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PIPELINE ENGINEERING I

APSC 498P
COURSE NOTES
2014-2015 Winter
Module 1 - Pipe Materials, Specifications,
Manufacturing, and Pipe Components
Instructor: Dr. Hung M. Ha
Department of Materials Engineering
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, B.C.
Canada

Learning Objectives
Understand modern pipeline materials and
their applications
Knowledge of important material properties
Understand corrosion and degradation issues
of materials
Understand the basics of pipe manufacturing
processes
Understand the basic pipe components

Pipes in Ancient Times


Babylonia is often
referred to as the
birth place of pipe.
The Romans
developed some of
the most advanced
technologies in
ancient plumbing
systems

Source: Cast Iron Pipe, Standard


Specifications Dimensions and
Weights (Burlington, New Jersey:
United States Cast Iron Pipe &
Foundry Co.,1914), p. 13.

Baked clay knees and T-joints made about


2000 B.C in Babylonia

Roman aqueducts (about 100 B.C)


Source: Grantwiggins, grantwiggins.wordpress.com

Modern Pipelines
Plastic pipe

Concrete pipe

Steel pipe

Sub-sea stainless
steel pipe

Pipe/Tubing Materials
Metallic pipes
Steel pipe
Cast-iron pipe
Ductile-iron pipe
Stainless steel pipe
Copper pipe

Polymeric pipes
Plastic pipe (PVC, PE,
PP)
Rubber pipe
Elastomer pipe
Composite pipes
Fiberglass pipe
Concrete pipe

Steel Pipe
Alloy of Fe and C (~0.022% by weight)
Strong and durable
Seamless steel pipe

Susceptible to corrosion
Widely used in the oil and
gas industry

Corrugated steel pipe

Stainless Steel Pipe


Containing > 12% Cr makes
the steels stainless
Expensive

Used for critical pipes in


chemical plants and nuclear
power plants
Used widely in
pharmaceutical and food
industries

Cast-Iron and Ductile-Iron Pipe


Alloy of Fe and C (2.1
4% by weight)
Lower strength than steel
pipes and more brittle
More corrosion resistant
than steel pipes (many
existing pipes are more
than 100 year old)
Used in gas, water and
sewage transmission
systems

Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe


Lower strength than iron and
steels
Ductile and easy to form and
bend
Good corrosion resistance
Antimicrobial ability
Good thermal conductivity
Expensive
Used mostly in heat
exchangers and household
plumbing

Plastic Pipe
Not as strong and
durable as metallic
pipes
Excellent chemical and
corrosion resistance
Light weight
Used for
Water
Waste water

Fiberglass Pipe
Stronger than plastic
pipes
Excellent chemical and
corrosion resistance
Light weight
Used for
Water
Waste water
Natural gas

Concrete Pipe
Strong and corrosion
resistant
Rigid and inflexible
Bulky and heavy
Used for
Waste water
Drainage

Stress-Strain Curve

STRESS

Yield strength

Steel

Stone

Rubber

STRAIN

Toughness vs. Strength


STEELS

CAST-IRON
DUCTILE-IRON

CONCRETE
PVC, PP, PE

M. F. Ashby, H. Shercliff, D. Cebon, 2007 Materials: engineering, science, processing


and design

Strength vs. Density


STEELS

CONCRETE

PVC, PP, PE

Strength vs. Cost


CONCRETE
( ~ 2.2 2.4 g/cm3)

PVC, PP, PE
( ~ 0.9 1.4 g/cm3)

STEELS
( ~ 7.7 8 g/cm3)

Corrosion - Principle
Metal Oxide (Corrosion)
Corrosion is a thermodynamically favorable
process
G < 0

Stainless metals/alloys are not truly noncorrodible. The kinetics of corrosion is just
slow.

Corrosion of Metals
Zn

Cu

H2SO4

H2SO4

In sea water

CORROSION POTENTIAL (V vs. Saturated Calomel Electrode)

Rust on Iron and Steels


Type of iron oxides:
FeO (Wustite)
Fe3O4 (Magnetite)
-Fe2O3 (Hematite)
-Fe2O3 (Maghemite)
-FeOOH (Goethite)
-FeOOH (Lepidocrocite)
-FeOOH (Feroxyhyte)

Patina on Copper
Copper oxide: Cu2O (cuprite), CuO (cupric oxide)
Copper chloride: Cu2Cl(OH)3 (atacamite)
Copper sulfate: Cu4SO4(OH)6 (brochantite),

Pin Hole Leak on Stainless Steel Pipe

A hole through the pipe due to localized corrosion

Passive Layer
Dense oxide layer
Good bonding to the base material
Act as a barrier to separate the base material
with the environment
Metals promoting passivity include: Cr, Al, Ni,
(Fe), etc
several nm

Stainless Steels
%Cr 12%

Degradation of Polymeric Materials


Upon exposure to environments, polymer chains
can be degraded to lower molecular weight
molecules or monomers
Several degradation routes include:
photolysis reaction (UV, X-ray, gamma rays, )
thermal degradation
chemicals degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, )

Polymeric materials loss their strength, shape,


color and may also release harmful compounds
when degrade

Environmental Factors
Chemicals degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis,
)

Thermal degradation
T

Polymer + O2 CO2 + CO + H2O

Photolysis reaction (UV, X-ray, gamma rays, )


UV

R-H R* (radical) + H* (radical)

Environmental Effects on Polymeric


Materials
Chlorine-induced cracking on Acetal pipe

Ozone attack on rubber pipe

Discoloring of paint