131

0.75Pc

kips

kip-in.

kips

x8_4
x76

1110 .
836
506
290

1410
1280
1130
1010

404
375
340
315

W24x62
x55

187
58.5

x94

Shape

$R112

1280
1140
1020
929
821
749
671
620
567
529
482
445

d,
-or90 90

L11mu

in.

ft

W:

4090
3690
3360
3070
2760
2520
2280
2120
1940
1790
1610
1450

W24x370
x335
x306
x279
x250
x229
x207
x192
x176
x162
.x146
x131

0.251
0.250
0_250
0250
0.250
0250
0.251
0.251
0.250
0.251
0.250
0251

13.6
13.4
13.3
13.2
13.1
12.9
12.8 .
12.8.
12.6
12.7
12.5
12.3

ns -

1140

W24x103

8,27

625
481
374

1040
926
840

x94

x84
x76

0.250
0.251
0.251
0.250

221
161

683

608

\'/24x62
x55

0.250
0.251

9120
7470
6270
5230
4240
3530
2880
2490
2080
1740
1380
1070

-~

. --

LRFD

-r

":t~-rH -~ASO.~. ....: ;-~~

1)1Rv1

5700
5140
4650
4210
3750
. 3400
3060
. 2820
2580
2360
2110
1870

W24x103

._

LRFO ( =1.00)

(LRFD)

Lateral Bracing

Panel Zone

Panel Zone
Pu mu

Ry= 1.1

SMF Design Values

Fy =50 ksi

W-Shapes

4 - 131

DESIGN TABLES

Table .4-2 (continued)

Table 4-2 (continued)

~:

9:azF,1iftr - .::o.02M;cd

\.M
.,;. 1.5,'11-h-:

~~'1'/r.~
~:

D.02Fyb1tt

0.02M,Cd

R1 M,

h,

kips

kips

kipft

37.3
33.5
30.6
27.8
24.9
22.7
20.4
19.0
17.3
15.9
14.1
12.4

49.1
44.9
40.9
37.3
33 5
30.6

5180
4680
4230
3830
3410
3090
2780
2560
2340
2150
1920

27.7

25.6
23.5
21.6
19.5
17.3

1700

8.82

13.1

8.23
8.11
7.98

7.94
6.95
6.11

11.9
10.6
9.48

1280
1160
1030
917

5.74
s.~z:

4.15
3.54

7.29
6.38

701
614

20.5
18.5
16.9
14.4
12.9
11.9
10.8

27.2
24.7
22.5
f9.5
17.6
16.3
14.9

2430
2180
1980
1710
1530
1410
1280

H.7

676

306
280

W21x201
x182
x166
x147
x132
x122
x1 11

2670
2400
2180
1880
1680
1550
1410

628
565
506
4n
425
391
355

3010
2460
2060
1490
1210
1030
848

2220
2010
1830
1620
1460
1350
1220

W21x201
x182
x166
x147
x132
x122
x111

0.219
0.219
0.220
0.220
0219
0.220
0.219

W2lx93
x83
x73

1110

655
525
409
349
280

1020
915
806
750
686

W21x93
x83
x73
. x68
x62

0.219
0.219
0.219
0.219
0.220

7.65
7.61
7.52
7.48
7.36

7.83
6.98
6.14
5.66
5.07

10.5 ,
9.23
8.63
7.76

1010
898
788
733
660

n6

376
331
289
272
252

650
555
481

256
237
217

249

626
551
488

\Y21x57
x50
x44

0220
0.219
0.220

5.61
5.40
5.24

4.26
3.-19
2.93

6.99
5.99
5.17

591
504
437

x68

x62
W21x57
x50
x44

988

1060
685
521
330

867
807

326
176
57.6

168

118

12.6
12:5'
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.l
12.1

!:'

:.:.

:~ '
.~

I:I

,\1'!EIUCAN lNSTl'TVTE OF STEEL CoNsnuJ<:TlOl'i


AME!uCN' INStmm; OF STEa. CONSTllUCOON

MOMENT FRAMES

oESlGN TABLES

4-1

Table 4-2 (c ontinued)


Ry~

1.1

Tab le 4-2 (c ontinued)

SM F Design Values

Fy= 50 k si

SMF Design Values

Fy= 50 ksi

W-Shapes

Shape

W-Shapes
Panel Zone

Pu max
(!..RFD)

!..RFD (~ "' 1.<IO)


~Rrt

kips

- --

W18x311
x283
x258
x234
x211
x192
X17S
x158
x143
x130
x119
X106
x.97

3800
3410
3080

2no
2470
2230
2010
1790
1620
1460
1320
1160
1060
938

5<$6

W18x71
x65
x60

x55
x50
W18x40
'x40
.x35

1020
920
826
734
658
588

534
479
427
388
373
331
299

195
169
159

60.6

(16~

5620
4690
3810
3170
2590
2110
1760
1450
1140
891
756

451
384
329
269
219
. 200
149
97.5

457
395
335

427
224

8110

275

319
98.3
46.5

604

kip-in.

592

227
212
192

998
882
756

~R112

265

668
520
326

x 77

W16x31

kips

736
671
620
565
509

W16x100
x89
W16x57
xso
x45
x40

kip-ft

Ry= 1.1

248

298

265
225

529
46-4
415
368

212
186
167

272

131

146

0.75P,
kips

34!
3120
2850
2570
2340
2110
1930
1740
1580
1440
1320
1170
1070
949

W18x311
x283
x258
x234
x211
x192
x175
x158
x143
x130
i<110
x106
x97

784
716
660
608
551

Wl8x71
x65

506
443
386

Wl8x4~

908
717
535

1100

328
253
202
161

630
551

96.4

Shape

983

a.ca
499
443

342

x86

x60

'555
xSO
x40
x35

Wz

dz

90

90

-or-

}:..

LRFD

o.02M;c,

Lbowt

R1 Mp

ho

In.

ft

kips

kips

kipft

0.187
0.188
0.188
0.188
0.188
0.188
0.187
0.187
0.187
0.188
0.188
0.187
0.187
0.187

12.3
12.1 .
12.0
11.8
11.7
11.6
11.5.
11.4.
11.3
11 .2 '
11.2
11.1
11.0
10.9 .

32.9
29.8
27.1
24.7
22.2
20.1
18.1
16.3
14.8
13.4
12.0
10.5
9.66
8.55

42.3
38.3
35.0
31.8
28.7
26.0
23.8
: 21 .4
19.5
17.6
16.1
14.2
13.1
11 .6

3460
3100
2800
2520
2250
2030
1820
1630
1480
1330
1200
1050
967
853

0.188
0.188
0.187
0.187
0.187

7.07
7.02
6.98
6.94
6.86-

6.19
5.69
5.25
4.74
4.28

9.07
8.27
7.73
7.04
6.39

669
610
564
513
'453

0.188
0.187
0.187

s.36
5.28
5.07

3.67
3.16
2.55

5.70
4.96
4.23

416
359
305

0.167
0.167
0.166

W16x57
x50
x40

0.166
0.167
0.166
0.167

6.65
6.61
6.53
6.53

5.09
4.45
3.98
3.54

7.36
6.45
5.84
5.18

481
422
377
335

W16x31

0.167

4.86

2.43

3.83

248

x45

Lateral Bracing

W16x100
x89

xn

)"

10.4
10.4
10.3

10.2
9.10
7.83

13.6
12.1
10.5

908

802
688

I
I ~:.;

II.
\..

I ~:
,,,..
, ...
'.:

ht~

l.:

I.

"-'~

AMillucv. lNST!TIJTE OF STEEL CONSTJtUCTION


AMEluCAN

ll-tSTmTTl! OP STEEL CONSTIU.JCllON


lb~

.l

MOMENT FRAMES

4-134

''.~$1

i.f.-

4-IJS

DESIGN TABLES

i~

Table .4-2 (continued)

.~/

SMF- Design Values

Ry= 1.1

Fy= 50 ksi

Table 4#2 (continued)


W#Shapes

W~Shapes

Shape

LRFO (Ci> = 1.00)

(lRFO)

kips
8370
7460
6660

..:~

\)t
:m11

:: )
::
,,

0.75Pc

kips

kip In.

kips

x159
xl45

3040
2730
2460
2200
1970
1790
1610
1450
1310

W14x132

1180

284

1400

1460

701
635

665

. 560

5~0

219
192
174

467

' 900
818
750

W14x53
x48

439
395

154
141

316
. 256

585
. 529

W14x38

400

310

131

162

420

W14x26

116 .

203

106

5290
4720
4380
4040
3710

x426
x398
x370
x342
X311
x283
x257
x233
x211
x193

W14x82
x74
. x68

iil
:

~Rt?

38800
32500
27100
22600
18700
15600
13900
12100
10500
9000
7450
6210
5140
4230
3460
2930
2420
1990
1660

~90

x11s

l~

41R,1

2060
1830
1630
1440
1290
1150
1050
972
891
809
723
646
581
514
462
414
378
335
302

i:::i

Shape

-8060
7350
6680
6080
5510
5030
4690
4390
4090
3790
3430
3120
2840
2570

59$0
:

Lateral Bracing

Panel Zone

Panel Zone
Puma

79.9

ma

2130
1940
1750
1600

288

Ry= 1.1

SMF Desigr- Values

Fy = 50 ksi

dz
-or90 90
W:

In. ..

Lb ,_

ft

LRFO
0.02MrCd

0.02F1bttt

87.9
80.0
72.4
65.7
59.5
53.9
50.8
47.3
43.9
40.5
36.6
33.3
30.2
27.3
24.6
22.6
20.6
18.6
16.9

104
95.2
86.9
79.l
71.7
65.2
60.9
56.8
53.3
49.3
44.8
40.8
. 36.9
33.S
3M
27.7
25.3
22.9
20.9

7610
6780
6050
5410
4810
4290
3980
3670
3370
3080
2760
2480
2230
2000 .
1790
1630
1470
1320
1190

15.1

18.8

1070

W14x730
x665
x605
x550
x500
x455
x426
x398
x370
><342
x311
x283
x257
x233
x211
xl93
x1?6
x159
x145

0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
\ 0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.1,40
0.140
0.140
0.140.
0.140~

1S.5
19.2
18.9'"
18.7
:18.4
18.2
18.0
l7.9
17.7
17.6
17.5
17.3
17.2
17.0
16.9
15.B"
16.7
16.6
16.5

W14x132

0.140

15.6

W14><82
x74
>C68

0.140
0.140
0.140

10.3 .
10.3
10.2 .

8.64
7.93
7.20

11.4
10.3
9.51

637
578
527

W14x53
x48

0.140
0.140

7.98
7.94

5.32
4.78

7.26
6.53

399
359

0.145

6.44

3.4~

4.97

282

W14x38

0.145

4.49

2.11

3.28

184

W14x26

~~

'

,,...
.,''
{

1
I

kip-ft

kips

AMEJtfCAN
AMEJUCAN l.NSTTTUTR 01' Sre:a CO.NSTRUCTlON

ho
kips

II

Ry Mp

INS'J1TVJ1! ~ STEEL CONSTRJC'l10N

. .,,

MOMENT FRAMES

_....JV

4-137

.-

1:

l'

Table 4-2 {continued)

Table 4-2 (continued}

SMF Design Values

Ry= 1.1

l:.

pESIGN TABLES

Fy =50 ksi

Fy = 50 ksi

.c.

:. sMF Design Values

Ry= 1.1

W-Shapes

W-Shapes

r
.,.

Panel Zone
Ponwt

Shape

kips

W12x336
x305
x279
><252
x230
x210
x190
x170
x1 52
x136
x120
x106
x96
W12x50
x45

Shape

~Rn

~R-2

kip-ft

kips

kip-in.

kips

3040
2710
2430
2160
1950
1750
1570
1390
1230
1080
938
827
741

897
797
730
647

10600
8720
7190
5920
4970
4160
3460
2760
2210
1740
1360
1080
889

584

520
458
403
358
318
279
236
210

3710
3360
3070
2780
2540
2320
2100
1880
1680
1500
1320
1170
1060

90

90

0.02M,C,

RyMp

-or-

hmu

In.

ft

kips

kiP.S._

kip-ft

o.12r
0.121
0.122
0.121
0.122
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121
0.121

14.4
14.2
14.0
13.9
. 13.8
13.6
13.5
13.4
13.3
13.1
13
12.9
12.8

39.7

48.1
43.4
39.5
35.7
3.2.7
29.9
26.9
24.4
21.7
19.3
17.1
15.2
13.7

2760
2460
2200
. 1960

ho

~5.8

32.4
29.3
26.7
24.3
22.1
19.7
17.5
15.5
13.7
12.1
11 .0

\:

1no
1600
1430
1260
1110
981
853
752
674

6.82
6.14

330
294

135
122

298
240

548
491

W12x50
x45

0.121
0.122

8.15
8.11

160

386

W12x35

0.127

6AO

3.41

4.69

235

113

243
209

W12X22
x19

0.127
0.128

3.52
3.42

1.71
1.40

2.71
2.28

134
113

W10x112
x100
x88

11.1
11.0
10.9
10.8
10.8

13.0
11.5
10.2
8.87
7.78

15.9
14.3
12.7
11.0
9.74

674
596
518
447
391

x68

0.0989
0.09S4
0.098
0.0984
0.0984
0.0984

8.35

4.97

6.37

252

WlOx45
W10x30
x26

0.105
0.105

5.69
5.65

2.96

2.54

4.03
3-49

168
143

W10x19
x17

0.105
0.105

3.63
3.51

1.59
1.32

2.42
2.11

W12x22
x19

197
110

148
125

95.9
86.0

65.5
44.2

xS8

741
655
570
492
430

258
226
196
169
147

1460
1160
909
695
539

1230
1100
975
851
746

W10x45

2n

106

2n

499

W10x30

185

x26

158

94.S
$).3

136
101

332
285

109
94.3

76.5
72.7

211

dt

362
324
258

W10x19
x1 7

W12x336
x305
x279
x252
x230
x210
x190
x170
x152
x136
x120
x106
x96

Wt

5.17
4.63

453

xn

i~

l.RFO

0.75P,

W1 2x35

W1 0x112
X100
x88

Panel Zone
LRFO (~"' 1.00)

(UIFD)

Lateral Bracing

56.4
39.3

211
187

I'
'-

xn

'1

99
85.7

'1

I;
\

II
\"
\

I:

11

r:

-:_,,

AMERICAN 1.Nsnnrm OJ' STJ;EL. CONSTROCTION

AMaucAN INsTmrr OF STEEL C0NSTR1.ICUON

..

5-1

MOMENT FRAMES

4-13&

PART 4 REFERENCES

PARTS

~'Swell.

...

B. (2011), "A Yield Line Component Method for Bolted A3llge Connec1ions;
Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Consll"Uction, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2nd Quarter,
pp. 93-116.

Fisher. J.M. and Kloiber. L.A. (2010), Base Plate and Anchor Rod Design, Design Guide I.
2nd Ed., AJSC, Chicago, IL
.

Gomez, I.. Smilh, C.; Deierlein, G. and Kaminde, A. (2010). "Shear Transfer in faposed
Column Base Pint~; http://nees.or~resources/837.

BRACED FRAMES

5.1 SCOPE . . . . . . .

.... .. .. .

5-3

- 2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FR.AMES (OCBF) : . . . . 5-3

).

OCBF De~ign Example Plan and Ele\Jtion .............. . ....... 5--4

Hamburger. R, Ktawinkler. H., Malley, J. and Adan, S. (2009), Seismic Design of Steel
Special Moment Frames: A Guide for Practicing Engineers, NEHRP Seismic Design
Technical Brief No. 2. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Example 5.2.1 OCBF Diagonal Brace Design ......... . . . ..... . 5-6

Murray, T.M. and Sumner, E.A. (2003), Extended End-Plate Momeni Ccnnecrions-Seismic
and lVind Applications, Design Guide 4, 2nd Ed., AlSC, Chicago, IL.

Example 5 l.3 OCBF Beam Design


F.xample 5.2.4 OCDF Brace-10-Beam/Column Connection Design .. ..... .... 5-25

Example 5.2.2 OCBF Column Design . . ....

....... . ............... 5-15


. ..... . .. 5-lS

Example 5.2.5 OCBF Ten.~ion-Only Diagonal Brace Design . . . . ....... . 5-75

OSHA (2008), Occupational Safety and Health Regulation.~. Title 29. Code of Federal
Regulations, U.S. Government Priming Office, Washington. DC.

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES (SCBF) . . ...... 5-82

West, M.A. and Fisher, J.M. (2003), Serviceability Desig11 Considerations for Steel Buildings,
Design Guide 3, 2nd Ed, AISC. Chicago, IL.

SCBF Design Example Plan and Elev3tioo . ..... .. . . 5-86


. . . . ......... - ... .. ...... .. ...... 5-8'7
fa:unple 5.3. l SCBF Brace Design

5-91
E:<:unple 5.3.2 SCBF An aJ ys1s
............... .

Example 5.3.3 SCBF Column Design ......... . .. .... 5-98

111

faample 5.3.4 SCBF Beam Design ......... . .. 5-104


.

E.'<ample 5.3.5 SCBF Beam Design . .

'.ii
~1
11

. ... ....

. 5-119

Example 5.3.6 SCBF Column Splice Design . ................ . 5-129

,.

Example 5.3.7 SCBF Ma.-Umuro Force Limited by Foundation Uplift ....... 5-136

Example 5.3.8 SCBP Brace-to-Beam Connection Design ............... . 5-140


Example 5.3.9 SCBPBrace-to-Beam Connection Design ................. 5-178
Example 5.3.10 SCBF Brneto-Bcam/Column Connection Design ........ 5-2(
Example 5.3.11 SCBF Brace-10-Beam/Column Connection Design
with Elliptical Clearance and Fixed Beam-lo-Column Connection .... . 5-269
Eitample 5.3.12 SCBF Brace-to-Beam/Column Connection DesignIn Plane Brace Buckling ....................... .... 5-299
5.4 ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAM6S (EBF) .............. . . 5-334
EBF Design &ample Plan and Elevation ................... .

5-33~.

Example 5.4.l EBF Story Drift Check ..... .... .. . ....... .. .


5-3~'
.
5-3~(
Example 5.4.2 EBF Link Des1gn ........ ... . . .
Ex.ample 5.4.3 EBF Be:im Outside of the Link Design .... .. . . 5-3'=

E:<ample 5.4.4 EBF Brace Design ....... .. 5-3

II

4-138

5-1

MOMP.NT ?RAMES

PART 4 REFERENCES

PARTS

D~-swcll, B. (2011). "A Yield Line Component Method for Bolted fl~ge Connections."
Eitginuring Joumal. Americ.ln Institute of Steel Cons!J"Ucooo, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2nd Quarter,

BRACED FRAMES

pp. 93 116.
t"

Fisher, J.M. and Kloiber, L.A. (2010), Base Plate and Anchor Rod Design, Design Guide 1.
2nd Ed , AlSC. Chicago, IL.

5.1 SCOPE
Gomez, I. Smith, C.. Deierlein, G. and Kaminde, A. (2010). "Shear Transfer in Exposed
Column Base Plates," h ttp://n ees.org/resources/837.

Hamburger, R., Krawinkler, H., Malley, J. aod Adan, S. (2009), Seismic Design of Steel

.. . .. . - .

. . . .. .

................ 5-3

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES (OCBF) - .. 5-3


OCBP Design Example Plan and Elevation ......... ..... .... : 5-4

Special MomenJ Frames: A Guide for Practicing Engineers. NEHRP Seismic Design
Technical Brief No. 2. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Example 5.2.1 OCBF Diagonal Brace Design .. - .. . . . 5-6

Murray, T.M. and Sumner, E.A. (2003), Extended Encl-Plate Moment Connecrio11s-Seismic
and 1Vi11d Applications, Design Guide 4. 2nd Ed , AISC, Chicago, IL.

Example 5.2.3 OCBF Beam Design ....................... . ... . 5-18

OSHA (2008), Occupauonal Safety and Health Regulations, Tille 29, Code of Federal
Rcgulauons, U.S. Govenunent Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Example 5.2.5 OCBFTensionOnly Diagonal Brace De$itn .... - .. 5-75

West, M.A. and Fisher, J.M. (2003), Serviceability Design Considerations for Steel B11ildings,
Design Guide 3, 2nd Ed., AISC, Chicago, IL.

Example 5.2.2 OCBF Column Design ............ ...... . . - - 5-15

EJtample 5.2.4 OCBF Brace to-Bc:im/Column Connection Design . . . . . . . . . . 5-25


5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES (SCBF) 5-82
SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation ..... - ..... . . 5-86
fa:imple 5.3.1 SCBF Brace Design ........ .. ....... - 5-87
fa:unple 5.3.2 SCBF Analysis ...... . . . - 5-93

.
Example 5.3.3 SCBF Column D es1gn
...... - . 5-98

. .............. .. . 5-104
E:tample 5.3.4 SCBF Beam Des1gn
Example 5.3.5 SCBFBeam Design ................. . . 5-119

0es1gn .... 5-129


Example 5.3.6 SCBF Column S p tice
Example 5.3.7 SCBF Ma;<imum Fore~ Limiled by Foundation Uplift ..... 5-136

fj

faample 5.3.8 SCBF Brace-lo-Beam Connection Design .. . - 5-140

Example 5.3.9 SCBP Brace-to-Beam Connection Design .... .... .. 5-178


Example 5.3.10 SCBF Brace-to-Beam/Column Connection Design ... . ... . 5-202
Example 5.3.11 SCBF Brace-lo-Beam/Column Connection Design
with Elliptical Clearance and Fixed Beam-lo-Column Connection ..... - 5-269
Example 5.3.12 SCBF Braceto-Beam/Column Connection Design--

In Plane Brace Buckling ......... 5-299


5.4 ECCENTRlCALLY BRACED FRAM~ (EBF) .............. 5-334

EBF Design Example Plan and Elevation ........................ .. 5-338.


Example 5.4.l EBF Story Drift Check ............. ...... ........ 5-339

'EJtample 5.4.2 EBF Link Design ....... ... . .

~~

Example 5.4.3 EBF Beam OulSide of the Link Design .......... . 5-3~
Example 5.4.4 EBF Brace Design ..... . ... - - 5-3

Example 5.4.5 EBP Column Design ..... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 .J67


Example 5.4.6 EBF Br3ce-to-Lin.k Connection Design ........... ......... _
5 372
Example 5.4.7 EBF Brace-10-Be&n/Column Connectio" D
.... cs1gn ... ...... . .. 5-379
5.5 BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACED FRAMEs (BRBF) ................ 5-413
BRBF Design Example Plan and Elevation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-418

5.2 ORDL'lARY CONCENTRICALJ..Y DRACFD J=RA.'l\,ff'..S

5.1 SCOPE

\,

The AlSC Seismic Provisions requirements and other design considerations summarized in
Ibis Part apply to the design of the members and connections in braced frames thnt require
seismic detailing according to the AJSC Seismic ProvisWn.r.

'<

~..

Example 5.5.J BRBF Brnce Design .......... .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-419
Example 5.5.2 BRBF Column Design ........... .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 5-425
Example 5.5.3 BRBF Beam De.sign ................................... 5-4JO

5.6 NONBUlLDING STRUCTURES: A SPECIAL CASE ........... .... .... 5-443

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES


(OCBF)
concentric~y br.lceJ frame (OCBF) systems. like other concentrically braced
frame systems, resist lateral fon:es and displacements primanly through the ~ial strength
and stiffness of lhe brace members. TI1e design of OCBF systems is :iddressed in AISC
Seismic Provisio11s Section Fl. Concentrically braced frames are arranged such that the centerlines of the framing members (braces. columns nnd beams) coincide or nearly coincide,
thus minimizing flexural behavior. While special concentrically braced frame (SCBP) sys
terns have numerous detailing requircmenis to ensure greater ductility, OCBF systems
n.nticipate linle inelastic deformation and are designed usmg a higher seismic force level
to account for their limited system ductility. OCBF systems, with their relativdy simple
design and construction procedures, can be an attractive choice for sm:illcr buildings and
nonbuilding structures. OCBF systems may be lc<.s desirable in larger buildings an<l buildings with a higher seismic performance objective.
Concentrically braced frnme systems tend to be more economical than moment resisting
frames and cccentrica!Jy braced frames in terms of material, fabrication :md erection cosL
They do. however, often have reduced flexibility in floor-plnn layout, space planning, an.
electrical and mechanical routing as a result of lhe presence of br:ices. ln certain circumS!Jlnces, however, braced frames are exposed and fc3rured in the architecture of the building.
Several configurations of br:iced frrunes may be considered, including those shown in AJSC
Seismic Provisions Commentary Figutcs C-F2. l and C-F2.2.
Br:iced frames typically nre Jocated 1jn walls lhat stack vertically between floor levels. In
the typical office building, these w:ills generally occur in the core area around stair and elevator shafts, central resrrooms, and mechanical and electric:il rooms. This generally allows .
for greater :1rchitectur3.I fie.'\ibility in placement and configuration of e:tlerior windows and
cladding. Depending on the plan location and lhe size of the core are.1 of the building, t})(
torsional resistance offered by the braced frames may become a controlling design parame
tcr. Differential drift between stories at the exterior perimeter must be considered with this
type of layout, as roUltional displacements of the floor diaphragms mny impose forces on
the cladding system and other nonstructural elements of the building.
In designing and detailing OCBF systems, there are few special considerations. The
design of OCBF members is mostly based upon typical steel design procedures, as outlined
in the AISC Specification. The requ1remenis for OCBF systems in !he AISC Seismic \
Provisums include the following:
j

Ordinary

l:

I
f

Braces are moderately ductile members as given in Sccoon Fl .Sa


The required strength of bracing connections is given in Section Fl .6a
The brace slenderness limit of Kl Ir S 4JE I F1 for V or invencd-V configurations i~
given in Section Fl.Sb
The requirement.s for beruns in V or inverted-V frames nre given in Section Fl .4a

..

BRACB> FRAMES

The conne<:lion streoglh requirement of AlSC Sthmic Provisions Section Fl .6a is


intended to en.~ure that lhe brace member acts as the ductile link (brace yielding) in the
frame prior 10 the connections failing. lhus providing more relfabiHty to the system. The
limit on the sJendemess in V-type and inverted V-type braced frames is intended to limit the
unbalanced force that develops on the braced frame beam when the compression brace buckles and its strenglh degrades while the tension brace yields. The buckliJl8 of lhe compression .
brace results in a significant reduc1ioo in the frame shear resistance. This slenderness limit
does not apply to braces in two-story X-braced frames. because that configuration pre\'Cllts
or reduces the magnitude of unbalanced forces on the beam.
K-braced frames, as defined by the AISC Seismic Provisions Glossary, where a brace
frames to a column at a location where there is no out-of-pbne ~upport. are not permjtted in
OCBF systems. The definition of K-braced frames precludes the use of braces framing 10
columns between diaphrngm levels or locations of out-of-plnne lateral support for lhe
columns This Jefinition als0- precludes multi-tiered concentric braced frames ~here there
are two or mere levels of bracing between diaphragm levels or locations of ouc-of-pl:ine ln.teral support for the columns.

' '"r

I
I

OCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation


The following e>..:unples illustrate the design of an OCBP system based on the AISC Seismic
Provisions Section Fl. TI1e pl311 3lld elevation are shown in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2.

o+i+~-

40'.0"

40'-0"

+---"-'-'--I----'-.;.....:;_

..

.~

~Open ~1teel joists

lters

H----- M

._ ____" ' . . F=
at 6'-8"

II

If
111
111

f \
'

:-.;

::

\;,,,,

1X. . . . - - - - - D - - - - c-

---0---- D

=30 psf

. rtical load of the exterior wall is supported at grade. The seismic weight of the wall
Th e \e
f h b 'tdi
. t The
th t s trihutary to the roof level is 140 lb/ft on all four sides o t e w ng penme er.

Ja~e~I eanhquake force,, acting at the roof level along grid I is 65.8 kips as calculated per

ASCEISEI 7 Section I2.8.


.
The applicable building code specifies I.he use of A~~SEI 7_ for calculauon of ~oa~:
From ASCEJSEI 7, lhe following parameters apply. Setsnuc Design ~ategory D. R - 3~.
ilo = 2, le= 1.0, SDs = 0.528, and p = J.0. ASCEISEl 7 does not permit an ~ = 3. s~stem 10
Seismic Design Cat\!gory D; therefore, an OCBF system is used for ~1s. bu1ldmg and
designed according 10 the AlSC Seismic Pnwision.~. ~e structural ~r~ng is regular and
bas two bays of seismic force resisting perimeter framing on each side lll each orthogonal
. Th e'"
ASCfJSEI 7 Section 12 .3.4 .2b perrru'ts the redundancy factor. p, to be
direcuon. er 1ore.
taken as 1.0.

ASCEJSt:J "1
The vertical seismic load effect, E,,, based on LRFD load combinauons m
.....
Section 12.4.2.3. is:
(ASCEISEI 7 Eq. 12.4-4)

0.2SosD - 0.2(0.528)D

0.14Sosf) =O.l4(0.528)D
= 0.0739D
A

N-~~-1 B
D

111
111
,1,
111
111
111

,.

%- - 1 - - - l

I
I
I
I
I

c----:-1 -

t---->.-L_ _._,. ____ ____ ____ ____

'

l =Opsf

JT-1
Roof

:r.----c----c----c----c

I~

ts psf

for ASD load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3, E, is:

II
11

D ..

(typ.)

Ix

TI1e gravity ((lading is as follows:

= 0.1060

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRIC \LLY BRACED lR. \.\.fES

,.

"'

,.

-+--{ O

~~

Base

OCBF investigated in design examples.

For elevation, see Flgure 5-2.


Fit. 5-1. OCBF roof plan.

Fig. 5-2. OCBF el~otiott.

=.

O.lOSo~D

= 0.10(0.528)D
=0.0528D

Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 2-4, tbe'~aterial properties

Note that according to ASCE/SEI 7 Table 12.2-1, buildings with OCBF frames in Seismic
Design Categories D and E are only permitted up to a structural height of 35 ft. An cxccpuon applies for Seismic Design Categories 0, E and P that allows the maximum structural
height to be increased to 60 ft for single-story buildings where the dead load of 1he roof does
not exceed 20 psf, which is the case here.
~ume that the ends of the diagonal braces are pinned and braced against translation for
both th.e x-x and y-y axes. The loads giYen for each example are from a first-order analysis.
Assume that the elTecth'e length method of AISC Specijicarion Appendjx 7 is used for
stability design. AJSC Specification Appendix 8 will be applied 10 approximate a .secoodorder analysis.

F1 =50 ksi
F11 =65 ksi
Required Strength
Determine the required strength
Tue load combinations that include seismic effects are:
ASD

LRFD
LRFD Load Combinations 5 and 6 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3 (including
the 05 factor on L permitted in
ASCfJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3)

Given:
Refer to the roof plan shown in Figure 5-1 and che Brace BR-I shown in Figure 5-2. Select
an ASTM A 992 \V-<;bape for the diagonal braces to resist the loads gi"en.

(1.2 + 0.2Sos)D + pQe + 0.5L + 0.2S

The axial loads and moments on the brace due to a first-order analysis are:

=5.54 kips

Ps= 6.70 ldps

The dead load bending moment indicated above is due lo the self-weight of the brace assuming a member chat weighs 33 lb/ft. Sometimes this self-weight lo3ding is ignored in the
design of venical diagonal braces where judgment would indicate that the loading is minimal and only uses a small percentage of the member strength. Howc,er, in this example,
consjdering the relatively IOtlg length of the diagonal brace and that the self-weight moment
is resisted by the wc:ik axis flexural strength of the brace, the dc:ld load moment is included
in this design check. There arc no bending moments due to tiYe loads or snow loads.

(1.2+ 0 2Sos)D + pQe+0.5L + 0.2S

=l, 130 kips

(0.6 - 0.14SDS)D + 0.1pQe +II

I~

l
f

force in the diagonal brace is:

L.....~~~~-=LRFD.:..:_~~~~'~~~-t-~~~~~-A-S_D~-:-~~~~I
LRFD Lood Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

P. =[1.2+0.2(0.528))(5.54 lcips)

+ 1.0(22.3 kips)+0.5(0 kips)

ASCE/SEJ 7 Section 12.4.2.3 (including


the 0.5 factor on L permitted in Section
12.4.2.3)

(1.0 + 0.14Sos)D + H + F + 0.1pQ

Considering the load combinations given in ASCEISEI 7, the maximum compressive ax.iai

Psrery is the total vertical load on the story calculated using the foUowing governing load
combination. From the analysis:

LRFD Load Combination 5 from

ASD Load Combinations 5 and 8 from


ASCE/SEl 7 Section 12.4.2.3

(0.9 - 0.2Sos) D + pQ + l .6H

MD = 2.34 kip-ft

LR.FD

arc:

ASTMA992

Example 5.2. 1. OCBF Diagonal Brace Design

P, 14ry

tory shear from the analysis is 136 kips. The first order intcrstory drift due to thls shear
Th es

00941
force without the Cd factor applied from the analylils model 1s 1'1.H
m.

and

PD

5-

5.2 ORDINARY CONC5NTRICAllY BRACfD FRAMl"'.S

BRACED FRAMES

ASD Lood Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

I"

Pa =[1.0+0.14(0.528))(5.54 kips)

+ O kips+O kips

~.::..::..+=0~.2=(6~7~0 -ki-p-s)~~~~~.L-~-+-0_.7_(_1.0-)-(2-2._3_k1-p-s)~~~~j:
.
=21.6

ASD
ASD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

-30.9 kips

kips

.
(LO+ 0.14Sos)D + H + F + 0.1pQe

Psrory :: 740 kips

..
AMIUcAH J.NsmVn! Of STO!L CONSTIUJCTION

BRACED

FRAM~

The mrutimum bending moment in the brace concurrent wilh the above load combination is:

52 ORDlNARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACD FRAMES

5-9

Brace Slenderness

~ .,

ASD

LRfD
Mu =l l.2+0.2(0.528))(2.34 kip-ft)
+ 1.0(0 lcip-ft)+0.5{0 kip-fl)

+ 0.2{0 kip-ft)

Check brace element width-to-thickness ratios

+ 0 kip-ft+ 0 kip-ft

According to AISC Seismic Provisions Sections Pl.5a. braces are required to satisfy lhe
n.-quirement.S for moderately ducllle members. Elements in the brace members must not
exceed AmJ width-to-thickness requirements given in Section DI.I.

+0.7(1.0)(0 kip-fl)

From Table Dl.I oft.heAISC Seismic Provisions:

M 0 =ll.0+0.14(0.528)](2.34 kip-ft)

=2.51 kip-ft

=3.06 kip-ft

'A.""'=0.38ff,
The ASCEJSEI 7 load combination that results in the maximum axial tensile force in the
diagonal brace is:

,.
I

ASD

LRFD

LRFD Load Combination 6 from


ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

ASD Load Combination 8 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Sectfon 12.4.2.3

:::J

Pu = [0.9 - 0.2(0.528)](5.54 kips)

+ l.0{-22.3kips)+1 .6(0 kips)


=-17.9 lcips

~I l
i.
.
~~
!~

P0 = [0.6-0.14(0.528))(5.54 kips)

Mw

LRFD

=(0.9-0.2(0.528))(2.34 kip-ft)
+ 1.0(0 kip-ft)+ 1.6{0 kip-ft)

ASD
M0 =[0.6-0.14(0.528)](2.34 kip-ft)

+ 0 kip-ft+ 0 kip-ft
+ 0.7(1.0)(0 kip-ft}

= l .86 kip-ft

=1.23 kip-ft
Try a W1 Ox33 with its flanges oriented parallel 10 the plane of the braced frame.
From AlSC Ma1111al Table 2-4, the material propenies are as follows:
ASTh1A992
:.i:.
!":

From AISC Manual Table l I, the geomerric properties for lhe W10X33 are ns follows:

"=

0.435 in.

rx = 4.19 in.

from Table Dl. l of the AISC Seismic Provisiori.r for webs of rolled I-shaped sections used
as diagonal braces:

ff,

= 1.49

29,000 ksi
50 ksi

=35.9
Because /J/r,,,::;;

A...!. the web meets the requirements for moderately ductile members.

Altematively, Table l-3 can be used to "erify that the member satisfies the loc.11 width.-tothickne~s requirements for OCBF diagonal braces.
Additionally, the W10X33 does not contain slender compression elements according to
AJSC Specification Table B4. la.
Available Compressive Strength
Determine K
As stated in the OCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation section, the cffecrive length

Fy =50ksi
Fw = 65 ksi

A =9.7 1 in.1

Because btlZIJ ~ /....,,J, the flanges meet the requiremenll> for moderately ducole members.

/..,,..d=l.49

The maximum bending moment in the brace concurrent with the above load combination is:

50 ksi

:: 9.15

+0.7(1.0)(-22.3 kips)+O kips


=-12.7 kips

29,000 ksi

= 0 38

b1=7.%in.
k.ks = 0.935 in.
ly = 36.6 in.'

d =9.73 in.
b1121r9.15
ry =1.94 in.

t..,:: 0.290 in.


hltw:: 27. I

method in AISC Specification Appendix 7 is used for stability design. According to AISC
Specification Appendix 7, Section 7.2.3(a). for braced frame systems, the effective lengt!:
factor, K, for members subject to compression is Ull:eo as 1.0. llllless a rational analysis ind:catcs that a lower value is appropriate.
The length of the bnce diagonal in ench bay. based on the geometry in Figure 5-2, is:

L-:: J(40.0 ft}2 +(40.0 ft) 2


::;56.6 ft

S-10

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICAlJ..Y ORACl~ FRAMES

BRACl:D F'RAMLS

This length has been determined by calculating the distance between the work points based
on the intersection of the centerlines of the brace, column and beams. Shorter unbraced
lengths of the brace may be used if justified by the engine~ of record. By inspection, the
laterally unbraced length of the diagonal brace in the in-plane (about the y-y aJtis) direction
is half of the overall length. For buckling out-of-plane (about the x-x axis), if both of me
diagonals :u-e continuous for their full Jenglh and are connected at the inte~cction poini.
t~n the effective length factor, K, is 0.5 (EI-Tayem and Goel. 1986; Picard and Beaulieu,
I987). Th.is requires a connection betwe.en tbe diagonal members :it their intersection that is
rigid in flexure out-of-plane. The available axial compressive strength of diagonals in Xbracing where one of the diagonal braces is not continuous through the intersection can be
detcnnined by an energy method (Nair, 1997).

L-~~~~~-LR~ro~~~~~~-1-~~~~~~A_s_o~~~~~- ' 1

Assume that the colUlection of the half brace sections at che X-brace intersection is rigid omof-plane. The braces are oriented such tha1 buckling :ibout the y-y a.xis of the brace occurs
in the plane of the frame.

followrng.

~cFcr =7.38

Fer
91 k SJ.
-=4.

ksi

Oc

~c~ =$c~rAg

!i_=(Fcr)A,
0.,
Uc

=7.38 ksi(9.71 in. 2 )


= 71.7 kjps

=4.9 1 k~i(9.71 in.2 )


= 47.7 kips

Secon~-order effects :ind interaction between axial force and fleiture are checked in I.hr

Available Flexural Strength

From AISC Manual Table 3-4, the available strength in the weak axis is:

=0.5(56.6 ft)

\.

L. -~-bM~n1_=_5_2_._s_k-ip--f-L~~~~~~--'~~-:_1_=_3_4_.9_~__p-f-i~~~~~~~~I t

Kx = 0.5
K1 = LO
Kxl, 0.5(56.6 ft)(l2 in.lft)
-=
rz
4.19 in.
--"---~---=-

Second-Order Effects
Second-order effects are addressed using the procedure in AISC Specification Appendix 8
as follows:

= 81.l
K1 L, = 1.0(28.3 ft)(12 in./ft)

M, = BtMni + JhM1J
P, = P,., + B2P11

1.94 in.

=175

ASD

LRFO

= 28.3 ft

I~

Because there is no bending moment in the strong axis. Ma= 0.

Lx =56.6 fl
L, =0.5L

r1

(governs)

'

(Sptc. Eq. A-8-1


(Spec. Eq. A-8-2

\.

Calculate 81

The slenderness, KL/r, ~ less lhan 200 and therefore meets the recommendation of the Usa
Note in Section E2 of 1be AISC Specification.

Cm

=1.0 ns moment is due to self-weight applied between supports

a = 1.00 (LRFD); a = 1.60 (ASD)

Using AISC Specification Equation E3-l and AISC MOJtual Table 4-22 wilh KL/r 175, the
available compressive strength is detennined as follows:

The elastic critical buckling strcnglh, Pt1. is calculated in the plane of bending. For this calculation, the plane of bending will be in the plane of me frame, about the brace's y-y ax.is.

K1Ly =J.0(28.3 ft)

=28.3 ft

1
'

; I

...
l

5- 12

BRACED FRAMES

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

(Spec. Eq. A85)

The required flexural scrength of lhe brace including second-order e1fects, using AlSC
Specification Equation A-8-1, is:

~.

_ n E1;
-(K1L)2

_ n2 (29,000 ksi)(36,6 in. 4 )

I ,,...

From AISC Specification Equation A-8-3:

M11

LRFD

~1

Cm

l-aPrffe1

B1

= 1-(1.00(30.9LO
kips)/ 90.8 kips]
=1.52:<!:1 o.k.

Cm

;;;:: 1

1-aP,/ Pd

1.0 .

=1-(1.60(21.6 kips)/ 90.8 kips]


=1.61 ~ l o.k.

'.

=2.5 I kip-ft
=0 kip-ft

M11

Psraryis given as l,i30 kips (LRFD) and 74-0 kips (ASD) and His given as 136 kips.

HL
Pt J/OYj ;; RM -

(Spec. E'J. A-8-7)

/:iH

= l.52(3.06 kipft)+J.00(0 kip-ft)

= t.61(2.s 1kip-ft)+1.oo(b kip-ft)

=4.65 kip-ft

::::: 4.04 kip-ft

Because 82 = l.00, the required axial compressive strength of the brace including secondorder effectS, based on AISC Specification Equation A-8-2, is:
. ASD

136 kips (40.0 ft)


. (0.0941 in.)(l ft/12 in.)
= 694,000 kips

(l.2+ 0.2Sos )D+ B1 (PQE )+0.5L+0.2S , .(L 0+0.14Sos )D+ ij +.f + B, (0.7pQE)

B2 =

1
1- aP11~

~1

,.J;

= 1.00

- + 0 kips+O kips
+ l.00(0-7)(1.0)(22.3. kips)
= 21.6 kips

'

Bi=

...

Pe:no17

l
~ _ LOO(l,130 kips)
1
694,000 kips

Pa =(1.0+0.14(0'.528))(5.54 kips)

=30.9 !dps

Ui>ing AISC Specification Equation A-8-6:

Combined Loading (Compression and Ff~xure)


'

1
l- a.Ps1ory

~l

"'\.

+ 0.2(6.70 kips)

ASD

ASCEIS.El 7 Section 12.4.2.3

+ 1.00(1.0)(22.3 kips)+0.5{0 kips

LRFD

ASD Load Combin-ation 5 f~om

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

Pu =[l.2+0.2(0.528)](5.54 kips)

=l.OO

Mr = B1M111 + BzM11

LRFD
Calculate 8 2

I, I

Mnr =Mo

=3.06 kip-ft
=0 kip-ft

M, ::: B1Mn1 + BzM1,

ASD

,.

ASD

,\Int= Mu

=90.8 kips

Bi=

'I

I...Rffi

[28.3 ft(J 2 in./fc)J 2

5-13

Check combined loading of the

W10x3~brace
(::

Determine the applicable equation, using AIS,C Specification Section Hl:

...

Pu1ory

'
I

=I- 1.60(740 kips)


694,000 kips

=LOO

Because 82 ~ 1.5, !he effective lengl.b method is a valid way to check stability according to
AISC Spccific01io11 Appendix 7.
-

ASD

LRFD
P, :::: 30.9 kips.
71.7 kips
= 0.431

Pc

. P, = 21.6 kips

...,.

.
..

. Pc

47.7 kips
=0.453

Because P,fPc~ 0.2. the brace design is controlled by the equation:

8(Mrx

P,.+ - - + -Mry)
$LO
Pc

9 Ma

Mey

. .

'
.

(Spec. Eq. Hl-!..ij

BRACED FRA.1',ffiS

S....14

.LRFD
30.9 kjps !(o - 4.65 kip-ft)-o 5
+
+.5 .
- . 10
71. 7 kips ~ .. 2.5 kip-fl

21.6 kips +!(o+ 4.04 kip-f')=o. 556


47.7 kips 9
34.9 kip-ft

o.k.

0.510<1.0

ASD

ASD

LRFD
P, = 12.7 kips

P, = 17.9 kips
Pc 437 kips

291 kips

Pc

=0.0436

=0.0410

o.k.

0.556<1.0

5-15

5.2 ORDrNARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

Because P,IPc < 0.2. lhe brace design is controlled by lhe equation:
Note that the weak axis bendjng moment from tbe self-weight of the diagonal br:ice utilizes
about 8% of the member available strength.

Available Tf!n$[1e Strength


From AISC Manual Table 5-1 . the available strength of the W1 Ox33 brace in axial tension
for yielding on the gross_section is:
'

LRFO

'

$1Pn = 437 kips >P.9 kips

--

o.k.

Mey

(Spec. Eq. Hl-lb)

<1.0

Check combin~ldading of the W10x33


,As previously ~et~rmined:

".

'~

Mry=Mu

+(O+ l.86

kip ft)= 0 _0559


52.5 kip-ft

12.7 kips +(o+ 1.23 kip-ft)=o.o 571


2(291 kips)
34.9 kip-ft

o.k.

< 1.0

o.k.

Mry=Mo

=17.9kips

=437 kips

The loads on Column CL-1 due to a ~l-<mler analysis are:

= 1.23 kip-ft

=T,,

Pc =cj>,P,,

Given:
.
'
Refer to Column CL-1 in Figure 5-2. Select a 40-ft-long ASTM A992 W-shape to .resist the
loads given for the column.

ASD

= 1.86 kip--ft

..,
t.

Po= 16.4 !Ops

Pr =Ta
= 12.7 kips

P,.

'Pc =n,

'

=291 kips
Consider second-order effects per Appencfu 8 of the AISC Specification. As previously ~al
culnted, 82 1.0. According to Appendix 8, Section 8.2 of the AISC Specification, B 1 shouEd
be taken as 1.0 for members not subject to compression. Given that both 8 1 and 8 2 are equal
to I, there is no amplification required for second-order effects for the loads on the member
when I.be diagonal brace is ~n tension..

Example 5.2.2.,.0CBF Column Design

I,JU"D
. >

"

ASD

i.RFD

The W1 Ox33 is adequate for lhe OCBF diagonal brace BR-I. The brace is oriented with Lhe
flanges parallel to the plane of the braced frame.

combined L~ading (fehsion and A~xure)

P,

Mex

...
r,.

2Pc

17.9 kips
2(437 kips)

ASD

~", =291kips>12.7 k'ips

- o.k.

~+(Mrx + Mry)sl.O

~s =)9.9

kips

Pae= 15.8 kips

Assume that the ends of the'columns are pinned and braced against translation for both the
x-:c and y-y axes. The loading in the columns is from a first-order.analysis. Appendix 8 of
the AlSC Specification can be appHed to approximate a second--0rder analysis.
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties are:

ASTMA992

L
"

]
l
...

.. :~{:

Fy =50 ksi
Fa== 65 ksi

Required Strength
AISC Seismic Provisions Section Dl.4a requires lllat the axial compressive and tensile \
strength be detennined using the ampl.ied seismic load; Lhat is, the seismic load multiplied
by the overstrenglh factor, n.,.
:'
....:;

BRACED FRAMES

:.-I()

The governing load combinations, including the overs1rength factor, for the required axiaJ
compressive strength are:

LRFD

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 (including
the 0.5 fac1or on L pennjtted in Section
12.4.3.2)

P., =(l.2+0.2SDs)fb +n.,P(U


+0.5Pi + 0.2Ps
={1.2+ 0.2(0.528)j(l 6.4 kips)

+ 2(15.8 kips)+0.5(0 kips)


+ 0.2(1~.9 kips)

P., =(1.0+0.14SDs)PD+ PH
+Pp +0.70.,Pa.c

= [0.9- 0.2(0.528)j(l6.4 kips)


+2(-15.8 kips)+l.6(0 kips)
=-18.6 kips

Determine K
According to AlSC Specification Appendix 7, Section 7.2.3(a), for braced frame systems,
the effective length factor for members subject to compression shall be taken as I .0.

ASD Load Combination 8 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

K1 =1.0

L.. =40.0 ft

Ly =40.0 ft

KxLx

--=

1.0(40.0 ft)(l2 in./ft)


-US in.

=110

Pa =[0.6-0.14(0.528))(16.4 kips)
+ 0.7(2)(-15.8 kips)+O kips

K Ly

-1- =
r1

1.0(40.0 ft )(12 in./ft)


2.54 in.

= 189 (governs)

,..
Use the procedure of AJSC Specification Appendix 8 to detennine the second-order effects
on the required strengths, where the required flexural strength and required axial strength
are given as:

~;

Kx= 1.0

+ 0.7U 0 PQ +PH

Second-Order Effects

Therefore:

Pa= (0.6-0.14SDs)Po

=-13.5 kips

..,,

Column Slenderness
There are no specific requirements for member ductility for columns in OC.BF systems
in Section Fl of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Therefore, check width-to-thickness ratios for
element slenderness according to Table 84.la of the AJSC Specification. As indicated in
AISC Manual Table 1-1, the W1 Ox49 section is not slender for compression.

+ 0.7(2)(15.8 kips)

ASD

P., = (0.9-0,2Svs)Po+O oP~ +l.6PH

b1= 10.0 in.

ry=2.54 in.

Available Compressive Strength

LRFD

Jl

CJ= 0.560 in.

I,..= 0.340 in.

d= 10.0 in.
rt=4.35 in.

+ 0 kips +O kips

The governing load combinations, including lhe overstrength factor, for the required axial
tensile strength is:

LRFD Load Combination 7 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

From AlSC Manual Table 1-l, the geometric properties afc as follows:

=I L0+0.14(0.528)](16.4 kips)

= 39.7 kips

=57.0 kips

Try a W1 Ox49.

A= 14.4 in. 2

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

5-1.,

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

From AISC Manual Table .+-22 with KL/r = L89 and using AlSC Specification Equation
E3-l, the available compressive strenglh is:

M,= B1M111 + ih.M11

(Spec. Eq. A-8-1)

9cFcr =6.32 ksi

Pr= Pn1 + B?/'11

(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

~cPn =~cFc,Ai

There is nG bending moment in the column due to either vertical loading or lateral translation. Consequently there is no requirement 10 detennine multipliers for the required flexural
strength due to second-order effects. The lateral drift is min1maJ. As calculated in Example
5.2.1, B2 = 1.0. Therefore there is no amplification of the axiaJ load in the column due to
P-6. }Ji summary. no adjustments to the member forces calculated by a first-order anaJysis
are required due to second-<:>rdcr effects.
~JCAN lJ-<STmJTE OP STEEi.. CONSTRUCTION

ASD

LRFD

=6.32 ksi(l4.4

Fcr =4.21 ksi

.
in.2)

=9 l.O kips> 57 .0 kips

o.k.

!le

Pn -(Fer )A
- '
!le - f2c
'

=4.21 ksi(l4.4 in. 2 )


=60.6.kips>39.7 ldps

I
o.k.

5-18

BRACED FRAMES

I.
;,~
~

Available Tensile Strength


From AISC Manual Table 5 I, the available strength of the W1 Ox49 column in axial tension for yielding on the gross seccjon is:

ASD

LRFD
~,P,.

=648 kips >I 8.6 kips

o.k.

Pn = 431 kips> 13.5 kips

n,

o.k.

The W1 Ox49 for OCBF Column CL-I is adequate.

Example 5.2.3. OCBF Beam Design

S...19

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALJX BRACED rRAMES

The required axial compressive strength of the beam; with axial tension shown as negative,

is:

ASD

LR.FD

ASD Load Combinatio~ 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 (including
lhe 0.5 factor on L permiued in Section
12.4.3.2)

P., =(1.2+0.2Sos)Po +OoPQ6

Pa =(l.0+0.14SDS)Po

+?,,+PF +0.1!laPi

+ 0.5P.L + 0.2Ps
=(l.2 + 0.2(0.528))(-3.92 kips)

=[LO+ 0.14(0.528)](-3.92 kips)

+ 0 kips+ 0 ldps

+ 2(16.5 kips)+0.5(0 kips)

Given:
Refer to Beam BM-I in Figure 5-2. Select a 40-ft-Iong ASTivi A992 W-shape to resist the
loads shown below.

+ 0.7(2)(16.5 kips)

+ 0.2(-4.74 kips)

=18.9 kips

=26.9 kips

The loads on the beam due 10 a first-order analysis are:


Pv

=3.92 kips (tens.)

Mo= 72.0 kip-ft


Vo= 7.20 kips

h::: 0 kips
Ms= 120 kip-ft
Vs= 12.0 kips

The required axial tensile strength of tbe beam is:

Ps = 4.74 kips (tens.)

Assume that che ends of the beam are pinned and braced against translation for boch the
x-x and y-y axes.
Solution:
From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties are:

ASTMA992
F1 50 ksi
F.,=65 ksi

The beam is a collector element transferring diaphragm shear to che OCBF braces.
According to Section 12.10.2.l of ASCE/SEI 7, the forces in the collector are calculated
using the seismic load effects including the overstrength factor. The axial force in the beam
from dead and snow load is in tension.
The governing load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7 used for determining the required flexural
strength of the beam are used to de1emrine the required axial strengths.

ASD
,

Pa =[1.0+0.14(0.5:8)j(-3.92 kips)

P11 =[l.2+0.2(0.528))(-3.92 kips)

+0 kips+Okips
+ 0.7(2)(-16.5 kips)
=-27.3 kips

+2(-16.5 kips)+0.5(0 kips)'

+ 0.2(-4.74 kips}
= -39.l kips

..

.
I

..

The required shear strength of the beam is:

Required Strength

..

LRFD

I.RFD
v~ = [1.2 + 0.2(0.528)](7.20 kips)

+ 2(0 kips)+0.5(0 kips)

+ 0,2(12.0 kips)
=11.8 kips

ASD

~ =[l.O.f0.14(0.528)](7.20 kips)

+ o'kip~+ o kips

'

-.

0.7(2)(0 kips)

=7.73 ldps ..

---..

II

BRACED fRAM'.ES

;)-10

The governing load combinations, including the ovcrMrcngth factor, for the required a>;ia]
comprc~sive

strength are:

ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 (including


the 0.5 factor on L permitted in Section
12.4.32)

Pu = (I 2+0.2Sos)Po +0 0 PQ&

+0.SPt + 0.2Ps

=(1.2 + 0.2(0.528)](16.4 kips)


+ 2(15.8 kips}+0.5(0 kips)
+ 0 .2( 19.9 kips)

ASD

.
'

A== 14.4 in.2

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section J2.4.3.2

Po =(1.0+0.I4Sos)Po+PH
+Pp +0.7Q 0 Pa.

+ 0 kips+ 0 kips
+ 0.7(2)(15.8 kips)

!::J
The go\'eming load combinations, incJuding the overstrength factor, for the required axial
tensile Strengch is:

LRFD

ASD Load Combination 8 from

ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASCEJSEJ 7 Section 12.4.3.2

= !0.9- 0.2(0.528)]{16.4 kips)


+ 2(- 15.8kips)+1.6(0 kips)
=- 18.6kips

r:
i.
.

. l

t,..
r1

=0.340 in.

Pa= (0.6- 0.14Sos )Po

=2.54 in.

Available Compressive Strength


Determine K
According to AlSC Specification Appcndiit 7. Section 7 2.3(a), for braced frame ~ystems,
the effective length faccor for mem~rs subjecl to compression i.hall be taken as 1.0.

Therefore:
Ks = 1.0

K1 =1.0

Lx = .m.o r1

L:- = 40.0 ft

KxLx 1.0(40.0 ft)(l2 in./ft)


--=
4 .35 io.
= 110

+0.7!1 0 P0z +PH


P0 =I0.6-0.14(0.528)](16.4 kips)

+ 0.7(2)(-15.8 ldps}+O kips

K1 Ly _ l.0(40.0 fc)(l2 in.In)


-;;- 2.54 in.

=189 (governs)
From AISC Manua l Table 4-22 with KL/r = 189 and using ATSC Specificatio11 Equation
E3-l, lhe available compressive strength is:

Second~Order Effects

Use the procedure of AISC Specification Appendix 8 to determine the second-order effects
on the requited strengths, where the required flexural strength and required axial strength
are given as;

ASD

LRFD
Fer =4.21.ksi

M, = B1Mn1 + B2M1t

(Spec. Eq. A -8-1)

~cFcr = 6.32 ksi

nc

=P,.1 + 8')}'11

(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

9,_.P,,

~ =(~)A,

There is n~ bending moment in the column due to eiLher venkal loading or lateral translation. Consequently there is no requirement to determine multipliers for the required flexural
strength due to second-order effects. The lateral drift is minimal. As calculated in Example
5.2. l. 82 1.0. Therefore there is no amplification of the axial load in the column due to
P-t:... In summary. no adjtl$tmcnl.S to the membu forces calculated by a first-order ruW.ys.is
are required due to second-order effecL~.

bt= 100 in.

Column Slenderness
There are no ~pecific reqwrcincnts for member ductility for columns in OCBP systems
in Section Fl of lhc A1SC Seismic J>m1 is1on.s. Therefore. check width-to-thickness ra1ios for
element slenderness according to Table B4. la of the AISC Specification. As indicated iu
t\ISC Manual Table 1-1, the W1 Ox49 section is not sJender for compression.

=- 13.5 kips

P,
1

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 7 from

Pu =(0.9- 0.2Sos )Po + n oPa. + 1.6PH

lJ = 0.560 in.

d= 10.0 in.
rx=4.35 in.

=[J.0+0.14(0.528)J(l6.4 kips)
=39.7 kips

=57.0 kips

Try a W1 Ox49.

From AJSC Ma1111al Table 1- 1, the geometric propenies are as follows:

LRfD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from

S-17

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRlCALLY BRACED FRAMES

:~cFcrA1

=6.32 ksi (14.4 in.2 )


=9 1.0 kips > 57 .0 kips

o.k.

i
I

= 4 .2 J lcsi(14.4 in. 2 )
= 60.6 kips > 39.7 kips

o.k.

I'

DR.ACED FR.AMES

5-18

Available Tensile Strength


From AISC Manual Table 5-1, the available strenglh of the W1 Ox49 column in axial tension for yielding on the gross section is:

S-19

5.2 ORDCNARY CONCENTRICALLY ORACED rR.AMES

The required axial compressive strength oft.he beam, with axial tension shown as negative,
is:

ASD

LRFD

LRFD
~1Pn

ASD

=648 kips >18.6 kips

o.k.

Pn =431kips>13.5 kips

n,

o.k.

The W1 Ox49 for OCBF Column CL-I is adequate.

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEJSEl 7 Section 12.4.3.2

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 (including
the 0.5 factor on L permitted in Section
12.4.3.2)
P., =(l.2+0.2Sos)fb +noPQ6

Pa =(l.0+0.14Sos)Po
+PH+ 'PF+ 0.70 0 P~

+ O.SPr. + 0.2Ps
=[1.2+ 0.2(0.528)](-3.92 kips)

Example 5.2.3. OCBF Beam Design

=[l.0+0.14(0.528)1(-3.92 kips)

+ 0 kips+O kips

+ 2 (16.5 kips)+0.5(0 kips)


Given:
Refer to Beam BM-1 in Figure 5-2. Select a 40-ft-long ASTM A992 W-shape to resist the
loads shown below.

The loads on the beam due to a first~order analysis a,re:


Po= 3.92 kips (tens.)
Mo= 72.0 kip-ft
Vo= 7.20 kips

PL= 0 kips

The required axial tensile strength of the beam is:

P.. =[1.2 + 0.2(0.528))(-3.92 kips)

The beam is a collector element transferring diaphragm shear to the OCBF braces.
According to Section 12.10.2.1 of ASCE/SEI 7, the forces in the collector are calculated!
using the seismic load effects including the overstrength factor. The axial force in the beam
from dead and snow load is in tension.

The governing load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7 used for detenninjng the required flexural
strength of the beam are used to determine the required axial strengths.

Pa ={l.0+0.14(0.5~8)](-3.92 kips)

+Okips+Okips

...

+ 0.7(2)(-16.5 kips)

+ 0.2(-4.74 kips)

=-27.3 kips

=-39.l kips

The required shear strength of the beam is:

ASTMA992
F1 =50ksi

Required Strength

ASD
,.

'

+2(-16.5 kips)+0.5(0 kip;)'

Solution:

Fu= 65 ksi

..

LRFD

Assume that the ends of the beam ace pinned and braced against translation for both the
x-x and y-y axes.

From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties are:

= 18.9 kips.

=26.9 kips

Ps = 4.74 kips (tens.)

Ms== 120 kip-ft


Vs= 12.0 kips

+ 0.7(2)(16.5 kips)

+ 0.2(-4.74 lcips)

.
V11

'
LRFD

=(1.2 + 0.2(0.528)](7 .20 kips)


+ 2(0 .kips)+0.5(0 kips)
+ 0.2(12.0 kips)
=11.8 kips

..

ASD

V,, =(1.0+0.14(0.528))(7.20 kips)


:. +o'kips_+o kips

~ 0.7(2)(0 kip_s)_
= 7.73 kips , ,

,
i

-..

.I
I

'"'~-

11

BRACED FRAMES

S.2 ORDINARY CONCF..NTRICALLY BRACED FRA.VIES

K1 J.,,.

The required flexural strength of the beam is:

1.0(20.0 fl)(l2 in.lft)

-;:;- =
LRFD
M.

ASD

={J.2 + 0.2(0.528)j(72.0 kip-ft)


+ 2(0 kip-fl)+ o:s{o .kip-r1)

+ 0.2(120 kip-fl)

+ 0.7(2)(0 kip-ft)

0 kip-ft+ 0 kip-fl

=77 .3 kip- ft

=118 kip-fl

M,, =(l.0+0. 14(0.528))(72.0 kip-ft)

Try a W18x50.

From AlSC Manual Table J-L the geometric properties are as follows:
A::: 14.7 in. 2

d= 18.0 in.

=0.355 in.
ry= 1.65 in.

kdu"' 0.972 in.

lw

Ir= 800 in.'

b1 = 7.50 in.
hftw= 45.2

Sx = 88.9

in. 3

If = 0.570 in.
rx = 7.38 in.

Zx = 101 in.3

Beam Slenderness

There are no specific requirements for member ductility for beams in OCBF systems in
Section Fl of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Therefore, check widt.h~to-Lhic.kness ratios for
element slenderness according to Table B4. la and Table B4. lb of lhe AISC Specification.

ll

As indicated in AISC Manuaj Tuble 1-1, the W18x50 is slender for co.m pression and com,
pact for flexure.

':

1.65 in.

=145 (governs)
The combination of the top flange bracing and the bottom flange bracing from the open web
si.cel joist at midspan creates a torsional brace. This example uses a simplified calculation of
lhe available compressive strength according to AISC Specification Section E7 that considers I.he limit sltlte of flexural buck.ling using the minor axis unbraced length of the member
thilt is bl!:Sed on the bottom flange unbraced lenglh. A grearer compressive strength may be
available due to the additional minor a.'tis coos1raint at the top flange. See Section 8.3 oft.hi ~
Manual for a method to deternUne 1he available torsional buckling strength considering constraint at the top flange.

B~ause the web is considered a slender element for axial compres&ion ( h/1,.. > l.49JE/ Fy

=l .49~29,000 ksi/50 ksi = 35.9) a reduction for slenderness is required for calculating
Lbe available compressive strength per Section E7.2 of lbe AlSC Specification.
This reduction is included in AJSC Manual Table 6- l; therefore, use AlSC Mamwl Table
6-1 to determine the available compressive strength of the W18x50. From Table 6-1. for
K1 ly=20 ft:

LRFD
3

px10 = 6.37(kipsr

ASD

P x 103 = 9.ss(kipsr'
I

Pn /Dc =-

Available Compressive Strength

Determine K

6.37x10-3 (kipsr 1

According to AISC Specification Appendlx 7, Section 7.2.3(a), fo~ braced frame systems,
the effective length factor for memberS subject to compression shctll be taken as l.0.
Consider the open web steel joists at ~ top flange of the beam to provide the strength and
stiffness required by AISC Specification Appendix 6 to stabilize 1he top flange of the beam
in the y-y axis at 6 ft 8 in. centers. Consider that the bottom flange 9f !he beam is stabilized
in the y-y axis at midspan by a bottom chord extension from the open web steel joisL
Consider the effective length of I.be beam in compression about Lhe y-y axis to be based on
the unsupported length of the bottom flange.

Therefore:

K..= LO
lx=40.0 fl

K1

=1.0

Ly =20.0 ft

7.38in.

=65 .0

= 157 kips

9.58x10-3 (ltipsf 1
::: 104 kips

Available Flexural Strength


Because the beam is bending abour its major axis, and has both compact flanges and a compact web in iJexure, the available flexural strength is determined in accordance with AISC
Specification Section F2.

The open web steel joisis provide lateral f;Upport of the compression flange ac 6 ft 8 in.
centers.

KJClx l.0(40.0 ft)(l 2 in./ft)


--=

rx

4=6.67 ft

According lo AISC ;Hmiu<1I Table 3-2:


Lp=5.83 ft
L,. =16.9 ft

AMERICAN iNSTITIJTli OF STEEL. C0l'ISTRIJCTION

5-'.lJ

BRACED FRAMES

5-22

Therefore Lp < La S 4 and the limit state of lateral-torSiooal buckling applies. Consenativety.
use c,,= 1.0.

Calculate 82

,.- ' LRFD

. <PbM:n =}68 kipft


: ~.; .j

nz.

'

LRFD

Following rhe procedure of AISC Specification Appendix 8:

(Spec. Eq. A-8-1)

Calculate B1

(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

Pu= (1.2 + 0.2SDs)PD + .BiOoPQe


+ 0.5PL + 0.2}\-

ex.:::: 1.00 (LRFD); ~ := 1.60 (ASD)

= [l.2+'0.2(0.528)J(-3.92

. K1Lx = 1.0(40.0 ft)


= 40.0 ft

I'

' '

[40.0 ft(l2 in./ft)]

1.0
1.00(26.9 kips)
1
994 kips

= 1.03

..

=18.9 kips

l
I

,..,

LRFD

ASD

\
\

Mrx = B1M111 + 8zM1t

BI:;

. Cm
1-o.Pr/ P, 1

=122 kip-ft
.'

'= 1.03(77.'3kip-fi)71.00(0 kip-ft)

,.

= 79.6 kip-ft

..

. ..

'

1.0
1.60(18.9 kips)
1994 kips

Mrx =B1Mn1 +.BiM11

= 1.03(118kii>-fi}+1.00(0 kip-ft)

ASD

'

+ 1.00(0.75{2)(16.5 kips)

r ,

'

B1= . Cm
1-o.Pr/ Pei
.~

..

From AISC Specification Equation A-8-1, the required flexural strength is:

LRFD

'

=[LO+ 0.14(0.528)j(-3.92 kips)


+ 0 kips+ 0 kips

(Spec. Eq. A-8-5)

(49.000 ksi)(800 in. 4 )

=994 kips

Jdps)

=26.9 kips

:::: (K1L)2

' '

+ l1I +Pp+ Bi ( 0.74,P~)

'

+ 0.2(-4.74 !tips)

n Elx

:=:

Pa =(l.0 +0. 14Sos)PD

+ 1.00(2)(16.5 kips)+0.5(0 kips)

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEISEl 7 Section 12A.3.2

ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 (including


the 0.5 factor oo L pemutted in Section
12.4.3.2)

.. ..
'.
..
C,,, = 1.0 as the beam is subject to transverse loading between supports

1t

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from

..

From AISC Specification Equation ;\-8-2 and the applicable ASCF/SEI 7 load combination,
the required axial compressive strength is:

Second-Order Effects

..

Mn1

'

=0 kips

Fi1 = Pu or Pa as determined previously


=Mu or M0 as determfoed previously
M11 =0 kip-ft because there is oo monient due to seismic loading

' .
'

Mn :;245 kip-fl

Pru

..

ASD

Th = 1.00 as calculated in Example 5.2. 1

From AISC Manual Table 3-10. the available flexural streoglh o f the beam is:

l~

Combined Loading (Flexure 'and Compression)


Determine tbe applicable equation in AlSC Specificarion Section Hl.1:

LRFD

=1.03

'ASD

26.9 kips
-=
Pc 157 kips

P, 18.9 kjps
-=
Pc 104 kips

=0.171

=0.182

P,.

..J
,,

..

""' i

...1

: .I

:l

BRACED FRAMES

Because P,!Pc < 0.2, the b~m design is controlled by 1be equation:

LRFD
(Spec. Eq. Ht-lb)

: l;

ASD

LRFD

26.9 kips +(122 kip-ft +o)=0.4l 7


2(157 kips) 368 kip-re

'

o.k.

0.417<1.0

0.416<1.0

Mrx= Mo

=118 k:ip-ft

=77.3 kip-fl

P, =Tu
39.1 kips

P, = Ta

Pc = 4>1Pn

Pc = Pn 10 1
440 kips

18.9 kips +(79.6 kip-fr +o):::: 0.4l 6

2(104 kips)

ASD

Mn=M,.

.,

5-25

S.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRJC,\LLY BRACED FRAMES

245 kip-ft

=27.3 kips

= 662 kips

o.k.
Detennine the applicable equation in AISC Specification Section Hl.l:

Available Shear Strength

LRFD

From AISC Manual Table 3-6, the available shear strength of the W18x50 beam is:
;

..'

!: --,

LRFD
<PvVn

=192kips>11.8 kips
...

Ill

l .

~ = 128 kips> 7.73 kips

o.k.

n.

P,

39. l kips

Pc

662 ki ps
=0.0591

-=

ASD

ASD
P,

- =
Pc

27.3 kips
440 kips

=0.0620

o.k.
Since P,IPc < 0.2. the beam tle.~ign is controlled by tbe equation:

, ...

Available Tensile Strength

(Spec. Eq. Hl-Jb)

From AISC Mam~al Table 5-1, the available strengtb of the W18x50. beam in a."<ial tension
for yielding on the gross section is:
LRFD

'.

LRFD

ASD

ASD

._

cp 1P,. = 662 kips > 39. l kips

Pn = 440 kips> 27 .3 kips


Q,

o.k.

2(440 kips)

245 kip-ft

'

+o)=o. 347
..

0.350<1.0
Consider ~econd-order effects (tension loading)
Consider second order effects according to Appendix 8 of the AJSC SpecificaJiQn. As previously calculated, Bi= 1.0. According to NSC Specification Appendix 8, Section 8.2, B1
is taken as 1.0 for members not subject to compression. Given that both B 1 and 82 are equal
to 1.0, there is no amplification required for second-order effects for the loads on the mem
ber when the diagonal brace is in tension,

27.3 kips +(77.3 kip-ft

39.1 kips + ( l I8 kip-ft + O) = 0.:3SO


2(662 kips)
368 kip-ft

o.k.

''

0.347 < 1.0

o.k.

Note that the available flexural strength was conservatively based on Cb = 1.0. Derennining
Cb and applying it would have resulted in a higher available flexural strength.
The W18x50 is adequate for use as the OCBF Beam BM-~-

Example 5.2.4. OCBF Brace-to-Beam/Column


Connection Design

Combi[Jed Loading (Flexure and Tension)


Because the axial tensile force is greater than the :L"\ial compressive force, intet3ction will
be checked. As previou~ly determined:

.....
ii'
A.MER.lCAN !NSTTTUTE OP Sn:a CONSTIUJCl10N

Given:
Refer lo Joint JT-1 in Figure 5-2. Design the connection between the brace, beam and co'
umo. Use a bolted connection for the brace-10-gusset connection. Use a single-pl:i
connection lo connect the beam and gusset to the column and a welded connection bctwce'l
the beam and gusset plate. Use ASTM A36 for all plate and angle material. Assume tl.

AMERICAN hlsmvra OF

SlllEl. CoNS1'R\JCTION

BRACED FR.AMES

1 '

5.Z ORDrNARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

--~~~~~~~~~~~~~-r-~~~~~~~~~~~~~---.

member siz.es are as determined in the previous OCBF examples. Use 3A-in.-diame1er ASTM
A325-N bolts and 70-ksi weld electrodes.
From Example 5.2. I, the loads on the connection from the brace based on a firs! order analysis are:
Ps = 6.70 kips

PD = 5.54 kips

Poe= 22.3 kips

From Example 5.2.3, the loads on the connection from the beam (collector elemcnr), base~
on a first-order analysis are:
PD= 3.92 kips (tens.)

Pl= 0 kips

Ps =4.74 kips (tens.)

MD= 72.0 kip-ft

ML= 0 kip-fl

VD=7.20 kips

VL

Ms= 120 kip-ft


Vs= 12.0 kips

=0 kips

PQr.

=16.5 kips

Moe = 0 kip-ft

~~~~~-L_RFD
~~~~~~-1-~~~~~-A-SD~~~~~- 'i .:
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEI 7 Section J2.4.3.2 (including

(1.2 + 0.2SDs)Po + fl 0 PQ1 +0.5P1.,


+ 0.2Ps

l.
.

(1.0 + 0.14SDs)P.o +PH+ PF


+0.1fl 0 Pa1

I\

The required :axial compressive strength of !he collector at the beam-to-column connection
is, from the loads given in Example ?.2.3:

LRFD

ASD

Pu= II.2+ 0.2(0.528)j(Okips)

' 1:

P0 =(l.0+0.14(0.528)]{0kips}

+2(16.5 kips) +0.5{0k.ips)

ASTMA36
Fy =36 ksi
F,,=58 ksi

+0 kips+O kips+0.7(2)(16.5 kips)


= 23.1 kips

+ 0.2(0 kips)

=33.0 !Ops

FromAISC Manual Table 1-1, the geometric propenies are as follows:

Beam
d= 18.0 in.
T= 15~ in.

b1=7.50 in.

'I= 0.570 in.

k.us = 0.972 in.

rx= 7.38 in.

Z;r =10 L in.3

Ix =z:800 in.'
ry = 1.65 io.

Note: The above load results from tbe 1ransfer of tbe collector force from the beam in t.
adjacenr bay. The axial components from snow and gravity axial loads used in Exampl
5.2.3 are transferred from the brace ~usset directly into the braced frame beam.

According to AISC Seismic PrQVisions Section Fl.6a, the required strength of diagonal
brace connections is the load effect based upon the amplified seismic load. Based on lh /,
loads given for me brace trom Example 5.2.1. the maximum a-ua1 tensile force in the rua 8
onal brace based upon the amplified seismic load, is:

LRFD

if= 0.560 in.

fw

= 0.340 in.

d= 9.73 in.

'I = 0.435 in.

Required Strength

The govei:ning load combinations for the colleccor force are:

ASD

kw = 1.06 in.

LRFD Load Combination 7 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

Broce
W10x33

A=9.71 in.1
bi.=1.96 in.

i'

VQE = O kips

From AISC _Manual Table 2-5, the material properties are as follows:

Column
W10x49
d= 10.0 in.

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

the 0.5 fact0r on L penniued in Section


12.4.3.2)

Solution:

W18x50
A= 14.7 in. 2
t..., = 0.355 in.
Sx = 88.9 in. 3

l.<

ASD Load Combination 8 from


ASCF./SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

(0.9 - 0.2SDS)PD + floPa. + l.6Pn

(~.6- 0.14SDs)Pq + .PH +P/i-:p'.1il.iPQ1

Pu = I0.9- 0.2(0.528)j(5.54 kips)


+ 2{~22.3 kips)+ 1.6(0 kips)

Pa =I0.6-0.14(0.528)J{5.54 kips)

=-40.2 kips

I!
l

\i

+ 0 kips+O kips
+ 0.7(2)(-22.3 kips)
=-28.3 kips

~,

\:

"

BRACED FRAMES

5-28

, ..

' i\

According to the exception in AISC Seismic Pro~isions Section FI.6a, Lbe required ax.ial
tension strength need not ex'ceed the expected yield strength muhiplied by 1.00 (LRFD) or
divided by 1.50 (ASP):-. ,,

5.2 ORDINARY CONCEN'TlUCALLY BRACED FRAMES

,.

AccordinJ; to 1he Excep1jon in AISC Seismic Provisions Section Fl.6a, the required axial
strength of the brnce connection in compression need not exceed the lesser of the expected
yield strength and l.14Fcl\' A8 , where Fcre is based on the expected yield siress. RyFy .

.'
~

LRFD

"\

T,,, exp

=1.00(.R1F>'Ag) .
=1.00(1.1)(50 ksi)(9.71 in.2 )
=534 ~dps

As determined in Example 5.2. 1, the available compressive strength of the brace is:

ASD

LRFD

Ta, txp = RyFyA8 /l.50

=u(5o ksi)(9.7t fo. 2 )/uo


= 356 kips

Therefore, the required s~ngth of the brace connection in tension is Pu


Pa :::;< 28.3 kips.

=40.2 kips and

The required shear strengch of the beam concurrent with axial tension in the brace is:

LRFD

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 7 from

ASD Load Combination 8 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASCFJSEJ 7 Section 12.4.3.2

(0.6-0. 14Sns)Vo + VH+ VF+ 0.7~VQ

(0.9-:0.2Sos)Vo + Q,,VQE+ 1.6VH

11

ASD

V,, =[0.9-0.2(0.528)}(7.20 kips)

Va = [0.6 - 0.14{0.528)j(7.20 kjps)

+ o kips+'o kips+o.7(2)(0 kips)

+ 2(0kips)+1.6(0 'kips)

= 5.72 kips

=3.79 kips

The available compressive strenglh is greater lhan the maximum compressive axial force
calculated using the amplified seismfo load. Therefore, the exception limiting the required
rodal compressive strength to the.expected yield strength and l.14Fm Ag will not govern.
The required strength of the brace connection in compression is Pu = 53.2 kips and Pa
37.2 kips.

The required shear strength of the beam that is concurrent with maximum ax fol compression
in the brace is, as calculated in R""<arnple 5.2.3:

LRFD

I v.

ASD

Va = 7.73 kips

11.8 "'

Brace-to-Gusset Connection
Using AlSC Manual Table 7-1 for '!4-in.-diameter A325-N bolts (Group A) in double shear:

'

LRFD

The above shear force is concurrent with the maximum tension for<:e in the diagonal brace.

r1~
:

;:;:: -I
"...

Considering the lond combinations given in ASCPJSEl 7, the maximum compressive axial
force in the diagonal brace based upon the amplified seismic load is:

LRFD

ASD

LRFD !,.pad Combination 5 from


ASCF.iSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 (including
the 0.5 factor on L from Section 12.4.3.2)

(1.0 + 0.14SD$)Po +PH +Pp

+0.2Ps

+0.7~ PQe

Pa =[l.0+0.14(0.528)J(5.54 lcips)
~ps+O kips

+ 2(22.3 kips)+0.5(0 kips)

+0

+ 0.2(6.70 kips)

+ 0.7(2)(22.3 kips)

=53.2 kips

=37.2 kips
AMEJUC\N L>IS't1l\1l'E OP STEEL CoNsnu.1cnoN

=239 "'"'

For the limit Stale Of bolt shear, the minimum number Of bolts required in the brace-togusset connection is:

ASD Load Combination from


ASCE/SEI 5 Section 12.4.3.2

(l.2 + 0.2Sos)Po + iloPQe + 0.5Pi

Pu= [l.2+0.2(0.528)](5.54 kips)

j .,. =35.8 kips

ASD

LRFD

ASD

Pu
n=$rn

Pa
n=-r11ln

= 53.2 kips
35.8 kips

_ 37.2 kips
- 23.9 kips

= 1.49 bolts

=J.56 bolts

To facilitate erect.ion, use oversized holes in one ply of the connection as permitted in AI!::C
Seismic Provisions Section 02.2(3).

AMERICAN lmTrTVT1l 01'

STEEi.. CONSTltUCTION

S.2 OIUJJNA.KY L:Ul\LI~ ll(IL'.ALLV ORACHO >-KAMJ:.!)

When oversized holes arc used in the diagonal brace connection, the required sttcnglh for
the limit Slate of bolt slip need oot CJtceed the load effect calculated using the load combinations not including the amplified seismic load, according to AlSC Seismic Provuions
Section Fl .6a(3). These correspond to the required strengths calculated for the member
design in faample 5.2.1.
Therefore, the required strength for I.he limit state of bolt slip need not exceed:

I'"" =

3-0.9 kl"' LRFD

For short claw angle connections, eccentricity mny be an issue. For angles with the ratio
Llg ~ 4, the eccenuicity effect of connections 10 opposite angle legs can safely be ignored
(Thornton, 1996). l 1~ the distance between the centers of bolt groups on opposite legs of

the angle, and g is the bolt gage in lhe angle leg. Se.e Figure 5-3.
Consider a 2.00-in. edge distance on the brace and che gusset, 11.?-in. space between the eod
of the brace and the end of the gusset. and 4-in. spacing between bolts.
I

ASD

4.00 in.
0.500 in.)
.
L = 2 (---+ 2.00 m. + - - 2
2

=8.50 in.

P0 = 21.6kips

From AISC Manual Table 7-3 for '.l4-in.-diamcter A325-SC bolts (Group A) in double shear.
Class A faying su1faccs, oversized holes in the diagonal brace web and standard holes in the
gusset and angles:

g =2.00 in.
L
g

8.50 in.
2.00 in.
= 4.25 > 4

LRFD

Check tensile yielding of the angles

=J0.8 kips

A1 = groi;s area of four :ingles

For the limit srnte of bolt slip, che minimum number of bolts required in the brace-to-gusset
connection is:

LRFD

\.

=4A

=4(2. 10 in. 2 )
=8.40 in.2
I l. 1

Pa

= 30.9 kips

. .. ,,
:

'

=1.92 bol15

Use four claw angles 10 connect the brace to the gusset as shown in Figure 5-5. Try (4)
L3 1hx3 1hx)/1e claw angles each connected to the gusset with (2) 'A-in.-diameter ASTM
A325 bolls in double shear and to the brace web with (2) ~-in.-di:uneter ASTM A325 bolts
in double shear. Therefore, the tot.al number of bolts at lhc brace-to-angle connection and at
the angle-to-gusset connection, N,, = 4, is greater than che minimum number of bolts, n, calculated above.

..

FromAJSCMnnualTables 1-7 and l-7a:

Claw Angles
L3 1hx3 1/2xs1ia
A= 2.10 in.2

'

= 21.6 ldps
10.8 kips
= 2.00 bolLS

16. l kips
1

ASD
n=-r,./Q

~r,.

o.k.

ASD

P.,
n=-

IJ =0.435 in.

x=0.979 in.

g = 2 in.

Fig. 5-3. Single claw angle dimt11Sion.r for check of eccentric effect.

- - - --<

::
r-1
i

S'-32

BRACED FRAMES

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRJ'CALLY BRACED FRAMES

S.-3..l

'

For tensile yielding of connecting elements, the nominal strength is:

- -

R,. =Fy,Ag _ .

..

(Spec.,Eg. J4-I)

Rn 320 kips
- =

~Rn = 0.75(320 kips)

= 36 ksi(8.40 in.2 )

=302.kips

r--~~~~~L_R_FD
~~~~~~-+-~~~~~~A_S~
D ~~~~~I

=240 kips > 40.2 kips

.. '

".

o.k.

= 160 kips> 28.3 kips

The available tensile strength (yielding) of the four angles is:

2.00

o.k.

Check block shear rupture of the angles

LRFD

ASD

~ = (302 kips) 11.67


=181 kips >.28.3 kips

$Rn= 0.90(302 kips)

o.k.

= 272 kips > 40.2 kips


"

.
;~

f~~

o.k.

The horiwmal edge distance along the tension plane, Leh, is calculated as the angle leg less
the gage:

Check tensile rupture of the angl~s


From AISC Specification Table D3.l, the shear lag factor is:

Leh

U=l-l

Use an edge distance, Lev. of I .SO in. at the ends of the ang_(es.

0.979.in.
4.00 in.

The nominal strength for the limit state of b1ock shear ruprure is:

=0.755
,.

.'~
l~

~:

Rn = UbsFuA'!r + mirl(0.60FyA8 v.0.60FuAnv)

Use standard holes in the angles. For calculation of net area, AISC Specification Section
B4.3b defines the width of the bolt hole as Y\6 in. greater than the nominal dimension of the
hole: where tlle nominal hole dimension is giv_e~_ i? Thble J~.3 ~ __ .
Ai,

=Ag - 4tdh
=8.40 in.2 -4(Sfi6 in.)( li6 in.+
=7.31 ln.2
13

.. 1
.......
,,.

'
,,

3 'h in. - 2.00 in.


' =1.SOin.

AISC Manual Tables 9-3a, 9-3b a.nd 9-3c for block shear may be used here for accurately
calculating the rension rupture componenc. For the shear components, the values in the
ta.hies are based on a bolt spacing of 3.00 in., whereas this conneetion uses 4.00-in. bolt
spacing. For this reason, the tables are not used here for calculating shear components (but
could haYe been used as a conservative check).

(from Spe9: Eq. J4-5)

Tension rupture comeo!1~nt _for one ang_(e:


From AISC Manual Table 9-3a with Fu= 58' ksi, Len= 1.50 in., and Ubs
LRFD

Yi6

in)

~f;,Ant 46.2 kipm.


Ii
-,-=

-..

=7.31 in.2 (0.755)

FvA.tr = 30.8 kip/m.


10.
.
FuAruUbs = 30.8 Idp/fu.(S!i6 in.)(1.0)

= 14.4 kips

= S.52 in.2

Shear yielding componenl for one angle:

For tensile rupture of connecting elements, the nominal strength is:

R,, = F,,A,,
= 58 ksi(5.S2 in.

(Spec.
2

Eq. 14-2)

o.66F1 Agv =0.60(36 ksl)(4.00 in.+ 1..50 io.)(-Yi~ in.)


::::: 37.l kips

= 320 kips

AMERICAN INsnruu; OF Sn;a CoNsnu;crroN

ASD
\

(Spec. Eq. D3-l)

A,,z::AnU

=1.0:

=9.63 kips

.;:

"BRACED FRAMES

S-34

Effective net area:

ASD

LRFD
' .

$0.60FyAgv = 0.75(37. l kips) ..

u =1.0

0.60FyAgv = 37.1 kips

= 27.8.kips

5.2 ORDINARY CONC.ENTR.lCALLY BRACED FRAMES

2.00
= 18.6 lcips

. .

. I.

An= (d-2d,,)t...,

=[9.73 in.- 2(1.00 in.)j(0.290 in.)

..

'

l...~.

'

=2.24 in. 2

Shear ruprure component for one angle:

.~==AnU

0.60FuAnv:::: 0.60(58 ksi)[4.00in.+1.50 in:-'-1.5( 1 ~6 in.+ lt\6 in.)j(~6 in.)

(Spec. Eq. D3-

., . 2 .

= 2.24 m. (1.0)

== 45.5 kips

'.

= 2.24in.2
ASD

LRFD

0.60F.,AMv

$0.60F.,A;,v =Q.75(45.5 kips)

=34.1 kips

"

For tensile rupture of the brace web, the nominal stre.ngrh is:

45.5 kips
2.00
= 22.8 kips

Rn= FuAe
= 65 ksi(2.24

(Spec. Eq. J4-2_

I:.

in.2)

t:

=146 kips
Shear yieldfog. governs over shear rupture. The available strength for the limit state of block
shear rupture for the four angle~ is:

ASD

LRFD

$R,, :::4(i4A .kips+27.81cips)


= 169 kips> 40.2 kips

Rn =4(9.63kips+l8.6kips)
o.k.

= 113 kips> 28.3 kips

o.k.

Check tension rupture of the brace


The claw angles are .connected only to the web of lhe W1 Ox33 brace and not lO the flanges.
Therefore shear Jag may reduce tl)e effective area. The bolt holes in the web of the brace are
oversized for erection tolerance.
Because the tension load is transferred only at rbe web of the wide flange brace, Case 2 of
AISC Specification Table D3.1 is applicable. However to simplify calculation of the net section, consider the tensile rupture capacity of the web element only. This is similar to Case 3
of Table D3. l, which applies to members with transverse welds to some but not an of the
cross-sectional elements.
From AISC Specification Table J3.3, the diameter of an ove~ized hole for a '.!4-in.-diameter
bolt is U/i6 in. From. AISC Specificarlon Section B4.3b, when computing the net area the
width of the bolt bole is taken as Vi6 in. greater than the nominal dimension of the hole.
d11

=15Ji6 in.+ 'li6 in.

The available tensile rupture str~ngth of the brace web is:

= 110 kips> 40.2 kips

o.k.

= 73.0 kips:> 28.3 kips

mem~~.

For this lightly loaded


this conservative and simplified
the available tensile rupture strength iS a_d~ua.te._

c~uld

calci1~ted

indicates th..

I
f;:

Alternatively, the effective net area


be
for the entire section as follow
Calculate U, the shear lag factor, in accordance With Table D3.l, Case 2, of the AJS,
Specification. AISC Specification Commentary Fi~e C-D3.l recommends treating half o.t
the flange and a portion of rhe web as an angle. This is shown in Figure 5-4.
~-

First, calculate ,'t of the angle, where xis measured from the centerline of the web (this ca, ,
cuJarion ignores che fillets):
A= bJ (t1)+(%-t1)(';

=7.9~ in.(0.435 in.)+(9.7~ in. _ 0 _435 in.)f0.29; in.}


=2.37 in. 2

=l.00 in.

AMERICAN lNSTrruTE OP STEa CONS'l'RUCl10f'I

$\.

cal~ulation

o.k.

l;::

:;:
.......

S-36

BRACED FRAMES

_ t.X,Ai
x=--

=(A-2dhtw )U

(0.2~in.)(0.2~in.)(9.7~in. _ 0 .4 3 Sin.)

=[9.71 in.2 -2(1.00 in.)(0.290 in.)j(0.669)


= 6.11 in.2

- 2.37 in.2 +(3.9! in. )(3.98 io.)(0.435 in.)

,,,

(Spec. Eq. 03-1)

~ = AnU

1\

5-37

5.2 ORDlNARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

For tensile rupture of the beam web, the nominJ1l strength is:

=1.47 in.
AJSC Specification Commentary Section 03 states that 'i is the perpeodjcular distance from
lhe connection plane to the centroid of the member section. Therefore, the used in the tension rupture calculation is the calculated i of l .47 in. minus half the web thickness. From
AJSC Specification Table 03.l:

Rn =Fu~

(Spec. Eq. 14-2)

= 65 ksi(6.1 l io. 2 )

=397 kips
The avajlable tensile rupture strength of the brace web is:

U=l-l

LRFD

=I 1.47 in. - ~(0.290 in.)


4.00 in.

Rn =0.75(397 kips)

=0.669

= 298 kips > 40.2 kips

ASD

o.k.

R11 397 kips


- =
n
2.00
= 199 kips > 28.3 kips

o.k.

For a W10x33 brace, with A


9.7J in. and using oversized boles in the brace web
(dh:::: 1.00 in.), the effective net area is:

ll
W1 Ox33 brace

-r

As shown, ttie available strength of the W-shape brace for the limit state of tensile rupture
as calculated per the simplified caJ~lation (with only the brace web considered effective) is
adequate for the applied loads. However, if additional capacity were required, lhe avaiiable
strength as calculated per AlSC Specificario11 Table D3. l, Case 2, is much greater.

Check block shear rupture of the brace web


The portion of the brace web between the bolt lines is checked for block shear. Assume a
gusset plate thickness, lg, of'A in.

ubs =1.0 for unifonu tensile stress


A111 =(2g +r8 -d11)c..,
=[2(2.00 in.)+% in.-1.00 in.J(0.290 in.)

= 0.979 in. 2

' - =2.00 in.


s

= 4.00 in.

A8 =2(.l.n. +s)tw
=2(2.00 in.+ 4.00 in.)(0.290 in.)
=3.48 in.2
Fig. 5-4. Tension rupnire on brace

A,,, =2( ~ +s-1.5d11)t,.,

=2[2.00 in.+ 4.00 in. = 2.61 in .2


AMERICAN lNST11V!1! OF

STEEl. CONSTRUCTION

1.5(1.00 in.)j{0.290 in.)

BRACED FRAMES

S-38

5-39

5.2 ORntNARY CONCENTRlCALLY BRACED FRAMES

L
i

TI1e 11om.inal scrength for the limit state of block shear .rupnire is given by:

R,.

=0.60F Anv + UbsFuA.u S 0.60F,.Ap + Ub,F11Au

A.v = 2(Lev +s- l.5dh)c8


(Spec. Eq. J4-5)

11

AISC Specification F.quatio.o J4-5 can be expressed as follows to determine lhe available
strength of the brace web for the limit state of block shear rupture:

+min(0.60F1 At", $0.60F.,A,.v)

=0.75(1.0)(65 ksi)

2.00

0.60FyAgv
2.00

=0.75(0.60)(50 ksi)
x(3.48 in.2)

. 0.60F,,Anv

= 0.75(0.60)(65 k,si)
2

x(2.61 in.

AlSC Specificatio11 Equation 14-5 can be expressed as follows to determine the available
strength of the gusset plate for the limit sl:ite of block shear rupture:

2.00

LRFD

9R,, =$UbsFuA..1

2.00

=(0.60)(65ksi)(2.61 in.

2.00

+min( ~0.60F1 Asv. ~0.60FuAnv)


2

2.00

~ =3l.8kips+50.9kips

=124 kips> 40.2 kips

o.k.

= 82.7 kips > 28.3 kips

2.00

x(I.28m.2)

~0.60FyA8 = 0.75(0.60)(36 ksi)


\

x(4.SO m.2)

With an assumed gusset thickness,


d,,

* in., and standard .holes in tbegusset:

t, =

= ~6 in.+!li6 in.

x( 3.52 in.

2.00

2.00
=48.6 kips

0.60F11 A,..
2.00

= 0.75(0.60)(58 ksi)
2

(0.60)(36 ksi)(4.50 in. 2 )

'

=(0.60)(58 ksi)(3.52 in.2 )

$R,. = 55.7 kips+ n9 kips


=129 kips > 40.2 kips

ub, =i.o

Rn = 37.1 kips+ 48.6 kips


o.k.

=85.7 kips > 28.3 kips

o.k.

=(2g+t.,-d,,)r8

=[2(2.00 in.)+0.290 in. -0.875 in.J(~ in.)


=1.28 in.2

Check the gusset plate for buckling on the Wh;tmore section

Lev

=2.00 in.

and Llni (2011 ), and is shown for this example in Figure 5-5.

=4.00 in.
AMERJCAN

.t

~.00

= 61.2kips

= 91.9 kips

= 0.875 in.

Ant

~0.60FuAnv

2.00

0.60FyA.!"
I

= 72.9 kips

Check block shear rupture of the gusset plate

= 37.l kips

=55.7 kips
o.k.

2.00

Ub:Fu!int = (1.0)(58 ksi)(L28 in.

~Ub,F.,Ani = 0.75(1.0)(58 ksi)

47.7 kips+ 76.3 kips

. (0.60FyAzv , 0.60FuAnv)
+mm

2.00

. -= 50.9 kips

ASD

(0.60)(50 ksi)( 3.48 m.2)

=76.3 kips

(Spec. Eq. J4-5)

=52.2 kips

=78.3 kips

~Rn=

in.)

The nominal strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is g.ivcn by:

= 31.8 kips

=47.7 kips

~0.60F.,A,.,.

in.)(~

=4.50 in. 2

Ub,Fu.Ani
-=
n
2.00
. (0.60FyAgv 0.60FuAnv)
+nun
'
2.00
2.00

u,,,FuA..i -= (L0)(65ksi)(0.979 in.2 )

x(0.?79 in.2 )
~0.60F,Agv

Rn

$R,. = $Ub,F11An1

$Ub,FuAnt

l..:

Aiv=2(L.,.+s)t1
= 2(2.00 in.+4.00

ASD

LRFD

=2f2.00 in.+4.00 in.-1.5(0.875 in.)](~ in.)


=3.52 in.2

The "Whhmore section" is discussed in AlSC Man:ual Part 9 (Figure 9-J) and in 'Thornton

INmwra Ol' STUl.. CoNsnu;cno.H

".

BRACED FRAMES

5-41

52 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

On the gusset plate, the space between the bolt lines of the angles is:

~column

2g+c.., = 2(2.00 in.)+0.290 in.


= 4.29 in.

W18x50 beam

The Whitmore width is:


W.P.

I..,= 2/tan30+ s

- - - -~----- <t

=2(4.00 in.)tau30+4.29 in.

beam

=8.91 in.
r _..!J_

- Jli

~: :

...

*in.

=-:m

~.
<Xl

'

=0.108 in.

>

- - -- -1

L:J
W10x33 brace

Use rhe effective length factor, K, of 0.50 as established by full scale rests on bracing connections (Gross, 1990) and as referenced in theAfSC Design Examples VJ4.0. Note that this
K value requires the gusset 10 be supported on both edges. Alternatively, the effective length
factor for gusset buckling could be detennined according to DowsweIJ (2006).
From Figure 5-5, the unbraced length of the gusset plate along the axis of the brace is

L
W10x49

!;
,.'/
,.v

L = 8.70 in. (Exam.pie 5.3.10 provides an equation for calculating che length of buckling;
(6) ;i dia. A325-N
bolts in std. holes

here it is derennined graphically.)

KL

column

0.50(8.70 in.)

= -------'0.108 in.

=40.3
W10x33 brace

From AISC MarnJal Table 4-22 with F1\= 36 ksi and Kl

LRFD
1

4 - L3~3Yzxo/16
\;

:;
...

~~19

=40.3:
ASD
...

Therefore, from AISC Specificaticn Equation E3-l, the available compressive strength
based on flexural buckliog is:

~~'

Fig. 5-5. As5wned initial geometry for xample5 5.2.l through 5.2.4.

...,,

:;,
'r

AMERJ(".A}I

lNSTITUT!! OF STtD.. CONmuc:noN

=29.8 ksi(8.9 1 in.)(* in.)


=99.6 kips> 53.2 kips

~=(~)Ag

cpP" =IJ>cFcrAg
Section A-A

ASD

LRFO

o.k.

= 19.8 ksi (8.91 in.)(3,ii in.)

= 66.2 JOps > 37 .2 kips

o.k.

BRACED FRA,\ffiS

5-42

Note: An altema1ive is to use a reduced unbraced buck.ling length fo.r the gusset calculated
from the ave.rage values from the end and center of the Whitmore section. See AISC Design
Examples Vl4.0, Example II.C-2 (AISC, 2011).
Because the absolute value of the required strength of the connection in tension is less than
the required strength of the connection in compression, tension yielding on the Whitmore
section will not control.

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRlCAf..LY 8.RACED FRAMES

ASD

LRFD
r,.

fn

= 0.75(23.8 kips)

23.8 kips
2.00
= 11.9 kips

-=

= 17.9kips

t.:..
!

Considering four angles, each with one end bolt and one interior boll:
Check bolt bearing on the angles

Standard holes are used in the angles. From AISC Specification Table J3.3, for a
iliameter bolt, dh = 1Vi6 in.

~-in.

The bearing strength requirements per boll are given by AISC Specificarion Section 13. l 0.
For the imerior bolt with a bolt spacing of 4.00 in., the bearing strength per bolt is:
r11

=l.21,tF,, ~ 2AdtF.,

Therefore, no.ininal bearing strength for the interior bolt is rn =32.6 kips. The availabie bearing strength of the interior bolt is:
ASD

LRFD

=170 kips > 53.2 kips

o.k.

[lbolt(l6.3 kips)
+1

l
o.k.

Note that AlSC Manual Table 7-4 could also have been used; however, it is based on smaller
bolt spacing than 4.00 in.
For the end bolt, with Lt= 1.50 in., the nominal bearing strength per bolt for each angle is:

(Spec. Eq. J3-6a)

~ 2.4d1F11

in.)](16 in.)(58 ksi)

=23.8 kips .S 32.6 kips

AMlllUCAN

ASD

LRFD

$rn = 0.75(33.9 kips)


= 25.4 kips

rn

33.9 kips
2.00
= 17.0 lcips

-=

Note that AISC Manual Table 7-4 could !lave been usCd, but the table is based on smaller
bolt spacing than the 4.00 in. used in this example.

in.)(Vt6 in.)(58 ksi)

The nominal bearing strength for the end bolt is rn


strength of the end bolt is:

"

=1.2(4.00 in.- 1Vt6 in.)(0.290 in.)(65 ksi)


=69.3 kips

Therefore, the nominal bearing strength of. the interior bolts is 33.9 kips. The available bear'i
ing strength of the interior bolts is:

= 16.3 kips

in. -1h(1i6

1.2.LctF.,

= ~3.8

=33.9 kips

=24.5 kips

(Spec. Eq. J3-6a)

rn = I .2LctFu < 2.4dtFu

2.4dtF., = 2.4{'A in.)(0.290 in.)(65 ksi)

rn = 32.6 kips
2.00

=0.75(32.6 kips)

$ 2.4(

R11

n= bolt(ll.9 kips)
=113 kips > 37.2 kips

For the interior bolt with a bolt spacing of 4.00 in., the bearing strength per bolt is:

= 32.6 kips

3,4

Oversized holes are used in the brace. From AISC Specification Table 13.3, for a '.!A-in.diameter bolt, dh = 1Sft6 in.

2.4dtF,, =2.4(% in.)(Vt6 in.)(58 ksi)

::: l.2[1.50

bolt(2-t5 kips)

+ 1 bolt{l7.9 kips)

Check bolt bearing on brace web

=69.3 kips

rn ::: l.2lctF11

ASD

(Spec. Eq. J3-6a)

1.2/ctF,, =1.2(4.00 in. - 1Vl6 in.)(o/16 in.)(58 ksi)

~rn

R,. = 4

LRFD

kips. The available bearing

!J.IS1TIVJ"B OP SmEl. CONSTRUCTION

;(

BRACED FRAM.ES

'

Use AISC Manual Taqle 7-5 for lhe end bolts. For L~
bolt is:

=2.00 in., the bearing strength per end

LRFD
~

Note that AISC Manual Table 7-4 could also have been used. However, it is based on smaller
boll spacing than 4.00 in.
Use AISC Manual Table 7-5 for end bolls. For Le = 2.00 in., the bearing strength per end
bolt is:

ASD

G>rn = 87.8 kip/in.

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENT'RlC;\LLY BRACED FRAMES

=58.5 kip/in.

ASD
r,.
?
..
n
: : : 5-.2
kip/m.

The :wailable strength of the end bolt is:

LRFD

ASD

Tue available strength of the end bolt is:

~ = 58.5 kip/in.(0.290 in.)

$r,, = 87.8 kip/in.(0.290 in.)


= 25.5 kips

= 17.0 kips

LRFD

ASD

>rn : : : 78.3 kip/in.(* in.)

~ :::::: 52.2 kip/in.(% in.)

:::::: 29.4 kips

= 19.6 kips

Considering two interior bolts and two end bolts on the brace:

LRFD

$Rn=
'

ASD

[2 bolts(2S.4 kips)

R,.

n=

+ 2 bolts(25.5 kips)

=102 kips> 53.2 kips

. '

LRFD

f2bolts(17.0kips)
+2bolts(17.0kips)

=68.0 kips >-37.2 kips

o.k.

Considering two end bolts and two imerior bolts:

ASD

..

o.k.

Rn::::::

[2 bolts{29.4 kips) ]
+ 2 bolts(29.4 kips)

=118 kips> 53.2 kips

R11

=78.4 kips> 37.2 kips

o.k.

Check bolt bearing on the gusset


Standard holes are used in the gusset. From AISC Specification Table J3.3, for a %-ill.diameter bolt, dh = 13/i6 in.
For the interior bolt with a bolt spacing of 4.00 in., the bearing strength per bolt is:

r,. ::::. I.2LctFu < 2.4dtFu


1.2LctF,. =1.2(4.00 in. =83.2 kips

(Spec. Eq. J3-6a)


13/J6

2.4dtFu = 2.4(% in.)(% in.)(58 k:si)

=39.2 kips
Therefore, !he nominal bearing strength of the interior bolt is 39.2 kips. The available bearing strength of the interior bolt is:

L.RFD
$rn = 0.75(39.2 kips)

=29.4 kips

ASD

r,, = 39.2 kips


Q

2.00
= 19.6 kips

..

i
o.k.

Use (4) ASTM A325-SC bolts in double shear to connect (4) L3 1hx3 1hx 5/1s lo the brace
web. Use standard boles in the angles and gusset; and oversized holes in the brace web. Use
(4) ASTM A325-N bolts in double shear to connect the (4) L31/2x3 1hx 5h6 to the gusset.

'

Connection Interface Forces

The forces the gusset-to-_beam aI!d gusseHo~cqj~~ interfac~s are detenni~ed using
Uoifonn Force Method. The planes of unifo~ forces will be set at the column bolt line and
!he gusset/berun interface. The assumption of a plane of uniform force at the column bolt
line allows the bolts at the column connection to be designed for shear and wal load only
(no eccentricity) and therefore simplifies the design.

the

at

in.)(* in.)(58 ksi)

[2 bol1$(l9.(i ~ips)
"' + 2 bolts(19.6 kips)

It should be noted that this assumption is different lh~ that made for the typical cases of th-!
Unifonn Force Method discussed in the AISC Manual where the unifonn force at the colum.ri
is at the face of the column t1ange. Appropriate work point.s and uniform force planes er,:,
often be selected conveniently to balance enginee.ring, fabcication and erection economy.
As previously determined, the ma,mnum brace force according to ASCEtSEI 7 load corr:
nations is 53.2 kips (LRFD) or 37.2 kips (ASD) acting in coropre~sion. The maximum tm,(.,,
force iu tension is 40.2 kips (LRFD)
28.3 kips (ASD). Consider !he larger compress, .
force to act in both directions in order to simplify calculations.

or

AMJ<lCAN

JJ-ISTJTUTE OP STEEL CoNS"rR\JCnON

BRACED FRAMES

Assume an initfaJ connection geometry as shown in Figure 5-5. Using the analysis found in
AISC Manual Part 13:

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY UM<.:a.D tAAMl:!S


5-4 1

the method described as "Analysis of Existing Djagonal Bracing C9nnections" in Part J3


of the A1SC Manual.
I,.
;.

db

tb = -

18.0 in.

=- - 2

=9.00 in.
tc

r = J(a+ec )2 +(J3+eb)

+2.50 in.

10.0 in.
.
= - - - + 2.50 10.
2
=7.50 in.

(Manual Eq. 13-6)

~ J(7.00 in.+ 7.50 in.)2 +(5.50 in.+9.00 in.)2


=20.5 in.

Set as the distance from the bottom of the beam to the center of the two bolts connecting
the single plate lo the gussec.

The required shear force at the gusset-to-column connection is determined as:

(Ma11ual Eq. 13-2)

P=5.50 in.
Use a shared single-plate connection to connect the beam and gusset 10 the column.
Therefore, the bottom flange of the beam must be either coped or blocked flush 10 clear the
.single-plate shear connection. Consider no weld between the gusset and the beam for 5 in.
to allow for a 4 1h-in.-wide si.Ugle plate with a 1h-in. clearance between the plate and the start
of the blocked beam flange. Assume a 17.0-in.-long gusset with a ~-in. clearance 10 the column flange. Consider the gusset-to-beam weld length as 12.5 in. Because the bolt line is
used as the plan~ of uniform force, the distance to the center of the gusset-to-beam weld,
Ci., must be set from the bolt line. .

12.5 in.
.
- + 4.50 in.+ 0.500 in. - 2.50 in.
2
=8.75 in.

LRFD

. 13

Vac--Pa
r

= 5 5 ~ ~- (53.2 kips)
20.) 10.
-

=S.SO in.(37.2 kips)

20.5 in.
=9.98 kips

=14.3 lcips

\
I

LRFD

ASD

ec

Hae =-Pa
r

J3 =~. 1he value of ex required for the uniform forces is:

(from Manual Eq. 13-1)

=9.00 in.(tan45~)-7.50 iil:+5.50 in.(tan45)


=7.00 in.

_p

V.,c =-Pu

Note: Alternatively, where the beam flange is blocked flush to lap the shear tab, the gusset
could be welded to the beam with a one-sided fillet weld on the far side of the gusset, and a
flush partial-joint-penetration groove weld on the near side. This would allow the full length
of the gusse1 along the beam.to be included in the _design at this interface.

ex= eb tan9-ec +Ptan9

ASD

The required axial force at the gusset-to-column connection is determined as:

ct= -

Setting

Because the a required for unifon'n forces does not equal ii based on this initial geometry,
unifoon forces at the interfaces are not possible with the current configuration. The connection geometry can be adjusted by an iterative process to achieve the unifo~
distribution. Alternatively, th~ connection can be analyzed with an additional moment per

75

~ ~-(53.2 kips)

20..) ID.

= 19.5 kips

-.

=750 41(37.2 kips)


. 20.5 in.
.
=13.6 kip~
:_)

The required shear force at lbe gusset-to-Qeain connection is determined a~:

)
t

BRACED FRAMES

r--1
!
~

~
;

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTR.lCALLY BRACED FRAMES

'

LRFD

I'"'

ASD

'I I

t<

..:

ct_

column

Hub =-P.,

Hob =- Po
r
7 00 0
~ '(37.2 kips)
=20.5
J.n,

=7.00
- -in.
-{53.2 k'lpS )
20.5 in.
18.2 kips

=12.7 kips

The required axial force at the gusset-to-beam connoctioo is determined as:


(Manual Eq. 13-4)

LRFD
<:

'
)

- - -....

":~-:J

..,');~
,
'<

ASD

tb

eb

Vab =-Pa
r
9
= 00 in. {37.2 kips)
.20.5 in.

Vwb =-P,.

~ 900 in.(53.2 kips)


20.5 in.

=16.3 k.ips

=23.4 kips
- .

ec

= 2de + ""2
'>V

The moment at the gusset-to-beam interface is:


(Manual Eq. 13-17)

LRFD
Mub = Vubla-aj

ASD

Mob= V.wla-Cij

= 23.4 kipsl7.00 in.-8.75 in~

=16.3 kipsl7.00 in.-8.75 in~

= 41.0 kii}-in.

=28.5 !Op-in.

WP~
\
I

These forces are illustrated symbolically in Figure 5-6.

Gusset-to-Beam Connection

Design gusset-to-beam weld


The gusset-to-beam weld will be determined by applying the Elastic Method discussed in

AISC Manual Pa.rt 8.


To accommodate the bottom flange block, which extends ~ in. past lbe single plate, the
ma.'timum length of weld a.long the gusset-to-beam interface is:
l,..b = 17.0 in.+0.500 in. - 4.50 in.-0.500 in.
= 12.5 in.
Fig. 5-6. Free-body diagrams for Example S.2.4.
AMSUCNI L"ITTJtVl"B OF STW. CoNSTRUCTION

5-50

BRACED FRAMES

5.2 UlUJINA.K'( l:UNLJ::.N I KlLl\U.Y

Treating the weld as a line:

Sw

LRFD

=(12.5 in.)2

fu, ~

=26.0 in.

LRFD

ASD

Hub

/av::: Hab

lwb

l...i,

!lllJ = "'"'
lwb

= 23.4 kips
12.5 in.
= 1.87 kip/in.

f,uJ>--_ Mub

Sw

= 41.0 kipin.
26.0 in. 3 /in.

=1.58 kip/in.

+ (1.46)

-lh

lwb

= 16.3 kips
12.5 in.

=1.30 kip/in.

+J(l.87+1.58)

'

l
l

,,

+fa~
+JU,,, +lab )2 + fa~
JUoo - lab )

Jc1.30-1.10> 2 + c1 .02)2

=1.82 kip/in.
!a.peak = 2.61 kip/in.
fa, avg

1:

L82kip/in.

""f.43

O= ta:ri-1 ( fua + fub)

= 28.5 kip-in.

+(1.02)2

+J(l .30 + 1.10)2 + (1.02) 2

=1.43

=tan

rm.

=)h

= 2.62 kip{m.

-1 ( 1.87

Sw

fa.avg =1h

+ (1.46)2

J.I\.

Mab
fab=. - '

=J(I.30+ L.'10)

+ (1.46) 2

fu.ptaJc = 3.75 kip/in.


2.62 kip/in.
fu,11'1!

aa -

~(Joa+ fob) +fa~

= 2.61 kip/in.

+~(fua + fub )2 + f.,;


[,/(L87 - 1.58)

,,.,

},,

~(fua - J.b)2 + fu';

='h

/u,avg

12.5 in.
=1.02 kip/in.

26.0 in.3

fa.peak=

= 3.75 kip/in.

=12.7 kips

/. _ Vab

ASD

+ fu;

=J(l .87+1.58)

The shear force, axial force, aod force due to flexure per linear illch of weld are:

. = 18.2 kips
12.5 in.
= 1.46 kip/in.

= Ju.,,, +/kb )

/in.

fw=--

UKA\....l!U r~

kip/in.+ 1.58 kip/in.)


1.46 kip/in.

S=

tan-I( faafov+fob)

=tan-I ( 1.30 kip/in.+ l.lO kip/in.)


1.02 kip/in.

=67.0

=67.1

=1.10 kip/in.

The force on the weld due to bending is determine.d using elastic section properties as per
the Elastic Method indicated in Part 8 of the AlSC Manual. Generally this method is considered conservative. The Instantaneous. Center of Rotation Method, also found in Part 8,
often results in smaller requi.re4 weld sizes for welds subject to eccentricity. In the examples in this Manual employing special concentrically braced frame connections, a plastic
stress distribution is used to determine the forces at the beam-to-gusset interface. This example will use the oiore conservative elastic method.
Use a vector sum (square root of the sum of the' squares) to combine the shear, axial and
bending stresses on the gusset-to-beam interface. Because the bending stress acts in opposite directions over each half of the length, tIs creates both a maximum (peak) and a
minimum stress. The average stress is detenniued based on the maximum (peak) stress and
the minimum stress. AU stress un~ts below are in kip/in.

According to the AISC Manual Part 13, because the gusset is directly welded to the beam,
the weld is designed for the larger of '11e peak stress and 1.25 times the average stress;
Becausef~aklfavg > 1.25, the w~ld ductil,ity factor need not be applied . .For a discussion of
the weld ductility factor of 1.25, see AISC Manual Part 13.

t
:'.

Therefore.fr= f f'lk = 3.75 kip/in. (LRFD),:md 2-<51 kip/in. (ASD).

The strength of fillet welds defined in AISC Specification Section J2. can be simplified, as
explained .in Part 8 of the AISC Manual, to AISC Manual Equations 8.-2a and 8-:?,b:
LRFD

ASD

$R11 =(1.392 kiplin.)Dl

. Rn =(0.928 Jdptin.)Dl

''

l.".
...

:~

BRACl:!D FRAMES

2{1.392 kip/in.){ I + 0.50sinl.5 0)


3.75 kip/in.

2(1.392 kipfm.)[1+0.50sin1.S (67 .1)j

=0.934 sixteenths

D~

2(0.928 ldp/in.)(1+0.50sin 15

a)

2.61 kipfm.
2(0.928 kipfm.)h + 0.50sin 1J (67.0)J

=0.975 sixteenths

Use two-sided Yi6-in. fillet welds to connect the gusset plare

R. =V...

(M.)
""
1

r:r')
(Mob)
1

=Ve1b+4 -

=16.3 kips+4( 28J_.S


~ ki~in.)
JO,
=25.4 kips

=23.4 kips+-t( 41.0 kip-in.)


12.5 in.

=36.5 kips

ro 1he beam_
The beam is checked for the limit state of \\eb loc!\I yielding due
Wl'lded to the beam flange.

10 the force

from the pl:t!.:

A conservati\'C method to determine the minimum gusset plate thickness required to lrallsfcr t11e sbear and tension forces is to set the shear rupture strength of the weld (based on the
resultant force) equal to the shear ruprure strength of the gusset plate. Using AJSC Manual

The force is applied a distance a from the beam end. Because l'l <db= 18.0 in, AlSC
'ipecificatio" Equation J 10-3 is applicable.

Equation 9-3:

For a force applied :it a distance less than the depth of the member:

LRFD

in. > 0.0077 in.

=(50 ks1){0355 in.)12.5(0.972sn.)+12.5 m.)


=265 kips

F,,

58 ksi
=0.0997 in.

(Spec. Eq. J 10-3)

R,, = Fy,.t,.(2.5k+lb)

lmv. = - -

=6.19 kiplin.(0.934)
I

ASD

6.L9D

6.19D
f'"m=-F11

.,:i.,

Mw,

R,.~v,.+ (~f
=Vub+4

Check gusset plate rupture at beam weld

;, 1

ASD

LRFD

!11.~(lk

From AlSC Specijicatkm Table 12.4, the minimum sii.e fillet weld allowed for the parts
being connected is 16 in.

.,

rKAMI.:.'>

ASD

LR.FD
D~

UKJ\l.l!U

portion of this stress distribution that acts JD the reverse direction, aoc.J considering the total
force to be applied at the center of the bearing length, the resultant compre~ive force is:

The required weld size at the gusset-to-beam interface is:

fu, P,aJ:

520RDJNARV C.'ONCJ::.l'l'HUl...Al.l..t

=6.19 ldp/in.(0.975)

ASD

LRFD

58 ksi

=0.104 in.
o.k..

*in.> 0.104 in.

Rn
o.k.

Use a ~-io.-thick gusset plate to connect the brace lo the beam aod column.
Alternatively, the required thickness of the gusset plate could be determined by cbeckiog ilie
strength of gusset plate directly.

=1.00(265 kips)
=265 kips > 36.5 kips

o.k.

R,. 265 kips


-=

'

1.50

=177 kips> 25.4 kips

o.k.
'

Alternatively, the available strength for web yielding can be determined from AlSC Manllal
Table 9-4.

'

Check beam web local crippling


Check gusset plate yielding at beam weld
It can be shown that si~ce the gusset plate satisfies the minimum lbick.ncss criteria for rupture based on weld size, ii also satisfies the tension yielding criteria.

Check beam web local yielding


The maxi.mum stress per unit lenglh on the gusse1-10-bealn interuce along the weld due to
moment Mb is M~/2/4) assuming a plastic stress distribution. Conservati.,ely neglecting the

A portion of the force is applied within d!l of the member cod; therefore, use AISC
Specification Section J10.3(b). Check the length of beating relative to the beam depth:
lb 12.5 in.
-=--d
18.0 in.

=0.694 >0.2

tlKALtU t'KAMt:)

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

Therefore, use AJSC Specificarion Equation J 10-5b to determine the available strength,
through use of AISC Manual Table 9-4.
From AISC Manual Table 9-4 for the W18x50:

LRFD

ASD

R,,=JV~+HJc

LRFD

= Jo4.3 kips) +(J9.5 k.ips)

ASD

Rs

=52.0 kips

~ =34.7 kips

>Rt;

=6.30 kipfm.

~ = 4.20 kipfm.

Ra =Jv1.:+ H~
2

=J(9.98 kips)2 + (13.6 Jcips)2

= 24.2 kips

ASD
~

Rs
~
-=-+lb-

= 52.0kips+12.5 in.(6.30 kip/in.) .

=131kips>36.5 k.ips

o.k.

f:.

l.:

Try two bolts connecting the gusset to a single plate. The required shear strength per bolt is:

LRFD

$Rn =<!>Rs +lb ( <f>i?Q)

= 16.9 kips

ASD

From AISC Manual Equation 9-48:

LRFD

Ra

V.u- R...,
2
24.2.kips
= 2
=12. l kips/bolt

\..

Va=2

= 16.9 kips
2

=8.45 kipstbolt

;
;

:::: 34.7 kips+ 12.5 in.( 4.20 kip/in.)

=87.2 kips> 25.4 kips

o.k.

Beam and Gusset-to-Column Connection


Use a single-plate connection lbat combines the connections of the beam and gusset to the
column. Design the bolted connections of the iusset to the single pl:11e and of the beam to
the single plate individually. Design the weld of the single plate to the column considering
the combined plate length. The forces used to design the single-plate will be those derived
per the Unifonn Force Method. Additional forces beyond those calculated by this method
may occur in the connection of the beam/gusset connection to the column due 10 the rotation of the beam relative to the column._While forces in the connections due to rotation from
seismic drift are opposite the forces determined by the Uniform Force Method, the beam and
gusset connection to the column will be .designed following the single plate design philosophy in Part IO of tbeAISC Manual to provide additional rotational ductili1y to address both
rotation from seismic drift and simple-beam end rotation. The eccentricity on the single
plate due to the braced frame shear is addressed by the Uniform Poree Method which app}jes
n couple based on the He a.xial forces applied at the center of the beam and the center of the
.gusset-to-column connection.

~ =U.9 kips> 8.45 kips

.1. ,

'----------------~---------------

rn

=17.9 kips> 12.1 kips

o.k.

o.k.

From AISC Manual Table 7-4 with 3 in. bolt spacing, the bearing strength per inch of singleplate thickness is:

LRFD
Qrn =78.3 kipfm.

ASD

"

~.

~ =52.2 kipfm.
I

Assume a Sfi6in.-thick single plate.

For the interior bolt, lhe available bearing strength of the single plate is:
Design gusset-to-column bolted connection
The result~nt force

o~'tbe bolts in the gusset plate is:

LRFD

ASD

1 i1

!----------------+--------------___,
q>r,. = 78.3 kip/in.(!& in.)

=24.5 kips/bolt

~ :::52.2 kipfm.{Vi6 in.)

=16.3 kips/bolt

I ~i

L--~~~~-L-~~~~--'

~
)

.,,3.

1n

BRACED FRAMES

5-56

The edge distances in Lhe single plate are l 1h in. vertically and 2 in. horizontally.
Conscrv:itively, use the lesser of Lhese edge distances. A more refined cbeck would calculate the edge disrnnce in tbe direction of the force. For the end bolt, with L,, = 1'h in., the
nominal bearing strength per bolt is:

,....

Yn

!!

J.2/"F,'

The nominal strength for the limit state of block shear rupture relative to the normal force

on the single plate is:


(Spec. Eq. 14-5)
where

=1.21,.Fu S 2.4dF,,
t

(from Spec. Eq. J3-6a)

d 11

=13/16 in. + 1/16 in.


=0.875 in.

=1.2[1.50 in. - 1h(1i6 in.)](58 ksi}


= 76.1 kip/in.

A.iv= 2(~h -0.5dh)lp

2.4dF,, ::::: 2.4(~ in.)(58 ksi)

:::: 2[2.00 in. -0.5(0.875 in.)j(Vi6 in.)

=104 kip/in.

=0.977 in.

Therefore, the nomina.1 bearing sirenglh of the end bolt is rn


bearing strength of the end bolt is:

=76. l kip/in. The available

LRFD
rn

::; 57.1 kip/in.

A1 v =24Mp
:::: 2(2.00 in.)(Vi6 in.)

=1.25 in. 2

ASD

rn:::: 0.75(76.1 kip/in.)

UI

5-57

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED f'RA1\.!ES

An1 =(s - dh)lp

76.l ldp/in.
2.00
= 38.1 kip/in.

= (3.00 in. - 0.875 in.)(~6 in.)

:::: 0.664 in.2


o.60FuA.-.v + ub~Fu,4..t = 0.60(58 ksi)(0.977in.2)+1.0(58 ksiX0.664 in.2)

For the end bolt, the available bearing strength of the single plate is:

=72-.5kips

LRFD
rn

f~-.
-1
...~

ASD

=57.1 k.iplin.(~6 in.)

~ = 38.l kip{m.(16 in.)

= l7.8 kips/bolt
> 12.1 kips/bolt

0.60F1 A"" + UbsFuA.u

o.k.

= 11.9 kips/bolt
> 8.45 kips/bolt

o.k.

Therefore, tbe nominal strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is Rn= 65.5 kips.
The available strength for the limit state of block shear rupture on the single plate is:

Block shear rupture in the gusset-to-column single-plate connection


Check block shear relative to nonnal force on the single plate.

According to A ISC Specification Section B4.3b. in compuling ne1 area for tension and shear,
the width of a bolt hole is taken as 1/16 in. larger than the nominal dimension of the hole. The
nominal diameter of the hole from Table 13.3 is 126 in.

,I
I

ASD

LRFD

The available bolt shear strength and the bearing strength for the end and interior bolts
exceeds the required shear strength per bolt
The gusset is tlin.-thick and wiil have greater bearing strength than the o/16-in. single plate;
therefore, the gusset plate is not checked for bearing strength.

=0.60(36 ksi)(l.25in.2)+1.0(58 ksiX0.664 in.2)


'
=65.5 kips

~n

Rn

=0.75(65.5 kips)

-=
Q

=49.l kips>19.5kips

o.k.

65.5 k,ips

2.00

=32.8 kips> 13.6 kips

o.k.

Check block shear relative to shear force on the single plate.

In thjs case, the AISC Manual tables will be used to dctennine the available strength for the
limit state of block shear rupture, because the parameters fall within the limits of lhe table:;.
provided. For the single plate at the gusset-to-eolumn connection:

A.'lEIOCAN {NSTTTUTP. OP STEEi, CONSTRUCTION

5- 58

BR.ACED FRAMES

=2
= 11h in.
411 =2.00in.
Vbr = 1.0
n

5-59

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENT1UCALLY BRACED FRAMES

Combined shear and normal block shear design check


using an elliptical equation
For the single plate at !he gusset-to-column connection. the interaction of shear and normal
bloc.k sbe~r is considered as follows:

L~

From AISC Specification Equation J4-5, the svailable strength for the limit state of block
shear rupture can be written as:

LRFD

$R,, =$UbsF11An1
+min($0.60FyAgv. $0.60F11 A,,,,)

+IIll l

. (0.60f).A8 ,

Tension ruprure component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3a:

<?UbsF.,Ant =l.0(68.0 kip/in.)(5/16 in.)

$0.60F1 Agv =72.9 kip/in(SA6 in.)

Ub,F.,A.,,:::: 1.0(45.3 kip/in.)('lt6 in.}

in.)

0.60FyAg.

(
.
)(
)
= 48.6 kip/in. 16 in.

Shear rupture component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3c:

0.60F.,Anv _ 55 5 Jdp/i {! . )
Q
.
ID.
16 Jn.

=17.3 kips

The av:tilable strength for the limit state


of block sbc:ir rupture relative to the
shear force on the single plate is:

$R,, = 21 .3 ldps
+ min(22.8 kips, 26.0 kips)
o.k.

(~f +(~f $1.0

( 14.3 kips
44.lkips

( 9.98 lcips)
29.4 kips

19.5 kips
49.lkips

=0.263 $LO

=0.287 $ l.O

o.k.

,:::
..

o.k.

-~

'

Tensile rupture in the gusset-to-column single plate

(Spec; ~q. 14-2)


where

d,,

= 0.875 in.

=1.0

+min(l5.2 kips, 17.3 kips)


o.k.

)~
. :

A,, = (l-2d1t )tp

'.

=(6.00 in.- 2(0.875 in.)J('~6 in.)

j:

= 1.33 in.2

(Spec. Eq. D3-l)

=1.33 in.2 (1.0)


= 1.33 in. 2

\i
t;

..

Therefore:

=14.2 kips
= 29.4 kips> 9.98 kips

Block shear rupture in the t1-in.-thick gusset plate is also adequate as tJ1e gusset is thicker
than the single plate.

~=AnU

The available strength for the limit state


of block shear rupture relative to the
shear force on the single plate is:

R,,

+(32.8
13.6 kips)
kips

Conservatively consider only a 6.00.in. length of single plate under axial tension from the
gusset. The nominal tensile rupture strength is:

=15.2 kips

Shear rupture component from AJSC


Manual Table 9-3c:

(~f +(~f $1.0

Shear yielding component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3b:

:::: 22.8 kips

=44.1 kips> 14.3 ldps

= 14.2 lOps

Shear yielding component from AISC


Manual Table 93b:

$0.60F.,A,,.:::: 83.2
::::26.0 kips

0.60F11 A11 , )

Tension rupture component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3a:

=21.3 kips

k:ipfm.( 5/16

ASD

LRFD

r+( r

ASD

l:..

t
....;-

R,, :::-58 ksi(i.33 in.2 )

=77.1 kips

\:.:

t"

,.!

The available tensile rupture strength is:

S--60

BRACED FRAMES

LRFD

'

$Rn = 0."75(J7.1 kips)

=57.8 kips> 19.5 kips

R,.

77.1 kips

2.00
38.6 kips> 13.6 kips

-=

Rn

ASD

'

=0.60FuAnv
=0.60(58 ksi)(l.33 in.2 )

(Spec. Eq. J4-4)

= 46.3 kips

LRFD

Tensile rupture in the Vs-in.-thick gusset is also okay because of its greater thickness.

Tensile yielding in the gusset-to-column single plate

S-61

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRJCALLY .BRACED FRAMES

ASD

<PRn =0.75(46.3 kips)


-= 34.7 k.ips > 14.3 kips

o.k.
:

..

Rn 46.3 kips
-=
Q
2.00
= 23.2 kips> 9.98 kips

o.k,

Again, conservatively consider only a .6.00-in. length of single plate under ax.ial tension

from lhe gusset. The nominal tensile yielding strength is:

Shear rupture in the %-in.-tbick gusset is also okay because of its greater thickness.

Rn=FyAg

(Spec: Eq. J4-1)

where

Shear yielding in the gusset-to-column single plate


Check the available shear yielding strength at the net section through_the bolt line.

Ag= ltp

Agv =ltp

= 6.00 in.(16 in.)

=6.00 in.(16 in.)

=1.88 in.2

=1.88 in.2

Therefore:

.(Spec. Eq. J4-3)

Rn = 0.60FyAgv

. R,, = ~6 ksi (J .88 in. 2 )

::: 0.60(36 ksi)( l.88

= 67.7 kips

in.2)

=40.6 kips
The available tensile yielding strength is:

,.

LRFD
LRFD

fl

ASD

ASD

Rn

$Rn= 0.90(67.7 kips)


= 60.9 kips> 19.5 kips

-=

o.k.

1.67
= 40.5 kips> 13.6 kips

..

$R,. =1.00(40.6 kips)

67.7 kips

=40.6kjps>14.3 kips

o.k. \

40.6 kips
Q
l.50
= 27.l kips> 9.98 kips

!
. ...

Rn

-=

o.k.

o.k.

Shear yielding in the s-in.-tbick gusset _is also ?k.a!' becau~e of it~ greater thickness.
Tensile yielding in the Vs-in.-thick gusset is also okay because of its greater thickness.

Shear rupture in the gusset-to-column single plate


Check the avail.able shear rupture strength at the net section through the bolt line. Conservatively,
consider only a 6.00-in. length of single plate.

Anv

=(l-2(fh)tp
= 16.00 in.-2(0.875 in.)](16 in.)

=l.33 in.2

"

Use a iirin.-tJlick single plate with (2)-'.}~-in.-diarneter ASTM A325-N bolts-in standard
holes to connect the -%-in.-thick gusset to the column.

Design the beam-to-column single plate connection


The beam-to-colU!lUI joint transfers both vertical shear and horizontal force. The horizontal
forces acting at the beam-to-column interface are lhe uniform force component, H - fib
He, and I.he collector force, Ab For tbjs particular connection at this location ~n the structure.
when the diagonal brace is in tension, lhe resultant horizontal force between the beam ant
the column is a compression force with a magnitude of He. However, when the diagon'2
brace is in compression, the collector force between the beam and the column will be in tension. Therefore the collector and He forces act in opposite directions. Conservatively, U
the greater of ~c and the collector force, Ab, for the design of the single piate.

~:

..,,?:

i\MEIUCAN lNS11T\1TS OF STEeJ:. CONSTRUCTION

S..-62

S.2 ORDINARY CONU.NTRICAl t Y BRACi;;D I RAMES

BRAC.li!) FRAMES

L.RFD
P., =max

rl-Hu1> =ll.. ,}
A..i.

:::max {19.5

=max {H

P0

kips}

The maxbnum shear at the beam-to-column interface will occu.r when I.he diagonal brace 1
in tension based on ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.J.2 Load Combination 5 (LRFD and ASD).
The beam rcacuon, V" or Va. is the concurrent force.

flob =Hd<"}

Aob

=max {13.6 kips}


23. I kips
=23.J kips

33.0 kips

= 33.0 k.ips

LRFD

(1.2+0.2Sos)To+OoTa. +0.5ft

The vertical force on the beam web-to-column c~nnection is, as sho" n in Figure 5-6:

Rab = 7.73 k.ips

vub = 23.4 lops

vab

V"

=Rui, + V..b

=24.0 kips

LRFO

r.. v.
V,,= R.,+-Mb
~

='"' + T.. vab


D

~ps)(-23.4 kips)

=7.73 kips+(-25 3 ~ps)(-16.3 kips)

36 0
53.2 kips

37.2 lcips

= 27.6 lcips

= 18.8 kips

Combine the mwmum vertical force wilh the horizontal force at the beam-to-columo inter- J.
face as follows:
...:

ASD
'

R.,

=1.i3 kips+{-16.3 Jcips)

=-8.57 kips

I:.

Therefore.. the maximum vertical force in lhe beam-to-column connection is Vu= 27.6 kips ::I
(LRFD) or V0 = 18.8 kips (ASD).

Va =Ra+ Vab

Ra =7.73 kips

=11.8 kips+ (-23.4 ldps)


=-11.6 kips

V.a

= 11.8 k.ips+(-

ASD

Vab = -16.3 kips

.:i

1-------L_.RFD
_ _ _ _ _ _--l----~~A_S_D~-~----:-' J

For the case where lhe brace is in compression:

v..

=-25.3 kips

Calculate v11 concurrent with tension in the brace by prorating therensile force in the brace
calculated abo\'e to the m:i..'tilnum compressive force in the hr.Ice calculated at the beginning
of this example.

Note tlm the vertical shear fon:e calculated above is conservame as lbe analysis has been
simplified by considering the maximum brace force as equal in magnitude in either tension
or compression. A more e.'tact analysis would include the actual tension and compression
forces combmcd with the ~pective beam reaction.~ with considerntion of the dire(;tion of
loading of each force component.. For this srrucrure, the larger diagonal brace force which
acts in compression, and its resultant Vb component which acts upwards, would be counteracted by the beam reaction acting downwards. So to remedy the shortfall of this
simplificatioo, the vertical force, V., (LRFD) and V0 (ASD). could be calculated for bolb the
maximum force due to compression in the brace with its concurrent reaction and the maxjmum reaction resulting from tenSion force in the brace with the \'CrUcaJ beam reacuon.

-= -23.4 kips
=Ru+V.,11

+ 0 kips+O kips
+ 0.7(2)(-22.3 kips)

=-36.0 kips

:::: 7.73 kips t-16.3 kips

VMb

T0 =[1.0+0.14(0.528)j(5.54 kips)

Va =Rab+ Vob

= 11.8 kips+ 23.4 kips

=11.8 kips

(1.0+0.l4Sru)To+1iJ +TF

+ 2(-22.3 kips)+ 0.5(0 kips)


+ 0.2(6.70 kips)

=35.2 kips

Ru

+0.10 0 To,

Tu= [1.2+ 0.2(0.528)j(5.54 kips)

= 16.3 kips

'

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

+ 0.2Ts

ASD

R~b = I l.8 kips

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 (including
tbc 0.5 factor on L pcmtitted by Sectton
12.4.3.2)

Note that the detennination of the relative directions of the collector force and II, forces at
the column face may not alwa)s be as apparent as in this 5ingle-story structure. A conservative approach is to add the absolute values of the two components.

LRFD

For the case where the brace is in lcnsion:

ASD

..

=Jv..,2 + Pu1

R.,

...~

= Jvl +Pal

= Jc216 kips}2 +(33.o kips) 2

=J(18.8 kips) +{23.l kips)

= 43.0 kips

=29.8 kips

.}

BRACED FRAMES

Try (4) ~-in.-diamcter A325-N bolts in the single plate connecting the beam and the

52 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

A., =[Js-(no. boll hole~)d11]tp

column.

= {3(3.00 m.)-(2 + 'h + l/i)(0.875 in )l(Vi6 in.)

=1.99 in.2

Available shear strength of the bolt group

From the check of lhe gusset-to-column single plate design, the available strength of tbc
~-in.-diameter ASTM A325-N bolt in the 'l'i6-in.-thick pfatc is 17.9 kips (LRFD) and J1. 9
kips (ASD) for bolt shear and 17.8 !0ps (LRFD) and 11.9 kips (ASD) for bolt bearing. The

0.60FuAnv + UbsFuAnt - 0.60(5$ ksi)(0.977 in.2) + l.0(58 ksiXl.99 in.

required number of bolts is:

0.60F1 A1 v + Ub,FuA..i

LRFD

Ru
n,,,.,.=::::

r,.
43.0 kips
17.8 kips

=2.42

ASD

=0.60(36 ksi)(l.25 in.2 ) t


=142 kips

1.0(58 ksiXl.99 in.

n-=-(r,.10)
"'.29.8 kips
11.9 kips

ASD

LRFD

=2.50

~R~

=107 k.ips > 33.0 kips

o.k.

2.00

=7l.O kips> 23. l kips

=4

4 = l11l in.
411 =2.00 in.
Ubs =1.0
I

From AJSC Specification Equation J4-5. the available sLrength for the limit state of block
shear rupture can be written as:

The available strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is:

ASD

LRFD
(Sp~c.

Eq. J4-5)

R..:::: ~UbsFuA,.i

+min(~0.60F1 A 1., 0.60FuA,,.,)

R., U,.,F,,A.u
-=

..

= 2 (2.00 in.)(Y.4 in.)


= 1.25 io. 2

. (0.60F.!'.A1,,

U0s =LO

Ap"' 241.tp

o.k.

Use lhe AJSC Manual tables to detennine the 3\'ailable scrength of the single plate for the
limit !>Ute of block shear ruprure relative to the shear force on the single plate. For the single plate at the gussetto-.:olumn connection:

Check block shear relative to the noanal force io Lbe single plate.

According to AlSC Specification Section B4.3b, in computing net area for tension and she.'lr,
the width of a boh hole is taken as 1/16 in. larger than the nominal dimension of the bole. The
nominal diameleT of the hole from Table J3.3 is 116 in.

142 kips

R,,

-::----

=0.75(142 kips)

Block shear rupture in the beam-to-column single-plate connection

=2(2.00 in . ..: 0.5(0.875 in.)J(~6 in.)


=0.977 in.2

A,.v =2(~h -0.5d11)tp

Therefore. the nominaJ strength for the limit state of block shear rupture is R,. 142 kips.
The available strength for the limit state of block shear rupture on the "ingle rlate i:-.:

R,,

The beam web thickness is 0.355 in., which is slightly thicker than the single plate.
Additionally. the beam specified minimum tensile strength, Fu. of 65 k.si is greater.man I.he
F,, of the single rlate. Therefore, thc bolt available bearing strength on the beam web is greater
than that of the ~ingle plate, and the bQlt be-ariog strength of lhe beam web is adequate.

where

- 149 kips

Use four bolts so thm the connection is at least haJf the depth of the beam.

1\

+mm

Tension ruprure component from AISC


Manual T:sble 9-3a:

9u,,1 FuA.u

. 0.60~wAnv)

Tension ruprure component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3n:
Ub,FuA..1

=1.0(68.0 hipfm.){o/16 in.)

=21 3 kips

1.0(45.3 kip/in.)(Yi4 in.)


:::: 14.2 kips

BRACED FRAMES

LRFD

5-67

5.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

A1 =ftp

ASD

= (12.0 in.)('li6 in.)

She:ir yielding component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3b:

Shear yielding component from AISC


Manual Table 9-3b:

0.60F. A

.
r{ " = (113 kip/in.)(~6
in.)

0.60FyA,.. =(170 ldp/in.)(~6 in.)


= 53.1 IJps

=3.75 in.2
R,.

=35.3 kjps

The nominal strength clue to tensile yielding is:


(S~c.

=F1A1

Eq. 02-1) "

=(36 ksi)(3.75 in.1)

She:ir rupmre component from AlSC


Manual Table 9-3c:
~0.60F11 Anv

Shear nipture component from AJSC


Manual Table 9-3c:

0.60FuA""
.
)( 11& .In. )
. n - {l 29 k1p/in.

=(194 kip/in.)(~~ in.)


=60.6 lops

=135 kips
The available strength due to tensile yielding in the beam-to-column single plate is:

The 101al av:ulable block shear rupture


strength of the single plate at the beamtOcolumn connection is:

The total available block shear rupture

strength of the single plate at the beamto-column connection is:

Rn
.
n-14.2 kjps

Mn =2 1.3 kips
+ m1n(53. l kips, 60.6 kips)

=74.4 IOps > 27.6 kips

+min(35.3 kips, 40.3 kips)

o.k.

= 49.5 kips> 18.8 kips

o.k.

Bl<x:k shear rupture in the beam web is also okay, based on the greater thlckness and the
hig~cr Fy and Fu values.

$Rn =0.90(135 kips)

=122 kips > 33.0 ldps

is also adequ:ue.
Tensile rupture in the beam-to-column single plate

Consider 12.0 in. of the plate to be effective.

r~r +(~rs l.O


( 27.6

~ps

74.4 kips

r+( r

0.233s1.0

33.0 kips
107 kips
o.k.
,

= 0.233

(~ +(~r $1.0

23. l kips
71.0 k.ips

0.250s1.0

o.k.

=112.0 in.-4(0.875 in.)J('/16 in.)

=0.250

'

..

= 2.66 io. 2

.
(Sptc. Eq. 03-1)

~=AnV

r+( r

( 18.8 kips
49.5 kips

Tensile yielding in the beam-to-column single plate


Consider 12.0 in. of the plnte to be effective.

= 0.875 in.

u =l.0

ASD

o.k.

A,, =(l-4d1i)tp

For the single--plate at the beam-to-column connection. the interaction of shear and normal
block ~hear rupture is considered as foll~ws:
LRFD

o.k.

R,. - 135 kips


n
l.67
= 80.8 kips> 23.1 kjps

The beam web bas a greater lhick.ness (0355 in.) and a higher specified minimum yield
stress of F - 50 ksi; therefore, the av:.Ulable ten.qlc s1rength clue to yielding in the ~:im web

dh
Combined shear and normal block shear design check
using an elliptical equation
l

ASD

LRFD

=40.3 kips

=(2.66 in.2 )(1.0)

.J

=2.66 in.2

.~

Tue nominal strength clue to tensile rupture is:

(Sptc. Eq. J4-2)

Rn =F.,Ae

=(58 lsi)(2.66 in.


= 154 kips

5-68

BRACED FRAMES

The available strength due to tensile rupture in the beam-to-column single plate is:

LRFD

= llp

Agv

= 12.0 in.(o/i6 in.)

ASD

<!>Rn= 0.75(154 kips)

R,.

154 kips

2.00

-=

=11 6 kips> 33.0 kips

o.k.

S--6!t

5.2 ORDlNARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

=3.75 in.

The nominal strength due to shear yielding is:

= 77.0 kips> 23.l kips

o.k.

The beam web has a greater thickness (0.355 in.) and a higher specified minimum rcnsile
strength than the single plate, therefore, the available strength due to tensile rupture in I.he
beam web is also adequate.

R,,

=0.6'0F,..A,..

(Spec. Eq. J4-3}

=0.60(36 ksi)(3.75 in.


=81.0 kips

The available strength due to shear yielding is:

Shear rupture in the beam-to-column single plate

t:

-----~;-,
..

t-:11

~11

... \
.ii:':-,,.

$Rn = 1.00(81.0 kips)


=81.0 kips> 27.6 kips

A,,v = (1-4dn) tp

=2.66 in.2
The nominal streogrh due to shear rupture is:

R,, = 0.60FuA...

(Spec. Eq. J4-4)

=0.60(58 k..~i)(2.66 in.

:~

;:
~;

:i

.....

"

..

..
:~

f>

=54.0 kips> 18.8 kips

Use a minimum t6in.-thick single plate with (4) 3.4-in.-dfameter ASTM. A325-N bolts in
standard boles to connect the beam to the column.

ASD

.R,.

92.6 kips

2.00
46.3 IOps > 18.8 kips

-=
o.Jc.

o.k.

When the collector force acts in tension on the column face, the He force on tbe gusset-tocolumn interface is also in tension. The collector force in the beam, Ab, acts 5.75 in. above
the neutral a.us of the single plate, and the He force at the gusset-to-column interface acts
8.75 in. below the neutral a."<is of the single plate, as determined in the following.
Eccentricity of Ab on tbe single plate:

e14 = (23.5 in./ 2)- 1.5 in. - 3.0 in -1.5 in.


I

o.k.

Design the weld of the combined single plate to the column face
The weld of the single plate could be determined assuming two individual single plates.
However this neglects the increased bending capacity of a 22-in.-long plate relative to the
summation of bending capacities of a b.O-in.-long single plate and a 6.00-in.-1ong single
plate. Therefore, design the weld based on a 23.5-in.-long single plate.

The available strength due to shear rupture is:

The beam web is lhicker (0.355 in.) and has a higher specified minimum tensile strength
(65 ksi) than the single plate; therefore, the available strength of the beam web due to shear
rupture is also adequate.

'~:

= 92.6 kips

4>Rn =0.75(92.6 kips)


::: 69.5 kips> 27.6 kips

....,

o.k.

81.0 kips
1.50

The beam web is thicker (0.355 in.) with a higher specified minimum tensile strength (65
ksi) than the single plate; therefore, rhe available strength of .the beam web due . to shear
yielding is also adequate.

LRFD

~:

R,.

--=

=[12.0 in.-4(0.875 in.)](16 in.)

'

ASD

LRFD

Check the available shear rupture strength at the net section through the bolt line. Conservatively
consider only a 12.0 in. length of .single plate.

=5.75 in.

Shear yielding in the beam-to-column single plate

I Check the available stiear yielding strength at the

section through I.he bolt line.


Conservatively consider only a 12.0 in. length of single plate.
gTOSS

Eccentricity of He on the single plate:


eH,

=(23.5 in./ 2)- J .5 in. - 1.5 in.


=8.75 in.

Eccentricity of vettical shear on the column foce: e1:


AMEIUCIJ'I

=2.50 in.

IN'STTTVn! OP STEEi.. Co!-ISTRUCTION

5.2 OR.DlNARY CONCENTRlCALLY BRACED FRAMES

5-70

.-~~~~~~~~~~~-r-:---:-~--:~~~-'-~~~~,

The total nonnal force at the column face is:

LRFD

H,,=Aub+H.,,

ASD

.I

Ha= Aab +Hae

=23.1kips+13.6 kips

=33.0kips+19.5 kips

.=52.5 kips

= 36.7 kips

Vu

=Rub + Vub + Vue


=I 1.8 kips+ 23.4kips+14.3 kips

= 49.5 kips

.
ASD

Y11 =Rab+ Vob +Vile


=7.J3kips+16.3 kips+9.98 kips
='.34.0 kips

For moment on a weld group, sum moments about the mid-height centerline of the single
plate at the face of the column:

LRFD
M,. = V,.e, + AubeAa -HuceHc

=49.5 kips(2.50 in.)

=Vaec + AcbeA. - Hoc.eH,


=34.0 kips(2.$0 in.)

+ 33.0 kips{5.75 in.)

+ 23.l kips{5.75 in.)

-19.5 kips(8.75 in.)

-13.6 kips(8.75 in.)

=143 kip-in.

=98.8 kipin.

The stresses at the single plate-to-column interface are determined as follows:


l

=23.5 in.

Ja - -, -

=36.7 kips

_ 52.5 kips
23.5 in.
=2.23 ldpfm.

23.5 in.

= 1.56 kip/in.
M;,a
fab =-Z..,
98.8 kip-in.
138 in.2

/ub=Z,.,
143 kip-in.
138 in.2

= 1.04 kip/in.

fur =

= 0.716 k.ipfm.

for= ~ja; +(/ca+ fab) 2

JJ,;; +(/ua + fub)2

_ / (2.11 kip/in/

~ + (2.23 kip/in.+ l.04 kip/in.)2

=(23.5 in.)2

Using the conservative solution (adding ;


the flexural sLress), the angle of the 1
resultant load with respect to I.he weld. is:

e= un-1 (!uo + hb)

- \ +(1.56 kip/in.+0.716 kip/in.}2

Using !he conservative solution (adding


the flexu..U stress), the angle of the
resultant load -with respect to the weld is:
9 =tan-I

- 1 (2.23kipfm.+1.04

=57.2

(1.45 k.ip/in.)

=~.70 kip/in.

= 3.89 kip/in.

=tan

,1

, _Hna

H,,

11

=1.45 kip/in.

Mu

l'

23.5 in.

f,.,,

lz
Zw=4

ASD

=34.0I kips

/ua=1

ASD

Ma

/., =VOLi_

= 2.11 kip/in.

The total shear force at the column face is:

LRFD

LRFD

Vu
1
49.5 kips
= 23.5 in.

f,,,,=-

2.11 kipfm.

kip/in.)

(faa +fa~)

!av

-i(l.56kip/in.+ 0.716
tan
..
1.45 kip/m.

=57.5

=138 in.2

AME.RJC/\N ~Of STEEi.. CoJ-ISTRUCTION

kipfm.)

l:

f !

5-73
BRACED FR.AMES

5-72

S 2 ORDINARY CONCF.NTR.lCALLY BRACED FRAMES

~~:. . l

The weld size is determined from A1SC Mat111fll Equation 8-2a (LRFD) and 8-2b (ASD):

Check the plate for \he limit state of buckling using the doubJe--coped beam procedure given
in AISC Ma1111.(ll Part 9.

LRFD

hr

D=

2{1.392 kip/in.)(1.0 +O.SOsin1.5 0)


3.89 kip/in.
2(1.392 kip/in.)

(Marlual Eq. 9-14)

ASD
D=
=

[t.O + 0.50sinl.S (57.2)]

=J.01 sixteenths

Fer"' QFy

far
2(0.928 k:ipfm.)(1.0+0.50sin1.5 9)

ho.JP,

2.70 k:ipfm.
2 ( 0.928 kip/in.)

Calculate Q for the single plate:


(Manual Eq. 9-18)

A.=----.=======::"

1
[t .0+0.50sinl.S (57.5)]

10,p

475+28o(~Y

(23.5 in.)J36 ksi

:::~~..l:..:-7=~=======:;"

"" I .05 si:<teenths

10(16 in.) 475+280(


Considering the C?lumn flange thickness and the single-plate lhickness, the minimum fillet
weld size from AISC Specification Table J2.4 is Yi6 in. However, according to the AISC
Manual Pa.rt 10 discussion of single-plate connections. the weld between a single plate and
the support should be sized as:
%rp

=0.284
Because A.~ 0.7,
(Manual Eq. 9-15)

Q= l

=%(16 in.)

Fer= Fy; therefore, plate buckling does not control.

:::: 0.195 in.


The use of the above minimum weld size combined with the single plate requirement for
connection plate thicknesses to be less than db-l/i6 in. according to AlSC Manual Table 109 facilitates ductile behavior in the connection.

<

23.5 in.)
in.
250

Use a o/16-in.lhick single plate 23.5 in. long.

Use two-sided IA-in. fillet welds at the single plate to column connection.

Check column web local yielding


The peak unit bending force./b. is less than the axial w1it bending force.fa Therefore, ~~
bendin" forces do not affect the overall concentrated force on the gusset nor do ~ey aff'.
the len~th of force applied on the interface. A portion of the concentrated force 1s applied

Check single-plate shear rupture at weld to column

within a dist.ance less

One method to detei:mine the IJUnimum single-plate thickness required to transfer the shear
and :ension forces is to scl the weld strength (based on the resultant force) equal to the shear
rupture strength of the .single plate. From AISC Manual Part 9, the minimum required single-plate thickness is:

For a force applied at a distance less ~an the depth of the member:

(Manual Eq. 9-3)

Eq. J 103)

6.19 kipfm.(1.0 1)
58 ksi

"" 0.108 in. < -'/16 in.

=445 kips

o.k.

6.19 kiplin.{l.05)
r,,,;,, =
58 ksi
0. 112 in.< 16 in.

ASD

LRFD

ASD

LRFD
lmin""

(Spec.

Rn= F)wlw(2.5k+lb)

= (50 ksi)(0.340 in.)!2.5(1.06 in.)+ 23.5 in.J

6. l 9D
Fu

(milt=--

r"::

than the depth of the column.

~R,, = 1.00(445

Rn

445 kips
1.50
= 297 kips > 23.J kips

-::::

kips)

=445 kips> 33.0 kips

o.k..

o.k.

o.k.
AJtematively, the available strength for web yielding can be determined per Part 9 of t!le

..:

::,
I:

Check compression on the single plate


When the brace force is in compression. the beam-to--column axial force is in compression.
The unil force on the single plate in compression results from !l.."<ial and beodjng forces
. combined.
AMER~~ OP STEEL CoNSTIWCnON

AlSC Mamial, and Table 9-4.

AMEJUC!J'I [}'lSTITUTE OP STEEL CONSTRUcnON

5- 14

BRJ\CF.D FRAMES

S.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BR>\CEO FRAMES

Check column web local cnppling

Cf. column

A portion of the concentrated force is applied at a disrnnce less thlln d12 from the end of the
column; therefore, useAJSC Specificatwn Section JJ0.3(b). C~ck the length of bearing tel
ntive to the column depth:
lb 23.5 in.
-==d 10.0 in.

S-75

W18x50

beam

W.P.-

=2.35 > 0.2

--- -

---~-c:;_--

<t_ beam

Therefore, use AISC Specification Equation J10-5b to determine the available scrength,

through use of AJSC Manual Table 9-4.


From ATSC Manual Table 9-4 for the W1 Ox49:

LRFD
Rs =48.5 kips
$~

~ .

ASD

co

(4) l3~>'nco/ll with (4)


~ dla. A325-N bolts to
gusset in std. holes

Rs
.
n=J2.3 kips

=I0.1 kip/in.

~ =6.76 kip/in.

%"Pl (A36) - ll- -+---'

From AISC Manual Equations 9-48a and 9-48b:

(4) ~ dia. A325-SC


bolls, std. holes in

LRFD
R,, =R, +lb (~Ro)

=48.S kips+23.5 in (10.1 kipfm.)


== 186 kips > 33.0 kips
o.k.

ASO

R,,

Rs
n

-= -

Ro

W10x49

column

Hb-

=32.3 k:ips+23.5 in.(6.76 kipfm.)


=191kips>23.1 kips o.k.

angles. ovs. holes

W10x33
brace

(6) ~dis. A325-N


bolts in std. holes
I

'The final connection design and geome~ is shown in Figure 5-7.

in web of~

Fig 57. Connection desigMd in

Nole: 8Qlts indicated as Ntype are to be pretensioned


with Class A Of' bettor raying

surfaces.
E:campl~

5.2.4.

Example 5.2.5. OCBF Tension-Only Diagonal Brace Design


Given:
Unlike special systems, tension-only bracing is permitted in OCBP systems; therefore
this example demonstrates a tensiononly brace design for the same configuration a,
Example 5.2.4. Refer to Brace BR-1 sbown in Pigure 5-2. Select an ASTM A36 singleangle section for the dfogonal brace to resist the_ loads sbown below as a tension-on!)
br:icing contigurs.tion.

The applicable building code specifies the use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads. From
n first-order analysis, the loads on the brace arc:

Po=O !Ops
PH= Okips

Ps= 0 kips
Pt=O kips

PQ=51.1 kips
Mo= 1.13 kip-ft

J
J

5-76

:'

BRACED F1V\MES

DESIGN OF PARTI.J\LLY-RESTRAlNE.D MOMENT CONNECTIONS

The dead load bending moment indicated above is due to the self-weight of the brace
assuming a member r.hnt weighs l6 Jblft. Sometimes this self-weight loading is ignored in
the desigo of vertical diagonal braces where judgment would indicate that the loading is
minimal and only uses a small percentage of the available member strength. However, in
this example, considering the relatively long length of the diagonal brace, the dead load
moment is included jn this design check. There are no bending moments due to live loads
or snow loads.

From AJSC Manual Table 1-7, the geometric properties :u-e as follo\.\s:

The story shear, H, from the first-order analysis 1s 136 kips and the first-<>rder intcrstory drift
due to that load without the CJ factor applied from the analysis model is:

Check brace element width-to-thickness ratios

tlH=0.761 in.
Solution:

5- 77

L5x5x1/2

A= 4.79 in.2

='1 =L53 LO.


S.r =S1 =3.15 in.3

, :t

=5.()() in.

I"' 0.500

in.

d = 5.00 in.
'i

=0.980 in.

The braces must sntisfy I.he requuements for moderately ductile members. as slipulateJ in
Sections F l .5n and 01.l of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Elements of the brnce members
must not C:\ceed ~width-to-thickness ratios.
From Table 1-4 o f this Manual, the L5x5x1/z satisfies width-to-thickness ratios for OCBF
diagonal braces (moderately ducnle members).

From AJSC Ma11ual Tilble 2-5. the material properties lire:


ASTMA36

Determine the effective slenderness ratio

F1 =36 ksi

Fu= 58 ksi
Determine the required strength of the diagonal brace
Considering the load combinauons given in ASCE/SEI 7, the governing load combination
and resultant maximum axial tension and bending moment in the diagonal brace are:

LRFD

tl

LR.FD Load Combination 5 from

ASD Load Combination 5 from

ASCEJSEJ 7 Section 12.4.2.3 (including


the 0.5 factor on L penniued in Set.:tion

ASCE/SEI 7 Section l 2.4.2.3

l~.4.2.3)

(1.2+ 0.2Sos }D+pQ +0.5l+0.2S

(1.0+0.14Sos)D+H + F+0.7pQs

Pu = [ 1.2 + 0.2(0.528)j(O kips)

Pa

.. i.o(-51.1 kips)+0.5(0 kips)

+ 0.2{0 kips)

,.r:

,.,

'I .

=-51.1 kips

Mk =(l.2+0.2(0.528)j(l.13 k.ip-ft)

. I

+ 0 kips+ 0 kips
t- 0.7(1.0)(-51.J kips)

= -35.8 lcips
Ma= jt.0+0.14(0.52S)J(1.13 kip-ft)
+ 0 kip-ft+O kipft

+ 0.2{0 kip-ft)

+ 0.7(1.0)(0 kip-ft)

Try an l5x5x1'2 for the brace member.

..'

=[l.0+0.14(0.528))(0 kips)

+ 1.0{0 kip-ft)+0.5(0 kip-ft)

= 1.48 kip-fl

ASD

= l.21 iip-ft

The available compressive strength of a tension-<>nly brace is ignored in the design of the
bracing. Therefore in order to ensure the brace will buckle in compression under relatively
minor loading, use a tension-only brace with a slendem~s ratio greater than the recommended maximum effective slenderness ratio, KL/r, of 200 as indicated in the User Note in
Section E2 of the AISC Specification. According to the User Note in AlSC S1>ecijicario11
Section D l. K.L!r of members designed on the ba:;is of tension should preferably not excc!ed
300. Therefore the effecli\e slenderness ratio, KL/r, is selected to be greater than 200, but
less than

300.

Determine K
According to AISC SpecificalWTI Appendix 7, Section 7 .2.3(a), for braced frame systems the
effective length factor for members subject to compression shall be taken as 1.0, w1less a
rational analysis indicates that a lower value is appropriate.
The overall length of the brace diagonal in each bay is:

L = J(4-0.0 ft)2 +(40.0 ft) 2


=56.6 ft

This length lw been determined by calculating the distanee between the work points based
on the intersection of the centcrHnes of the diagonal braces, columns and beam. Shorter
lengths m;iy be used if justified by the enginur of record.
Single angles in Xbracing are normally continuous for the full diagonal length of the bay
,1.;1h the orientation of each brace rcver~cd as s.hown in Figure 5-8, pcnnitting the brae~
to be coonecred to each other by bolling at mid-length. The effective length in 1his arrangement is 0.85 times the half diagonal length cons1dcring the radius of gyration in the z-a.."<is,
'r. (El-Tayem and Goel, 1986).

S-78

BRACED FRAl-1F.S

S.2 ORDINARY CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FR.AMES

L: =0.5L

=0 .5(56.6 ft)

LRFD

ASD

= 28.3 fl

$1Pn

K%= 0.85
Ktlt

Pn

=0.90(17~ kips)
= J 55 kips> 51.l ltips

, n, =

o.k.

=I03 kips > 35'.8 kips

= 0.85(28.3 ft){I2 in./ft)

r~

0.980 in.

o.k.

The limit state of tension rupture on the effective area should also be checked; however, by
inspection, it would not control.

=295
The slenderness,

172 kips
1.61

X:-, is greater than 200, but Jess than 300, and therefore meets the desired

range based on I.he User Notes in Sections DJ and E2 of the AISC Specification.
Note that ~e suggested slenderness limit of 300 does not apply to rod bracing, nor does the
0.85 effecuve length factor.

Determine the available tensile strength


For tensile Y.ielding on tpe gross se.ction, the ~omJnaJ tensile strength is:

Pn = FyAg

(Spec. Eq. D2-J)

=36 ksi ( 4.79 in.2)

Determine the available flexural strength


During the governing seismic lond conditions, the bracing is subject to significant axial
tension with some minor flexure due to self-weight. The large axial tension loading provides'a stabilizing effect to the brace and negates the effect of lateral-torsional buckling due
to flexure. Therefore, even though the member is not laterally restrained along the length,
when consideration is given to the significant axial tension load in the member, flexural
suenglh can be based on the limit state of yielding only. This assumes that the single-anglt
has continuous lateral restraint along the length; therefore, the lateral-torsional buckling
limit state does not apply. Additionally, because the section is compact, the limit state of
leg local buckling does not apply.
The nominal tle."tural strenglh due to yielding is:

=172 kips

(Spec. Eq. FI0-1)

Mn= 1.5M1

I:.
t

Mn= l.5SxF1

The available tensile strength is:

<>

= 1.5(3.15 in. 3 )(36 ksi)(l ft/12 in.)


= 14.2 kip-ft
The available flexural strength is:

LRFD
High~strength

bolt
with spacer plate

~11Mn

=0.90(14.2 kip-ft)

ASD
'

= 12.8 kip-ft:> 1.48 kip-ft

Mn

14.2 ltip-ft
1.67
=8.50 kip-ft> 1.21 kip-ft

-=
o.k.

Qb

o.k.

Consider second-order effects


Follow I.he calculation procedure of AlSC Specification Appendix 8.

Fig. 5-&. Connt!ction of single-angle diagonol braces at mid-point.

M,=B1Mm+B21r

(Sptc. Eq. A-8-1

P, = Pn1 + /hP11

(Sptc. Eq. A-8-21

Calculate 81

8 1 l.00 according to Section 8.2 of AlSC Sptcificarion Appendix 8, as the member is or ,


subject 10 compression.
.; :

.,

BRACED FRJ\.C\1E8

...

S l ORDINARY C01'CLNTRJCALLY B~\CEO l'R,,\!>IES

Calculate B2

~:

a= LOO {I.RFD): a = 1.60 (ASD)

I,,.~

P"""' is lhe Lota! vertical load on the story calculated using the applicable load case. As cal

Af,

culated in &ample 5.2. 1:

I ...

~ps

P_, = l,130

=1.00(1.48kip-ft)+1.01(0 kip-ft)

=81M"' + /hM11
= l.OO(J.21kip-ft)+1.01(0 kip-fl)

=1.48 kip-ft

=1.21 kip-ft

= B1M,., + IhMtz

l~

!.

LRFD

Ill

=R.11 D.H
=l.O 136 kips(40.0 fl)

(Spec. Eq. A-8-7)

1
t- cx.Psrorz

~l

ASD

Ih =

~ 110'1

l
l- oPJtcry

~l

Pi, = J5.8 kips

=1.01

Mtr.,. 0 kip-ft

=Piil +lhPiz
= 0 kips+ 1.01(35.8 kips)
=36.2 kips

=51.6 kips

P, _ 51.6 kips
Pc 155 ldps

ASD

LRFD

'

36.2 ltips
-:::
Pc 103 kips
0.351
P,

=0.333

Because P,IPc <? 0.2, lhc brace design is controlled by the equal.ion:

I.RFD

=1.48 kip-ft

P,

Check combined loading of the L5x5x'/z brace:

~JCst-ord~ be?<'ing moments with the strncture rcslr.\ined against !:Heral lr.lnslation (grav-

Mni =M,,

ASD

Pr =Pnr + B2Piz
= 0 kips+ 1.01(51.l kips)

_ 1.60(740 kips)
1
85,800 kips

ity loads Ill this case), and due Lo lateral translation of the story are, respectively:

!i

Piil =O kips

=51.1 kips

P. ""'7

I_ l.00(1,130 kips)
85,800 lcips
= 1.01

'

=0 kips

LRFD

LRFD

")'

P,,,
fl,

Using AlSC Specification Equatjon A-8-6:

,..~

fh -

ASD

The required -;trength oftbe brace including secondordcr effects is, from AISC Specification
Equation A-8-2:

= 85,800 kips

'

first-order ruual force:. wilh the strucrurc restrained ag:uaq lateral trani;lation <gravity loads in
this ca..<.e), and due to lateral translation of Lhe story from seismic loading are, l'C$pechvely:

LRfD

(0.761 in.)(l fl/J 2 in.)

- - - ;:-:;:J

M,

ASD

RM= 1.0 (braced frame)

P, nory

..

ASO

LRFD

ASD
Mm =Ma
= 1.21 kip-ft
M11 = 0 kip-ft

The required fle.'(ural screnglh of the brace including second-<:>rder effects is, from AJSC
Specification Equation A-8-1:

(Spec. Eq. Hl-1 :i)

LRFD

!(o+

51.6 kips ..
155 kips 9
0.436< 1.0

ASD

J.48 kip-ft)= 0.436


12.8 kip-ft

oi.

!(o +

36.2 k.ips +
103 kips 9
0.478< 1.0

kip-ft)== 0.478

1.21
8.50 kip-ft

o.k.

Note that I.he y-y _axis bending moment from the self-weight of the diagonal br.lce utih
about 11 % of the member capacity.
;U1ERJCAl'I lNs'rm1r6 OF STEJlL O:lHs'nucnON

BRACED FRAMES

Use an L5x5x1h in the tension--only configuratfon for OCBF diagonal Brace BR- I

BraC:es must be continuous through and bolled to each other at the intersecung JOint as
shown in Figure 5-8.

5.3. SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED


F~AMES (SCBF)
Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) systems, like other concentrically braced
frai:nes, resist lateral forces and displacements primarily through the axial strength and stiffness of the brace members. In concentrically braced frames. the centerlines of the framing
m~bers (bra~, columns, and beams) coincide or nearly coincide, eliminating or mini
mwng flexure m tbe system, The design of SCBF S}'stems is addressed in AJSC Seismic;
Provisic11$ Section F2. Whlle the general layout of an SCBF is \'ety similar to that of an
orilinary concentrically braced frame (OCBF), there are additional detailing requircmcntS to
focus ductile behavior of the frames into the braces. These detailing requirements provide
for greater energy dissipation anil duciility, allowing SCBF systems to be designed using a
lower force level in comparison to that of OCBF systems.
Concentrically braced frame systems tend to be more economical than moment resisting
frames aitd eccentrically broced frames in te1ms of matcrfal, fabrication and erecrion costs.
They .do, however, often have reduced flexibility in floor-plan layout, space planning, and
clectncal and mechanical routing as a result of 1he presence of braces. In certain circum
stances, howe,er, braced frames are exposed and fe:llurcd in the architeciure of the building.
Braced frames typically are localed in walls lha! stack vcrticaJly between floor levels. In
the typical office building. these walls generally occur in the core area around suiir and elc
vator shafts, cen1ral resirooms, and mechanical and electrical rooms. This generally allows
for greater architectural flexibility in placement and configuration of exterior windows and
cladding.

. ~ considering the configuration of a braced fr:imc system, both in plan and elevation, it
is unportant to note the requirements for redundancy in the system. The AISC Sei$tniC
Provisions require that a braced frame system balance the compression and tension braces.
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.4a requires that along any line of bracing, the braces
are oriented to resist a t least 30% but not more than 70% of the 1otal horiz.onts.l force in tension unless the exception in Section P2.4a is met
. The Al~C Seismic. Pro_visio~. limit member slenderness, compressive strength, and
WJdth-t~ckness rauos, m addiuoo to requiring special detailing for gusset plates. The
cwnula1J,e ~eA of these ~uiremcnts is inleoded to result in braces that maintain a high
level of ducuhty and bysterebc damping when subjected to severe seismic forces.
Brsc.e slenderness is limited to ensure adequate compressive strength and resistance to the
eyeUc degradation of the brace. The post-buckling performance of the brace is dependent on
the compactness of Ille members used. Members with a higher width-to-thickness rntio are
more susceptible to local buckling, which may lead to tearing of the brace material in the
buckled areas prior to the dissipatfon of a significant amount of energy. This behavior results
in a system with signHicantJy lower energy dissip:uion cap:ibility.
. The la_st of the predominant issues relating to the bracing members is the spacing of
mtenned1ate connecrors of double angle, double channel or similar built-up braces. AJSC
Seismic Prtn:isicn.r Section P2.5b ootes that connectors should be placed such th:it the air,

5.:l SPECIAi.

CON('UNTRJCAU~Y

BAAl'W

tKA1v11.:J

value for the individual components of the brace is less than 40% of the governing slcu
demess of the built-up member. Addiuonally, 11 is required that the connectors have a ~bt
strength that develops the tensile strength of individual components of the brace. The
two provisions are intended to ensure that the brace buckles as a unit, thus allowing more
reliable behavior. The connector requirements are reduced wben it can-be shO\\ n that 1'"~1
brace assembly can buckle as a single element without inducing shear forces in the co
nectors between the individual members. In any case, no fewer than two connectors a.
allowed with uniform spacing, and bolted connectors are not permitted in the middle ooefourth of the clear brace length. The limitation on the Jocati~n of bolted ~ttn~hme~ts
included to gu:ud against premature fracture due to the formauon of a plasuc htnge in LI

l.

buckled brace.
In order to increase ductility and energy dissipation of. the system the connection( l
must be detailed to accommodate the effects of br.:ice bucklmg. Curren~y. there ar~ l\
approaches used in the design of these coonecuons; lh~e :ire smted m AlSC Se1sm. ~
Provisions Sections F2.6c(3)(a) anJ F2.6c(3)(b}. The first approach creates enough strengt'
and rigidity in the connections to force the brnce to form plastic hinges at the ends and mi \
die of the brace under compressive forces. The second appro:icb utilizes out-of-pla1
buckling of the gusset plate such that plastic hinges occur in the gusset plate a l the brae'
ends with a hinge stlll occurring at the midpoint of the brace. This usually is accommodDIW
in one o f two ways. As one opt.ion, the connection can. be detailed such 1hnt the end ~f ti
brace is located a distance of at least two times the thickness of the gusset from the intc
section of the gusset and the beam or column. This configuration is shov. n in Al SC Seismic
Provisions Commentary Figure C-F2.9. The value.of two rim~ the thickn.es~ of th.e gus~ I
bas been developed through research and analysis. Ahemauvely, an cllipucal yield b. !
approach can be u~d (Lehman et al., 2008). AISC Seismic PM is1ons Section F2.t.c
addresses beam-to-column connection issues related to the accommodation of large seismic
drifts associated with the yielding and buclcling of the braces. Tb.is provision is iliscussed
gre:iter detail in the following.
.
The design requirements for most btiSic frnme configuratjons are covered hy Lhe conditions listed earlier in thls section. V-~yPe and in~ert~ V-ty~ frames,_ however, ~re requir1"' \
to meet additional criteria, as noted in AISC Se1sm1c Prov1sio1is Secuon F2.4b.
The.~ requfrements are intended to reduce the effect of a loss in strength of tl1c comprc... .,
sion brace relati"ve 10 the tension brace in the post-buckling f3Jlgc. as shown in Figure 5-9. A
the compression brace buckles under !~ad, its capab~lity to re~ist the \ertical load i~ climi
ished relative to the strength of the tenStOn br.l<:e. This results ID an unblllanced verucal Jo;
between the two members. which exens additional ,ert.ical force on the beam. Braced framtconfigu:rotions utilizing zipper columns and two-story X configurations. as shown in Figures
5-9(b) and 5-9(c), distribute this unbalanced vertical load to other levels that are not expt
encing b.igh seismic demands, providing for better overall frame performance.
Another check covered in the AJSC Seismic Provisions relates to columns that are part or
the SCBF system. Columns are required to meet the highly ductile width-to-thickness cri1
ria according to AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5a. and have special considerations r
their splices. According to AISC St!ismic Provisions Se.ction P2.6d, column splices mus:,
develop :i required shear strength equal LO W pclHc for LRFD and rJ.1pcl(l.5llc) for ASD.
This requirement is intended to accOODt for the possibility of the columns sbanng some
the lateral force demand through frame action as the brace elements defoon inclastical
deflecting the frnmes beyond what elastic calcul.uions might predict. Additionally.

l
i

;I

5-84

BRACED FRAMEs

h.. ~ .

r I
f I

noted I.bat the column splices m~st be located at least 4 ft from the beam-to-column flange
connections in AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5a.
,

<i.
;

Design of Gusseted Beam-to-Column Connections


to Accommodate Large Drifts

l
~ I
1::

AISC qeismic Provisions Section F2.6b requires that gusseted beam-to-column connections .!>e designed to accoffiinodate demands corresponding to large drifts. In the contex;
of this provision, the connectiqi;i consjsts of the gusset plate, the affected parts of the beam
a.nd c.otumn, and any other connectj1;m .ma~erial, such as angles and plates, interconnect-

L.\
I

.:!:

!.H
..

ing these elements.

Two methods of accommodating demands corresponding to large. drifts are provided.


First, as described in AISC S,eismfc ProvisiQns Seccion F2.6b(a), the connection may be
detailed to pro~idc sufficient rotation capacity .such that the bean1 and column are not constrained to rorate together ~ the. frame defonns. The provision defines this ~quired relative
rotation as 0.025 rad. Connections similar to the simple connections prese~ted in Part 10 of

sJ
...

~-

':J; ,

tl
..,

.~.

Yielding
brace

Yielding
brace

;~

~;

(a) Inverted V.braced


(chevron) fra{lle

t: l
~~

(b) Inverted Vbrocedfram~


with zipper column

,,"... .
g
:~
:~

.....

'
~

:;,

~;
~:

Yielding
brace

I.

Buckled
brace ~

,.;;.
(

the AISC Manual and meeting the rotational ductility checks described in Part 9 of the AISC
Manual can be assumed to provide a minimum. of 0.03 rad and satisfy the intent of the AISC
Specification Section B3.6a for simple connections. TI1e Part 9 rotational if~ctility che~ks
are intended for use with connections between 6 in. and 36 in. deep and with gcometnes
similar to those shown in che AISC Mo.nu.al. 'J;'he use of deeper connectio~, smaller.ser.:off
distances ~tween the supported and supporting members, or smaller edge distances can
affect the ability of connections to accommodate large rotations in a ductile manner.
It is important to nore that these bounds apply to the connection as a whole. For example,
if the colUlection at the column face consists of a dollble-angle connection from column
flani>e-co-gusset and a double-angle connection from column flange-to-beam web, the two

dou~le-angle comiections should not be considered as separate; they should be considered

as rotating about a single point and the entire depth of the assembly should not exceed 36
in. in order for the roration requiremeocs to be deemed satisfied in the absence of further
demonstration. Physical testS can also be used to demonstrate adequate rotation capacity.
The second method of accommodating demands cotTesponding to large drifts is described
inAJSC Seismic Provisions Secrion F2.6b(b). Rather than aUempting to detef11Une the actual
d~mand placed on gusseted connections by seismic drifts, this method establishes an upper
bound demand based on flexural yielding of either the beam or the column. It .is assumed
that these members have sufficient rotationarductility to maintain their function aS bracedframe members when subjected to 'inelastic rotation. The connection is designed to re'.sist a
moment corresponding to the lesser of 1.1 times the expected beam flexural strength and l. l
times the sum of the expected column flexural strength above and below the connection.
This moment is considered in conjunction with the brace forces corresponding to the brace
expected strength. Connection assemblies may be designed to resist this moment i~ one of
two ways. The enpre assembly may be analyzed wic~ the required moment and axial force
applied and all connection elements designed for the correspon~ing forces. Conn~ct~g the
beam itself to the column by a fully restrained moment connection capabl~ of resisting the
expected flexural strength of the beam is.another option. Wirh this option the gusset plate
and related connection elements may be designed for forces derived considering ~e brace
\
.
connection required strength.
Thus, there are three methods of complying with AJSC Seismic Provisions SectJon F2.6b
presented in this Manual. :gach of these m.etbods is presented in a different connectio~ example-Examples 5.3.10, 5.3.11 and 5.3.12. These examples also illustrate three d1fferent
methods of accommodadng the rotation associated with brace buckling as required by
Section F2.6c(3). There is no correlation between the inethod of accommodating frame drift
and the method of accommodating brace rotation due to buckling, i.e., any method of com
plying with Section F2.6b may be used in conjunction witb. any method of complying with
Section F2.6c(3). Examples 5.3.10, 5.3.11 ~nd 5.3.12 are configured as follows:

Example

5.3.!0
5.3.ll

(c) 1ko story X-bracedfrorne

5.3.12
Fig.'5-9. Assumed inel.astic defomiation. of various bracedfrwne co11jiguration.s.
AM.ERICAN

lNsTrnrrn 01' Sn;a CONmucno.'i

S-85

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

Method of complying with AISC


Seismic Provisions Section F2.6b

Method of complying with AISC


Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(3)

Detailed to provide rotation per


Section F2.6b(a)
Detailed as FR connection
per Section F2.6b(b)(i)
Designed to resist moments per
Section F2.6b(b)

Linear hinge zone


Elliptical hinge zone
Hinge plate for in-plane brace
buckling

BRACED FRA\.fF.S

E:<amples 5.3.J through 5.3.6 address analysis and SCBF rncmber design issues. Example
5.3.7 dcmons1rates how to determme the maximum force on the sys1cm wbcn limited by
foundation uplift. Examples 5.3.8 and 5.3.9 address b.race--to-beam connection de.~ign.

I'

Example 5.3.1. SCBF Brace Design


Given:

Refer to Brace BR l in Figure 5-11. Select an ASThl A500 Grade B round HSS to resist the
following ;Wal lo3d~

SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation


The following examples illustrate lhe design of SCBF systems based on AlSC St.ismic
Provisions Section F2. The plan and elevation are shown in Figure 5-10 and Figure 5-11.
The lateral forces shown in Figure 5-1 l are the seismic forces from the equivalent lMeraJ
force procedure of ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.8 and apply to the entire frame.
The code-specified gravity loading is as follows:

=85 psf
Drocf =68 psf
Dflcor

Po

=18.0 kips

The applicable building code specifies lhe use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of lo:ids. The

a..rjaJ force due to the snow load is negligible.

Relevant seismic design parameters were given in the SCBF Design Example Pl:in and
Elevation section.

from an elastic analysis, the first-order inten.tory drift between the base and the second level
is !J.H =0.200 in.

L/roor =80 psf (50 psf reduced)


S
:::: 20 psf
Curtain w<\ll =175 lblft along building perimeter at every le..-el

~
1-----=~-----'-t.

From ASCFJSEI 7, the Seismic Design Category is D, 0 0 2.0, R =6, p =J .3, and Sos=
LO. Assume that the effective length method of AlSC Specific01ion Appendix 7 is u~ed for
subitity design.

25'-0"

~oof

~~

Pa1: =197 kips

Pt= 9.50 kips

30'-o

t-H

~l+l

N'

-----1!1

~Ourth

I--~!!:.:.:.:=-~~~~~--!

Level

m: l

----"'-"------------~~----~
-~- - - - --l ~~;~:estlgated
l~
..............

......

in Part 4.

SCBF investigated in Part 5

For elevation, see Figure 4-8.

Fig. 5-10. SCBF plan for SCBF membtr uamplu.


AMEIUCAN lNSTTIVTt! Of! S11!a COl'IS'lllUCTION

Third
Level

Fx,= 84 kips
Column splice 48"
above finished
floor (typ.)

CD
c-,
.....

l-'------:l

= 91 kips

CD

30-0

30'-0"

l
l

.':?
N

Second
Level

5'
.....
""'

.....J

(.)

Base

Fig. 5-11. SCBF tfei:aricnfor SCBF mtmber aomplts.

,.,.

S-88

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRlCALLY BRACED ffiA.ME.S

Assume that the ends of the brace are pinned and braced against translation for boib the
x-x and y-y axes.

~
f(

BRACED FRAMES

The required axial tensile strength of the brace is:

C::;

ii...

LRFD

Solution:

ASD

LRPD Load Combinntion 6 from

From AISC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties are as follows:

ASD Load Combination 8 from


ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

ASTM A500 Grade B

Fy =42 ksi
Fu= 58 ksi

Pu= [0.9-0.2(1.0)j(18.0 kips)

P0 =[0.6-0.14(1.0)](18.0 kips)

+ 1.3(-197kips)+1.6(0 kips)

+ 0.7(1.3)(-197 k.ips)+O kips

= -244 kips

:::::-171 kips

Required Strength
The unbraced length of the brace from work point-to-work point is:

Determine the required strength

The governing load combinations that include seismic effects are:

LRFD

...

:
r},

LRFD Load Combinations 5 and 6 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3
(including the 0.5 factor on L permitted

= 18.8 ft

ASD

This length has been determined by calculating the distance between che work points base<l
on the intersection of the centerlines of the brace, column and beams. Shorter unbraced
lengths of the brace may be used if justified by the engineer of record.

ASD Load Combinations 5 and 8 from


ASCEISEl 7 Section 12.4.2.3

'.
:--:-:

by Section 12.4.2.3)

~11

(1.2 + 0.2Sos)D + pQE.+ 0.5L + 0.2S

(1.0 + 0.l4Svs)D

(0.9 - 0.2Sos)D + PQE + l.6H

(0.6 - 0.14Svs)D + 0.7pQE + H

~;

l= ~(14.0 ft)2 +(12.5 ft)2

AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.4a requires that between 30% and 70% of the tots! hor
izontal force is resfated by brace~ in tension. From analysis, the.total horizontal force in the

+ H + F + O)pQE

line of the braced frame is 91 kips + 84 kips + 57 kips + 30 kips =262 kips. The horizontal

component of the axial force due to earthquake force in Brace BR-1, when it is in tension is:
12 5
ft )(l97 k.ips) =131 kips
( 18.8
ft
.

The required axial compressive strength of the hrace is:

LRFD .
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

Pu= [l.2+ 0.2(1.0)j(lS.O kips)

- "..

ASD

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3

+O kips+O kips

+ 0.5(9.50 kips)+0.2(0 kips)

+ 0.7(1.3)(197 kips)

Try a round HSS8.625x0.500 for the brace.

From AISC Manual Table 1-13, the geometric properties are as follows:

P,, =[l.0+0.14(1.0))(18.0 kips)

+ 1.3(197 kips)

=286 kips

which is 50% of the total horizontal force in the line of the braced frame. Therefore, it meets
the lateral force distribution requiremepts in AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.4a.

D= 8.625 in.
[-:::: 100 in.~

0.500 in.
r= 2.89 in.
lncm =

tdes

=0.465 in.

A :::: 11.9.in..-,

:::200 kips

Width-to-Thickness Umitations

.I

According to AISC Seismic Pro'Visions Section F2.5a, braces must sa~sfy the requirements
for highly ductile members. Elements .in the brace members must not ~xceed AmJ width
to-thickness ratios in AISC Seismic Provisions Table D 1.1.

From Table Dl.l:

,,

ASD

8.625 in.
=0.465
- - in.
Ide$

[l.2+0.2(1.0)]

+ 0.2(20 psf)

=0. 038 (29,000 ksi)


42 ksi

X(l kip/1,000 lb)

p .2+0.2(1.0)J

~26:2

Ides

=9,000 ft 2

l[L0+0.14(1.9)]
x[68 psf+3(85 psf)]

x(l kip/1,000 lb)

[t.o+o.14ci.o)]

:S A.1i4 , tbe HSS8.625x0.500 satisfies the width-to-thickness limitation for highly

ductile members.

x[175 lb/ft(4)(. 390 ft)]

J:

I l!

x(l kip/l,000.Jb)

= 3,630 kips

x(l k:ip/1,000 lb)

+ 0 psf + 0 psf + 0 psf

+ xll75 lb/ft(4)(390 ft)]

Smee -

P.riory

+ 0 psf + 0.5(3)(50 psf)

A.ht! = 0.038.. F,

x(68 psf + 3(85 psf)]

= 18.5

1 ,,

= 5,160 kips
. _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _......__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ . , j

Alternatively, using Table 1-6, it can be seen that the HSS8.625x0.500 will satisfy the
width-to-thickness requirements for an SCBF brace.

Brace Slenderness
Use K= I .0 for both. the x-x and y-y axes. According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section

F2.5b(l ), braces must have a slenderness ratio KL $ 200.

The total story shear, H, with t':VO bays of bracing in che direction under consideration.
where each bra~ed.frame is designed to resist the seismic loads shown in Figure 5-11, i s
determined as follows. From an elastic analysis, the first-order interstory drift is D.H ;,
0.200 in.

, ,.

l
h

H =2(91 kips+84.k:ips+57,k:ips+30 kips).


=524 kips

'

L =14.0 ft

KL _ 1.0(18.8 ft)(i2 i~.fft)

RM =1. 0 for a braced frame

2.89 in.

=78. l < 200

o.k.

HL

(Spec: Eq. A-8-7)

Pe.r1ory=R1t1-

6.H

Second-Order Effects

the

Follow
procedure of AISC Specification Ap~n<Jb: 8.
only the following equation need be checked.

Becaus~ there are no momen~,


(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

....

= l.O - 52.4 kips(l 4.0 fl)


(0.200 in.)(l ft/12 in.) \

=~40,000 kips

Using AISC Specification Equation A-8-6:

Calculaie 82
To detennine P~llJry use an area of 9,000 ft2 on each floor and the gravity loads !riven in the
SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation section. Use load combinations that ;elude seismic effects; in this case, Load Combination 5 from ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.2.3 for LR.FD
and ASD governs.

LRFD

lh=---->1
l_

a.P11ory -

ASD

Bi=

1
l- aPstory

Pe s10ry
1
= _ 1.00(5,160 kips)
1
440,000 kips

~1

Pestory

=-

-1. 6-0-(3-,6-30~ki-ps-)

1
,

== 1.01 ~ l

1:

440,000 kips

=1.01~1

Because B2 S 1.5, 1he effective length method is a valid way 10 check stability according 10
AISC Specification Appendix 7.

yield strength oflhe brace in tension, a 13% decrease in brace area would reduce th~ require.
connec1ion strength.

The required axial compressive Sl.J'Cllgth of the brace including second order effects is, from
AISC Specification Equation A-8-2:

Example 5.3.2. SCBF Analysis

(Spec. Eq. A8-2)

LRFD

ASD

Pu =(1.2 + 0.2Sos) Po + B2PQe

Pa =IL0+0.14(1.0)]Po

+ Pn +PF+ 0.7pBzPa,;

+0.5L+0.2S

=IJ.2 + 0.2(1.0)](18.0 ldps)


+ 1.01(1.3)(197 kips)

+ 0.5{9.~0 kips)+ 0.2(0 kips)


= 289 kips

..

Give'n :
Refer to the braced frame elevation and sizes shown in Figure 5-12. All braces' are ASTM
A500 Grade B round HSS. Perform an analysis to determine the expected strengths in 1ension and compression of tl1e braces according to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3.
Some engineers may choose not to change the brace size at every level, but they are different a1 every level in these design examples to fully illustrate 1he AJSC Seismic Provisions

=!l.0+0.14(1.0)J(l8.0 kips)
+ 0 kips+O kips

requirements.

+ 0.7(1.3)(1.01)(197 kips)
= 202 kips

Solution:
From AJSC Manual Table 2-4, 1he material properties are as follows:

Available Compressive Strength

As stated previously, use L = 18.8 ft for the unbraced length of the brace.
From AISC Manual Table 4-5 for !he HSS8.625x0.500 brace with KL= 18.8 ft (using
interpolation), the available compressive strength is:

LRFD

Roof

o.k.

~ =206 kips > 202 lcips

<'?

N
,-

o.k.
Fourth
Level

~c

Available Tensile Strength

'9

Prom AISC Manual Table 5-6 for the HSS8.625x0.500 brace, the available tensile yielding strength is:

LRFD

....

Third
Level

ASD

cp,P,, == 450 kips> 244 kips

25'-0"

ASD

G>cPn =309 kips > 289 kips

"

o.k.

P.

nn, = 299 kips > 171 ldps

<.OI

N
,-

o.k.
Second

i::
~~.

Level

Tensile rupture on the. net section must also be checked at the connection; see Examples.

5.3.8 and 5.3.10 for mustrntion of this check.


Use an HSS8.625x0.500 for SCBF Brace BR-1.

"'Base

Comments:

f
,,
...::.

'

The engineer of record may be able to justify a shorter unbraced length for the brace. In this
ex.ample, if an unbraced length of 14 ft could be justified, an HSS7.500x0.500 could have
been used for !he brace. Because the end connections may be designed to resist the expected

Fi8 5 -12. SCBF elevatio11for Example 5.3.2.

J\Jl1E1UCA11 lNSTmm! OP STEa CONSTXOCTION

AMERICAN 1NS1Tl'Vl"I! OF Sn:a. CO~STR'UCTION

..

5.3 SPECIAL CONCF..NTRJCAllY BRACED FRAMES

F2 6c(3)(b)] by allowing 3 2 1 clearance between the end of the brace and the line of
res.tr:iint. ll is likely that the actu3.l length from brnce end-to-brace_ end .between the con.
11 be ifi ti less than the work point-to-work point distance calcul:Hed
necnons w1
sign can y
.

t I 12
reviously. Example 5.3.8 verifies that the actual lengtl' of the brace 1s appro~una e Y
~o 13 ft; therefore, use a length of 12 ft for determining the expected strength U1 compres-

ASTM A500 Grade B

0 =42 ksi
Fu= 58 ksi
Prom AISC Manual Table 1- 13, the geometric properties of the br:ices are:

. '

sion for all braces.

r=2.02 in.

HSS6.875x0.500
A= 9.36 in.2

r = 2.2,7 in..

The following Tubles 5-1 and 5-2 show the expected strengths in tension a~d ~e e~pected
and post-buckling strengths in compression of all braces. A s~ple calculauon is given for
the HSS6x0.312, and a similar procedure is used to detemune the strengths of the other
braces. From AISC Seismic Provisions Table A3. l:

r= 2.49 in.

f .h b
. t
Ry= 1.
From AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, the expected strength o l c race m en-

HSS7.500x0.500
A= 10.3 in. 2

HSS8.625x0.500
A= 11.9 in. 2

\:

sion is:

r= 2.89 in.

Pr~n.sion =

According to AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, the required strenglhs of columns,
beams and connections are based on the load combinations in the applicable building code.
where the amplified seismic load, Emh. is based on the larger force determined from the following two analyses:
(i) An analysis in which all braces arc assumed to resist forces corresponding to their

expected strength in compression or in tension


(ii) An analysis in which all braces in tension are assumed to resist forces corresponding
to their expected strength and all br:ices in compression are assumed to resist their
expected post-buckling strength

In order to study the effects of analyses (i) and (ii) on the rest of the frame, the expected
compres~ion
the post-buckling strength in compression must be
strengths in tension
determined for all of the braces.

and

-1

\:

HSS6x0.312
A =5.22 in. 2

and

RyFyAg

=l.4(42 ksi)(5.22 in.2)

,
..,i:

=307 kips

R .F, is used in lieu of Fy for the determination of Fcre according to ATSC


In compresSion, y y
AISC s ifi Chapter
Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, where Fcre is determined from
peci canon
E, using the equations for Fer

KL l.0(12.0 ft)(l 2 in.lft)


-=
2.02 in..
r
=71.3

4.7 1~ RyFy
E =4.7 1

29,000 ksi
1.4(42 ksj)

I
\

For detennining the expected strength in compression, AJSC Seismic Provisions Section
F2.3 requires that the brace length used shall not exceed the distance from brace end-to-brace
end. The work poinHo-work point length of the typical brace above the base level is:

L=Jo2.5 ft)

= 105
Because 71.3 < 105, AISC Specification Equation .E3~2 applies,

an~

Fcre is determined as

follows:

..l

+ (12.5 ft)2

(Spec. .Eq. E3-4) .;;

= 17.7 ft
The work point-to-work point length of the brace al the base level is:
L

1t2 (29,000 ksi)


2

=J(l4.0 ft) 2 +(12.S ft) 2

: 18.8 ft

= 56.3 ksi

(71.3)

The brace length will be less than lhis distance because of the column and beam depth and
because I.he gusset will accommodate brace buckling [AISC Seismic Provisions Section

...

5.3 SPE.Cll\L CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

S-96

Fett= 0.658

In Examples 5.3.3 through 5.3.6, the forces generated in this :inalysis wiU be considered in
the dc~ign of the beam. column and colulTUI splice connection. The diagram in Figure 5-13
shows the forces imposed on the frame from buckJing and yielding of U1e braces. For the
analysis provisions of AISC Seismic Provisions F2.3(ii), che expected strengths of the braces
in compression shown in Figure 5-l3a nre multiplied by 0.3 (expected post-buckling brace

!!Li
(from Spec. Eq. E3-2)

RyF1

F.

1.4(42 ksi)

= 0.658 <563 .ksi)


=38.0 ksi

...

(1.4)(42 ksi)

strength) and shown in Figure 5-13b.

From AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, U1e expected strength of che brace in compression is:

..
;.:

=1.14(38.0 ksi)(5.22 in.2)

~:

Roof

=226 kips
3~

Fourth
Level

R1 F1 A9
kips

HSS6x0.312

5.22

307

Third

HSS6.875l<0.500

9.36

550

Level

HSS7.500x0.500

10.3

606

HSS8.625x0.500

11.9

700

Expected Strength

~..

: .
:>

In Compression
Brace
Member

A=A1

'

Length

in.i

In.

ft

Kl.Jr

F.,..
ksl

HSS6l<0.312

5.22

2.02

12.0

71.3

38.0

63.4

41.6

1.14F-4,
kl)ls

226

Expected PostBuck/irig
Strength in Compression

0.3(1.14F.,..Ag)
kips
67.8

2.27

12.0

444

133

HSS7.500x0.500

10.3

2.49

12.0

57.8

44.1

518

155

HSS8.625x0.500

11.9

2.89

12.0

49.8

47.5

644

193

HSS6.875x0.500

9.36

.
0

Expected Brace Strength and Post.. Buckling


Brace Strength in Compression

!~

.
I

~
,....

Base

444 kips

"' ""'/
518 kips

Table 5-2

307 kips

<9

1..

550 kips

Second
Level

/""

t:>

A
ln.2

Brace
Member

l ~I

226 kips

Table 5-1

Expected Brace Strength in Tension

;'. 1

"' ""'/

<9

"
- - -- y:;

25'-0"

I
\

/"" .

700 kips

""'/

606 kips

644 kips

""

Fig. 5-13a. Forces imposed on frame from brace b11cklinglyielding


according co AJSC Seismic Provisions Sec1ion F2.3(i).

..

---

BRACED FRA..~fES

.r ~v

~
.

'.

Roof

(Cl

N'

Fourth
Level

~
N

25'-0"

""'

550 kips

Third
Level

Second
l evel

Base

2(a) in Section F2.3 will also be considered. There are two additional Exceptions: 2(b)
forces corresponding 10th~ resistance of the foundation to overturning uplift, and 2(c) force!
determined from nonlinear anaJysis. Exception 2(b) will be considered in Example 5.3.6.

I;

Assume that the ends of the column are pi110ed and braced against translation for both the

x-x and y-y axes.


1.

Solutio n:
From AJSC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties a.re as follows:
ASTMA992
F_..,

=50 ksi

'

Fu= 65 ksi

133 kips

"'/

606 kips

/""

700 kips

307 kips

""' "'/
155 kips

~
..-

"'/
/""

67.8 kips

s-9

5.3 SPEClAL CONCENTIUCALLY BRACED FRAMES

Required Strength

i:

Determine the required strength of the column from A/SC Seismic Provisions
Section F2.3 (Mechanism Analysis)
According to AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, the required strengths of columns are I
based on the load combinations in the applicable building code, where the amplified seis- f':
mic load, Emh, is based on an analysis in which all braces are assumed to resist force~
corresponding to their expected strengths in compression or in tension. The analysis in
which the compression braces are at their post-buckling strength does not govern here.
\

193 kips

"'

"

Fig. 5-13b. Forces imposed on frame from brace bucJtling!yirlding


according to AJSC Seismic Pruvisions Section F2.3(ii).

Figure 5- 14 shows the forces from the expected strengths of the braces :is detemuned ir. '.
Example 5.3.2. These forces can be considered as applied loads acting on the columns and
as applied loads on the beam, which :ire :shown here as beam shears acting on rhe column. b
Because seismic forces must be considered in both directions, both columns in the frame
must be designed both for the maximum tension, shown for the column on gridline B, and
for the maximum compression, shown for i.he column on gridline C.

The axial compression force in the col'iunn frQm this analysis is, with forces that produce

compression in the column sh own as positive:

Example 5.3.3. SCBF Column Design

PE-.A

Given :
Refer to Column CL- l in Figure 5-1 l. Select an ASTM A992 W-shape with the available
strength required by the AISC Seismic Provisions.
Relevant seismic parameters were given in the SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation
section. The column forces from gravity and snow loads are the following:

Po= 147. kips

Pi= 60.0 kips

Ps = 7 .00 kips

The seismic force in Column CL-1 from tbe seismic forces stipulated by the app.licable
building code using an equivalent lateral force analysis, n9t including lbe Q,, amplification,
was determined from analysis to be PQr 248 kips.

The forces resulting from the expected strengths of the braces defined in AlSC Seismic
Provisions Section F2.3 and calculated in Eltample 5.3.2 must be considered. The Exception

'.;:

= (307 kips+444 kips+606 k:ips)sin45+(8.84 kips- 1,1.3 kips)


= 957 kips (compression)

The axial tension forc.e in the' column from this analysis is, with forces that produce tension
in the column shown as negative:

Ts.,. :::: (-226 kips-550 kips-518 kips)sin45+ (8.84 kips-11.3 kips)


::::-917 kips (tension)
Note tlult since the expected strength from the brace at the lowest level is not included, the
forces in tension and compression are not exactly equal.
Using the lo:ul combinations in ASCE/SEI 7 including the overstrcngth factor as requirec
by AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3 where the amplified seismic load is substituttr

BRACED FRAMES

with the. anaJysis described in Section F2.3, the required uial compres~ive ~rrength of lhe
column 1s.

L,

LRFD
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCf/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
(including lhe 0.5 facror on l permitted
in Se.ction 12.4.3.2)

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

+ 0 kips+ 0.7(957 kips)

..

.;.
._

- - -.... ~'.:":1
..

l9

N
.....

level

-fl
<
...

I""' --,,

226 kips

18~-~~

Fourth

<O

-
..-

550 kips

Third

level
t

"----~518 kips

N
..-

"

, 11.3 kip;'
,,/'

..,.
-
Base

700 kips

-----.-- --

307 kips
/

-~84 Id~_!
'
444 kips

-----~
/

606 kips

:'.!ldpsl

Pa =(0.6-0.14Svs)Po +O.?P1-:..,, +PH

=10.6-o.14{Lo)J(t47 kips)

+ 0.7(-917 k:ips)+O kips


=-574 kjps

Determine the required strength of the column from A/SC Seismic Provisions
Section F2.3 Exception (2)(a)

AISC Stismic Provisions Section F2.3 Exception l2)(a) sl.1tcs that the required strength of
columns need not exceed t~ forces determined using load combinations stipularcd by the
applicable building code including the amplified seismic load, applied to a building frame
model in which all compression braces have been removed. For exterior columns (columns
at lhe cods of a br:iced frame or at the ends of sevtra.I bays 0 1 bracing), forces determined
using this exception may be lower lhan rho:.e required by AISC Seismic Provisions Sc:<:tion
Dl.4a(2), in which case it might not be prudent to use this ex.ctption. In this example wit.h
a 2-srory X configuration, the required st.reng<h of the column detemunei.l from a model m
which compression braces have been removed resulcs in required strengths in tension that
are significantly lt:ss than forces detennined from the 11nalysis provisions of ATSC Seismic
Provisions Section F2.3.
For tlus example and for other rypical frrunes, a model that includes all brae.es can be used
with the load combinations including lhe code-based amplified seismic load to determine
the appropriate required strength of exterior columns. However. it mould be noted that for
interior c-0lumns in muJti-bay braces, a building frame model in which all compression
braces have been removed should be used.
Figure 5-11 shows the forces from an equivalent lateral force analysis, before the overstrength factor is applied. The seisllUc force in Column CL-1 from the seislll.lc forces
stipulated by rhe applicable building code using an equivalent lateral force analysis, not
including the 0 0 amplification, was determined from Malysis to be Par =248 !Ops.
Pa6

=248 ltips (compression)

Par= 248 kips (tension)

644 kips

""'

Fig. 5-14. SCBF opplied column forces for Example 5.3.3.


A.MEllCA/'l lHs"tmml

+(-917 kips)
=- 814 kips

ASD Load Combination 8 from


ASCe/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

=IJ.0+0.14(1.0)](147 kips)+O kips


=837 kips

ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

Pa =(!0+0.14Sos)Po +PH+ Pr
+ 0.7Pr;.,.

= l,190l5ps

::

LR.FD Load Combination 1 from

='0.9-0.2(1.0)](147 kips)

+ 0.5(60.0 kips)+0.2(7.00 kips)

0-8-oof

ASD

LRFD

Pu =(0.9-0.2Sos)Po +~

=ll.2+0.2(1.0)](147 lcips)+957 kips

5-10!

The rJuircd a:<1aJ tensile strength of the column 1s:

ASD

P,. =(1.2 +0.2Svs)Po +PE,,. + 0.5PL


+0.2Ps

tll

.53 SPECIAl CONCEN11UCALLY BRAC.FO fRAMr.S

" Srm.. ~

Using these forces in the full model which includes the compression braces as an approximation of Exception (2)(a) of AISC Seismic Prrwisions Section F23, the load combinations
in ASCEISEl 7 give a requircJ axial compressive scrcngth for the coJumn as follows:

~.

LRFD

f--~~~~~-LRFO~~~~~~~-f-~~~~~~A-S_D~~~~~~ 'r

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

P., =(l.2+0.2SDs)PD + [hh 0 Po1

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEl 7 Section J2.4.3.2

Pu= (l.2+0.2Sos )JD+ iloJ>G!t'+ 0.5PL

+ J.01(2.0)(248 kips)

+ 0.1Q 0 PQr

=fl.2+0.2(1.0)}(147 kips)

. +B2(0.?)!laPQ1

=[L2+0.2(1.0)j(l47 kips)

Pa =(l.0+0.14SDS )Po+ P11 +PF

+0.2Ps

Pa =(J.0+0.14Sos)Po +PH +PF

+0.5Pt+0.2Ps

+ 0kips+O1dps

+ 0.2(7.00 kips)

+ 0.7(2.0)(248 kips)

+ 0.2(7 .00 kips)


= 738 JOps

\.

+ 0 k.ips + 0 kips
+ l.Ol(0.7){2.0)(Z48 kips)

+ 0.5(60.0 kips)

=!L0+0.14(1.0)](147 kips)

+ 2.0(248 kips)+ 0.5(60.0 kips)

=IJ.0+0.14(1.~)](147 kips)

= 518 kips

'\
1

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-

= 733 kips

= 515 kips

For comparison, Table 5-3 provides a summary of the required :ix.ial strengths of the colum
based on the cwo different analyses considered.

The required axial tensile strength of the column is:

Try a W12x96.

LRFD
LRFD lp;id Combination 7 from
AS_CFJsw.7 Section U.4.3.2

ASD

P., =(0.9-0)Sos )Po+ Q.,PQr + l.6f'H

P0

=[0.9-0.2(1.0))(147 k.ips)

+ 2.0(-248ldps)+1.6(0 kips)
=- 393 kips

Use K = 1.0 for both the x-x and y-y axes. From AISC Manual Table 4- l, the avail.ab!
strength in nial compression for a W12><96 with KL= 14 ft:

=(0.6-0.14SDS )Po +0.1QaPQt +PH


=[0.6-0.14(1.0)](147 kips)

+ 0.7(2.0)(-248 kips)+ 0 kips

=- 280 kips

Because these required strengths are less than those determined from the mechanism analysis of AlSC Seismic Provisions Section P2.3, they will be used for lhe design of the col umil.
:.

Second-Order Effects

Because the column is designed for code-based forces rather than lhe mechanism analysis
requirements of AISC Seismic Pn:wisions Section F2.3, second~rder effects should be considered. From Example 5.3. l for the brace nt this level. B2 = 1.01. Because the columD does
not have.moments, I.here is no need to calculateB1 factors.
Therefore, the h:quired axial Compressive strength of the column including second-order
effects is, from AISC Specification Equation A-8-2:

Pr= P"' + Bi.f'tr

Available Compressive Strength

ASD Load CombinatioJl S from


AScEtSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

. ,...

Available Tensile Strength


From AISC Marn1al Table 5- l, the avaijable strength of the W12><96 column in axial tension for yielding on lhe groi:s section i~;

$ 1 Pn

=1,270 kips> 393 kips

l'

ASD

LRFD

o.k.

Pn = 844 bps > 280 kips

n,

o.k.

Width-to- Thickness Umitations

According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5a, the stiffened and unstiffened elements
of columns musl satisfy the requirement<; for highly ductile membCrs in Section D 1.1.
From 1'able 1-3 of this Manual. it can be se.,~ thats W12X96 will satisfy lhe width-to-thickness limits for an SCBF column (note lhac any villue of Pu mat and Pa- is pennissible, as
shown in Table 1-3).

Use a W12x96

f9~

SCBF Column CJ....1.

BRACFD FRAMES

r:
r,.:

~.,.

Required Axial Strength of Column CL-1


According to the Requirements of AISC
Seismic Provisions Section F2.3 and 01 .4a

Anal)'sis with codespecl11ed amplified


setsmlc loads
[AISC Sl!lsmic Pro'lisions Secllcn 0Ua(2))

\"

Compre~n

Tension

S.. llb

'lllese forces arc shown in Tables 5-1 and 5 2, and the forces acting on bearu BM-2 are
sbown in Figure 5-15.

Table 5-3

Analysls with braces al expected strengths


In tenslon and compression
[AISC ~Jsmic PrOYis/OllS Section F2.3(1))

.5.3 SPECIAi. CONCENTRICALLY BRJ\CF.D FR.\MES

Required Strength
Determine the required axial strength of the beam based on A/SC Seismic

Provisions Section F2..3(i)


From AISC Seismic Provisions Section P2.3(i), lhe requfred axial strength of the beam is
based on the braces at their e.~pected strengths in tension and compression. The "unbafanced.,
\crtica.l force is determined from the atical component C'f all four brace fo~.

Temion

Corr.press!on

P1 = {307 kips - 226 kips+ 444 kips - 550 kips )sin 45


UIFD

ASD

LRFO

ASD

LRFD

ASD

UIFO

ASO

1,190

837

-a14

-574

738

518

-393

280

~~:
~~

Given:
Refer to Be3m BM-2in Figure 5-11. Select an ASTM A992 W-shape with a maximum depth
of 36 in. D~ign the bc:un as a noncomposite beam for slreogth, although the composite
deck can be considered to brace the beam as discusse-0 later in this example. The applicable
building code specifics the use of ASCEISEI 7 for calculation of loads.
Assume the brace sizes are as shown in Figure 5- 12. Rclev31lt seismic paramerers w~re
given in the SCBF Qe.-;ign Example Plan and Elevation section. The gravity i:hears and
moments on the beam. assuming a simple span from column line B to C, :ire:
Vo= 11.2 kips

V1., =8.50 lcips

,\.to= I20lcip-rt

This unbalanced ve111c:U force can be considered as a load acting at the midpoint of the
beam, and produces the following shear and moment:
Py
=__._

Example 5.3.4. SCBF Beam Design

.7;....,,"11

=-17.7 kips

M1.,

=100 kip-fl

2
_ 17.7 kips
2
8.85 kips

PvL

Me,.,.=-4

= 17.7 kips(25.0 ft)


4

= 111 kip-ft

Solution:

From AISC Manual Table 2-4. the matei-ial properties arc BS follows:
ASTMA992

F1

..,,

'
,,i:

=50 ksi

Fu= 65 ksi
As required by AJSC Sti.rmic Provisio11.s Section F2.3, lhe required strength of the beams
shnll be based on the load combinations in the applicable builcling code, including the amplified seismic load. The runpl}fied seismic load is determined from the lt1rger of:
(i) An analysis in which all br.ices a.re assumed 10 resist forces corresponding to their
expected strength in compression or in tension

(ii) An analysis in which all braces in tension 3.re as:.umed to resist forces co~~ponding
to lhe1r expected strengt.h anti all braces in compression arc assumed to resist 1hcir
expected post-buckling strength

CJl>.!..O!l.-- -

~
~

25'-0"

r:;--------------;1
I '
I
'

!226~ps

I
I

3oi~psi

00,..~1!.u!.!.--l- l BM-~ /
l
/ ""'
:
~ l: ss91<1ps
444'k-!_ps l
..- T,'
', r
~~-.L ~~--- -- ------ -~ ~
'
-./'
/1

(a) Forcts from AISC Seismic P10\isioru

Stcrion F2.J(i)

25'-0"
Roof

r:;------------ --:,1
~

I '
I

'~

l 67.8_klps

~;

I
I

30i-Kips:

~'-"-=.;'-'--1- ! BM-~/

/""'
:
~ l: s501<ips
133'1<!ps l
T///

', T

"""".LUJ'1.J<l-~-L..~~-------------~~

(b) ForctsfromAISC ~ismic Pro~ision.t


Stion F2.3(ii)

Fig. 5-J5. Forrts acting on Otam BM-2 from a mtcha11ism analysis of AJSC Stismic
Provisii>ns Stction F1.J as carntd out in E.tamp/1! 5.J.2.
AMEIUCAJ" bls'1Tnm! <:# Snn. Cossr!wcnoN

$'RACED FR.AMES

5-106

Note thaL the unbalanced vertical force from the braces is considered to act at a single point
for the purpose of evaluating member limit sl.'.ltcs in the beam. In the connection design presented iu Example 5.3.8, beam local limit states arc evaluated using intemal forces
detcnnined in the brace connection design.
To deteonine the required axial force of the beam, the horizontal component of the difference between the sum of the expected strengths of the braces below the beam aod the sum
of the expected strengths of the braces above the beam can be thought of as a "~tory force"
which the beam must deliver to the braces. Since the braced frame is in I.be middle bay of a
three-bay building, half of this story force can be considered to enter the br.iccs from each
side, and is carried by Beam BM-2 to the braces connected to the beam midspan. This force
could act in either direction and is shown as positive.
P:i =cos4 50

=cos45 0

[.t(Braccs below be:un)- l(Braces above beam)]


2

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTIUCAl.LY BRACED FRAMES

. J

ASD

LRFD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEl 7 Section 12.4.3.2

V,, =(l.2+0.2SDS)Vo +Ve.,.

Va= (1.0+0.l4Sos)Vo + VH

+ 0.5Vl + 0.2Vs

+VF+0.7VE..t,

::: (1.2+ 0.2(1.0)j(ll 2 kips)

+ S.85 kips+ 0.5(8.50 kips)


+ 0.2(0 kips)

=(l.0+0.14(1.0))(11.2 kips)

+ 0 kips+ 0 kips+ 0.7(8.85 k.ips

= 19.0 kips

=28.8 kips
The required Oexur:il strength of Berun BM-2 according to the analysjs rcquiremencs
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:

1(550 kips+ 444 kips)-(226 kips+ 307 kips)!


2

LRFD

ASD

= 163 kips

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


Using the load combinations in ASCFJSEI 7, the required axial strength of Beam BM-2
according to the analysis requirementS of AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:

LRFD
LRFD Load Combination 5 from
ASCFJSEl 7 Seccion 12.4.3.2
(including the 0.5 factor on l pemritted
in Section 124.3.2)
P,, =(1.2+0.2SDS )PD + %,,..

+ 0.5Pz. + 0.2Ps
=[l.2+ 0.2(J.O)J(O k:ips)+163 kips
+ 0.5(0 .kips)+0.2(0 kips)
= 163 kips

ASD
ASD Load Combination 5 from
ASCE/SEJ 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.J.2

Mu =(1.2+0.2Sos)Mo t-Me,,.,,
+0.5Ml +0.2Ms

=ll.2+0.2(1.0)]{120 kip-ft)
+ 1 LJ kip-ft+0.5(100 kip-ft)
+ 0.2(0 kjp-ft)

=329 kip-ft

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
M~ =(1.0+0.14Sos)Mo+MH

+MF+0.1ME,...

=[l.0+0.14(1.0))(120 kip-ft)
+ 0 kip-ft+ 0 kip-ft
+ 0.7(111 kip-ft)
= 215 lcip-ft

Pa = (l.0+0.14Sos )Po+ Pn

+ PF+0.7Pe,..
=(1.0+0.14(10))(0 ltips)+O kips

+ 0 kips+ 0.7(163 kips)

=114 ltips

The required shear strength of Beam BM-2 according to the analysis requirements of AISC
Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:

Determine the required axial strength of the beam based on


AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3Q1J

From AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii), the required axial strength of the beam
based on the braces at their expccced strength in tension and post-buckling strengths in Ct I
pression. For this analysis, the expected s1rengths of the braces in compression must
multipUed by 0.3 to approximate their post-bockling strength as shown in Table 5-2.

The "unbalanced" vertical force is determined from the vertical component of all four br
forces.
~
P1 = (307 kips - 67.8kips+133 kips-550 k.ips)sin45

=-126 klps

....

AMUlcAl'I lNS'ITIVl"B Of' STEEi.. CONS'TllUC'llON

"t
l

5-108

This unbalanced vertical force can be considered as a load acting on the beam, and produces
the following shear and moment:

BRACED FRAMES

5- 1(>'

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY .BRACED FRAMES

L
t

Py
=-

LRFD

2
= 126 kips
2

~ I
!'

=IL2+ 0.2(1.0)](l l.2 kips)

'<
!

...

l :.

The required flexural strength of Beam BM-2 according to 1he analysis requirements of
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii) is:
LRFD

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASD Load Combi.nation 5 from


ASCfJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
Mo. =(1.0 +0.J4SDs).Mo +M11
+Mp+0.7Me,..1

Mu= (1.2+0.2Sos)Mo +Me,..


+ 0.5Mt +0.2Ms

=[LO+ 0.14(1.0))(120 kip-ft)


+ 0 k.ip-ft+O kip-ft

+ 788 kip-ft+ 0.5(100 kip-ft)

Using the load combinations in ASCFJSEI 7, the required axial strength ofBM-2 according
to the analysis requirements of AISC Seismic Pro\i.sio11s Section F2.3(ii) is:

+ 0.2(0 kip-ft)

=1.010 kip-ft

+ 0.7(788 kip-ft)

=688 kip-ft

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

P., =(1.2+0.2SDs)Po +Pe...


+ 0.5Pr. + 0.2Ps
[1.2 + 0.2(1.0)}(0kips)+109 !Ops

+ 0.5(0 kips)+0.2(0 kips)


= 109 kips

=11.2 + 0.2(1 .0)}{120 kip-ft)

LRFD

I:

=56.9 kips

=82.9 kips

=109 ldps

~::

1'0 kips+O kips+0.7(63.0 kips)

+ 0.2 (0 kips)

=(cos 450)[ (550kips + 133 kips)~(67 .8 kips+ 307 kips) 1

=11.o+o.14(LO)J(1i.2 kips)

+ 63.0 kips+0.5(8.50 kips)

p" = (cos 450 )l L(Braces below beam); L(Braces above beam) l

..-

r VF+0.1Ve..,..

+ 0.5Vt + 0.2Vs

P1 L
ME=
..,. - 4

To determine the required axial force of the beam, the horizontal component of the difference between the sum of the expected strengths of the braces below the beam and the
sum of the expected strengths of the braces above the beam can be thought of as a "story
force" which the beam must deliver to the braces. Since the braced frame is in the middle
bay of a three-bay building, half of this story force can be considered to enter the braces
from each side.

Va ={l.0+0.14Sos)Vo + V11

V11 = (1.2+0.2SDs)VD +VE..,

=788 k,ip--ft

~:

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

_ 126 kips(25.0 ft)


4

illlll

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from

=63.0 kips

The required shear strength of BM-2 according to the analysis requirements of AlSC
Seismic Proi:isions Section P'2.3(iJ) is:

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

Pa =(1.0+0.14SDs)Po +Pu

+PF +0.7Pe.,,,
=[l.0+0.140.0)J(O k.ips)+O kips

Note that the analysis of AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii), \Vith the braces acpostbuckling strength in compression, gives significantly higher required shear and moment for
the beam, and a moderately lower required axial force. The shear and moment resulting
from the analysis of Section F2.3(ii) do not act simultaneously with the axial force resulting
from Section F2.3(i).

In summary, the required strength of Beam BM-2 determined by the analysis provisions of
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:

+ 0 kips+0.7(109 kips)

=76.3 kips

LRFD

ASD

1.

,.
'

1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - --i'
P., ::: 163 kips

Pt) = 114 kips

V., = 28.8 kips

Va

M., = 329 kip-fl

M0 =2 15 kip-ft

=19.0 kips

'i:

I
I

AM.EIUCAN 1Nsnnrra oP STl:EL CONST11ocnoN

S-JIO

BRACED FRAMES

The required strength of Beam BM-2 determined by the analysis provisions of AISC Stismic
Provisions Section F2.3(ii) is:

LRFD
Pu = 109 kips
v. = 82.9 lcips
JI.= 1,010 kip-ft

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRlCALLY BRACED FRAMES

S-1

Determine lateral bracing requirements


Beam bracing requirements are given in AlSC Specificazion Appendb: 6. The required s1rcng1 l
of lateral nodal bracing is:
~

ASD

..

Po == 76.3 kips
Vo = 56.9 kips
Mo = 688 kip-fl

(Spec. Eq. A-6-71


where

From AlSC Seismic Provisions Equation D l l, the required flexural strength is:

Beam Size Selection


The beam is subject 10 axial and flexural forces. The discussion in Part 8 and Table 8-1 of
this Manual regarding the design of collector beams is applicable to the design of beams
within a braced frame.
Try a W27x114.

LR.FD

ASD

M,= R1 F1 Z

M, :::: R1 F1 Z I l.5

=1.1(50 ksi)(343 in.3)

___

. = 18,900 kip-in.
.___

::::: 1.1(50 ksi)( 343 in.3) 11.5

_ __ _

_...__ ::::: 12,600 kip-in.

From AISC Manual Table 1-1, the geometric properties are as follows:
From AISC Specificarion Equation A-6-7, the required strenglh of lateral nodal bracing is:
. W27x114
A= 33.6 in. 2

d= 27.3 in.

If= 0.930 in.

kdu = 1.5'.3 in.

Sx =299 in. 3
r,.=2.18 in.

rx = 11.0 in.
h0 =26.4 in.

lw = 0.570 in.
hftw = 42.5

z.. =343 in.

J = 7.33 in.4

hr== 10.1 in.


Ix.= 4,080 in. 4
11 =159 in.~
Cw= 27,600 in. 6

In order to determine which limit states apply, the beam bracing requirements must be investigated.

Bracing Requirements
According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.4b(2), beams in SCBF using V- and
inverted-V configurations must satisfy the bracing requirements for moderately ductile
members. This beam is considere,d part.of such a configuration because it is intersected by
braces at its midspan. AISC Seismic Provisions Section DL2a requires that beam bracjng in
moderately ductile members have !i maximum spacing of:

Li,= 0.17r1 EIF1

(Provisions Eq. DI-2)

=0.17(2.18 in.)(l ft/12 in:)(29,000 ksi) I (50 ksi)


=17.9 ft
The beam .span is 25 ft; therefore it is economical to provide bracing at midspan of the bea.m
(lb= 12.5 ft).,

AISC Stismic Provisioiis Section Dl.2a(a)(I) requires L!iat both flanges of lhe beam be laterally braced or the cross section be rorsionilly braced. Assume the beam shown in Figure
5-10, spanning between column lines 1 and 2, at midspan of lhe SCBF frame will be used
to provide lateral bracing.

Prb

=0.02(RyFyZ)Cd I ho
= 0.02(18,900 kip-in.)(1.0)/26.4 in.

=14.3 kips

Prb = 0.02(R1 F1Z)Cd I h0

= 0.02(12,600 kip-in.)(1.0)/26.4 in.


= 9.55 kips

'

The r~uired stiffness of l:lte!al nodal bracing is, according to AISC Specific,qtion_Equatio
A-6-8:

1--A---'~'-.!.-(-IO_M_,_c_dL)_RFD
_____'_, _
Q

t'br

lbho

1
10(18,900 kip-in.)(1.0)
0.75 (12.5 ft)(l2 m./ft)(26.4 in.)

=63.6 kip/in.

_.__A_=_
n_(.._l_O~-,-c-d_A)_so_ _;__- - - ,'.!.
t'br

L11ho

=2 _00 [
.

ki~-in.)(1.0)

10(12,600
(12.5 ft)(12 in./ftX26.4 in.)

l i
.i;

:::: 63.6 kipfm.

l..
...

The axial stiffness of lhe member providing bracing to the beam is:

..

AE
k=L

The required area of lhc brace is:

k ~ ~br = 63.6 kip/in.

AMti:klcAN lNsrmm! OF STEEi.. CONSTRUCTION

- - - --

5-112

BRACED FRAMES

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

,. e"

Determine the critical buckling strength for flexural buckling


about the x-x axis, assuming Q = 1

~~br(i.)
> 63 _6 k.i

/in.[30.0 ft(l2 in./ft)J


. P
29,000 ksi

:m

=0.790 in.2
Provide beam lateral bracing of both flanges at midspan of the beam ( 12.5 ft) with :i
minimum
of 0.790 in.2 and with an available axial co.mpressive strength of 14.3 kips
(LRFD) and 9.55 kips (ASD).

area

Note: The gravicy beam shown (but not sized) in Figure 5-10 should be able to provide this
lateral bracing, depending on the depth of the beam and the connection type.

Kx

= 1.0

l..x

=25.0 ft

K:rL:r J.0(25.0 ft)(12 in./ft)


--=
r:r
11.0 fo.
=27.3
The elastic buck.ling stress is:

(Spec. Eq. E3-4)

,,".,
tt--1

f:~

Available Flexural Strength


Beam lateral bracing will be provided at 12.5 ft. However, the composite slab can be considered to continuously brace the beam, and therefore the limit state of la~eraHorsional
buckling does not apply and the available flexural strength is based on the plastic moment
of the beam. From AISC Manual Table 3-6, che available flexural strength of the beam is:

LRFD
.

'lJ1>Mp = l,29p1kip-ft

...,,,

-;';.
.~.

(.

ASD
M

_]!_ =

856 kip-ft

Qb

_ ' 1t

2 {29,000

ksi)

(27.3)2

=384 ksi
Tbe va)ue of Fer before local buckling effects are considered is determined as follows:

Fy

50 ksi

F.

384 ksi

-=--:::: 0.130

Available Compressive Strength


In compr~si~n:ihe beam is considered continuously braced by the slab so mi.Uor-axis flexural buckling about the y-y axis does not apply. For major-axis flexural buckling about the
X X axis; the beam is assumed unbraced (KL= 25 ft). As explained in Part 8 for collectors,
torsioni.il buckling is considered because the torsional unbraced length is not the same as the
minor-axis flexural buckling unbraced length. Because the top flange is constrqined by the
composite slab, the applicable to~sionai limit state is constrained.-.ax.is flexural-torsional
buckling, as discussed in Part 8 of this Manual.

.. .

For torsional buckling, the beam is considered unbraced between torsional brace points. In
this exam.pie; the lateral braces of both flanges at midspan are assumea to .provide a torsional
braced point. Therefore the unbraUd length for torsional buckling is taken as 12.5 ft. Tu
summari.Ze:

4. =25.0 ft (flexural buckUng about x-x axis)


Ly= 0 (t (flexural buckling about y-y axis does not apply)
Lt= 12.5 ft (constra+ned-axis flexural-torsional buck.ling)

From AJSC Manual Table l -1 and AJSC Specificazion Table B4.l, the web is slender for
compression. Therefore the reduction factor for slender stiffened elements, Q0 , roust be
determined.

Because 0.130 < 2.25, use AlSC Specification Equation E3-2 ro detennine the critical buckling stress.
I

F"+658t ]F,

(Spec. Eq. E3-2)

"[o.658'':. '::;;]so k~ ..

... '

=47.3 ksi

Determine the critical buckling strength for constrain~d-axis


flexuraHorsiona~ buckling, assuming Q
1
For the limit state of constrained-ax.is flexural~torsiooal buck.ling, the unbraced leugt.1? ls
12.5 ft and the top flange of the beam is considered continuously braced by the slab as
described in Part 8 of this Manual.

AMEJUCAN lNSTmTrE 0'1 S11ln. CONSTRUcnON

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

(8-3)

b, = l.921

IIf

0 34
1-

fj

@j s. b

(bit) ~/ .

(Spec. Eq. E7-r )

= 1.92(0.570 in.) 1_2_9.:.....,0_00_ks_i [l- 0.34 29,000 ksi $ 24 .2 in.


38.l ksi
42.5
38.1 ksi

:::: 23.5

in.~ 24.2

in.

Q.,"' ~
.
Ag

= Ag-tw(li-b,)

1
---------------!
21
4
4
4,080 in. + 159 in. +( ~ in.r (33.6 in.2)

Ag

.33.6 in.2 - 0.570 in.(24.2 in.-23.5 in.)

The value of Fer before local buckling effects are considered is determined as follows:

50 ksi

77.2 ksi

=
=0.988
Q, =1.0
Q

Because 0.648 < 2.25, use Equation E3-2 to determine the critical buckling S!l'ess.

(Spec. Eq. E3-2)

1i

=77.2 ksi

-1=

(Spec. Eq. E7-ll'\)l

50ksi 1

= 0.65877 2 ksi 50 ksi

33.6 in.

= Q,Q,,
=1.0(0.988)

1.

= 0.988
For the governing Jim.it state of constrained-a.xis flexural-torsional b~ckling, accounting fc.
slender elements, the available strength is determined as follows from AISC Specificatio
Section E7:

QFy 0.988(50 ksi)


=
F.
(77.2 ~i)

')

k
!

l
' }

=0.640

= 38.1 ksi

Because 0.640 < 2.25, use AISC Specif;cation Equa~on F:J-2.

Because Fer is lower for constrained-axis flexural-torsional buckling, this limit state governs
over major ax.is flexural buckling.

Fa-= Q 0.658 F. F1
Determine the reduction factor, Q, for slender elements
To determine the reduction factor, Q, useAJSC Specification Section E7.2, with/= Fer, and
the minimum Fer from !he two preceding limit states. The reduced effective width of the
slender web is detennined as foll.ows:

._ I .
I

Eq. E7-:

I;

(Spec. Eq. E7- 1

(Spec.

...

0.988(50 k!i)

=0.988 0.658 . n.2 ks!

(50 ksi),

= 37.8 ksi

b=h

;;, d-2kdcs

Pn = FcrAg
2

=27.3 in.-2(1.53' ill.)

=37.8 ksi(33.6in.

=24.2 in.

= 1,270 kips

J=F'cr
= 38.1 ksi

S.3 SPEClr\L CONCENTR.ICALLY BRACED FRAMES

5-116

r:

LRFD

ASD

LRFD
P,.

<Pc-Pn =0.90(1,270 kips)


=l.140 kips

l,270 kips
1.67
= 760 kips

I~.....,,
.,

brace strengths in compression and tension; instead, they may be thought of as contributing
to the system reaching that state. P-8 effects do apply, however. The effective length method!

+ 111 kip-ft+ l.Ol(0.5)(100 kip-ft}

+ 0 lcip-ft+O kip-fl

+ 0.2(0 kip-ft)

+ 0.7(111 kip-ft)

=216 kip-ft

The required flexural strength of Beam BM-2 according to I.he analysis requirements of
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii) and including second-order effects is:

LRFD

is used.

Mu= B1 (1.2+0.2Sos)Mo+ ME..o

C,,,
<'! l
1-o.P,/Pti

(Spec.

rtl /.

(Spec.

(K1L)

Eq. A-8-3)

ASD

+B10.5ML +0.2Ms

ksj)(4,080 in.

Eq. A-8-5}

= l.Oljl.0+0.14(1.0)](120 kip-ft)

+ 788!tip-ft+1.01(0.5)(100 kjp-ft)

+ 0 kip-ft+O kip-ft

+ 0.2(0 kip-ft)

+ 0.7(788 kip-ft)

: 1,010 kip-ft

Ma= B1(1.0+0.14Sos)Mo +MH


+MF+0.1ME..i.

=LOl(l.2+ 0.2(1.0)!(120 kip-ft)

P.1--2
2
rt (29.000

=LOJ!L0+0.14(1.0))(1~0 kip-ft)

=331 kip-ft

Because the seismic component of the beam required strength comes from the mechanism
analysis of AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3 and is based on the expected strengths of
the braces, P-6 effects need not be considered and B2 from AISC Specificario11 Appendix S
need oot be applied. P-6 effects do no1 increase the forces corresponding to the expectedi

< -

+MF+0.7ME.,,.

=1.01(1.2+0.2(1.0)](129 ki!>""ft)

Second-Order Effects

Bi =

Ma =B1(1.0+0.14SDS)Mv +MH

+B10.5ML +0.2Ms

ASD

M .. = Bi(1.2+0.2SDs)Mo+ME.,.

-=

nc

5-11 7

=690 kip-ft

jl.0(25.0 ft)(12 inJft)]

In summary, including second-order effects, the required strength of Beam BM-2 determined by lhe analysis provisions of AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) is:

= 13,000 kips

C,,. = LO, because lherc is transverse loading between supports

LRFD
LRFD

LO
Bi
c-

l-[J.00(163 kips)/13,000 kips)


=l.01

ASD
B _
1

1.0
l-[1.60(114 kips)/13,000 ldps]

c.
~-"

=163 kips

v,,

= 28.8 kips

Mu =331kip-ft

Po =114 kips
Va ::::: 19.0 kips
Ma= 216 kip-ft

1.

::::: 1.01

Pu

ASD

The B1 factor (P-<l effect) need only be applied to the firsHttder moment with the sll'Ucture
restrained against translation. The required flexural strength of Beam BM-2 according 10
the analysis reqo.irements of AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) and including second-order effects is determined from ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 Load Combination 5
for LRFD and ASD:

Including second-order effects, the required strength of Beam BM-2 determined by the
analysis provisions of AISC SeiSmic Provisio11S Section F2.3(ii) is:

LRFD

Pu

=109 kips

Vu = 82.9 kips
M., =1,010 kip-ft

ASD
P,, =76.3 kips
Va = 56.9 kips
Ma = 690 ki!>""ft

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

Combined Loading

Check shear strength of the W27)(114


From AlSC Manual Table 3-2:

for the analysis provisions of AlSC Seismic Pro"Visions Section P2.3(i):

LRFD

Pr

-=

Pc

ASD
P,

163 kips
1, 140 kips

-=
Pc

= 0.143

LRFD

114 kips
760 kips

LRFD

o.k.

0.150 + 216 klpf[ +0=0.327


2
856 kip-ft
0.327<1.0

o.k.

For the analysis provisions of AlSC Seismic Pro"Visions Section F2.3(ii):

LRFD

ASD

109 kips
1,140 kips
=0.0956

P,

-=

o.k.

Pc

=76.3 kips
760 kips

=0.100

LRFD

o.k.

According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5a, beams in SCBF must satisfy lhe
requirements for moderate! y ductile members. From Table 1-3 of this Manual, the W27x 114
satisfies the limiting width-to-thickness ratios and Pu and P0 are less than the maximum
permitted.

ASD

=0.831

0.100 + 690kip-ft +0=0.856


2
856 kip-ft
0.856< 1.0

Example 5.3.5. SCBF Beam Design

J.

Given:
Refer to Beam BM-1 in Figure 5-11. Select_an ASTM A992 W-shape with a maximum depth
of 36 in. Design the beam as a noncomposite beam for strength, although the composite
deck can be considered to brace the beam. The applicable building code specifies the use of
ASCFJSEI 7 for calculation of loads.

1.~

VD= 11.2 kips


MD= 120 kip-ft

(Spec. Eq. Hl- lb)

0.0956 + 1,010 kip-ft+ 0


2
1, 290 kip-ft

Check width-to-thickness limits of the W27x114

o.k.

J~:

Assume the brace sizes are llS shown in Figure 5-12. Relevant seismic design parameters
were given in the SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation section. The gravity shears and
moments on the beam are:

Because P,IPc < 0.2, the beam-column design is controlled by the equation:

0.831<1,0

n"v = 311 kips> 56.9 kips

ASD

0.143 + 33lk.ip-ft +0=0.328


2
1,.290, kip-ft

Pc

v.

o.k.

=0.150

(Spec. Eq. Hl-lb)

P,

ASD

QvVn = 467 ldps > 82.9 kips

Because P,fPc< 0.2, t.he beam-column design is controlled by t.he equation:

0.328<1.0

5-119

VL

=8.50 kips

ML= 100 lqp-fc


\

Note I.hat in Example 5.3.10, tbe bracing connections at the third level use a splice in the
beam away from the gusset plate. Based on the connection configuration, a shorter length
could have been used for the beam design, here. In lhis example, the full 25-ft bay width is
used as the length of the beam.
Solution:

From AISC Manual Table 24, the material properties are as follows:
ASTMA992
Fy = 50 ksi
F., = 65 ksi

1;

Seismic Provisions Section F2.3, the requfre.d strength of the beams


are based on the load combinations in the applicable building code, including the amplified
seismic loads. The amplified sejsmic loads are determ.ined from the larger of:
As required by AJSC

(i) An analysis in which all braces are assumed to resist forces corresponding to thei r

expected strength in compression or in tension

f.;

t .. ~1

5-120

BRACED PRAMES

.,

(ii) An analysis in which alJ braces in tension are assumed Lo resist forces corresponding

to their expected strength and all braces in compression :ire assumed to resist their
expected post-buck.ling strength

These forces are shown in Tables 5-1 and 5-2, and the forces ac1ing on Beam BM-1 are
shown in Figure 5-16.

i.
h

:.
Unlike Beam BM-2 designed in Example 5.3.4, these forces do not cause shears and
moments oo the beam; the only shears arid moments are from gravity loads.

::

Required Strength

.,,s:

Determine the required axial strength of the beam based on


A/SC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i)

'\"

,.,
:~

;: ::1
~ :

~:
,.
v

~ ~

ftl

};

~
~

i:.l
!'-.

>::

From AJSC Seismic Provisions Section P2.3(i), the required axial strength of the beam is
based on the braces a1 their expected strengths in tension and compression. To determine the
required axial force on the beam, the horizontal component of the difference berween the
sum of the expected strengths of the braces below the beam and lhe sum of the expected
strengths of the braces above lhe beam can be thought of as a "story force." The story for.cc
for the analysis in AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(i) with tension and compressio.n
braces at their expected strengths is:

Px =(cos45)[!(Braces below beam)-:E(Braces above beam)]

=(cos45)[(518 kips+606 kips) - (550 kips+ 444 kips)J


= 91.9 kips

~~

25'-0"

.,

5-121

S.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRlCAl..LY BRACED PR.AMES

Because the brace<l frame is in 1hc middle bay of a three-bay building, half of this story
force. or 46.0 kips. can be considered to enter the braced bay from each side. From equilibrium of the joints at each end of lhe beam, this rcsultS in an ax.ial force in the beam of
Em1i =68.6 kips, as shown in Figure 5- 17.
Determine the required axial strength of the beam based on
AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii)

For lhis analysis, the expected strength of the braces in compression must be multiplied by
0.3 co approximate Lheir post-buckling strenglb, as shown in Table 5-2.
Figure 5-16(b) shows the forces corresponding to the tension braces at their expeccec
strengths ::md che compression braces at their post-buckling strength. Similar to Beam BM2 in Example 5.3.4, an equivalent "!>tory force"' can be determined as:

P.t::: (cos45)[I(Braces below beam)-r(Braces above beam)]

=(cos45")[(155 kips+606 k.ips) - (550kips+133 kips)]

=55.2 ldps
Since the braced frame is in the middle bay of a three-bay building, half of this story foro.
or 27.6 kips, can be considered to enter the braced bay from each side. From equilibriun
the joints at each end of the beam, this resulu in a axial force in the beam of E>(lh = 307 kips.
as shown in Figure 5-18.
The analysis of AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii) governs, in which tension braces
are at their expected strengths and compres~ion braces are at their post-buckling strengths.

~
~

~=

I
I
I
I

,.

~~;

46.0 klps

i:

:..

....
~~

t:

:;:.

~~
:~.
:; ~
!

/'

'

'

r------~-~------,

~'
<:.

~;

',

!As.a

!""

lT

j.
(a) Forces from A/SC Seismic Provisions
Section F2.3(i)

(b) Forces from A/SC Seismic Provisions


Section F2.J(ii)

Fig. 5-16. Forces on Beam BM-1 from a mechanism m1alysis ofA/SC Seismic
Provisions Section F2.3 as carried out in Example 5.3.2.

559..t<1ps

'

'

444~ps

kips 68.6

51 S-kips
',

'

,'

I
I
I
I

ki~i 46.0 kips

/il

606,Klps
//

',

~ ------~-~--- -- -1

Fig. 5-17. Axial force in Beam BM-1 from the rr.i!chanism analysis of
A/SC Seismic Proiisions Section F2.3(i).

5- 122

BRACED FRAMES

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

The required shear and flexural strenglh of the beam comes from gravity loads only, and
Ulerefore are the same for both analysis cases.
Using the load comb.inations in ASCE/SEI 7, the requfred $hear strength of Beam BM-I
according to the analysis requirements of AISC Seismic Provisions Section Fi.3(ii) is:

LRFD

ASD

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
(including the 0.5 load factor on L
permitted by Section 12.4.3.2)

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
(including the 0.5 load factor on L
permitted by Section 12.4.3.2)

Ma=(l.O+O.I4Sos)Mv+Mu

+ 0.5A'h + 02.Ms

+Mp+0.7ME.,.

Va:::: (l.0+0.14SDS)\'D + VH

+ Vp + O.?VeiM

=ll.2+0.2(1.0)](1 1.2 kips)+O kips

= [1.0+ 0.14(1.0)](120 kip-ft)

+ 0 kip-ft+0.5{100 kip-ft)
+ 0.2(0 kip-ft)

= 12.8 kips

The r~qp.ire~ flexural strength of Beam BM-1 according to the analysis requirements of
AISC Seisnuc Provisions Sectfon F2.3(ii) is:

LRFD Load Combinati~n 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Seetion 12.4.3.2 .

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

P,. =(l.2+0.2Sos)Po+PE...,,

Pa= (1.0 +0.14Sos)Pv +PH

+'PF+ 0.7P:e>M

=ll.2+0.2(1.0)J(O .kips~+307 kips

=[L0+0.14(1.0)J(O kips)+,0 kips

+ 0.5(0 kips)+ 0.2'co kips)

~------~-~------i
I
1

27.6 kips.,

'//
.<

550-Kips
.r

16"1

:,
lT

kips

155'-kips
'\

'

'>+
13., -i..;ps
~

307

.r/

'

//

',

--'l
IL-- ----~-~---.r ,

Fig. 518. Axial force in Beam BM-1 from the mechanism analysis of
A/SC Seismic Provisions F2.3(ii).

~ea.ms

frame.

I ..f~
I I':,:
~-

within a braced

In flexure, the beam is coosider.ed continuously braced by the slab and Jateral-torsiona;. :,

buckling does not apply.

::

Jn compression, the beam is considered continuously braced by the slab in the y-y directio1 J.
so minor-axis flexural buckling does not apply. For major-axis flexural buckling, the bean. ,'.?
is assumed unbraced. As expl~ed in Part 8 for collectors, torsional buckling is considered "'
because the torsional unbraced length is not equal to the minor-axis flexural bucklini
unbraced length. For torsional buckling, the beam is considered braced by the gravity bean
and its connection at midspan. Since the top flange is constrained by the composite slab, the ,
applicable torsional limit state is constrained-axis flexural-torsional buckling, as discussed
in Part 8 of lhis Manual
]: :

Try a W24x68.
AMERICAN lN~-rrrvn; OF STa CONSTJ\UCT'ION

fi:

~j

lT
I

::

..

::::: 215 kips

for a discussion of collector beams, whlch also generally applies to

ki~f 27.6 kips

606A<lps

j;i
1::
.,

'-Th-e-bea-m-is-su-b-1ec. -t-to_a_)(_ia_l_a_n_d_fl_e_x_u-ra_l_fo_r,_c-es_._S_e_e_P_art_8_an_d_T:_a_b_le-8--1-o_f_th_i_s_M_an_u_a.

I
I

/!

+ 0 ldps+0.7(307 kips)

=307 kips

b.

k:

ASD

LRFD

+ 0.5PL +o.iPs

//

,.

+O kip-ft.+O kip-ft+0.7(0 kip-ft)

The require-d axial strength of Beam BM-1 according to the analysis.requirements of AISC
Seismic Provisions Section F23(ii) is:

"

= 137 kip-ft

= 21s kip-ft

+ 0 kips+0.7{0 kips)

',

= ll.0+0.14(1.0)](11.2 kips)+O kips

+ 0.5(8.50 kips)+0.2(0 kips)


= 19.9 kips

I
I;:

= jl.2 + 0.2(1.0)]{120 kip-ft)

Vu = (I.2+ 0.2Svs) Vo + Vi::....,


+ 0.5VL + 0.2Vs

ASD

LRFD

Mu= (1.2+ 0.2Svs )Mo+ Me,.io

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

5-1 .'

.;.,.:
AMl;RJCAfl lNSTnUT:e OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

5-124

BRACED FRAMES

5-1 2.5

5.3 SPECLo\L CONCENTRJC.'\LLY BRACED FRA..'1.1ES

Beam Size Selection

(Spec. Eq. E3-4)

From AISC Manual Table 1-1, the geometric properties are as follows:

W24x68

A= 20.l in.1

'1 =0.585 in.


3
Sx = 154 10.
r 1 =1.87 in.

{1=23.7 in.
.

lw

=0.415 in.

b1 = 8.97 io.

kdu =1.09 in.

hltw= 52.0

Ix = 1,830 in.~

rx

=9.55 in.

Z.= 177 in.3

1, = 70.4 in.4

h0 = 23.1 in.

J = 1.87 in.4

Cw = 9,430 in. 6

Lateral Bracing Requirements


Because this beam ~ not part of a V- or inverted-V-braced frame (there is no brace connection at the midspan of t11e ~m), there are no lateral bracing requirem~nts in the AlSC
Seismic Provisioru, other than what may be required for strength. However, there is a gravity beam framiDg into the beam at midspan. The gravity beam at midspan and its connection
will be conside~ed to provide a torsional brace.poi~t for the liiil.it.state of constrained-axis
flexurru-torsion~ buckling.

2 (29,000

?i

(3 1.4)

ksi)

=290 ksi
The value of Fer before local buckling effects are considered is determined as follows:
F

50 ksi

1
-=--F, 290 ksi
=0.172

Because 0.172 < 2.25, AISC Specijicario11 Equation E3-2 applies.

(Spec. Eq. E3-2)


Available Flexural Strength
The composite slab can be considered to co~tinuously brace the
and therefore the
limit state offateral-torsi~nal buckling doe~ not apply a'n d.the av~~l~~I.e flexuqt stre.ngVI, is
based on the plastic moment.. From AISC Manual Table 3-6, th~ avaHable flexural strengtli
of the beam is:

beam,

..

LRFD
<?bMp = 664 kip-ft

Mp

n.b

'

ASD

'

'' '

Available Compressive Strength

Determine the critical buckling strength for constrained-axis


flexural-torsional buckling, assuming 0 1
.
.
For the limit state of constrained-axis flexural~torsional buckling, I.be unbrac~d length is
12.5 ft and the lop flange of the beam is considered continuously braced by the slab as
described. in Part 8 of this Manual.
\

L, =0 ft _Oateral movement is braced _by the slab)

it

F,=

4 =25.0ft

Lr. = 12.5 ft (torsio~ with top flange restrained by the slab)


From AISC Manual T<!ble l ~.l and AISC Specification Table B4.l, the web is slender for
~9mprcssion. Theref~re the reduction factor for slender elements, Q, ~ust. ~ determined.'

. ' Kx
Li

=I.O

= 25.0 ft

ftX12 inJft)
- - = _1.0(25.0
...;.__--'-'---KiLi

9.55 in.

rx

=31.4
AMERJCAN INS1TllJT OP S'Y:EEL COl'ISTR\JCTION

(50 ksi)

=46.5 ksi

The unbraced lengths for flexural buckling were ?iscussed previously. To summarize:

Determine the criticai buckling strength for flexural buckling


about the x-x axis, assuming Q 1

-=442 kip-ft
;

50ksi

= 0.658290 k s

]I l:~+I,+(d/2)2Agl.

E[Cw+.ly (d/2)
(K4 L)2
+GJ

1t2 (29,000

6
ksi) 9,430 in. + 70.4 .m. (23.7
- -- in.) ]

ILO( l2.5 ft)(l2 inJft)j

I
x

4
. .2)
1,830 in.4 + 70.4 in. + (23.7
- - in.) (20 1 m
2

=56.5 ksi

(8-3)

1-

, .
.
4
+ 11,200 ksi(l.87 in. )
'

BRACED FRAMES

The val~e of Fer before JocaJ buck.Jing effects are considered, wilh F.,

F,

Determine the available compressive strength for the governing limit state of
constrained-axis flexural- torsional buckling, accounting for slender elements

s 2.25, is:

!z.
Fer= 0.658'' F.,

~w
= 0.65856.5
bi

(Spec. Eq. E3-2)

I .

'.,

QF1
0.942(50 bi)
-=
F,
(56.5 m)

=0.834
Because 0.834 < 2.25. use AISC Specific01ion Equation E?-2.

50 ksi

= 34.5 ksi

Fa

=.+.6589f.']F, .

To detennine the reduction factor Q. use AISC Specification Section E7.2, wilh f Fen using
the minimum Fe, from the two precedi11g limit states. Determine the effectjve width, be,
M~~~

b=h

(Sp.c.

Eq. E72

(Sp<e.

Eq. E7- I . '

...".,,,.,I

Because Fa is lower for constraioed-aJtis flexural-torsional buckling, this limit slate governs
over major axis flexural buckling.

Determine the reduction factor, Q, for slender elements

,..

,
',

=33.2 ksi

P" =F;,,A1
=33.2 ksi(20.l

in.2)

'

=667 kips

=d-2kdes

The available compressive strength is:.

= 23.7 i:n.- 2(1.09 in.)


= 21.5 in.

fil1. fj

b., = t.921

LRFD

ASD

Pn 661 kips
-=-----

9cP,. = 0.90(667 kips)


0 34

(b I

=1.92(0.415 in.)

IIj-;;, b
1)"-/t

(Spec. Eq. E7- 17)

nc .

=600 !tips'

1.67

=399 kips

'I

29,000 ksi [1- 0.34 29,000 ksi < 21 5 in


34.5 ksi
(~2.0)'
34.5 ksi .
.

Second-Order Effects

=18.7 in.'5,21.5 in.

Q,,=Ae

(Spec. Eq. E7-16)

A,

=A, -tw(h-b~)

A,
_ 20. l in. 2 -0.4 15 in.(21.5 in.-18.7 in.)
20.1 in. 2
= 0.942

as= i.o
Q =QiQa

=1.0(0.942)
=0.942

'

I~

(Spec. Eq. A-8-3)

IJ

5-128

BRACED FRAMES

-"

5-1 2

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED !'RAMES

ti .

rt 2 EJ
2

LRFO

(Spec. Eq. A-8-5)

Pei "'"(K1L)2
4

1t (29.000ksi)(1,830 in. )

.,

o.s12+!( 231 ltip-ft +o)=o.s21

o.539+~( 145 kip-ft + o)"' o.831

0.821 < 1.0

0.831<1.0

9 664 kip-ft

[1.0{25.0 ft)(J2 inJfl)j

ASD

o.k.

9 442kip-ft
o.k.

=5,820 kips

Cm = 1.0 because 1here is transverse loading

Available Shear Strength

LRFD
B1 -

1.0
t -[1.00(307 kips)/5,820 kips]

From AISC Manual Tuble

ASD
B1 -

=l.06

vV11

The B1 factor (P-5 effecc) need only be applied to the first-order momen1 with the structure
restrained against translation. The required fle.xural strength of Beam BM-1 according to the
analysis requirements of AlSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii) and including secondorder effeets is determined from ASCEJSEI 7 Section 12..4.3.2 Load Combination 5 for
LRFD and ASD:

LRFD
M,, = B1 (1.2+0.2Svs)Mo +Me,.

ASD

LRFD

1.0
I -[J.60(215 kips)/ 5.820 kipsJ

= 1.06

3-2, the available shear strength is:

=295kips>19.9 kips

o.k.

.!!!_ = 197 kips> 12.8 kips

nv

o.k

Width-to Thickness Umitations


According to AISC Seismic Provisions Section P2.5a, beams in SCBF shall satisfy the
of this Manunl, the W24x68
requirements for moderately ductile members. From Table
satisfies the limiting width-to-thickness ratios and P,, and Pa are less chan the maximuiy1
permitted.

1-3

ASD
Mo= B1(1.0+0.I4Svs)Mo +MH

+ B1 0.5M l + 0.2.l'ds

+JfF+0.1Me.,,.

=1.06(1.0+ 0. 14(1.0)l(l20 kip-ft}

= 1.06[!.2+ 0.2(l.O)j(l20: ~p-fl)

+ 0kip-ft+1.06(0.5)(100 kip-ft)

+O kip-ft+O kip-fi+0.7(0 kip-ft)

=145 kip-ft

+ 0.2(0 kip-ft)
= 23 I kip-ft

Example 5.3.6. SCBF Column Splice Design


Given:
Design a fully welded splice between the third and fourth levels for the SCBF columr:
located on grid C in Figure 5-11. The column material is ASTM A992, the upper shaft is a
W12x45 and the lower shaft is a W12x96. The applicable building code specifies the use
of ASCE/SEI 7 for calculation of loads'.

The relevant seismic parameters were given in the SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation
section.

Combined Loading

;I

1'~.

LRFD
307 kips

P,

=215 kips

Pc

600 kips

Pc

399 kips

= 0.512

The required axial strengths of the columns due to dead (including curtain wall), live and
snow loads at the splice location are:

ASD

P,

Pv

=66.3 kips

Pi= 18.8 kips

Ps =7.00 kips

The seismic component of Lhe required axial strength of the column due to code-specified
seismic loads from the applicable .building code is:

=0.539

Because P,fPc~ 0.2., th~ beam-column design is C-Ontrolle:I by the equation:

Pal!.= 45.S kips

Assume that the ends of 1he C-Olumn are pinned and braced against translation for bolh l'-...

(Spec. Eq. Hl- Ja)

x-x and y-y axes and the column moment produced by the gravity framing connection., '

negHg.ible.

BRACFD FRAMP.S

5--130

Solution:
From AJSC Manual Table 2-4, the material properties are as follows:

PE..J.

ASTh'f A992

=307 kips(sin 45 ') + 8.84 kips


=226 kips (compression)

PE..= 226 kips(sin45 )-8.84 kips

F1 =50ksi
F,, =65 ksi

= 151 kips (tension)

From AlSC Manual Table ll, the geometric properties are as follows:

W12x45
A= 13.1 in. 2
lw

s. 131

.S.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY DRACED FRAMF.S

d= 12.1 in.

= 0.335 in.

br= S.05 in.

If= 0.575 in.

Zr - 64.2 in.3

At this level, Exception 2(:1) for the column in AISC Seismic Provisio'ns Section F2.3 can be
shown not to result in reduced forces; therefore the exception is not used.
For comparison, the seismic component of the required axial strength of the column due to
code-specified seismic loads from the applicable building code is given as:
PQr.

W12x96

=45.5 kips

Z;r= 147 in. 3

l
..

Required Strength

AlSC Seismic Proi;i.sions Section F2.6d requires that SCBF column splices comply with
S~tion 02.5, which states that the required strength of column splices is the greater of (a)
the required strength of tbe colunms, including that determined from Chapters E, F, G and
H, and Section Dl.4a, or (b) the required strength determined using t.he load combinations
stipulated in the applicable building code, including the amplified seismic load, but need not
e:xceed the W:Ltimum loads I.hat can be transferred to the splice by the system. Also, for
columns with net tension, three other specific conditions muse be satisfied, as stipulated jn

\
Roof
&,

'
N

Section D2.5b.
The required axial strength of columns in SCBF frames is based on the expected strength of
the braces, as defined in AJSC Seismic Pro~iswn.s Section F2.3. Example 5.3.2 provides a
desqipcion of this analysis. For the column at the lowest story, Example 5.3.3 illustrates the
determit)ation of the column force. For the splice location, only the braces at the top two sto
ries need to be considered.
From Example 5.3.2, with brace forces shown in Figure S-13 and Tables 5-1 nnd 5-2, the
expected tensile strength of the HSS6x0.312 brace between level 4 and the roof is:
P1ouion = 307

Fourth
Level

226 kips

.,

l8'~-~P.5;
,,
550 kips

Third
Level

'/._______

307 kips
/

~~~ ki~~

"

444 kips

""'

kips

From Example 5.3.2, in Tuble 5-2, the expected compressive scrength of the HSS6x0.312

brace berw~ level 4 and the roof is given as:


Pcampf~-MiDn = 226

kips

The vertical components of these brace expected strengths are transferred to the column. J\l
the fourth level, the brace forces at the beam midpoint connection arc carried across in beam
shear. The forces acting on the columns due 10 Lhe expec1cd s11Cngths of the braces arc ns
shown in Fig\Jre 5-19.

Base

Fig. 5-19. SCBF column forcu for splice duign from E.xomple 5.3.3.
The axial force in the column u the splice location due to sei~mic load effeclS (including the
nmplified seismic load) is:

.:

I J
t
I

-;:'):'

Using amplified seismic forces, this becomes:

Required Flexural Strength

AISC Seismic Proviswns Section F2.6d requires the column splice to develop 50% of lhe
lesser available Oexural strength of the connected members. For simplicity, use the plastic
flexural strength, $1>.Mp (LRFD) or Mp/Qb (ASD).

PE..,,= n 0 PQ1

=2.0{45.5 kips)
=91.0 kips

For the smaller column, W12x45, detennine the available flexural strength from AISC
Ma11ual Table 3-6:

The seismic component of the required strength of the column using the analysis requirements of AJSC Seismic Proi:isic11S Sec~on F2.3 (226 kips compre.ssion and 151 !tips
tension) is greater than that detennined from the code-specified loads (91.0 kips tension or
compression). Therefore, use the analysis requirements of AISC Seismic Provisions Section
F2.3 for design of the splice.

LRFD

LRFD

Pu =(l.2+0.2SDs)Pv +Ps,..

ASD

nb

The required flexural strength of the splice is:

ASD

LRFD

ASD Load Combination 5 from


ASCE/SEJ 7 Section 12.4.3.2

ASD

Ma=

Mu= 0.50(<?bMp)

0.50(241 kip-ft)
= 121 kip-ft
+PF +0.1?,,,..

= [I.2+ 0.2(1.0)](66.3 Jtips)

=0.50(160 kip-ft)
= 80.0 kip-ft

Assuming that the entire moment is taken through the flange splices, the required strength
of each flange splice is:

=[l.0+0.14(1.0)](66.3 kips)

+ 226 kips+ 0.5(18.8 kips)

+ 0 kips+ 9_kips+0.7(226 kips)

..

LRFD

=234 kips

+ 0.2(7.00 kips)
= 330 kips

ASD

R., = Mu
d-t1

The required axial tensile strength of the column is:

Ra=~

d-11

= 121 kip-ft(l2 in./ft)

80.0 kip-ft(l2 in./fl)


12.l in. - 0.575 in.

12.1 in.-0.575 in.

LRFD

Pu = (0.9-0.2SDs)Pz> +PE..i. +1.6Py

=[0.9-0.2(1.0))(66.3 kips)
+(-151kips)+1.6(0 kips)
= - 105 kips

i, .

..

.,

o.so(M
nov) .

P0 =(l.O+O. l4Svs)fi>+ PH

+ 0.5Pi +0.2Ps

LRFD Load Combination 7 from


ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

Mp =160 kip-ft

<l>bM P :::; 241 kip-ft

Using the load combinations in ASCE/SEI 7, the required axial compressive strength of the
column is:

LRFD Load Combination 5 from


ASCEISEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2
(including the 0.5 factor on L pem1itted
in Section 12.4.3.2)

5-133

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACl:.D FR.AMES

BRACED FRAMES

ASD

=126 kips

ASD Load Combination 8 from


ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2

= [0.6-0.14(1.0)j(66.3 kips)

+ 0.7(- 151 k.ips)+O kips

Use CJP groove welds to splice the colwun flanges and web.

ASD

LRFD

As stated above, this splice is 10 be a welded splice. AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6d
requires that groove welds must be complete-joint-penetration (OP) groove welds.

The available strength of each CJP groove welded flange splice is controlled by the base
metal strength according to AISC Specification Table J2.5. Thus, based on tension yielding
of the flange from AI.SC Specification Section D2(a), the available strength of the CJP
groove weld is:

Pa =(0.6-0.14SDs)PD +0.1Pe,,.. +P1:1

=-75.2 kips

=83.3 kips

Rn= 0.90F>bflf
= 0.90(50 ksi)(S.05 in.)(0.575 in.)

=208 kips> 126 kips

o.k.

Rn
n=

FybJIJ

/1.67

=(50 ksi)(8.05 in.)(0.575 in.)/l .67


=139 kips> 83.3 kips

A.\fERJCAN .!NS1TIV1ll OF Srm. CON$Tl\l1CTTON

o.k.

BRACED FRAMES

5-134

Required Shear Strength


AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6d defines lhe required shear strength of the splice as
at least f.MpclHc (LRFD) or !Mpel( l.5Hc) (ASD), where !.Mpc is the sum of the nominal
plastic Oexural strengths of the columns above and below the splice, and He is the clear
height of.the column between beam connections. A CJP groove weld will be used.
Assume that the 12.5-ft story height is from top of steel to top of steel. The beam at the story
above the splice is a W27. Therefore, the approximate value for Ile is:

=12.5 ft ~ (27 in.)(l ft/12 in.)


=l0.3 ft

He

(1) The available strength of partial-joint-pcnec.rntion (PJP) groove welded joints, if used,
shall be at least equal to 200% of the required strength.

(2) The avaiJnble strength for each flange splice shall be . at le!15t equal t_p 0-.5RyFybf'f
(LRFD) or (0.5/1.5) R1 Fybf'J (ASD).
(3) Where butt joints in column splices are made with CJP groove welds, when the tension
stress at any location in the smaJler flange exceeds 0.30F1 (LRFD) or 0.20Fy (ASD),
. tapered mmsitions are required between flanges of unequal thickness or width.

.
j
{

Since there is net tension, the additional requirements must be met.

=50 .ksi(l47 in. 3 +64.2 in.3 )(1 ft/12

in.)

(1) AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5b{l) does not apply bec~use partial-joint-pene-

=880 kip-ft .

tration (PJP) welds are not used.


(2) AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5b(2) requires that the available strength of each
flange splice be at least 0.5RyFybJ1f (LRFD) or (0.5!1.5)RyF1 b1t1 (ASD). With a CJP
groove weld, the available strength of the smaller flange can be developed, so this

The required shear strength of the splice is:

LRFD
l..Mpc
He

using the load combinations stipuJaccd in the applicable building code. includi~g 11ic a?'lplified seismic load. These additional requirements are:

As detennined previously, the column is subjected to a net tensile load effect.

'ZMJX::::: Fy (Zx ~, .+ Zx rop)

--=

5-135

5.3 SPECL<\.L CONCF.NTRICALLY BRACED FR.AfJIES

ASD

r.lv/pc
l.5Hc

880 kip-ft
10.3 ft

--=

=85.4 kips

requirement will be met.


(3) AISC Seismic Provisions Section D2.5b(3) requires tapered transitions when the tension
stress in the smaller flange exceeds 0.30F1 (LRFD) and 0.20Fy (ASD) for butt joints
with CJP groove welds. The tension stress over the cross section is:

880 kip-ft
l.5(10.3 ft)

\
...:

1:

=57.0 kips

ASD

LRFD
For the limit suite of shear yielding according to AISC Specification Section G2. the available shear strength of the W12x45 colwnn is:

T.,
Ag

LRFD

ASD

cj>R,. = $0.6F1 AwCv

R,.

0.6FyA,,.Cv

1.50

-=

= 1.00(0.6)(50 ksi)
x(l2.l in.)(0.335 in.)(1.0)

= 122 kips> 85.4 kips

o.k.

. Ta
Ag

13.l in.2
::::: 8.02 ksi

0.3F1 =0.3(50 ksi)

' - 75.2
kips
=
.
13.l in.2
=5.74 ksi

'

0.2F1 = 0.2(50 ksi)

=15.0 ksi

= (1/l.50)0.60(50 ksi)
x(l 2.1 in.)(0.335 in.)(1.0)

= 81.l kips> 57.0 kips

=-105 kips

o.k.

,.

For the shear in the weak axis of the column, the column flanges of the smaller member
will easily be able to meet the required shear strength, since the Mp values for the columns
are smaller in this direction and the flange o.rea is sign.ificantJy larger than the web area jn

this case.

8.02ksj<15.0 ksi

=10.0 ksi
5.74 ksi < 10.0 ksi

Therefore, the requirements in AJSC Seismic ProvisioJ'!S Section D2.5b(3) need not be met.

Check Splice Location


The splice location satisfies the requirement in AJSC Seismic Provisions Section 02.Sa that
the splice be located 4 ft or more away from the beam-to-column Oange connection.
The final connection design is shown in Figure 5-20.

Additional Requirements for Columns Subject to a


Net Tensile Load Effect
AISC Seismic Provisions Section 02.Sb has additional requirements for welded column
splices in which any portion of the column is subjected to a net tensile load effect dccem:tlned

AMERICAN INSTmm! OP Snia CONS'raVCTIOH

;~

t~

5-136

BRACED FRAMES

5.3 Sl'F.ClAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FR.AMES

=4.00 ft(6.50 fl){35.0 ft)

ti

Example 5.3.7. SCBF Maximum Force Limited by


Foundation Uplift

YnUll

= 910

' .

.,
r

'

-A =(.!.
ft)(6.50 fl)(35.0 ft)
12
=152 ft3

Given:

,
VioI oa
"-

Some of the sections in the AISC Seismic Pro~isions allow the required strength of certain
members or components to be limited by the forces corresponding to a maximum force that
can be delivered by the system. One example is AISC Seismic Provisions Section P'2.3,
Exception (2)(b), which states that the required strength of the column need not exceed the
forces corresponding to lhe resistance of the foundation to overturning uplift. The max.imum
force that can be delivered is the force required to overturn the foundation. The use of
Section P2.3 Exception (2)(b) will be illustrated in this example.

V,tob ow ltUll

the SCBF eleva1ion shown in Figure 5-21. Determine the maximum force Lh:u cam
be delivered to (:olumn CL-1 based on the foundation uplift resistance of the system. The
seismic loads at each floor are given in Figure 5-21. Assume a concrete density equal to
150 lb/ft3 and a soil density equal to 100 lb/ft. 3 As given in Example 5.3.3 for !he SCBF
column design, the column fore~ at the base from gravity and snow loads are: PD= 147
kips, PL= 60.0 kips, Ps 7.00 kips. The relevant seismic parameters were given in the
SCBF Design Example Plan and Elevation section.

rt3

=(~ n)(6.SO ft){35.0 ft)


=75.8 fl3

Usipg the densities given, the weights of the mat, soil and slab are:

Refer to

W,,.a,

=910 ft 3

(1so lb/ft3)1(1,000 lb/kip)

= 137 ltips

~~~
~
.
....:..----i~
25'-0"

Solution:

Roof

Dead Load Resistance to Overturning

91 kips

The volumes of the mat, soil and slab are:

ct_ Upper and lower


column shaft

f,.1

W12x45

Fourth
Level

57 kips

Third
Level -

30 kips

"I,;
~..
l

.
{

(~ 1

Weld access hole per


AJSC Specification
Section J1 .6 (typ.)
W12x96
25'-0"
Note: Erection aids not shown for clarity.
Fig. 5-20. SCBF coltu11n splice designed in Example 5.3.6.

fig. 5 .21. SCBF elevation and foundation.


AMEJUC/\N ~STl"IVTS OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

BRACED FRAMES

.5-138

Wsoll over 11111 1 = l 52 ft (100 lb/ft ) I (1,000 lb/kip)

S-139

..:

S.3 SPECl.AL CONCP.NTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

"

The overturning momenl caused by the seismic loads given in Figure 5-21, and including
ovcrstrength, is:

=15.2 kips
Me,.,.

3
3
Wslab over""''= 75.8 ft ( 150 lb/ft ) I (1,000 lb/kip)

:dloL;./ih;
_

l30.0 kips(l 4.0 ft)+ 57 .0 kips(26.5 ft)+ 84.0 kips(39.0 ft)l

20
- + 91.0 kips(5 l.5 ft)

=11.4 kips
Summing moments at the extreme lower right comer of the mat allows estimation of the
maximum moment required to overturn the foundation.

= 19.800 kip-fl
For convenience, use the concept of an effective oversirength factor, n~. determined as
follows:

Dead
Load
kips

Element
Cone. Mat
Soil over Mat

Slab over Mat


Column Cl-2
Column CLl
};

live
Load

Moment

kips

Snow
load
kips

137
15.2
11.4
147
147

60.0
60.0

7.00
7.00

Ann

Resisting
Moment (0)

Moment (L)

ft

kip-ft

kip-ft

17.5

30.0

2,400
266
200
735
4,410

300
1,800

35.0
210

8,010

2,100

245

17.5
17.5
5.00

Resisting

Resisting
Moment (S)
kip-ft

ASD

LRFD

n;=

Me Q
no, =--0
Me_.

Me n o
Me.,.

=20.200 kip-ft (2.0)

= 12,300 kip-ft (2.0)


19,800 k.ip-ft

19,800 kip-ft
=2.04

=1.24

From Ex.ample 5.3.3. the seismic component of the required column streo~th .based. on the
seismic loads is Pa 248 kips in tension or compression. Rather than amplifying this force
by n = 2.0 as sh~\vo in Exnmple 5.3.3, it could instead be amplified by. 1.24 (LRFD)
0
or 2.04 (ASD) as allowed by AISC Seismic Provisions Section P2.3 Excepuon (2)(b). For
determining the required ax.ial compressive strength, the controlling load combinations that
include seismic load are ASCE/SEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 Load Combination 5 for LRFD and

The (;Ont.rolling load combinations (for compression in the column) that include seismic load
axe ASCFJSEI 7 Section 12.4.3.2 Load Combination 5 for LR.FD and Load Combination 6
. for ASD. Setting the ovenurn.ing moment, ME, equal to the resisting moment in these load
combinations, the overturning moment required t0 cause uplift of the foundation is:

Load Combination S for ASD.

LRFD

ASD

LRFD
(l.2+0.2Sos)Mo +Me +0.5ML

(1.0+ 0.105Sos )Mo +0.525M E

+ 0.2Ms =0

Me =1-[i.2+0.2(1.o)]MD- o.5MLI
-0.2Ms
-(1.2+0.2(1.0))(8,010 kip-ft)
=

- 0.5(2,100 kip-ft)
- 0.2(245 kip-ft)

= 12,300 Jc.ip-ft

The required axial compressive strength

+0.75ML +0.75Ms =0

i'.fe=

1{-[L0+0.105(1.0)]Mv

- 0.15ML -0.75Ms }/0.525


{-1.105(8,010 k.ipft)
::: - 0.75(2,100 kipft)
I -

0.75(245 kip-fi)}/0.525

= 20,200 kip-ft

The overturning moment required to cause uplift of the foundation, Me. should be compared
~o the overturning moment caused by the seismic loads including overstrength, ME.,.. If ME
is less than Me_.. then the seismic component of the required column force in Example 5.3.3
could be reduced by the ratio of those moments.

ASD

of the column is:

Pu =(l.2+0.2Sos)PD + n~PQe
_ + 0.5P,. +0.2P,
=(1.2+0.2(1.0)](147 kips)

P0

=(1.0 + 0.105Sos)Po +0.5250~Pa.+ 0.75PL +0.75P,

"

= (1.0 + 0.105(1.0))(i 47 kips)

+ 1.24(248 kips)+ 0.5(60.0 kips)

+ 0.525 (2.04)(248 kips)

+ 0.2(7 .00 kips)

+ 0.75(60.0 kips)+ 0.75(7 .00 kips)

= 545 kips

The required axial compressive strength


of the column is:

=478 kips

For determining the required axial t.ensile strength of the column, ASCEJSEl 7 S~~on
12.4.3.2 Load Combination 7 for LRFD and Load Combination 8 for ASD apply. A suru.lar
approach is used to calculate the maximum tension force in the column ~ue to foundauon
uplift. Re-calcufating Me for the governing load combination for tension m the column:

.J

"-'

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACl!t> FR.AM-e5

BRACED FRAMES

...

Relevant seismic design parameters were given in lhe SCBF Design E."<ample Plan and

LR.FD
(0.9-0.2Sos) Mo +Mc= 0

I
I.

Mc =l-I0.9-0.2(1.0)]Mol

ASD

Elevation section.

The complete connection design is shown in Figure 5-22.

(0.6-0.14Sos)M 0 +0.1Me -0

ME =l-[0.6-0. 14(1.0)]Mo/0.71

=l-[0.9-0.2(1.0)j(S,010 kip-ft)!

=l-0.46(8,010 kip-ft)/0.71

= 5,610 kip-ft

=5,260 kip-fl

Solution:
From AlSC Manual Tables 2-4 ansl 2-5. the material prop<!rties are es follows:

ASTh1A36
F1 =36 ksi
F., - 58 ksi

Use an effective over:.trength factor, similar to I.be compression case, calculated as:

LR.FD

n~Mc fl 0
0 -

Ms
0 0,.._
ME,..

ME.,. .

= 5,610 k.ip-fi (2.0)


19,800 kip-fl

=0.567

. .

11

~.

ASD
Q
0

= 5,260 kip-fl (2.0)

HSS6x0.312 brace

19,800 kip-fl

=0.531

LRFD

ASD

The required axial tensile strength

The required .Wal tensile strength

of the column is:

of the column is:

P., =(0.9-0.2So.))P.o + n; P<a


=[0.9-0.2(L0}j(147 kips)
+ 0.567(- 248 kips)
=-37.7 kips

'

Pa= (0.6-D.14Sos)P.o +o.1n;PQ


= [0.6-0.14(1 0)}(147 kips)

+ 0.7(0.531)(-248 kips)
=-24.6 kips

As Stated in the Exception to AJSC SeiSmic Provisions Section F2.3, the required strength
of the columns does not need to exceed the forces corresponding to the resistance of the
foundation to overturning uplifl These forces are smaUer than. the required strengths of the
column as determined in Ex:imple 5.3.3, and could have been used as the required strengths
for tbe design of the column.
I:
t

..

Flat Bar 1!7"lt1~


(A572 Gt. 50)
(1-NS. 1-FS)

Example 5.3.8. SCBF Brace-to-Beam Connection Design

~-:

Given:
Refer to Joint IT- I in_Figure 5-11. Design the connection between the braces and the beam
Use :m ASTM A36 welded gussel plate concentric to the .braces Md 70.ksi electrode:. to
connect the bmces to the beam. Use ASTM A572 Grade '50 material for braec reinforcement.
All bmces m ASTM A500 Grade B round HSS ao<l the beam is an ASTM A.992 W27x114.
The appUcable buildjng code specifies the use of ASCE/SEI 7 for calculatiOJl of loads.

Fig. 5.zz. Futal conru:ction tksignfor Example 5.3.8.

AJ.tEIUC~ 11'1~ OP Sn:J!l.. COH5lllUCTION

5-142

ASTM A500 Grade B

Therefore:

Fy =42 ksi
F.., =58 ksi

P,,,.Jton

ASTMA992

Fy =50ksi

.)

- ; ,p.:

Fu= 65 ksi
From AISC Manual Tables 1-1 and 1-13, the geometric properties are as follows:

=0.312 in.

HSS6.875x0.500
0.500 in.

"'

For the braces above the beam, the required strength of the bracing
brace is in tension is:

tc1es

=0.291 in.

A= 5.22 in.2

r=2.02 in.

Ide:

=0.465 in.

A= 9.36 in.2

r = 2.27 in.

Ptmnon

=0.570 ln.

=RyFyAg
= 1.4(42 ksi)(9.36 in. )

k.ks =. 1.53 in.

""550 kips

For the braces below the beam, the required strength of th~ ~m1ci.ng c~nnecti?ll wh~u the
. ; ".
' .
.
brace is in tension is:

factor (relative to the requirements of Section F2.3) applied to the required strength of Uie
connection.
For these SCBF connection examples, the .requirements of AISC Seismic Provisions
Sections B2 and F2.3 will: be used for both LRFD and ASD, except for the limit state of
compression .buc~ing on the Whitmore section, "which will use the 1.1 factor specified in
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(2}.
lbe required strength of the bracing connection due to seismic loading is based on ASCFJ
SEI 7 ~ection 12.43.2 Load Combination 5 (LRFD and ASD) with 0 0 0 = Em11, as discussed m AISC Seismic Prpvisions- Section P2.3.

Determine the expected tensile strength of the braces


The brace connections must be designed to develop the larger force.s determined from the
two analyses specified in .AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3. The required tensile
strength of the connection ill based on the expected strength.

For the HSS6x0.312 brace above the beam:


From AISC Sei~mic Provisio(IS Table A3. l:

Pa= 0.7Emh
=0.7(307 kips)
=215 kips

fJ = 0.930 in.

AISC Seismic Provisions Sections F2.3(i) and F2.3(ii) define the two mechanism analyses:
that must be considered in determining the required stren8th of beams, columns and connections. AISC Seismic Pr.ovisions Section F2.6c specifies the required strength of bracing
connections. for the required compressive strength, Section F2.6c(2) has an additional 1.1

Ry= 1.4

when the

For the HSS6.875x0.500 b r ace below the beam:

W27x114
lw

c~nnection

ASD

P., =l.OE,,,Jt
=LO (307 kips)
=307 !Ops

Beam

d = 27.3 in.

LRFD

Brace (below the beam)


fnom

=RyFyAg
=1.4(42 ksi)(s.22 in.1)
=307 kips

Brace (above the beam)


HSS6x0.312
fncm

5-143

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

ASD

LRFD
Pw =l.OEmh
=LO (550 kips)
= 550 kips

Pa= 0.7,,,h
= 0.7(550 kips)

'~' r

=385 kips

...

'

Determine the expected strength in compression of the braces


for detennining the expected strength of.the brace in coripr~~s~.on, RyFY. is ~s~d)n liyu of
Fy-for the dete~tion o{ Fcre a~cording, t~ AJ;~C Seismic Provisi~tp .Sect_J.on F2.3. The
brace length usep for the.detennination. ~f Fcremust notexcee? .tbe distance from brace end
to brace end. Estimate that the length of the connections will reduce the brace length to
approximately 12 ft. This will be verified once th.e connection is ~mplete. Th_erefore, a
length- of 12 ft. will be used to detennine the brace expected strength m compressJon.

1
.
. .. J

For the HSS6x0.312 br3ce above the beam:

Use AlSC Specifica!Wn Chapter.E with F., = RyFy to determine Pere. as follows:

KL

-=
r :=

1.0(12.0 ft)(12 in./ft)


2.02 in.
71.3

...

5-144

.... 1

BRACF-D FRAMES

4.71JR EF =4.71

29,000 ksi

If

1.4{42 ksi)

1 1

For the braces above the beam, the required st.renglh of the bracing connection when I.be
brace is in compression at its post-buckling strength is:

=105

:I

_ 7t

(Spec. Eq. E3-4)


For the HSSG.875x0.500 brace below the beam:

(29,000 ksi)
(71.3)2

KL

:
:

F.n"[0.658

. jn,F,

1.1l

(from Spec. Eq. E3-2)

i))

As caJculatcd previously, 4.7lJ E


RyFy

=105.

KL
~
When -~4.71
--:
T
R)Fy

= 0.658 sm,; (1.4)( 42 ksi )

=38.0 ksi
The e~pected compressive strength of the braces above the beam is:
Pco.,,,pns.rion =

1.0(J 2.0 ft){l 2 in.lft)


2.27 in .
::::63.4

-=

= 56.3 ksi

........

=
=47.5 kips

=67.8 kips

1t2E

(~Lr

t
..::.

P,,=0.7Emh
0.7(67.8 kips)

Pu ==-1.0ErnJi
=1.0 (67 .8 kips)

1 1

f't=--

ASD

LR.FD

.7JJR EF :

When: KL $; 4

s-1.;s

5.3 SPECTAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRi\MES

1. 14 Fcr~Ag

rr.2E

(Spec.

F.---

e-(~Lr

Eq. E3-4)

n 2 (29,000 ksi)
(63 .4)2

= 1.14(38.0 ksi)(5.22 in. 2 )

= 226 kips

=71.2 ksi

And the expected post-buckling strength is:

0.3?.:omprmion

=0.3(226 kips)

(from Spec. Eq. E3-2)

=67.8 kips
...{d ... ,

th:

For
_braces abov~ th.e beam, the required strength of the bracing connection when the
brace ism compression is based on Em1t equal to the lesser of R F. A and 1 l 4F: A
d
ing to AISC s p . .
Y 1 g

ere 1 accor
.
.
e!S.m1c rovis1ons Section P2.3; therefore, use,,,,.= 226 kips.

f..

= 0.658~ 1(1.4)(42 ksi)


[

=41.6 ksi

The expected compressive strength of the braces below the beam is:

The required strength is:

Pcompr~sslon

LRFD
P,, - I.OE,,.,,

=LO (226 kips)


=226 kips

>!

...

., I

l:,, '

('

ASD

Pa= 0.7...J,
=0.7(226 kjps)
= 158 kips

= I. l4Fc,.Ag
2

= 1.14(41.6 ksi)(9.36 in.

=444 kips
And the expected post-buckling strength is:
0.3Pto11iprmi<>1t::: 0.3(444 ldps)

=133 lcips

5- 146

BRACED FRAMES.

Por ihe braces below the be~, the required strength of the bracing connection when the
brace is in compression is based on Ent11 equal to the lesser of R1 FyA1 and 1.14FcreA accord!
1
ing to AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3; therefore. use E,,.,, 444 kips.

LRFD

ASD

I',, = I .OEmJo
= 1.0 (444 kips)

= 0.7(444 kips)

=311 kips

For the br~s below the beam, the required strength of the bracing connectfon when the
brace is in compression at its post-buckling strength is:

LRFD

ASD

Pu= l.OEmh
=1.0 (133 kips)
= 133 kjps

Pa =0.1Emn
= 0.7(133 kips)
= 93. 1 kips

Top Brace-to-Beam Connection


Tue required tensile strength of the connection is based upon RyFyAg of the braces as stipulated in AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(l). All limit states applicable to tension or
compression in lhe brace must be checked.

The limit state of shear J\Jpwre in the brace wall is used to deternUne the minimum bracegusset lap length. Note that lhe expected brace rupture strength, R,F"' may be used in the
determination of lhc available strength according to AISC Seimtic Provisions Section A3.2.

Using AJSC Specification Section 14.2, including R1 from AISC Seismic Provisions Table
A3.1:

R,= l.3
(from Spec. Eq. J4-4)
In this equation, Anv is taken as the cross-sectional area of the four walls of the brace,
Anv 4lt.us. Therefore:

Rn= 0.60R,Fu(41t,us)

.....

The lwo sets of forces are shown in Figures 5-23 and 5-24.

226 kips (LRFD)


58Jcips(ASO)
compression)

Determine the minimum length, I, required for the brace-gusset lap

Pa -:::.0.7EmA

=444 kips

'

5- 147

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

307 kips (LRFD)


215kips (ASD) ' /
(tension) /

67.8 kips (LRFO)


"""

~ 7.5 kips (ASO)

"~)

307 kips (LRFrO)

215 kips (ASO)


(tension)

..

/.650

ki~s (l.RFD)

385 kips (ASD)


(tomion)

....,,,
444 klps (l.RFO""

311 kips (ASO)

(compression)

Fig. 5-23. Required strength of bracing connections according to


A/SC Seismic Provisions Sectioa F2.3(i).

kips (IBFO)
/ ~50
iss
kips (ASO)
(tension)

133 kips

(LRFO~

93.1 kips (ASOl

(compresslon)

"""'

Fig. 5-24. Requirtd st~ngth of bracing con11eclicns according to


A/SC Seismic Provisions Section F2.3(ii).

.... 5-148
~=

BRACED FRAMES

S-149

5.3 SPECIAL coi-:cENTRJw\l.1.Y BRACED FRAMES

.
Setting Lhe aV".i.ilable shear rupture strenglh equal to the required censile strenglh and sotv:
ing for the minimum lap length, /:

. l.

.,.

t.

LRFD
l~

:.

Pu

l~

.
:.

OPa
0.60RrF..(41deJ)
2.00(2 15 kips)
0.60(1.3)(58 ksi)(4)(0.291 in.)

~ 8.17

~7.77 in.

:.I

..

ASD

$(0.60)R,F;, (4tJu)
307 kjps
0.75(0.60)(1J)(58 ksi)(4)(0.291 in.)

Since the gross sheru- area, Agv. and the net sbenr area, A,,.,, are equal in this case, the shear
yielding component, 0.60F_,A1,,, is smaller than the shear rupture component, 0.60FuAm.. and
the right side of the ~untion controls.

0.60F1 Agv =0.60F1 (2)1tp

= 0.60(36 ksi){2)(15.0 in.)(tp)


I

= 648/p

in.

=1.0F,.Dbraulp

UbsFuAnt

=l.0(58 ksi)(6.00 in.)(tp)


=348/p

Note that this length is the minimum required for !he limit state of shear rupture in the
brace wall. A longer length may be used when designing the fillec welds between the brace
and the gusset plate, if desired, to allow a smaller fillet weld siz.e as is implemented in the
following.
Size the weld between the brace and the gusset plate

The s~en~th of fillet welds defined in AlSC Specijicarion Section J2 can be simplified, as
explained in Pan 8 of the AISC Manual, to AISC 1\-lanual Equations 8-2a and 8-2b:

LRFD
I

307 kips
0.75(648 kip/in.+348 kip/in.)

~0.411

Rn

=0.60FyAgv +UbsFuAnt <:::Pa


n

2.00(215 kips)

Ip~ (648 kip/in.+348 kip/in.)


~ 0.432 in.

in.

0.928DI

Try A-in. fillet welds for the four lines of weld, which can be made in a single pass:

LRFD
4(1.392)Dl <::: P,,

$R11 =0.75(0.60f'.vAgY+Ub,F.,,f\,i,) ~Pu


tp ~

ASD

ASD

LRFD

ASD
4(0.928)D/ <::: P0

Check required gusset width and thickness based on the limit state
of tensile yielding
Tensile yielding is checked on a section of the gusset plate commonly ~ferred to as tJ~e
Whitmore section. This section is explained in AISC Manual Part 9 (Figure 9-1) and m
Thornton and Lini (2011). Because the'. widtb and thickness of the gusscl plate have not yet
been chosen, the minimum area will be-. determined for this limit stale. The nominal tensile
yielding strength is:

l~

307 kips
4(1.392 kjp/in.)(4 sixteenths)

<:::13.8 in.

215 kips
l <:::
4(0.928 kip/in.)(4 sjxteenths)
~

14.5 in.

-Rn.Q

~P,.

QFy

Check block shear rupture of the gusset plate


The available strength for the limh state of block shear rupture is:
R,, = 0.60F11 A11 v +UbsFuAn.1~0.60F,,A1v +UbsFuAni

307 kips
0.90(36 ksi)

<?: 9.48 in.

<?:Pa

OPa

P,.

Use (4) 15-in. long. \4-in. fillet welds to connect the brace above the beam to the gusset plate.

i:.
I

~:
;::
I..

QR.

fp\Vp~-

j;

ASD

LRFD

The designs in lRFD and ASD give slightly differenl required lengths of ~eld. For convenience, the more conservative result will be used in subsequent calcula1ions and in I.he
final design. ln practi~, designers should consistently use one Jllethod or the other.

~-

(Spec. Eq. J4-l)

tpWp ~-F.,
~ 1.67(215 kips)

36 ksi
;::. 9.97 in. 2

(Spec. Eq. 14-5)


AMf.RlCJIH b-ISTllVTl! OP S'Jlll!l. CONSTRUCTION

I
I

_J

5-150

A gmset plate IA-ill be chosen that has a width on the Whitmore section, wp. of 12 in. and a
thickness, tp. of~ in. This meets the minimum required gusset plate thickness for the Ii niit

state of block shear rupture calculated previously.


Check that the bracing connection can accommodate brace buckling
according to A/SC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(3)

The requirements of AISC Stismic Provisions Section P2.6c(3) 3re met through the use
of option (b): rotation capacity. As e.'tpl3ined in the U~r Note of that se~tion and in the
Commentary Figure CF2.9, accommodation of inelastic rotation is accomplished with the
bnice tenninating before the line of restraint. Figure 5-22 shows the 2r clearance beyond the
end of the brace.
The choice of a relatively small Whitmore ~ction resuJts m a tapered gu~~et, which i'I beneficial because it allows the brace to be located closer to the beam while stilJ accommodating
brace rotation by providing a 2t clearance per AfSC Sejsmic Provisions Section F2.6c(3) and
Commentary.
Check the maximum Whitmore section

As explained in AISC Manual Part 9, the maximum width of the Whitmore section that can
be considered effective is defined by a 30" spread to each side, but not exceeding the nctual
width of the gusset plate. To make sure tbat the 12.0 in. width chosen previously can be cnnsidercd effective in tension, check the maximum Whitmore section.
Wp

S Dbraa + 2L tan30.
S 6.00 io.+2(15.0 in.)tan30 = 23.3 in.

12.0 in.

23 .3 in.

o.k.

Therefore, tbe 12 in. width and


acceptable.

* in. tluckness for the gusset plate chosen previously is

The actual angle of the gusset edge, measured relntive to the centerline of !he brace, is:
,,. - tan -l[~(ll'p-Dbrace)]
,.. _

=ran-i['h02.0 in.-6.00 in.)]


15.0 in.

=11.3
Note: I.his angle I.hat is smaller than the Whitmore section angle of 30" provides a more compnct gusseL

Using 3 gap of 1,1'6 in. on each side of the brace slot to alJ~v clearance for erection:
A,, = 5.22 in.2 -2[* in.+2(Yi6 in.)j(0.291 in.)

=- 4 .64 in.2
From A tSC Specification Table 03.1, Case 5. because I> l.3D, U

= 1.0, and the effective

net area is:

~ =1.0(4.64 in.2 )

=4.64 in.2
race reinforcement is required. The approxilllate area of reinforcement
Because A < A g b

red
u
d A th area remoYe<l but the position of the reinforcement w1I1 uce to
requm: ' ,,., lS e
'
._,.
be b . d
less than 1.0 be.cause of its position. The required area of reuuorcement can
o ta1ne
from: (An +Am) U ~ Ag

Assuming a value of U = 0.80:

A,

Am =Q.80-A.,

=5.22 in.2 _ 4.6-i in.1


0.80

=l.89 in.2
x 1 1n nat bMS with 3 total area of 2.00 in.1 AlSC Seismic Provisions Section

be t
F2.5b(J)(i) re~ that the specified .mini.mum yield strength of the reinforcement
a
lhat 1of the brace; f.herefore, use ASTM A572 Grade 50 material for the Oat bar. The
cross-sectional geometry is shown in Figure 5-25.

Try two 1 10.

ie:st

Dbroc

lui

r1 =-2-- l

6.00 in. 0.291 in.


=~2

=2.85 in.
Dbrac
1.00 in.
r2=--+~

6.00 in. 1.00 in.


=-i-+~

=3.50 in.
The distance to tho centroid of a pnrtial circle is given by:

.:<

Check brace effective net area

From AISC Sti.rmic Provisions Section F2.5b(3), the br.ice effective net llJ"Ca, A., shall not
be less than the brace gross area, A1 .

.... ,

BRACED FRAMES

where the total arc of the partial circle is 20 and 0 is meas ed


d.
I
l"gh
I I
'
ur m ra 1ans. A though th~
1
ce is s
I Y ess th~ a ~I half-circle because of the slot :is shown io Figure 5-25, use
: angle, 0, of rt/2 for s1mphc1ry. This is slightly unconservative for calculating the value of
e shear lag factor, U. A more precise calculation could be perfonned using the exact angle,

bra

= l.81 in.

=4.64 in.2 + 2(1.00 in.)(1.00 in.)

xfor the composi1e cross section.

'

1?

=6.64 in. 2

xA

Part

in.

111.

in.

Half of brace
One flat bar

1.81

2.32

3.50

1.00

4.20
3.50

.E

3.32

7.70

Ae =UAn

=0.845(6.64 in. 2 )

=5.61 in.2 > 5.22 in.2

o.k.

Design welds connecting (fat bars to brace


According to AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5b(3)(ii), the flat b:ir must be connected
to the pipe brace to develop the exp~ted strength of the flat bar on each side of the reduced
section (the expected yield strength, RyFy. is used here). The reduced section is the length
of the HSS from the extent of the slot (dimension x of Figure 5-22) to the start of the HSSto-gusset weld. The required strength of the weld is based on the expected flat bar yield
strength, using R7 from AISCSeismic ProvisionsTab1eA3.1 for ASTM A572 Grade SO bars.
For ASD, use 1.0/1.5 of the expected strength of the flat bar reinforcement.

- I.xA
x=-LA

An = An(broce) +Arn

=3.50 in.

From AJSC Specification Table 03.1, Ci:ise 2, which applies to round JJSS with reinforce-

.mot added:

{rc/2) rad

Detennine

.
~..

U=l-1
_ 2.32 in.
1
15.0 in.
=0.845

=2. 85 ID.
sin(tt/2} rad)
. ( _......_.;.....,,'----

Xbrace

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

7.70 in. 3
3.32 io. 2

=-2.32 in.

ASD

LRFD
I

RyFyAfl, =d.l(SO ksi)(t.oo in.2 )

.-

R1 FyAJb I 1.5 =1.1 (50 ksi )(1.00 in. 2 ) 11.5

=36.7 !Gps

= 55.0 kips

There is a small gap of approximately 0.041 in. between the face of the pipe brace ~d the
edge of the Ont bar, as indicated in Figure 5-25. Since this is less than 1116 in., it can be neglected according to AWS Dl.l clause 5.22.1. A single-pass 16in. fillet weld can be used.

;:.

With two welds, the length of Y.6-in. fillet welds connecting the flat bar to the brace is determined from AJSC Manual Equations 8-2a and 8-2b as follows:

LR.FD
55.0 kips
1 _
"' - 2(1.392 kipfm.}(5 sixteenths)
Fig. 5-25. Cross section of brace abo1e ben.
at ne1 sec11on.

~11
AMEIUCAN 1NSTITUT8 OF STEEL CONSTRUCTJON

ASD
lw =

36.7 kips
2(0.928 kipfm.)(5 sixteenths)

J'

..__=_3_._9S_i_n._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.__=_3_.9_s_m.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

.O~l\\.J;:)J

!KAM.SS

Use a l in. x l in. flat bar with 16-in. fillet welds; the derail extends past both sides of lli~
reduced section of the brace.
The flat bar fillet weld develops the expected strength of the bar on each side of lhe end of
the brace slot. The brace slot may be longer than the slot length by a maximum erection
clear.ince of x inches (see Figure 5-22), as detenni.ned by the fabricator. The length of the
flat bar wilJ be 4.00 in. + 4.00 in. + x in. 8.00 in. + x in.

From Figure 5-22, the buckling length, which is taken along the brace centerline {Dows well.
2006), is lb 8.00 in. (Example 5.3.10 provides an equation for calculating the length of
~ck.ling; h:re it is detem1ined graphically.) AJSC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(2) spec1~es a required compressive strengrh for buckling limit states that is at least equal to J.1
times the expected brace strength in compression for LRFD. The stress over the \Vbitmore
section, using the 'Whltmore width of 12.0 in., is:

= 23.7 ksi

=307 kips(cos45)

=215 kips(cos45)

I'

= 152 kips

=217 ldps

The nonnal (tension) force is:


LRFD

ASD

Nu= 307 kips(sin45)

Na= 215 kips(sin45)

=152 kips

!s:
LRFD

r=iii
t

M,, =Nu(l.5 in.)

:.i in.

=m
=0.253 in.
Recommended values for the effective length factor, K, are given in DowsweU (2006).
However, that paper doea not address t!1e case Of a single gusset plate with the 2t clearance
to accommodate brace buckling [called anextended" gusset plate io DowsweU (2006)].
Therefore, in this case, use K = 1.2 from AISC Specification Commentary Table C-A-7.1
assuming that the gusset plate is fixed at one end and free to translate but not rotate at ilbe
other. With 1,, = L:

KL

Va

l.2(8.00 in.)

-=------',
0.253 in.

ASD

Ma-= Na (1.5 in,)

= 217 kips(l .5 in.)

= 152 k.ips(l.5 in.)

=326 kip-in.

= 228 kip-in.

Check the gusset and design the weld at the gusset-to-beam flange interface
The forces are:

LRFD

ASD

Shear Vu

=217 kips

=152 kips

Normal Nu

=217 kips
=326 kip-in.

Moment M.,

Normal Na

=152 kips

MomentMa=228 kip-.i_n.

=37.9

Interpolating from AlSC Manual Table 4-22:

LRFD
$cFcr =30.0 ksi > 23.7 ksi

ASD

o.k.

Fer =20.0 ksi > 16.6 ksi


nc

}i

12.0 in.(* in.)

= 16.6 ksi

The radius of gyration of the gusset plate

1--~~~-LRFD
~~~~--t~~~~-AS_D~~~~,. t

i
The contact length between the gusset plate and the beam top flange, as shown in Figure
5-22, is 21.0 in. and the brace line of action tnisses the centroid of the contact length by 1.5
in. due to the incre<ising width of the gusset plate. Therefore, the moment on the contact sur- .
face is:

f; _ 1.l (158 kips)


aa -

Based on I.be required tensile strength of the bracing connection (which is larger than the
required compressive strength), the shear force at tbe interface of lhe gussec with the beam
flange is:

=217 kips

ASD

f; _ I. 1(226 kips)
0
" - 12.0 iu.('Vs in.)

Determine the forces at the gusset-to-beam interface

Vu

Check the gusset plate for buckling on the Whitmore section

LRFD

5.3 SPl:.L:lAL. l.UN(...J::.N 1Ki\..ALI...'X U.KA\..tlJ rK.AMi::.=>

o.k.

The momenl, Mu or Ma, and the nonnal force, N., or Na, can be combined to give an equivalent normal force, Nu,q11 tv or Na#qufv This equivalent tension assumes a plastic stres~
distribution for the moment, Mu or M0 , which is similar to the stress distribution in the welt!
assumed in the inelastic method of the AlSC Manual Part 8 eccentrically loaded weld group
tables. On one half of the contact length, the srress due to the normal force, N., or Na. anc'
the srress due to the moment are additive. On the other half, !he stresses are in oppositt

5-156
BR.ACED FRAMES

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRlCAU.Y BRACED FRAMES

directions. For convenience of calculations, one of the forces in lhe force couple (du t the
moment, M~ or Ma) is i~agined reversed so the enti.re cont<1c1 surface is in uniform ~e~ion
or compression. The equ1valent normal force is:

..

LRFD
N,,,l/ldv

=N,, + 4M,,
=217 kips+ 4(326 kip-in.)

~~

=279 kips

.,

=21.6 ksi > 11.s ksi

'"

= 152 kips+ 4(228 kip-in.)


21.0 in .
= 195 Jcips

21.0 in.

~~
~-

LRFD

o~

o.k.

9=

_ Na;qui
aa---tplb

(~

195 kips
in.)(2 1.0 in.)

=10.6ksi

The design tcn~ile yielding stress from


AISC Specification Section J4.1 is:

The allowable tensile yielding stress from


AISC Specification Section 14.1 is:
F..,

q,Fy= 0.90(36 ksi)

__

36 ksi
1.67
= 2 l.6 ksi > J0.6 ksi

-..:..::;:

o.k.

ASD

~:""')

S=tao

t:in - ( N..

-J(Natqui\)
--Va

/.

279.kips
in.)(21.0 in.)

= 32.4 ksi > 15.2 k si

o.k.

LRFD

In cension

=15.2 ksi

0.60(36 ksi)
1.50
= 14.4 ksi > 8.27 ksi

Size gusset-to-beam weld

ASD

In tension

. tplb

0.601-~

--=

The angle of the resultant force can be calculated and used in the directional strength
increase of fil1e1 welds according to AISC Specification Equation J2-5 as follows:

f: The gusset stresses are:

f ua z:: NH9ui

The allowable shear yielding stress from


AlSC Specification Section 14.2 is:

0.60Fy= 1.00(0.60)(36 ksi)

Natquiv = N a +
4Mo
--

.."..

~!

The design shear yielding stress from


AlSC Specification Section J4.2 is:

ASD

ASD

lb
,

LRFD

o.k.

= tan _ 1 ( 279 kips)


217 kips

=Ian -I ( 195 kips)


152 kips

= 52.1

=52.1

AISC Specification Section J2.4 :illows an increase in lhe available strength of fillet welds
when lhe angle of loading is not along the weld longitudinal axis, which is used in lhe following calculation.
The weld ductility factor, equal to 1.25, which is explained in AlSC Mw1ual Part 13. is
applied here. Using AlSC Manual Equations 8-2a and 8-2b, the m1mber of sixteenths of fillet weld required is:
\

LRFD

LRFD
In shear

JllY = v..

tplb

~-

"
:i.
:~;

.'(:...

..."

:~

217 kips
=(~ in.)(21.0
in.)
=11.8 ksi

ASD

ASD

D,~qJ

Drtq'd 2:

In shear

l.25~N;,9.,,.., +VJ

2(1.392kip/in.)(l + 0,5sin 1s 9)(lb)

fav = Va
t plb

L25~(279 kips)2 +(217 kips)2

152 kips
Oi i.n.)(21.0 in.)

2(1.392 kip/in.)(l.35)(21.0 in.)


= 5.60 sixtcenlhs

=8.27 ksi

2:

1.25~N';,quiv +

v;

2(0.928 kip/ in.)(1+0.5sinl.S 0)(lb)


2

;: l.25J(195 ldps) +{152 ldps)


2(0.928 kip/in.)(1.35)(2 l .O in.)

=5.87 sixteenths

'

An alternative fully plastic approach to Uie gusset-to-beam stresses is shown in the following cnJculations and presented in lhe !BC Sm1cturoVSeismic Design Manual (SEAOC'
2006), where lhe normal and bending stresses are assumed to act over separate portions of

AMERICAN lNSTlTVT!l OF STEa. CONSTRUCTION

tlKACCD f"RAMEs ~

.w;

/...,

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

tl~e ~on~ct length, lb, an.d are set equal to eacb other in order to result in a unifo
-~ "'-!
distnbuuon as shown in Figure 5.26.

rm strcs1 ~
From Figure 5-26,

th~ mom,enl about the center of th~ contacr length,

lb, is:

=F'[ ;'+)(2)

l~ '~

p
I

M0

N., =217 kips

N 0 =152.kips

kip-in-r +(10.5 in.)2


= (326
217 kips

so,

= ( 228 kipinl+ (10.5 in.)2

152 kips

-( 326 kip-in.)
217 kips

F' =.!:!._

a+e

..I.;

= 228 kip-in.

Mu= 326 kip-in.

= F' (a+. e) -

ASD

LRFD

-( 228 kip-in.)
152 lcips
::::: 9.11 in.

= 9.10 in.

and
Therefore:

F'

lb=--(a-e)tp
M

00
-

=13.6 ksi

fub-

2etp

!c10.s in.)2- (9.10 infl(%in.)

J. ob -

e~~(~r +a2 -(~)

....

t
.'

-:-;

.-::;

228 kip-41.
[c10.s in.)2-(9.11 m.)2 J(1i i~.)

l
:

=13.6 ksi

Setting/a =lb and solvlng for e:

...

152 kips
2(9.11 in.)(% in.)

= 9.53 ksi

326 kip-in.

la=-..

f. _

J. _ 217 kips
" - 2 (9.10 in.)(* in.)

Likewise, from Figure 5-26:


.

ASD

LRFD

. :~}

= 9.56 ksi

As required, fa= fb = 13.6 ksi (LRFD) and approximately 9.53 (ASD).

Compare this to 15.2 ksi (LRFD) and ici.6 ksi (ASD) using the simpler. method. The sim-
pier method is about 12% (LRFD) or :\1% (ASD) conservative.

For this _example:

Using !he plastic method to check


(normal) force as:

a -21.0
- - 'i11.
2
=IO.Sin.

th~ requ~red weld size, define an equivalent tensile

,,;

i\:
I

ASD

LRFD

'l

1--~~~~~~~~--~~~.,..+-~~~~~~..,--~~~~~~-=-1

N~u;uiv = (13.6 ksi)(21.0 in.)(Ys

in.)

N~equiv =(9.53 ksi)(21.0 in.)(Ys in.)


= 175 kips

= 250 kips

0
Gusset-to-beam
interface

tan-1(Nu~~uw)

=tan- l (250 kips)

Lit

=tlll-J (175 kips)

'''~
":\

152 kips

=49.0

Fig. 5-26. Fully pl.astic stress distribuiion on gusser-10-bea.m interface.


AME!u.CAN

lNsnnm; OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

l
l
l.

=tan-l ( N~~=uiv)

217 kips

=49.0

1'.)

AMERICAN JNS'ITJ'\lTtl OP S'T'Elll.. CONS'l'l!UCTION

'!'.~)

5-160

LRFD

= L25J(250 k:ips)2 +(217 kips)

f,;.. l

2(21.0 in.)(L392 kip/in.)

'

ASD
2

Dreq'd

5- 161

5.3 SPECIAi.. CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAl\iES

(1.0 + 0.Ssinl.5 49.0)


= 5.33 sixteenths

Dru/d

= l.25J(175 kips) 2 +(152 kips)2


2(21.0 in.)(0.928 kip/in.)

II.

080~ 1+3(~ J(:; r]t:."'


= 0.80(0.570

in.)2 lJ +3(

(i.o + 0.5sin1.s 49.0)

=5.60 sixteenths

(Spec. Eq. 110-4)

0 570 0
2
1.0
'. )1.5
27.3 m. 0.930 in.

~)(

29,000 ksi(50 ksi)(0.930 in.)


0.570 in.

f ~~~~"--~-'-!..~~--'-

=842 kips

This result is within 5% of lhe simpler method and both will require a * -in. fillet weld.
The plastic method is slightly less conservative than rhe more co~runon simple method lt
can always be used for these calculations but will not be pursued further in tl1is Manual..
Use a "1bs-in. fillet weld on each side of tlle gusset at the gusset-10-beam connection for
brace a ove 1he beam..

lb~

ASD

LRFD

Rn

Rn = 0.75(842 kips)

= 632 kips

> Nu t.qlliv = 279 kips

842 kips
2.00
= 421 K:ips

-=

o.k.

'

>Na equiv= 195

ldps

o.k.

Check beam web local yielding

For a force applied at a distance from !he end that is greater than the depth of the member:

Rn= Fy..-tw (5k+ lb)


1

11

!{::

.. (Spec. Eq. Jl0-2)"

=5.0 ~si(0;570 in.)[5(1.53 in.)+ 21.0 in.]


=817.kips

LRFD

> Nuequw = 279 kips

l,,

"

For rhe HSS6.875x0.500 below ilie beam, the required strength of the bracing connections
was determined at the beginning of this example.

ASD

=817.kips

o.k.

Bottom.Brace-to-Beam Connection

The required tensile strength of !he connection is base_d on RyFyAg of the braces as stipulated in AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.6c(l). All limit states applicable lO tension or
compression in the brace must be checked.

<PR,, _;:_l .00 (817 kips)

This completes the design of the top brace to the beam. Figure 5-22 shows the configuration.

Rn = 817 kips
Q
1.50
= 545 kips

> Naquiv =195 kips

Determine the minimum length, /, required for the brace-gusset lap


The limit state of sh~ ~pture in the b\-ace wall is used to detennine thte mini.mum prace-

o.k.

Web. local yieldina


applt"es t_o both tension
and compression loads. Web local
.. cri lino
.
o _
0
applies only to the compression loads, but the lan?er tension Load 15 used h ,,
pp

If d

""

ere 1or convenience. _es~red, the compressive strength of the brace could be used for web local crippling_
Check beam web local crippling

gusset lap length. Note that the expe~ted brace rupture strength, R1Fu, may be used
according to AISC Seismic Provisions Section A3.2.

Using AISC Specification Section J4.2, including R1 from .A.lSC Seismi~ Provisions Table
A3.l:
.
:
'
.
. .

R, =1.3
(from Spec..Eq. J4-4)

For a force applied greater than a distance of d/2 from the beam end:

Jn this equation, Am, is taken as the cross-sectional area of the four walls of the brace,
A,.,,= 4ltdes Therefore:
R,,

=0.60R,Fu(4ltd~s)

Setting the available shear rupture strength equal to U1e.required tensile strength and solv ing for the minimum lap Jeogth, l:
.,
:~

..%

AMERICAN .INS1TIVTE OP Sfi!EL CONSTIUJCJtON

AMElUCA.~ lJ'ISITJ1JTI) OF STEEL CONSTRIJC110N

LRFD
1'2:.
~
~

ca A are equal in this case. the- shear


Since the gross shear area, AH"' and the nets h ear ar ""'
yielding component, 0.60f).Ar is smaller than the she:\t rupture component. 0.60F.,Anv,

ASD

P.,

I '2:.

t(0.60)R, F., (4ldcz)


550 kips

'2:.

0.75(0.60)(1.3)(58 ksi)(4)(0.465 in.)

8.71 in.

and the right side of the equation controls.

uPa
0.60R,Fu (4rdts)

Ubs

=LO

2.00(385 bps)

0.60F1 Ar 0.60F1 (2)1tp

0.60(1.3)(58 ksi){4)(0.465 in.)


9.15 in.

Note chat this length is lhe minimum required foe 1he limit stare of shear rupture in the
brace wall. A longer length may be used when designing the fillet welds between the brace
and the gusset plate. if desired, to allow a smaller fillet weld size as is implemented in lbc
following.

U~F11 An1

=0.60(36 Jc.siX2X25.0 in.)tp


=1,0&0rp
=l.OFNDbructlp
= 1.0(58 ksiX6.875 in.)tp

=399/p

Size the weld between the brace and the gusset plate
The strength of fillet welds defined in AISC SpeciJiration Section J2 can be simplified, as
explained in Part 8 of the AISC Manual, to Equations 8-2a and 8-2b:

LRFD

tR.. =139201

Ip

-0.928Dl

LRFD

/~
~

550 kips

4(0.928)D/ ~ Ta
[ ';?.

24.7 in.

385 kips

4(0.928 kip/in.)( 4 sixteenths)

Rn

Ip ~

0.6F1Ar +UbsF.,A111 '<?:Po

2.00(385 kips)
(1,080 kip/in.+ 399 kip/in )

~ 0.521

in.

in.

the limit state of tensile yielding


I
I eferred to as the
Tensile yielding is checked on n section of the gusset p ate common Y r
.
Whltmore section. This section is e.'\plnined in AISC Manual Part 9 (Figure 9-1) and in
(201 l) B..ause the width and thickness of the gusi;et plate have not yet
"""
al
ii
Thornton an d Liru
been chosen, the minimum area will be ~etcrmined for this limit s~te. The nomm tens e
yielding strength is:

(Spec. Eq. 14-1)

~R,.'<?:P.,

Ai

R,. =0.60F.A11v + UbsF.,A.u ~ 0.60F1 Ap t- U1>1 F.,A,.,

'2: P,.

$F,
550 k.ips
'2: 0.90(36 ksi)

The available strength for the limit state of block sh~ rupture is:

(Spec. Eq. J4-5)

ASD

LRFD

Use (4) 25-in. long, 'A-in. fillet weld! to connect the brace below the beam to the gussei
plate.

Check bloclc shear rupture of the gusset plate

Check required gusset width and thickness based on

";?.25.9 in.

The designs in LRFD and ASD give slightly different required lengths of weld. Use the
LRFD result in this example. In practice, designers should consistently use one method or
the other.

550 kips
0.75(l,0&0 kip/in.+ 399 kip/in.)

~ 0.496

ASD

4(1.392 kipfm.)(4 sixleenlhs)

~R,, =0.15(0.60F1Agv + UbsF,.A,.,) ~ P,.

ASD

Using 1A-io. fillet welds for the four lines of weld so that they can be m:\de in a single pass:

4(1.392)DI '2:. T.,

ASD

LRFD

'2: 17.0 in.2

R,. '2:P.,

..

' .

UPo
A,'2:T
1

l 67(385 lcips)
'2:
36 ksi
'2: 17.9 in.

}:.

BRACED FRAMES~

Choose a reduced Whitmore width, w1 , of approximately twice the brace width. This doe3
not exceed the ma.umum Whitmore width descn'bed in AISC Manual Part 9. Therefore,
wp = 14.0 in. and the gusset plate thick:uess is:
LRFD

loJl1

5.3 SPECIAJ... CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

5 - 165

. a tota1 are.'\ o f 4.50 inl AJSC Seismic Pro1isio11s

11L flat bars wuh


Try lWO Jlh m. x.) n in.. that the

. mum y1etd strength of the reinforcement


spe
..-"'ed
-u i
n:uru
(
Section F2.5b(3) l requires
. ASTM A572 Grade 50 material for the flnt bar.
be at least that of the brace; therefore, use
Tue geomecry is shown in Figure 5-27.

ASD
Dbraet

Ag

tp~-

ldu

r1::-2--2

>Ag

fp--

Wp

' wp
2

l 7.0 in.
= 14.0 in.
=l.21 in.

17.9 in.

6.875 in.

0.465 in.

=3.21 in.

14.0 in.

= 1.28 in.

Db>oce

1lh in.

6.875 in.

11h in.
+-2-

r2=~+-2-

The minimum required gusset thickness for this limit state is higher than 1he minimum
required for rb~ limit stste of block shear as calculated previously.

.,

Using the LRFD solution, a l ~-in.-1hick plate is selected for the gusset plate. below lhe

-----i~:

beam.

The distance 10 the centroid of a partial circle is given by:

Check brace effective

net area

From AISC Seismic Provisions Section F2.5b(3), the brace effective net area, At, should noi
be less than the brace gross are:i, Ag. Tims:

~11

. '!;"

Using a gap of Yi6 in. on each side of the slot to allow clearance for erecrlon:
2

= 8.08 in.2

_ ri sin 0
x=--0

.
.
. 20 and 0 is measured in radians. Although the
f the slot as ~hown in Figure 5-27, use
where the total arc of the partial c1rc~c is be'
. li h I less than a full balf-ctrCle cause o
.
brace
1s s g t Y
. . 'ghll
servntive A more prtCi~e calculal!on
an angle, e, ofrc./2 for simplicity. This is sli
y uncon
..
could be perfonned using the ex:ict angle.

A,, = 9.36 in. - 2(1'.4 in.+ 2('1t6 in.) ](0.465 in.)

X/m1co

From AISC Specificarum Table 03. l, because l > l.3D, U =1.0, and 1he effective nee area i s:
~

= 2
=4.19 in.

. ( sin(it/2}rad)

""3.21 m.

"'2.04 in.

(1t/2)rad

=UA,,

=J,0(8.08 in.2 )
=8.08 io.2
Becaure A., <Ag. brace reinforcement is required. The approximate area of reinforcement
required, A,,., is lhe area removed, but reinforcement will reduce U 10 less than 1.0 because
of its position. The requjred area of reinforcement can be obtained from (A,.+ Am)U ~ Ag.
Assuming a value of U = 0.80:

Am = ~- A..
0.80

'
;"

.;

I~

9.36 in. 2 -8.08 in.2


0.80
=3.62 in.2

, OJ'the braet: below rite beam at rhe net sectitm.


Fig. 5-27. Cross section
AMEJUCAN }NS"JTttfTI! OF Stt.1!1. CONSTRUCTJO~

BRACED FRAMES .

Xrt

=r2

=4.19in.
Derennine

:-d
)

A
in. 2

Part

in.

Half of brace
One flat bar

4.19

4.04
2.25

6.29

2.04

R1 F1 Afb

LRFD

ASO

=1.1(50 ks1)(2.25 in.2 )


=124 kips

R1 F1AJ1>11.5= 1.1(50 ksi)(2.25 in. 2 )11.s

?,

x for the composite cross section.

5-1611

5.3 SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES

::: 82.S kips

XA
in. 3
8.24
9.43
17.7

There is a smnll gap of approitimately 0.081 in. between the face of the brace nod the edge
of the flat bar as shown in Figure 5-27. Since chis is more than 1/16 in., the fillet weld of