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SAA HB1111998

THE DOMESTIC KITCHEN HANDBOOK

SAA HB1111998

SAA HB1111998

THE DOMESTIC KITCHEN HANDBOOK

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE on 17 Nov 2006

Compiled by
Anelia Pty Ltd

Foreword

SAA HB1111998

FOREWORD
This handbook was prepared jointly by Anelia Pty Ltd and Standards Australia to help people
prepare a brief for their new kitchen and more effectively communicate their needs to kitchen
designers.
Anelia Pty Ltd has had extensive experience in the design of domestic kitchens for the general
public, has been involved with training kitchen designers and preparing technical handbooks on
kitchen design.
In 1996, Standards Australia issued AS/NZS 4386, Domestic kitchen assemblies. Part 1 deals with
kitchen units and Part 2 deals with installation. These documents are also supported by AS 4387,
Parts 1 to 16 that specify the methods of testing kitchen cabinetry construction. This handbook
was commissioned to complement and expand on these standards. It will provide consumers with
a valuable tool to use when commissioning, designing and installing a new kitchen.

Photographs:

John Wilson (Crocus Pty Ltd) and


Malcolm Smith (M.C. Smith Studio)

Cartoons:

Trevor Williams

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HIA-NKBA The National Kitchens and Bathroom Association, is an association which represents
kitchen and bathroom manufacturers, suppliers, retailers and designer members of the Housing
Industry Association. Members have to abide by a strict Code of Ethics designed to ensure
consumers of the finest standards of business behaviour. HIA operates throughout Australia and
has a range of services available for members including specifically designed supply and install
contract for kitchens, bathrooms, laundries and kitchen specifications. It also offers access to
advice on a range of matters including contractual, legal, industrial relations, occupational health
and safety, training and technical services.

CopyrightStandards Australia.
Except where the Copyright Act otherwise allows, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system in any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia.

DISCLAIMER:
The information in this Handbook has been carefully checked and is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief. It
is the users responsibility to check with the relevant codes, authorities and manufacturers specifications for the most
up-to-date information. The authors disclaim all and any liability to any persons whatsoever in respect of anything done
or omitted to be done by any such person in reliance whether in whole or in part upon any of the contents of this
handbook.

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Contents

CONTENTS
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INTRODUCTION

1.0

THE DOMESTIC KITCHEN


1.1 The Function of the Domestic Kitchen
1.2 Cabinetry Components and Terminology
1.3 Range of Cupboard and Benchtop Configurations
1.4 Circulation in the Kitchen
1.5 Ergonomics

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2.0

MATERIALS IN THE KITCHEN


2.1 Floors
2.2 Cupboard Carcasses
2.3 Cupboard Doors
2.4 Benchtop/Worktops
2.5 Wall Finishes and Splashbacks

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3.0

APPLIANCES AND FITTINGS FOR THE KITCHEN


3.1 Cooking
3.2 Cold Storage
3.3 Cleaning and Recycling
3.4 Small/Hand-Held Appliances
3.5 Lighting in the Kitchen

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4.0

KITCHEN BRIEF AND BUDGET ESTIMATES


4.1 The Kitchen Space
4.2 Lifestyle
4.3 Appliance and Fittings
4.4 Materials
4.5 Design Services
4.6 The Budget
4.7 Contact Directory

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APPENDICES
A

INTERPRETING KITCHEN PLANS


A1 Work Order and Schedules
A2 Kitchen Plans

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CONSTRUCTION OF THE KITCHEN


B1 Floor Finishes
B2 Cupboards
B3 Benchtops
B4 Plumbing
B5 Electrical
B6 Installing Appliances and Fittings

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Introduction

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INTRODUCTION
Kitchens are designed and built into a home. There are few freestanding items or pieces of
furniture in a modern kitchen. The process may involve the co-ordination of designers, builders,
plumbers, electricians, cabinet makers and tilers. The public, in most cases, engage the services of
kitchen designers and installers. The range of services available begins with the free
quote/package deal and extends to the comprehensive design service.
The aim of this Handbook is to prepare consumers for the design process, to clarify their needs
and desires and to enable them to present the kitchen designer with a clear outline, in the form of
a design brief, to ensure that their expectations are met.
A successful kitchen design responds to the users lifestyle, the needs of all the family members,
material and style preferences, spatial constraints and the budget. The first three parts of this
Handbook provided information to help the consumer access their needs and desires. Part four is
an interactive tool which, when completed, will be a comprehensive kitchen design brief to be
presented to the professional kitchen designer.

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Appendices A and B provides additional information on kitchen plans and the kitchen installation
process.

A new kitchen can involve the coordination of designers, builders, plumbers, electricians, cabinet
makers and tilers.

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A kitchen design should reflect your lifestyle


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THE DOMESTIC KITCHEN

Obtaining and preparing food can range from a two minute phone call to organise a takeaway, to
hours of mixing, chopping, grinding, blending, and cooking. But the process does not stop there.
Any preparation and eating of food always results in the need for cleaning, washing and putting
away items to be reused. All these activities have generated the need for a dedicated space in every
home known as a Kitchen.
Part 1.1The Function of the Domestic Kitchen, looks at activities that generate the need for a
kitchen. To facilitate activities in the kitchen, appliances, fittings, utensils, crockery, glasses, etc...
are required. Each of these items needs to be allocated a place. Cupboards and benchtops are built
to store these items.
Part 1.2Cabinetry Components and Terminology, lists terms used to describe various parts of
cupboards.
Part 1.3Range of Cupboard and Benchtop Configurations, lists and defines terms used to
describe the various cupboard and benchtop combinations.

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Part 1.4Circulation in the Kitchen and Part 1.5Ergonomics, outline key spatial considerations
for people to move around and reach items in the kitchen.

Contemporary (1990s) kitchen integrated with the living and dining area of the home. In a builtin kitchen each appliance and fitting has a dedicated place.
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1.1 THE FUNCTION OF THE DOMESTIC KITCHEN


Activities associated with the kitchen space can be grouped into four main categories:

Preparing food
Cleaning and recycling
Consuming food
Communicating

The function, or purpose of a kitchen, is to make it possible to comfortably undertake these


activities.
Consequently, the most important single step in designing a kitchen is to discuss with members of
the family how the kitchen is to be used. The way activities are performed will vary with lifestyle,
culture and age, e.g. important features may be seeing a television from a kitchen, sitting down to
prepare food, reaching a phone while at the cooktop, or having an area for messages and files.
Consider the following points for each activity group when responding to Part 4.2, Lifestyle, in
the Handbook with your particular family requirements.

PREPARING FOOD

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A number of people can be involved with preparing food. A person could prepare food sitting
down or standing. It is important to be in close proximity to all the ingredients and utensils that
may be required.

Sitting at the benchtop using a small appliance


in the same area where it is usually stored. Dry
foods and refrigerated items are stored within
reach.
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Spices, oils and sauce bottles stored in drawers


beside the cooktop are within reach when
cooking.

Glasses and drink items stored within reach of


refrigerator, filtered water unit and incorporated
with a benchtop area to work at.

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When using appliances there needs to be a put-down space for each appliance.
At a cooktop, clear space is required on both sides to allow pots to be put down without lifting
them over other pots on the cooktop. When something is taken out of the refrigerator put-down
space is needed immediately beside the refrigerator. When taking things out of an oven there
should be a put-down space immediately beside the oven. Microwave ovens can also have a pullout shelf under them as a put-down space.

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Recommended range of benchtop widths required for one person preparing and two people
preparing side by side.

600 mm to 900 mm

1200 mm to 1500 mm

750 mm to 900 mm

900 mm to 1200 mm

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Recommended range of benchtop widths required for two people preparing on opposite sides.

CLEANING AND RECYCLING


Items in the kitchen requiring cleaning include: food, cupboards, utensils, dishes, benchtops,
appliances, fittings, floors, walls, furniture and hands.
Detergents and cleaning aids need to be located near the sink and dishwasher.
The range of waste materials generated in the kitchen include: paper, plastic, glass, metal and
organic matter. Separate bins and dedicated areas can be incorporated for the waste.

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Bin in drawer near dishwasher and sink.

Washed dishes from elevated dishwasher to


drawers.

CONSUMING FOOD
In the kitchen space an eating or snacking place
could be:

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part of the kitchen cupboards,


an extension of the benchtop area,
a raised countertop,
a lowered benchtop area at table
top height.

COMMUNICATING
Communicating in the kitchen space could
be:

people talking to each other,


phone calls,
listening to music,
watching television,
reading the newspaper,
writing notes and paying bills.

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1.2 CABINETRY COMPONENTS


AND TERMINOLOGY
Wall
Capping
Infill panel against a wall.
Cupboard door
(attached to cupboard
carcass with hinges)

Space for microwave


Full height/tall unit

Single Oven

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To create a kitchen, a variety of cupboards


are assembled in conjunction with worktops
and benchtops. A cupboard is a completed
unit that includes drawer fronts, or doors,
and loose shelves inside it. Terms used to
identify parts of a cupboard and types of
cupboards are shown.
The Australian/New Zealand Standard
(AS/NZS 4386.1:1996) Domestic kitchen
assemblies, Part 1: Kitchen units sets out
functional dimensions. It recommends a
range of heights, depths and widths for the
various cabinetry components.
By establishing such functional dimensions
it enables a level of standardisation of
components but does not necessarily limit
design options. By nominating the range of
depths for floor, wall and tall units,
appliance manufacturers can ensure that
appliances and fittings will be able to be
built into these depths.

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Rangehood fascia
For details of how cupboards are assembled
see Appendix B.
Wall unit

Splashback

Cooktop
Benchtop
Thickness of the benchtop
will vary with the material
used.

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Cupboard handle
Floor unit
bank of drawers
Drawer front

Kickboard
Built-in dishwasher
Floor

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1.3 RANGE OF CUPBOARD AND BENCHTOP CONFIGURATIONS


Raised Counter
Top or Bar Top

Return

Overhanging Benchtop
(at benchtop height)

Peninsular

Benchtop/
Worktop

Full Height/Tall Units

RANGE OF CUPBOARD CONFIGURATIONS

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Floor Unit:
A cupboard that sits on the floor and usually has a horizontal work surface on top of it.
Wall Unit:
A cupboard usually fixed to the wall above a worktop.
Full Height/Tall Unit:
Is a cupboard that sits on the floor and the top of the cupboard corresponds in height with the top
of an installed wall unit.
Return:
A unit or units that are attached to the wall at one end.
Peninsular:
A unit or units that sit on the floor and are attached to units which are fixed to the wall i.e. the
peninsular units never come in contact with a wall.
Island:
A unit or units that are only attached to the floor of the kitchen space.
Pedestal Base:
A vertical support for a benchtop/worktop/table top, located under the centre of the
benchtop/worktop/table top.
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Drop Down Benchtop


with Cooktop

Floor Units

Return

Wall Units

Drop Down Table Top


(at table top height)

Pedestal Base

Island

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RANGE OF BENCHTOP/WORKTOP CONFIGURATIONS


Benchtop/Worktop:
A continuous horizontal surface intended for work such as food preparation. The horizontal
surface is usually at a height suitable for working at while standing.
Raised Counter Top or Bar Top:
This horizontal surface is raised above a benchtop/worktop. It can act as a visual screen between
the kitchen and adjoining areas. It is often used to snack/eat at, while sitting on stools.
Overhanging Benchtop: (at benchtop height)
A benchtop/worktop can extend beyond the face of the cupboards below it. This overhang allows
for leg room while sitting on stools.
Drop Down Benchtop:
A part of the benchtop/worktop that is lower than the rest of the benchtop/worktop. Drop down
benchtop areas usually have a cooktop fitted in them.
Drop Down Table Top:
An extension of the kitchen worktop/benchtop that is lowered to a height suitable for sitting at on
chairs.

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1.4 CIRCULATION IN THE KITCHEN


Circulation refers to space requirements for people moving around the kitchen and accessing
cupboards or appliances.
A minimum 600mm zone of space
should be available for a persons body.

In a bent position a minimum


600mm zone of space should be available.

600
600

1200
1200

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For two people passing, or one person with an appliance or cupboard door open a minimum
clearance of 1200mm is recommended.

12001700

The recommended distance between two rows of cupboards is a minimum 1200mm. The ideal is
approximately 1350mm1500mm. Beyond 1700mm is not recommended as reaching different
parts of the kitchen becomes inefficient.
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When a kitchen space is entered between cupboards and a return a minimum 1200mm clearance
should be maintained, especially if an appliance door opens into the circulation space.

1200

If there are no appliances opening into the circulation space the minimum clearance can be
reduced to 900mm.

WHEELCHAIR CIRCULATION
The following data has been sourced from the Independent Living Centre N.S.W. booklet titled
Kitchen Planning for People with Disabilities.
Circulation space required for a wheelchair will depend on the type and style of the wheelchair
and the ability of the user.

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200
150

For a 180 degree wheelchair turn a suggested minimum space is 2070mm in the direction of
travel (A), by minimum 1540mm wide (B).
For a 360 degree wheelchair turn a suggested minimum space is 2250mm by 2250mm.
The depth and height of the recessed kickboard areas will increase the available circulation
space. Minimum depth is 150mm. Minimum height is 200mm.
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1.5 ERGONOMICS
Human movement associated with a kitchen includes standing, sitting at a variety of heights,
reaching up into cupboards, reaching across worktops, reaching into appliances and reaching
down into cupboards. The recommended range of heights and depths are listed.

ZONE OF REACH
At a worktop/benchtop the comfortable
reach forward is a maximum 600mm.

The uppermost shelf of a cupboard


at a maximum 1800mm off the floor.

600mm

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A recessed space at the bottom of the cupboards is required for toes50mm to 75mm.

When accessing the bottom shelf of a floor


unit it is difficult to see stored items.
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When accessing a drawer all items


are visible.

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STANDING
Worktop/benchtop height is 900mm to
950mm off the floor.
For a raised countertop a height of 1100mm to
1150mm is a friendly height. People can still
feel part of the space on the other side of the
counter. They will also be tempted to stand at
and lean on the counter with their elbows. If a
screening effect is required, so that people do
not look into the kitchen, the countertop can
be raised between 1200mm and 1300mm. At
these heights the counter will feel less inviting
to stand at.
The width of a raised countertop can range
from 150mm to 300mm. If intending to use
the countertop for eating at, a plate will
require a minimum width of 300mm.

150mm-300mm

650mm750mm
1100mm1300mm

900mm950mm

When lifting dishes in or out of an oven a


persons elbows should be close to their waist.
It becomes harder to hold heavy items as the
elbows rise to the shoulder height. It is dangerous to access an oven if a person has to raise their
elbows above their shoulders. The following range of heights can be used as a guideline.

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A single oven fitted in a full height cupboardheight off the floor, 850mm to 950mm.
A double oven fitted in a full height cupboardheight off the floor, 650mm to 750mm.
A microwave ovenmaximum height off the floor, 1350mm.
An elevated dishwasherheight off the floor, 250mm to 450mm.

dishwasher

850mm950mm

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max.
1350mm

250mm450mm

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SITTING
When sitting legroom needs to be considered. The following are the recommended minimum leg
clearances for the various sitting heights:

300mm
900mm

At a Benchtop or Raised Countertop (900mm1200mm height off the floor) a stool is required.
Leg room 300mm.

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1100mm-1200mm

400mm

700mm-750mm

At a drop down table top (700mm to 750mm height off the floor) a chair is required.
Leg room minimum 400mm.
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ZONE OF REACH FOR PEOPLE IN WHEELCHAIRS

600mm
1380mm

200mm
650mm
850mm

The preferred height of a benchtop for a wheelchair user is 850mm +/- 20mm.
A 600mm benchtop depth is acceptable. Note that this may limit ability to access
powerpoint on a back wall. At least one powerpoint should be located 300mm
from the front of a work surface.
Knee access space should be provided under a sink, cooktop and preparation area.
It is suggested that the space under a sink is a minimum 200mm deep and 650mm high.
Reach to highest shelfmaximum 1380mm height off floor.
Reach to lowest shelfminimum 250mm height off floor.

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Oven height off floorminimum 650mm ( main oven compartment).


Elevate refrigerator to optimise reach range of 250mm to 1450mm off floor.

650mm

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250mm

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2.0 Materials in the Kitchen

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MATERIALS
IN THE KITCHEN

Materials make up our built environment.


They are used to enclose space and to support structures.
We walk on them, sit on them, chop on them and spill water on them.
Materials affect the human senses. We touch materials, we smell materials, see through
materials, feel secure or exposed, feel warm or cold, comfortable, relaxed or excited in
response to materials.
Technological advancements are regularly producing new materials. When selecting materials to
live with, the following aspects need to be considered about any material:
how does the material join to the same material or to other materials
how does the material withstand temperature variations and liquids
how long is it going to last (durability)
how easy is it to clean
how is the material going to make me feel
The combination of materials selected for a kitchen will determine the style and character of the
space. For example, the combination of polished timber floor boards, solid timber cupboard doors
and granite benchtop will reflect a country cottage style with a natural, warm and traditional
character. Alternatively, the combination of ceramic floor tiles with laminate on the doors and
benchtop reflect a contemporary style. Depending on the selected colour of each material the
character of the kitchen can range from warm and textured to cool and reflective, or a combination
of these.
When filling in Part 4.4 Materials, look through magazines and mark out kitchens that appeal to
your family, or the way you wish your new kitchen to look.

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To give you an idea of the range of materials available this part identifies the various types of
materials used for each component of the kitchen. It covers flooring, cupboard carcasses,
cupboard doors, worktops/benchtops, walls and splashbacks.
A facts list is presented for each material in each application. This information can then be used
to assess its suitability for your specific needs.

2.1 FLOORS
The floor in the kitchen has to survive the heaviest use. People walk on it, babies crawl on it, pets
run on it, furniture is placed and dragged on it, food and liquids are spilt on it. The floor material
is expected to endure this and still look great and be easy to clean and maintain. One of the most
important criterion for the material on the floor is that it should not allow water to permeate it.
The following materials are commonly used for kitchen floors:
Cork, Linoleum, Vinyl, Timber, Natural Stone, Ceramic Tiles and Terracotta Tiles.

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CORK
Composition of Material:
Cork is the bark of a cork tree
that has been peeled off,
compressed to approximately
2-3mm and cut into tiles.
Range of Sizes:
Tiles usually 300mm x 300mm
Colours:
Limited range. Natural colour
range YellowOrange. Can
be limed or painted and prefinished. Has a small speck or
larger particles.
Finish: Smooth and soft.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use: Made from natural and renewable raw materials. Last
for 10 to 20 years. It is soft and warm to walk on, easy to maintain. Coloured tiles should not be
sanded back.
Substrate Preparation: Needs level, smooth, rigid, clean and dry surface.
Fixing to Substrate: Glued to concrete or underlay sheeting.
Treatment of Joins: Tiles are butted together.
Protective Coating: Following laying cork tiles are sanded lightly and painted with a clear coating.
This is repeated two to three times. Pre-finished tiles do not require sanding or clear coating.
Recommended Care and Cleaning: It is recommended that the natural coloured cork tiles be
sanded and recoated approximately every 3 to 5 years.
Sweep loose dirt and dust with broom. Wet mop with water and floor detergent to remove stains.
Boiling water and hot oils should be cleaned immediately as they will effect the clear coating.

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LINOLEUM
Composition of Material:
linseed oil, pine tree resins,
wood
flour/cork
flour,
limestone powder, pigments
used for colouring and Jute
webbing used as backing
material.
Tiles are harder than sheet
material and have a polyester
backing.
Range of Sizes:
Is available in sheet form and
tiles. Thickness 2.5mm.
Finish: Smooth, soft.
Colours: Wide rangefull
colour spectrum. Plain colours
and
patternedmarbled,
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specks.
Fixing to Substrate:
Linoleum is glued.
Treatment of Joins:
Joins are butted together.
Protective Coating:
Not required.
Substrate Preparation:
Needs a very smooth, rigid,
clean and dry surface. May
require a topping layer on a
concrete slab to ensure a level
surface and to build up floor
to be flush with adjoining floor levels. On timber floors, a floor sheeting material, as an underlay
will be required. Screws need to be counter sunk. All screw/nail heads and joins in underlay sheets
must be filled and sanded.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
Linoleum is made from natural and renewable raw materials. Lasts for over 20 years. Soft and
warm to walk on. Easy to maintain. Light colours are more likely to show scuff marks. Different
colours can be combined to make patterns and inlays.
Recommended Care and Cleaning: Sweep loose dirt and dust with dry mop or broom. Remove
stains with wet mob and floor detergent.

VINYL

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Composition of material:
Two Types:
1. Solid Vinyl is generally
available as tiles.
2. Thin layer of decorative
material with laminations of
vinyl and a paper substrate.
Range of Sizes:
Available in sheet or tiles.
Colours:
Wide range of colours,
patterns can imitate any other material
Finish: Soft and smooth.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use: Soft and warm to walk on. Moisture content is critical
especially when laying on a concrete slab. Underlay is recommended.
Substrate Preparation: Soft underlay usually fitted for sheet material.
Fixing to Substrate: Sheet vinyls are loosely fitted. Tiles are glued.
Treatment of Joins: Can be radio frequency welded. Alternatively joins can be taped from
underneath and glued.
Protective Coating: Sealing not usually required for domestic applications.
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TIMBER
Composition of Material:
Natural timber cut into strips or planks.
Dried to an acceptable moisture content.
Range of Sizes:
Timber floor boards can range from 50mm75mm-100mm. Can be cut to any length.
Colours:
RedsYellowsBrowns. Various species.
Finish:
Smooth. Clear coating can be glossy or matt.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
Natural product. Can use plantation grown
renewable timbers. Some species can have
significant variations in colour. Old timber floors
can be recycled, or revitalised by sanding and
polishing. Can last the life of a home. Softwoods
not as durable in high traffic areas, are more
succeptable to pitting from high heels or point loadchair legs. Avoid staining or liming timber for floors.
Substrate Preparation: Can be laid on framed floor or concrete slab. In framed floor construction
timber floor boards are self-supporting and require no substrate.
Fixing to Substrate: Nailed or screwed to timber, glued to concrete.
Treatment of Joins: Strip flooring is butted together. Floor boards are tongue and grooved.
Protective Coating: After laying, the timber floor is filled, sanded and a clear coating is painted
on. This process is repeated twice.
Recommended Care and Cleaning: Paler timbers are more likely to show scuff and stain marks.
More care is required in the preparation and sealing of the paler timbers.

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NATURAL STONE
Composition of Material:
Can be marble, travertine, granite, soapstone.
Range of Sizes: Usually square100mm x
100mm, 200mm x 200mm, 300mm x 300mm,
Colours:
Creamy whiteredsgreensblueblack.
Finish: Polishedsmooth.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
Hard and cold to stand on. High noise impact,
Objects are more likely to break if dropped.
Slippery when wet.
Substrate Preparation: Stone is heavyneed to assess if the existing floor can support the
proposed weight. Special underlay preparation required on timber floors to ensure timber
shrinkage does not cause cracks in the tiles or grout.
Fixing to Substrate: Cement base to concrete floor. Glued to substrate.
Treatment of Joins: Grouted. Cement grout recommended
Protective Coating: Should be sealed and may require resealing in heavy duty areas.
Recommended Care and Cleaning: Mop with warm water and detergent.
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CERAMIC TILES
Composition of Material:
Types: Vitrified and glazed.
Vitrifiedcolour and composition
throughout the tile.
Glazedhas an earthenware
base (usually white) with a glaze
applied to the top.
Range of sizes:
Wide range. Usually square or
rectangular.
Colours: Wide rangefull
colour spectrum.
Finish: Smooth, usually glossy.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use: Very Durable. Long lasting. Very hard and cold to
stand on. Impact noise levels are high. Objects more likely to break if dropped on the floor tiles.
Vitrified tiles will disguise chips in tiles. If the glaze is chipped on a glazed tile the whitish base
is visible. Hand made and hand glazed tiles are very uneven and will require larger gaps. Glossy
tiles can be slippery when wet.
Substrate Preparation: Timber floors need underlay sheeting material.
Fixing to Substrate: Cement base. Can be glued.
Treatment of Joins: Gaps between tiles can vary from 3mm to 10mm to create various effects.
Joins are grouted.
Protective Coating: Not required
Recommended Care and Cleaning: Easy to keep clean. Wet mop and detergent.

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TERRACOTTA TILES
Composition of material:
Baked clay with no surface
coating.
Range of sizes: Usually approx.
300mm x 300mm
Colours: Based on natural clays
ranging pinkish, red to brown.
Finish: Textured.
Substrate Preparation: Timber
floors need underlay sheeting
material.
Fixing to Substrate: Cement base.
Treatment of Joins: Usually are laid with larger gaps, 5 mm to 10 mm between tiles.
Protective Coating: Needs to be sealed or waxed.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use: Appears softer and quieter than ceramic tiles. Are
porous and will absorb grease and oil stains. Discolouration due to mineral salts leaching out of
the tiles can require extra servicing. Chips are not as visible due to the whole tile being one
material. Significant colour variation in the same batch is common.
Recommended Care and Cleaning: Oil and grease needs to be washed immediately. Use detergent
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2.2 CUPBOARD CARCASSES


Cupboard carcasses are usually manufactured out of wood particle boards with a surface coating
on both sides. Wood species are usually pines e.g. Radiata Pine. To keep the wood particles
together resins or adhesives are used. The commonly used resins in particle board are UreaFormaldehyde and Melamine-Formaldehyde. The surface coating is white decorative paper with
melamine resin impregnated in the board to give a clear, hard, plastic finish that forms part of the
board surface. This finish is applied to both sides of the board.
The Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4386.1:1996, Domestic kitchen assemblies,
Part 1: Kitchen units recommends that:
the materials used for carcass construction are moisture resistant e.g. moisture resistant
particle board or moisture resistant medium density fibreboard;

the backing material of carcasses needs to be strong enough to ensure the carcass remains
square; and

any visible areas on a carcass after it has been fitted, including all the edges of shelves, need
to be covered with either melamine, vinyl or plastic edging material.

Pre-finished high moisture resistant particle board is most commonly used for carcasses. For
information on the various ways cupboard carcasses are assembled see Appendix B2.

HIGH MOISTURE RESISTANT (HMR) PARTICLE BOARD


Composition of Material:
Wood particles coated with resin. The resin
used is melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF)
which dries to a clear film. Wax emulsion is
included in the resin to provide the moisture
resistance in the particle board surface. HMR
particle boards can be marked with a blue line
through it, or green specs in it. For carcasses
the board is usually pre-finished with a white
decorative paper on both sides.

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Range of Sizes:
Commonly used 16mm thick. A range of
sheet sizes are available.
Colours:
The particle board is creamy, yellowish. This
surface is coated with white decorative paper.
Finish:
The unfinished particle board has a rough
texture. The decorative paper is smooth.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
The surface coated boards are cut to suite cupboard sizes then assembled. Each cupboard is a selfcontained compartment that is easy to maintain. Loose shelves will sag, especially if wider than
800mm. Extra shelf supports can be fitted along the back of cupboards.
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
Heavy metal pots and pans can leave dark scratch marks on the decorative paper coating of shelves
and drawer bases. Spills and food stains are easy to clean with a moist sponge and liquid detergent,
then wipe dry.
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MEDIUM DENSITY FIBREBOARD


Composition of Material:
Manufactured from fibres. The fibre particles are
consistently fine resulting in a uniform
distribution throughout the thickness of the
board. The fibres are dried before they are
formed into a mat for pressing. A synthetic resin
binder is used to bond the fibres. Mixed
urea/melamine, phenolic, isocyanate or other
resins can be used as binders for boards. For
carcasses the board is usually pre-finished with a
white decorative paper on both sides.
Range of Sizes: Commonly used 16mm thick.
Range of sheet sizes available.
Colours: The fibreboard is yellowish/orange.
Finish: The fibreboard without a decorative paper coating has fine rough particles.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
The density of the material gives it added strength. Its characteristics and performance closely
resembles timber. The boards can be cut, profiled, grooved and routed. Joins can be filled and
sanded smooth. For carcasses the board should not be used without a decorative paper coating.
Fibreboards are more commonly used as a base for cupboard doors (see Part 2.3).
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
Heavy metal pots and pans can leave dark scratch marks on the decorative paper coating of shelves
and drawer bases. Spills and food stains are easy to clean with a wet sponge and liquid detergent,
then wipe dry.

2.3 CUPBOARD DOORS

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Particle boards and fibreboards are cut to size and used as kitchen cupboard doors. Fibreboards
are most commonly used for cupboard doors (see Part 2.2 for composition of material). The 16mm
or 18mm thick boards are used as a base for a wide variety of surface treatments:

Low Pressure Laminates (Pre-Finished Decorated Boards)low budget option.

High Pressure Laminatesmedium to high budget option.

Vinyl Film (Vinyl Wrapped, Vacuum Sealed)medium to high budget option.

Timber Veneerlow to medium budget option depending on timber species selected.

Painthigh budget option.

Solid wood is also used for kitchen cupboard doors. These doors fall in the medium to high budget
options depending on timber species selected.
The laminates are generally more durable than the lacquer and polyurethane coatings.
Polyurethane is more durable than lacquers and acrylic paint coatings. Hand painting doors on site
is not as durable a finish as factory painted doors in a dust free environment.

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LOW PRESSURE LAMINATESPRE-FINISHED DECORATED BOARDS


Composition of Material:
Resin impregnated papers are applied to
medium density fibreboard sheets. The resin
used is melamine. The melamine impregnated
paper is fixed to the board material by
applying heat and pressure. The melamine
integrates into the surface of the board
material creating a hard, plastic finish that is
part of the board. Both sides of the board are
finished in the matching colour and texture.
Range of Sizes:
Board sizes usually used are 16mm thick,
900mm or 1200mm x 2400mm wide. These
are cut to size as required.
Colours:
Limited to light plain colours, pastels, a few
patterned options available. Door edges can be
finished in a matching or contrasting colour.
Finish:
Smooth, minimal texture,
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
This is the most economic door material. Doors are cut to size from the prefinished board and only
need to be edged.
Edge Detail/Options:
The coloured boards usually have matching edge tapes. A thicker PVC edge 2mm or 3mm can be
used. The thicker edges are rounded at the corners.
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
Wet sponge and liquid detergent, wipe dry.

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Door Edgings:
Melamine edges come in a wide range of colours. They can match the prefinished decorated
boards. There is no black line visible at the corner of the door edges due to the fineness of the
edging.
Melamine sample edges.

Alternatively doors can be edged with 2mm or 3mm PVC edging available in a wide range
of colours.
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HIGH PRESSURE LAMINATES


Composition of Material:
Plastic laminate is glued onto a board material. Laminate is constructed with 3 to 5 layers of Kraft
Paper (phenolic resin impregnated papers) together as a base, with a layer of decorative paper on
top. The laminate, approximately 0.8mm to 1.2mm thick, is then glued onto particle board or
fibreboard.
Range of Sizes:
Laminate sheets range to 1300mm x 3600mm.

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Colours:
Wide range of plain colours and patterns,
woodgrains, stones, hand drawn graphics can be
customised.
Finish: Gloss, matt or textured.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
Hard-wearing, scratch-resistant, easy to maintain.
Textured surface finishes are more durable. Gloss
surface finishes will scratch more readily. The
laminate sheet can be post formed at the edges
resulting in rounded edges along two parallel sides.
Edge Detail/Options: Typically the edges are square
and finished with the same colour high pressure
laminate that has been cut in strips to match the door
width and glued on. This results in a black line being visible along the door edges. When using
darker colours this is not as noticeable as on lighter coloured doors. Alternatively melamine edges
can be used to avoid the black line, but it is not always possible to find a matching colour.
Recommended Care and Cleaning: High pressure laminates are very durable. Textured finishes are
extremely tough. Gloss finishes will scratch easily. Wet sponge and liquid cleaner, wipe dry.
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VINYL FILM DOORS


Composition of Material: Vinyl coated board.
The board is cut to size for the doors and
panels. Glue is applied to the board. The vinyl
film is rolled out over the prepared doors and
vacuum sealed on. The back of the board is
usually pre-laminated.
Range of Sizes: The thickness of the vinyl film
is 0.4mm and 0.7mm for films with a gloss finish.
Colours: Limited range of coloursplain and
woodgrains.
Finish: Embossed to feel like woodgrains,
glossy, smooth and textured.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
The surface on the face of the door is continued around all the edges. There are no joins. The board
material can be grooved and profiled as selected prior to applying the vinyl. Full height doors may
twist or warp due to the differential movement of the materials. This can be overcome in a number
of ways. Use 18mm board as a base, limit full height door widths to 600mm, or horizontally divide
the door into two doors. The vacuum wrapping process stretches the vinyl around corners. As a
result these areas have a thinner coating of vinyl and are more susceptible to damage. Edges on
end panels are visually prominent. The vinyl is usually only rounded on side of the edge, while
the other side is square. Rounding both sides of edges is more expensive and the service is not
readily available. Alternatively end panels are square edged on both sides.
Edge Detail/Options:
The door front and edges are the same continuous surface. No sharp corners. All the door front
edges can be round.
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
The vinyl surface is very durable. Warm water and liquid cleaners can be used. Wipe dry.

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TIMBER VENEER DOORS


Composition of Material:
Natural timber veneer can be applied to particle
boards. A clear coating needs to be applied on the
veneer for durability. To stabilise material movement
the veneer is applied to both sides of a door. The doors
can be finished with clear lacquer, stain or paint.
Range of Sizes:
Doors are cut to the size required from 16mm board.
The thickness of the veneer and clear coating applied
increases the thickness of the doors to 18mm.
Finish:
Smooth, soft, glossy.
Colours:
Yellows, reds to browns. Limited by the availability of
timber species. Stains can be used to darken the
appearance of the veneer, while liming can be used to
lighten the appearance of the veneer.
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Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use: The doors are flat panels with square edges. Grooves
will show the board material and are not recommended with a clear finish. If using grooves in
veneered doors a liming or stain should be used before the clear coating.
Edge detail/Options: Edges are square and finished in a matching veneer strip.
Recommended Care and Cleaning: Oils and acids should be wiped off immediately. Wipe with dry
or damp cloth to remove smears and fingerprints.
Tasmanian oak veneer doors

PAINT FINISHED DOORS

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Composition of Material:
Any board material can be used. Some boards used
are pre-laminated on one side so that the paint finish
is only applied to the front and edges of the door.
When hand painting a primer undercoat is applied
and then the selected colour in an oil-based or acrylic
paint.
Polyurethanes are more durable. The selected colour
is sprayed on, then sanded and sprayed again usually
three to five times. The more coats the more durable
the finish.
Range of Sizes:
Doors are cut to the size required from 16mm or
18mm board. The coatings applied may increase the
thickness of the doors by 1mm to 2mm.
Colours:
Unlimited range, can select any colour on a paint
chart. Hand painted affects such as sponging,
dragging, marbling and stippling can be incorporated.
Finish:
A gloss or semi-gloss finish is more durable in a
kitchen.
Edge Detail/Options: Unlimited.
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Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:


The board can be grooved and/or profiled as selected, prior to painting. Paint can be affected by
ultra-violet radiation causing a yellowing of the surface coating. This is most noticeable on white
polyurethane if an area needs to be repaired or recoated. Can incorporate handle free cupboard
doors by profiling or grooving top of doors.
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
Paint finishes need extra care. Fingerprint marks are left when the doors are touched. Sharp
objects will cut into the paint coating. Very heavy impact can mark the surface coating. Hot liquids
should be wiped off immediately. Solvents e.g. nail polish remover, or abrasive cleaners will
damage the surface. A damp sponge will leave smears. For best results glass cleaner should be
used and a cloth to wipe of finger prints and smears.
Polyurethane doors.
Open shelf areas,
end panels and infill
panels need to be
polyurethane.
Shelves & cupboard
interiors behind
glass doors are also
visible and need to
be
finished
in
polyurethane or a
more
economic
option is using a
matching
colour
laminate.

SOLID TIMBER DOORS

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Composition of Material:
Solid Timber. Any species can be used. Recycled timber can also be used. A door is made up of a
strips of timber that form a frame around the perimeter, then a centre panel made up of strips of
timber is slotted in. Once the door is assembled to the required size it has a clear coating applied
to it. The coating can be a lacquer or a more durable polyurethane coating.
Range of Sizes:
The width of the available timber
varies. The outer frames are
approximately 75mm. Drawer
fronts need to be a minimum
height to allow for a frame all
around and a centre panel.
Usually a maximum of four
drawer fronts can fit in the height
of a floor unit.
Finish:
The clear coating gives the doors
a smooth sheen.
Colours:
Depends on species selected.
Can range from light yellowish colours like Ash, Maple, Pine to reddish tones like European
Beech, Myrtle, Cherrywood and to dark red/brownish timbers like Blackwood, Teak, Jarrah.
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Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:


Timber is affected by changes in temperature and moisture levels. Seasonal movement in the
timber has to be allowed for in the construction of the doors. Kickboards and endpanels are
usually made in a matching timber veneer panel. Solid timber kickboards are more likely to twist
and warp in long lengths.
Doors usually have the timber grain running vertically. The grain on a solid timber kickboard will
run horizontally. Timber veneer kickboards can have the grain running vertically or horizontally.
There will be more joins in the timber veneer kickboard if the grain runs vertically due to the
limited widths of the veneer board. Only totally visible end panels can be solid timber. Confirm
with fabricator your selection.
Edge Detail/Options: Can be profiled as selected.
Recommended Care and Cleaning: Spills should be wiped off promptly with damp cloth. The
durability depends on the surface coating.
Veneer end panels are used when cupboards or benchtops butt onto panels.

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Solid America oak end panel and doors. Kickboards are in matching timber veneer.

2.4 BENCHTOP/WORKTOPS
The benchtop or worktop is used for the preparation and cooking of food. The sink and cooktop is
usually fitted into the benchtop. People working in the kitchen usually stand in front of the benchtop.
Like the floor, the benchtop is also exposed to heavy duty wear and tear. It needs to withstand the
impact of items that are: heavy, hot, cold, wet, greasy, dusty and the impact of sharp objects.
The four main types of materials used for benchtops in the kitchen are:
High Pressure Laminates on a Substratelower budget option.
Timbermiddle to lower budget option depending on timber species selected.
Natural Stone (Granite)lighter colours are lower budget options,
darker colours are medium to high budget options.
Solid Surface Material plain colours medium budget options,
patterns are medium to high budget options.

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HIGH PRESSURE LAMINATES ON A SUBSTRATE


Composition of Material:
Usually a 33mm thick highly moisture resistant particle board is used as a base. A high-pressure
laminate, approximately 1.0mm thick, is then glued on top as a decorative surface coating.
Laminate Sheet Sizes :
Variety of sizes available, typical range: 2400mm to 3600mm wide, 900mm to 1200mm deep,
0.7mm to 1.2mm thick.
Colours:
Over a thousand laminate colours to choose from various brands.
Finish:
Variety of finishes available ranging from matt to gloss and smooth to rough.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
Most of the constraints on the design of laminated benchtops involve the detail of the visible
edge. The decorative laminate sheet cannot be curved on two right angle edges to form a point.
When two right angle edges are curved the corner is an oval shape. Internal corners with
benchtop edges curved require a masons mitre join in the benchtop.

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If the shape of the benchtop is curved in plan it cannot be curved in elevation, i.e. the benchtop edge.
Exposed/Front Edge Options:
Visible edges can be square or postformed
(curved in elevation). Most commonly used edge
detail is a 180 degrees curved edge. The
decorative laminate is wrapped around the curve
in a process known as Postforming. A laminated
benchtop can also incorporate a strip of solid
timber or solid surface material along the visible
edges.
Edge Against a Wall:
Typically it is square with no laminate on it. A
more expensive option is to cove the laminated
edge in a 90 degree upturn. This eliminates a
corner join between the benchtop and the
splashback.
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
Square edges
It is recommended that you do not put hot pots
from oven or cooktop onto a laminated surface.
(Check with individual manufacturers). Scorch marks will occur. Do not chop directly on the
laminated surface. Knives will scratch and cut the surface. Clean with common household
detergent and water. Wipe dry with clean soft cloth. Spills should be wiped up promptly.
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TIMBER BENCHTOPS
Composition of Material:
Usually made from short, narrow, strips of solid timber approximately 36mm thick that are glued
together to form a laminated timber benchtop.
Sheet Sizes:
Timber benchtop pieces are made up to the required lengths and widths.
Colours:
Based on range of timbers.
Finish:
Clear polyurethane coating, usually applied prior to installation, has a smooth, glossy finish.
Alternatively the benchtops can be oiled regularly, giving a smooth, matt finish.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
Timber as a natural material will shrink and expand due to temperature variations. This movement
needs to be designed for in the benchtop layout. When the benchtop is presealed it is important
that all the cutouts are also presealed. This does not allow for fine tuning of cutouts on site.
Templates will be required prior to benchtop fabrication.

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Joins:
The timber laminations usually run parallel to the front edge of the benchtop. When there is a
change of directions there are two possible details.

Butt join at the corner (masons mitre is also used)the laminations in the two pieces of
benchtop will be running in two different directions.

Mitre join at cornerthe laminations will be perpendicular and meet up.

Exposed/Front Edge:
Standard detail is a pencil round edge3mm curved top and bottom. Alternatively edges can be
curved as required.
Edge Against a Wall:
Usually the edge is square against the wall. A coved upturn can be prefabricated with the benchtop.
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
Do not put hot pots from oven or cooktop onto timber surface. Scorch marks will occur. Do not
chop directly on the timber surface. Knives will scratch and cut the surface. Clean with common
household detergent and water. Wipe dry with clean soft cloth. Spills should be wiped up
promptly. The oiled finish is delicate. It will absorb spills and can be indented easily with sharp
objects. Requires regular oiling (e.g. annually). The polyurethane finish is more durable. Damage
can be sanded back and the whole benchtop resurfaced.
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NATURAL STONE (GRANITE)


Composition of Material:
Natural stone is mined from quarries all over the world. It is then cut into thin sheets. All natural
stone is porous to various degrees. The granite range of natural stones are used for kitchen
benchtops as they are not as porous as marbles. The following information refers to granites.
Slab Sizes:
Usually 20mm thick, some stones are available in 30mm thickness. Slab sizes are approximately
3.0m x 1.5m They weight approximately 50kg/m2 or 30kg/(0.6m width x 1.0m length) of benchtop.
Colours:
Depends on the stone, reds and blacks are most common. Naturally occurring patterns are either
speckled or swirly.
Finish:
The stone is usually polished to a smooth, glossy finish.
Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:
The joins in the benchtop are visible. All cut outs are customised to the appliance or fitting to be
used and need to be accurately located on a template. Therefore a template is required to be made
after the cupboards have been installed. There is a two to three weeks period between making a
template on site and installing the benchtop. The benchtop surface is hard and noisy when items
are put down on it. Fragile items are more likely to break if dropped on the benchtop.
Visible/Front Edge:
Standard edge is pencil round (3mm) top and bottom. Can be curved and profiled as required, this
usually incurs extra cost. Edges can be built up to 40mm by gluing a separate narrow strip of
granite along the visible edges.
Inlays can be inserted between two granite strips e.g. stainless steel

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Polished side of granite.

Unpolished underside of granite.

Edge Against a Wall:


Is square, splashbacks are fitted on top of the benchtop.
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
All granite benchtops should be presealed by the fabricator prior to installation.
Sealers are not visible as they are absorbed into the stone.
Sealers can be solvent based or acrylic based. Solvent based sealers have a strong odour when
applied but are more durable. Acrylic based solvents do not smell when applied but their
effect wears off quickly.
It is recommended that granite benchtops are resealed approximately every six months. The
sealer is a liquid that is wiped on and left to dry.
If the benchtop starts to look darker it is a sign that the sealer is breaking down.
All spills and stains should be wiped off immediately to prevent staining.
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SOLID SURFACE BENCHTOPS


Composition of Material:
Solid surface refers to a man-made material. These can be acrylic based or polyester based.
Sheet Sizes:
Commonly used sheet thickness is approximately 12mm, it is also available in 6 mm and 3mm.
Sheet size is approximately 3000mm x 760mm.
Colours:
Over 200 off-the-shelf colours in various brands are available. In the polyester range it is possible
to have any colour mixed to order. The plain colours are more economic. The speckled ranges has
a variety of particle sizes in various colours.
Finish:
On benchtops it is usually polished to a smooth, medium sheen finish.

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Characteristics and/or Limitations for Use:


The material is very versatile. It can be cut and formed to any shape and size. Material sheet size
is not important as joins are not visible. Internal corners are always radiused in plan e.g 25mm.
Solid surface sinks are available to be incorporated in the benchtop material as a smooth
continuous surface.
Visible/Front Edge:
The standard is pencil round (3mm) top and
bottom. It can be curved as required and
inlays can be inserted into the edge. The
edge thickness can be built up as required.
Edge Against a Wall:
A square edge under utilises the potential of
the material. A coved edge against a wall is
recommended (minimum 10mm high).
Recommended Care and Cleaning:
Do not put hot pots from oven or cooktop
onto benchtop surface. Scratches easily, but
is very easy to polish. Very easy to clean with cream cleaner and scourer. Any damage can be cut out
and a new piece added without the joins being visible. The cutout pieces from the cooktop and sink
areas are usually left for patching, if required, to ensure that the material is of the same batch.
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2.5 WALL FINISHES AND SPLASHBACKS


PAINTING WALLS
The walls and ceiling in a kitchen are usually
painted. Undercoating and preparation of
walls is best done while the space is empty if
possible. Usually the painting of the walls and
ceiling is the last process.
A paint finish should be durable:

Gloss or semi-gloss paint finish should


be used on walls and ceilings.

A gloss paint finish is recommended for


the walls.

These gloss levels will be easier to clean,


more durable and increase the light levels in
the space.

SPLASHBACKS
A splashback is the area of wall from the benchtop to the underside of wall units or appliances.
These can be made out of the same material as the benchtop or a variety of other materials.

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Tiles, Laminate, Granite, Solid Surface, Glass, Stainless Steel:

Laminate
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Coloured glass as splashbackavailable in variety of colours

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Glazed ceramic tiles

Solid surface material with coved splashbacks

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APPLIANCES AND FITTINGS


FOR THE KITCHEN

In the kitchen there are appliances and fittings specially designed for each activity:
Preparation and Processing of Foodblenders, kettles, toasters, mix masters
Cooking Foodcooktops, ovens, uprights
Exhausting Steam from Cooking Foodrangehoods, canopy hoods, downdrafts
Chilling and Freezing Foodrefrigerators, freezers,
Cleaning and Recyclingsinks, taps, dishwashers, waste disposal units, bins
Most appliances and fittings generally have a dedicated location in the kitchen as they require
permanent connection to power and/or water.
Parts: 3.1 Cooking, 3.2 Cold Storage and 3.3 Cleaning and Recycling, introduce the features,
finishes and layout options of the various appliances and fittings.
A diverse range of small and hand-held appliances can be used in a kitchen. They should be easily
accessible and comfortable to use. Part 3.4 Small/Hand-Held Appliances illustrates the various
ways of integrating the storage and use of hand held appliances with the activities they service.
For any activity in the kitchen good lighting is essential at all times. The location of artificial
lighting in the kitchen needs to relate to the layout of the kitchen cupboards. How this can be
achieved is discussed in Part 3.5 Lighting in the Kitchen.
For a guide to suitable heights off the floor for appliances see Part 1.5 Ergonomics. Installation of
appliances and fittings is shown in Appendix B6.

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3.1 COOKING
Traditionally one freestanding appliance combined an oven for baking, a grill compartment for
grilling and burners for boiling and frying. This type of cooking unit is still available and is usually
referred to as an upright.
Cooking appliances have also evolved into individual units for the various types of cooking. The
range of cooktops and ovens are discussed in this Part. Cooking food on a cooktop generates steam
with grease and odours. Rangehoods and downdraft units are typically combined with cooktops
to exhaust the steam from cooking food. The various types of exhausting appliances are also
discussed.
Each kitchen will need to incorporate one of the following combination of cooking appliances:
An upright combined with a rangehood, or
A cooktop combined with a rangehood and separate oven unit/s.
How various combinations of cooking appliances can be arranged in a kitchen are illustrated in
this Part. Cooking appliances generally need connection to electricity. This includes appliances
that operate on gas but have an electric clock/timer and/or automatic ignition facility.
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UPRIGHTS
Features:
An upright combines a cooktop and an oven in a
freestanding unit. In some cases there is also a
separate grill compartment. The cooktop is
usually on the top of the unit, with a grill
compartment under the cooktop and an oven
compartment on the bottom. Larger upright units
have two ovens, side by side, with a larger
cooktop area. Upright units can be connected to
gas or electricity. Some units also combine gas
cooktops with electric ovens.
Finishes:
Include white enamel, brown (other enamel
colours are available to order), and stainless steel.
Layout Options:
The more traditional and economic units tend to
protrude in front of the cupboard doors. There is
also a range of uprights that can be fitted flush
with cupboard doors and kickboards.

COOKTOPS

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Features:
Cooktop units are fitted into a cutout in the benchtop. They can be connected to gas, electricity or
a combination of both. Gas cooktops have burners while electric cooktops have elements.

Electric cooktop
four elements on glass with
touch-sensitive controls.

Gas cooktop
four burners, enamel finish.

Dual fuel or multifuel


cooktoptwo gas burners
and two electric elements on
glass surface.

Finishes:
Gas cooktops are available in enamel, glass and stainless steel finishes. The enamel colours
include black, white, brown and grey. The surface of an electric cooktop can be enamel, stainless
steel or glass.
Layout Options:
The range of layout options for cooktops fitted into a benchtop are as follows:

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Fitted at the usual benchtop height.


A dropped down benchtop area dedicated to the cooktop.
The benchtop can also be widened where the cooktop is fitted.

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Stainless steel canopy hood, ducted through the


wall, over a five burner gas cooktop fitted into a
drop down benchtop.

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Electric cooktop fitted into usual


benchtop height. The benchtop has been
widened in the cooktop area. Single oven
fitted under benchtop.

OVENS

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Features: Ovens can function in the following ways:

Convection Ovens have elements or burners only on the bottom of the oven.
In grill compartments the elements or burners are on the top. There is no fan.
The gas ovens usually have electric ignition. There is a limited range of gas ovens.

Fan Forced Convection Ovens have a fan located in the back of the oven. This fan
circulates hot air within the oven. The heat is more evenly distributed around the
food. The circulation of heat in the oven seals in more of the foods natural juices.
The term multi-function oven is used to indicate
that an oven compartment can offer a range of
settings. These include fan-forced baking,
conventional baking, grilling, fan-grilling and
even a defrosting setting where the fan circulates
air around the frozen food. This full range of
settings is only available with electric ovens.

Microwave Ovens use magnetrons to heat the


food. Magnetrons do not brown the food, but have
a much faster cooking time. They are convenient
for reheating defrosting and cooking vegetables in
minutes. There are preset cooking functions based
on the type and weight of the food.

Oven liners can be incorporated on the inside of an oven to help keep an oven clean. The liners
catalyse fat when the oven is set to a very high temperature. The fat then flakes and falls to the
bottom of the oven.
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Finishes:
The range of oven finishes include: white, black, brown, grey, stainless steel, and mirror.
Layout Options:
Ovens that are fitted into cupboards can comprise one or
two compartments.
Single ovens (one compartment only) can be fitted:
In a cupboard under a benchtop,
In a full height cupboard.
Double ovens can only be fitted into a full height cupboard.
Microwave ovens can be
fitted:
Under a benchtop
(not ideal for access )
Into a full height unit
between benchtop height
and 1200mm off the floor
to the underside of the
microwave. (this is ideal
for access)
Over a benchtop in a wall
cupboard.
Microwave ovens require a minimum depth of 450mm. If the microwave cupboard is above the
benchtop it will overshadow most of the benchtop under it. As a result it is difficult to see and use
the benchtop area under the microwave cupboard. Raising the height of the microwave results in
difficult access to items in the microwave. Microwave trim kits are available if the unit is to be
built into a cupboard space.

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Above a single oven in a full height unit allows good access to oven and microwave.

It is not recommended to fit a microwave above a double oven unitthe bottom oven is very low
and the microwave is too high.
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Slide out rangehood fitted


into a wall unit directly over
the cooktop and covered by
cupboard doors. A facia panel
that matches the cupboard
doors is fitted onto the sliding
part at the bottom. This is a
totally built in and integrated
look that disguises the
existence of the rangehood.
The Microwave, located in a
full height cupboard, is easily
accessible.
There is benchtop space on
both sides of the cooktop to
allow pots to be moved off
without lifting over other
pots.
A single oven is located under
the benchtop directly below
the cooktop. The oven is built
into a cupboard.

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EXHAUST SYSTEMS
Features: Steam rises above cooking food. Rangehoods are used to trap the steam and prevent
grease and moisture particles from reaching the walls and ceiling of a space. Once the steam has
passed through the unit the air can be recirculated back into the room or ducted to the outside. All
rangehood units have a light and variable fan settings. Issues to consider include the motor
capacity and the noise generated when the unit is on. Various types of rangehoods available
include Slimline, Slideout, Swingout, Undercupboard, Canopy and Island Units. For cooktops
specially designed to grill, a downdraft exhaust system is recommended as well as a rangehood.
Rangehood filters need to be cleaned regularly to prevent build up of grease and smells. Most will
fit in a dishwasher or can be easily cleaned with soapy water. Also available are carbon filters to
reduce smells. These need to be replaced depending on use.
Slimline rangehoods are a low budget option. Slideout, Swingout and Undercupboard units are in
the low to medium budget range. Canopy, Island and Downdraft units are in the medium to high
budget range.
Finishes:
Slimline, Canopy and Island rangehoods are usually visible. Slimline units are white or brown.
Canopy and Island units are stainless steel, some units combine glass rims. Downdraft units are
stainless steel. Slideout, Swingout and Undercupboard units are not visible so they are white or
stainless steel.

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Layout Options:
In most cases the rangehoods are fitted against the wall over a cooktop. Depending on the type,
venting outlets can be located on the top front, top back or rear of the rangehood. For most
effective elimination of smells it is recommended that the rangehood is ducted to the outside of
the building, either through the wall or roof.
Slimline rangehoodfront venting.

Slideout rangehood top ducted.

Slimline units are deep (front to back) enough to cover most of the cooktop area. They are fitted
under a wall unit and protrude considerably beyond the front of the wall unit doors. Some units
have a retractable visor at the front to deflect the fumes into the unit.
Slideout units are designed to fit in the depth of a cupboard on the wall. The doors of the cupboard
overhang to cover the rangehood. A narrow glass shelf is pulled forward to automatically start the
rangehood and deflect fumes into the unit. Venting is only possible at the top or rear.

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Swingout units fit into the depth of the cupboards on the wall. A panel matching the cupboard
doors in fitted to the front of the unit. When this panel is pulled up the rangehood starts to operate.
Undercupboard units fit in a wall
mounted cupboard. There are no
protruding or pull-out parts. It can
also be enclosed with panels on
all vertical sides and suspended
from the ceiling over the cooktop.
Undercupboard twin motor unit
with stainless steel ducts to the
top of the cupboard. Air should
not be discharged into a cupboard,
it should always be ducted to
outside the cupboard. Controls
along the back of the unit.

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Canopy units are fitted against the wall over a cooktop. The unit is totally visible and must be
ducted to the outside.
Island units are suspended from the ceiling over cooktops that are fitted into benchtops that do not
butt against a wall. The unit is totally visible and must be ducted through the ceiling to the outside
of the building.
Downdraft units are usually recommended for and incorporated with an indoor BBQ grill
cooktop. The motor and ducting fits under the benchtop in a cupboard.

Flexible ducting fitted under the floor. At the end of the duct a vent fits on the outside of a wall.

3.2 COLD STORAGE

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Refrigerators and Freezers provide cold


storage for food and drinks in the kitchen.
For longer term storage freezing
temperatures are required. For short term
storage chilling and crisping temperatures
are sufficient.

Freezer

Features: Temperature ranges for the various


compartments are15oC to -20oC for
freezers, 1oC to 5oC for refrigerators and 4oC
Refrigerator
to 8oC for crisper compartments. The amount
of storage space or capacity in a refrigeration
unit is measured in litres. Units can be Cyclic
or Frost Free. The Cyclic refrigeration units
need to have their freezer compartments
defrosted periodically, to remove built up ice.
Crisper Draw
The Frost Free refrigeration units have a fan
in the freezer that blows air, resulting in no
build up of ice. Most refrigerator models
have been manufactured to enable easy change over for doors to be hinged on the left or right side.
Some units incorporate an ice making facility and chilled water dispenser.
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Freezer above refrigerator unit.

Refrigerator above freezer unit.

There are various combinations of freezer and refrigerator compartments.

Top Mounted Freezer Compartment with refrigerator compartment below.

Upside Down units with the freezer compartment below the refrigerator compartment.

Side by Side units combine a full height refrigerator compartment beside a full height freezer
compartment.

Freezer compartment only units.


Available in a variety of sizes.

Refrigerator compartment only units.


Available in a variety of sizes.

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Finish:
Cold storage units are usually white.
Integrated models can have panels fitted on
their doors to match the cupboard doors.
Combined full height freezer and refrigerator
unit with ice making facility and chilled
water dispenser.
Layout Options:
Refrigerators and freezers are self
contained freestanding units. Some models
can be built into a cupboard. Some models
will require extra space beside the fridge to
be able to open fridge doors beyond 90o and
remove trays and baskets.
The key issue with any cold storage unit is providing sufficient ventilation. Any cupboard above
a chilling/freezing unit needs to incorporate a void behind it. This will allow the heat generated by
the appliance to be released into the kitchen space. When built into a cupboard space, extra
ventilation requirements need to be met. See Appendix B6 for details.
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Cold storage units can be fitted in the following ways:


Freestanding on the floor not associated with any cabinetry.

Freestanding in a space enclosed by panels on the sides and a cupboard above. The depth of
cold storage units vary considerably, many freestanding units will protrude beyond the face
of standard depth cupboards.

In a space underneath a benchtop.

Built into a cupboard with a cupboard door attached to the appliance door.

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3.3 CLEANING AND RECYCLING


Hygiene is important where food is prepared. The presence of moisture and organic matter are
ideal conditions for growth of bacteria. For the well being of people it is essential to maintain a
clean environment in a kitchen.
Appliances, fittings and accessories used for cleaning and recycling include dishwashers, sinks,
taps, detergent dispenser units and bins.

DISHWASHERS
Features:
The capacity of a dishwasher is measured in place settings. The large models range from 12 to 14
place settings, the narrower units have 6 place settings and the benchtop units have 4 place
settings. Dishwashers are typically connected to cold water only and will heat water for the
cleaning setting selected. This results in a longer wash cycle. Some dishwashers have a short wash
cycle and need to be connected to the households hot water supply. If connected to hot water only,
all the dishwasher settings will use hot water. Usually household hot water units are set at a higher
temperature than dishwasher settings.

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Finishes:
The inside of a dishwasher compartment is made from stainless steel. Interior wire trays and
baskets are available in black or white. The door of a dishwasher can be stainless steel, white,
brown and black. Dishwasher fronts can also be integrated (match) with the cupboard doors.

More economical dishwasher units have a metal angle screw fixed around the door. This angle
can be removed, a laminate sheet (approximately 1mm) can be fitted to the door front and the
metal angle reinstated. The metal angle will still be visible. It is usually white, as most
dishwasher doors are white.

A solid panel (usually 16-18mm) can be fitted to the front of a more expensive range of
dishwasher models. The dishwasher unit is usually sold without any front panel or kickboard
cover. In most cases the control panel area at the top of the dishwasher remains unintegrated.
There are a range of finishes for control panels include stainless steel, black, brown and white.

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Layout Options:
Dishwashers are free standing units that can be fitted in an open space between cupboards or built
into cupboards. They are usually in close proximity to a sink and can be located in the following
layout options:

Under the benchtop underneath the drainer part of the sink.


At 90o (around the corner) from the sink area.
They can be elevated off the floor (approximately 250mm) to create a counter top,
Fitted into a full height unit (approximately 450mm off the floor).

Dishwasher elevated and build into a


cupboard.

Dishwasher on the floor around the corner from the


sink. Stainless steel sink fitted with its rim on top of
the benchtop.

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SINKS
Features: Sink units can comprise a single bowl,
two bowls or a combination of bowls and drainer.
The most commonly used sinks have a larger bowl
beside a smaller bowl and a drainer on one side.
Every sink has a waste outlet. Some waste outlets
have an integrated waste plug that does not need to
be removed and stored. When it is pushed down it
blocks the waste, when it is pulled up it allows the
water to flow. When ordering a sink with a drainer
on one side it is important to nominate whether the
drainer is on the left or right side of the sink. This
will determine where the hole for the tap/s and other
fittings will be cut into the sink. Stainless steel sinks
can be pressed out of one sheet of steel or the bowls
can be welded to the drainer part of the sink. Waste disposal units are usually fitted into the sink
waste outlet, usually in the smaller bowl.
Finishes:
Stainless steel is the most commonly used material for sink units. There are sinks made from solid
surface materials (acrylic or polyester based compounds). The solid surface sinks are usually
combined with a solid surface benchtop.
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Layout Options:
The type of benchtop material will influence the way a sink is fitted:

In laminated and timber benchtops a stainless steel sink will be fitted with its rim on top of
the benchtop material.
In a granite or solid surface material a stainless steel sink unit or individual bowls can be fitted
with their rim over OR under the benchtop material.

Undermounted stainless steel sinks in


solid surface benchtop.

Solid surface sinks undermounted in a solid


surface benchtop. Single lever mixer tap.

Drainage grooves can be cut into a solid


surface benchtop.

A drawer is dedicated for bins and waste.


Integrated dishwasher beside sink.

TAPS

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Features:
The most commonly used taps in a kitchen are mixer taps. The spout and controls are combined
in one unit. Water is turned on by a single lever controlling both hot and cold water flow. Mixer
taps usually have a ceramic disc and need to have a pressure limiting valve installed. The spout of
the tap can swivel around. Some mixer taps can have a retractable nozzle attached to a hose that
pulls out of the spout. This allows the spout to be manoeuvred around the sink area, heavy pots
can be filled with water while on the benchtop. The nozzle head usually has a button on top that
can change the flow of water to a spray.
Other taps incorporated in the
kitchen sink area include filtered
water taps, hot water taps and
detergent dispenser taps.
Finishes:
Most taps are stainless steel.
Some are available in white or
black.
Layout Options:
Taps are usually fitted into a
hole in the sink or benchtop.
Water filter taps are also fitted
over a sink bowl. Detergent
dispensers can be fitted into a
hole in the sink or benchtop and
need to be beside a sink bowl.
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Instantaneous gas hot water unit (for the


whole house) water temperature control is
usually fitted near the kitchen sink.
Filtered water tap.
Waste disposal unit control button.
Single lever mixer tap with retractable
nozzle head and cleaning brush attachment
on the nossle. Undermounted Solid Surface
sink bowls.

BINS
Features:
The range of waste generated in the kitchen can include organic matter, paper, plastic bottles or
containers and glass bottles. There is a much greater awareness in the community to recycle. Local
Councils provide recycling bins and containers. In the kitchen a number of bins need to be
incorporated. One bin can hold glass, another cans. If composting is possible organic waste can
have a separate bin. Newspapers, paper milk cartons and packaging can also have a dedicated bin.
Generally bins are rectangular or circular plastic containers.

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Finishes:
Plastic bins are typically white. Council recycling bins are black. Stainless steel also available.

Twinbin unit on fully extendable runner fitted


into cupboard space.
Drawer on fully extendable runners with
individual bins sitting in the drawer.
Layout Options:
A dedicated cupboard should be used for bins. A drawer is more convenient to access.
Flip Top Bins are mounted on the inside of a cupboard door usually under the sink area. These are
a small, circular, plastic or stainless steel container with a lid. The unit is fitted on the inside of
the cupboard and the lid is attached to the door of the cupboard. When the door is opened the lid
lifts up and the bin comes forward.When the door is shut the lid sits back on the bin.
Pull Out Bins incorporate a cupboard with a drawer. When the cupboard door is pulled out the bins
slide out. A number of bins can be combined on a single drawer. Alternatively separate drawers
can be used for each type of waste, e.g. paper, bottles.

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3.4 SMALL/HAND-HELD APPLIANCES


Small/hand-held appliances can be incorporated with preparation areas that can be opened up to
work at and then closed off. These areas can also be used for preparing snacks and storing
packaged food. Various types of doors can be used including pivot sliding doors, roller doors and
bifold doors. The cupboards usually fit onto the benchtop and can also have no doors. It is
important to be able to see into the appliance space if you wish to work in front of it. Otherwise
the cupboard is only used to store the appliances, which will need to be pulled out when required.
The following examples illustrate the various door arrangements.

PIVOT SLIDING DOOR


A mechanism is fitted to the cupboard side to allow the door to hinge open then slide into a gap
(approximately 70mm wide) at the side of the cupboard. The key factor to consider is the amount
that the doors will protrude beyond the face of the cupboards when open.

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Door pivots open

Door closed

Gap for door

Door fully in

This one-stop drinks and snack preparation area has everything needed at a hands reach.
Refrigerator built-in to match the cupboards.
Filtered boiling and chilled water unit.
Toaster, blender, flip top bin.
Glasses and mugs can be stored in drawers.
Plates, cutlery and bottles are also stored in .
drawers, are all visible and easily accessible.

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ROLLER DOORS

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Roller door open showing food preparation appliances and ingredients stored within reach.
Roller Door pulled down enclosing the full depth of the benchtop area.

Alcove created by cupboards sitting on the


benchtop. This area is open but gives the sense of
enclosure for toaster, kettle, juicer, blender etc.

Door area too small to work at.


Appliances need to be pulled out when
required.

BIFOLD DOORS
Timber Bifold doors closed

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3.5 LIGHTING IN THE KITCHEN


In the kitchen space artificial lighting needs to be tailored to each part of the kitchen. The
traditional light in the middle of the kitchen space only provides sufficient light for general
circulation. It is important to provide light directly over a task areathe benchtop. If the light
source is behind your body it will shadow the work area in front of you.
It is important to note that the finish of the materials and the paint on the walls will effect the light
levels in the room. The glossier the finish the more light will be reflected. It is recommended that
at least a semi-gloss finish is used for paints in the kitchen. A gloss paint finish is preferred and it
is more durable.
There are three categories to consider when planning lighting in the kitchen:
General Circulation.
Task Lighting e.g. for areas where food is prepared cooked or consumed.
Special Effects Lighting e.g. to create a mood, to highlight a feature.

GENERAL CIRCULATION
Lighting is usually fitted on or in the ceiling. It should be located over areas where people are
likely to be walking and accessing appliances. The fittings can be surface mounted or recessed into
the ceiling. Downlights should be located approximately 1.0m to 1.5m apart. The height of the
ceiling should also be taken into consideration. The higher the ceiling the further the light has to
travel, therefore the fittings should be closer.

TASK LIGHTING is usually fitted:

under wall units to light benchtop areas,


in cupboard areas where food preparation occurs,
in or on the ceiling centred on a benchtop width, if there are no wall units,

SPECIAL EFFECTS LIGHTING

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Up lightinglights can be fitted above wall units if the ceiling is a minimum 400mm from
the top of the cupboards. The light fittings are usually continuous fluorescent tubes facing the
ceiling. The fittings should be as close to the front of the cupboards as possible.
A down light can be fitted in the top of a cupboard with glass shelves.
Feature lights can be fitted on the wall to create a mood.

LIGHT FITTINGS

58

When using incandescent downlights or ceiling mounted lights a 100W light bulb is
recommended. It is not necessary to install halogen downlights with transformers as there are
halogen light bulbs that will screw directly into incandescent fittings.
If using halogen downlights ensure that the light bulbs are glass fronted dicroic. This will
reduce the build up of heat on the work surface directly under the light source.
When using fluorescent tubes it is recommended that they are Tri Phosphor colour 84 tubes.
There are fluorescent tube holders that are 30mm deep and will not be visible behind pelmets
or capping on top of cupboards. There are fittings that fit under wall units that are only 20mm
deep and have their own switch included on them. Other fittings can be recessed into the
underside of the wall units.
If the colours in your kitchen range from pinks, reds to orangeyou can enhance these
colours by using Tri Phosphor Colour 83 or 84 tubes.
If the colours in your kitchen range from the greens to bluesyour can enhance these colours
by using Tri Phosphor Colour 84 or 85 tubes.
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General lightingrecessed halogen low voltage downlights in ceiling and some fittings are
specifically located over the benchtop area.

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Task Lightinglights fitted to underside of wall units to light benchtop area.

Special Effects Lightingcontinuous lights fitted along top of wall units behind capping.
Light is reflected off the wall and ceiling creating a soft glow in the room.
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4.0 Kitchen Brief and Budget Estimates

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KITCHEN BRIEF AND


BUDGET ESTIMATES

In this Part you will be able to fill in information relating to your particular situation.
The details of the space where your kitchen will be located.
Your lifestyle and the character of the kitchen that you would like to achieve.
Your preferred selection of materials, appliances and fittings.
The level of design service you wish to involve in the project.
Finally you will be able to fill in budget estimates, quotes and actual costs for the extent of
the work.
To help you in the process there is a directory page that you can fill in to keep a record of your
contacts for the various kitchen items.
By compiling this information you are preparing a Kitchen Brief. This is a list of criteria which
should be met in the design of the kitchen. In a Brief you describe the way you want the space to
feel, the character it should have, what activities should the kitchen facilitate, what equipment,
appliances and fittings will be required for each activity, your preferred materials and budget
details.
It is advisable to fill in as much of the following sections as you can. This information will be very
useful when you meet with a kitchen design consultant. They will then be able to go through all
the information and discuss each of your nominated selections or details. A kitchen design
consultant will be able to explore layout options for the kitchen based on your lifestyle, assist in
selecting materials, appliances and fittings, advise on budget estimates and obtain actual quotes
for the various components.

HOW SOON IS YOUR KITCHEN REQUIRED?


It is important to allow a suitable period of time for decisions to be made about the kitchen.
Approximately ten to forty hours can be spent discussing and establishing the layout, shopping for
appliances and fittings, selecting materials and handles and organising orders. Plans of the final
design need to be prepared including a list of all the selected items.

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Typically the production time for kitchen cabinetry can vary as follows:

Four to six weeks for laminate or timber veneer doors.


Six to eight weeks for solid timber doors.
Seven to ten weeks for painted finishes e.g.polyurethane.

If the benchtop is not laminate then a further two to three weeks are required from the time the
floor units are installed, a benchtop template is made and the benchtop is ready to be installed.
Kitchen cabinets can take two days to a week to install. The appliances and fittings may take a few
more days to connect. Once the benchtop is made it will take a day or two to install. Glues and
grouts need to be left to cure for another day. Tiling splashbacks will involve a further two to three
days. All up the process of acquiring a new kitchen can take anything from six weeks to four
months.

When working through each section tick the items that apply to your situation. Fill in your
specific information where space is allocated.

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4.1 THE KITCHEN SPACE


Establish the type of project that has generated the need for a kitchen:

Are you replacing an existing kitchen? i.e. using the same space for the new cabinetry.
....................................................................................................................................................

Are you renovating your home and the kitchen is included in the renovation?
....................................................................................................................................................

Are you building a new home and have plans showing the new kitchen space ?
....................................................................................................................................................

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List the type of materials that enclose the kitchen space:

Is the home construction:


Timber Frame ....................... Brick Veneer ........................... Double Brick ..........................
Metal Frame .......................... Other .........................................................................................

What material is/will be, supporting the floor of the kitchen space:
Timber Frame ................................................. Concrete Slab ...................................................

What is the existing floor covering material:


....................................................................................................................................................

The walls in the kitchen space are/will be:


Plasterboard/Sheet Lining ......................... Render .......................... Other ............................

Ceilings are usually plasterboard. List if other material .............................................................

Windows are timber ....................................... Windows are metal ..........................................


Door frames are timber .................................. Doors frames are metal ....................................

Architectural Trimmings:
Where the floor and walls meet:
there is a skirting ............................................ there is no skirting ............................................
Where the ceiling and the walls meet:
there is a cornice ........................................... it is square set ...................................................
Around the doors and windows:
there are architraves ....................................... it is square set ...................................................

What Services exist/will exist in the kitchen space:

Electricity ...................................................................................................................................

Hot and Cold Water Supply ....................... Mains Pressure ............. Gravity Feed ................

Gas supply Natural ..................................... Bottled ......................... Other ............................

If you wish to prepare a sketch of your existing kitchen space to add to the above information,
you can use the following room templates as a guide.
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Measuring a Kitchen Space


Use the rectangle below to represent the floor plan. Show where windows and doors are located.

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Measure each wall of the kitchen space and write the measurements along the wall. You can
also use the room views below to write lengths of walls, floor to ceiling height and window
sill heights.

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4.2 LIFESTYLE
Refer to Part 1 when considering lifestyle issues.
Describe what FEEL you would like your kitchen to have:
e.g. casual, formal, bright, cheery, homely, stylish, inviting, sophisticated....
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Household members:

Number of adults:
Children under 5:
6 years to 12 years:
13 years to 18 years:

.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................

Right or left handed:

Right handed:
Left handed:

.........................................................................
.........................................................................

Frequency of shopping: Daily:


Weekly:
Fortnightly:
Monthly:
Varies:
Preparing Food:

Morning

.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
Lunch

Afternoon

Evening

One person/child only: ................................................................................................................


Two persons/children: ..................................................................................................................
More than two: ..........................................................................................................................
Prepare while sitting: .................................................................................................................
Mainly cold food: ......................................................................................................................
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Mainly grill: ...............................................................................................................................


Mainly fry: .................................................................................................................................
Mainly bake: ..............................................................................................................................
Mainly microwave: ....................................................................................................................

List small/hand-held appliances e.g. toaster, mixer, blender, and their height, width and depth:
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................

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Consuming Food:
Morning
Lunch
Afternoon
Evening
Usual number of people: .............................................................................................................
Snacking seated:
.............................................................................................................
Snacking standing:
.............................................................................................................
Snacks preparation area should be close to the following food items:
......................................................................................................................................................
Seating arrangements required:
Sitting in the kitchen facility required: ....................................................................................
Sitting area as an extension of the kitchen cabinetry (on stools or chairs):
.................................................................................................................................................
Sitting at a raised counter (on stools): .....................................................................................
Sitting at benchtop height (on stools): .....................................................................................
Sitting at table height (on chair): .............................................................................................
Prefer to sit on stools: .............................................................................................................
Prefer to sit on chairs:..............................................................................................................
There will be a separate casual dining table for ............................ people.
There will be a formal dining table for .......................................... people.
Cleaning and Recycling:
Preferred direction to wash dishes:
Left to Right .......................... Right to Left ......................... Either way .............................
Dedicated space required for the following cleaning equipment: (list details and size)
Brooms: ...................................................................................................................................
Vacuum: ..................................................................................................................................
Ironing Board and Iron: ...........................................................................................................
Other: ......................................................................................................................................

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Need dedicated space for the following waste items: (list size if recycling bins used)
Organic: ..................................................................................................................................
Glass: ......................................................................................................................................
Paper: ......................................................................................................................................
General: ...................................................................................................................................
Other: ......................................................................................................................................
Communicating :
How often do you entertain:
Formally: ........................................................... Informally: ......................................................
Which of the following communication equipment/facilities do you want to be incorporated in
the kitchen or adjacent to the kitchen where it is part of family area:
Phone/Fax: ..............................................................................................................................
Radio/Stereo: ..........................................................................................................................
Television/Video: ....................................................................................................................
Computer: ...............................................................................................................................
Desktop: ..................................................................................................................................
Messages board: ......................................................................................................................
Drawer/s for files: ...................................................................................................................
Intercom: .................................................................................................................................
Other: ......................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
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4.3 APPLIANCES AND FITTINGS


When listing the Appliances and Fittings tick if you are reusing existing ones or if you will be
purchasing new ones. Tick any combination you are interested in and list a brand and model
number if you have these details. See Part 3.0 for Appliances and Fittings information.
(left to right) (front to back) (top to bottom)

Cold Storage:
width
depth height
new
existing
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Single unit with Refrigeration and Freezer ...................................................................................
refrigeration above freezer .......................................................................................................
refrigeration below freezer .......................................................................................................
refrigeration beside freezer ......................................................................................................
Separate refrigeration unit ............................................................................................................
Separate freezer unit .....................................................................................................................
Ice maker facility required: ..........................................................................................................
Independent chilled water unit required: ......................................................................................
Sinks:
Number of bowls required:
1 bowl .......................................................................................................................................
1 and 1/2 bowls ...........................................................................................................................
1 and 3/4 bowls ...........................................................................................................................
2 equal bowls ............................................................................................................................
3 bowls .....................................................................................................................................
Other .................................................................................................................................................
Top mounted sink unit: ................................................................................................................
Undermounted bowls: ..................................................................................................................
Sink material: Stainless steel: ................................................................................................

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Solid surface material: ....................................................................................


Other: .............................................................................................................
Taps:
Single lever mixer tap: .................................................................................................................
Separate taps and spout: ...............................................................................................................
Retractable tap head: ...................................................................................................................
Water filter tap: ...........................................................................................................................
Mains pressure ............ Gravity feed ............
Detergent Dispenser: .......................................................................................................................
Waste Disposal Unit: .......................................................................................................................
Water Filter: ....................................................................................................................................
Dishwasher: .....................................................................................................................................
Freestanding: ................................................................................................................................
Built in:.........................................................................................................................................
Integrated: ....................................................................................................................................
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width depth height new exist Gas Elect


Waste Bins: ......................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Paper waste: .................................................................................................................................
Glass waste: .................................................................................................................................
Organic waste: ..............................................................................................................................
Metals waste: ...............................................................................................................................
Other: ...........................................................................................................................................
Plumbing Waste connected to:
Sewerage mains: ..........................................................................................................................
Septic tank: ..................................................................................................................................
Cooktop:

One to two burners/hotplates ........................................................................................................


Four burners/hotplates ................................................................................................................
Five + burners/hotplates .............................................................................................................
Cooktop material:
ceramic ...................................................................................................
stainless steel ..........................................................................................
enamel ....................................................................................................

Oven
Double ..........................................................................................................................................
Microwave ....................................................................................................................................
Fit underbench .............................................................................................................................
Fit in full height unitelevated ....................................................................................................

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Combined Cooking Unit:


Upright .........................................................................................................................................
Elevated ................................................................................................................................
Exhaust System:
Retractable/slideout rangehood ....................................................................................................
Undercupboard rangehood ...........................................................................................................
Slimline rangehood ......................................................................................................................
Swingout rangehood ....................................................................................................................
Canopy hood ................................................................................................................................
Island hood ...................................................................................................................................
Downdraft Unit ............................................................................................................................
Ducting system:
Recirculating: .............................................. Top ducted to outside on roof: .......................
Rear ducted to outside wall: ........................ Side ducted to outside wall: ...........................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................

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4.4 MATERIALS
For descriptions of materials refer to Part 2.
Describe the Style or Character you would like your kitchen to have:
e.g. Homestead or Country Style, Contemporary, Hi-tech, Pop, Natural.....
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
Which of the following materials would you consider using for the
Edge detail:
Cupboard Doors:
.................................................................................................................................................
Low pressure laminatesPre-finished decorated boards: ......................................................
High pressure laminates: .........................................................................................................
Vinyl film: ...............................................................................................................................
Timber veneer: ........................................................................................................................
Solid timber: ...........................................................................................................................
Limed or stain finish on timber: ..............................................................................................
Paint finish: e.g. polyurethane: ................................................................................................
Other: ......................................................................................................................................
Which of the following would you consider using for the Benchtop/Splashbacks: (the edge of
a benchtop can be in a different material to the benchtop e.g. laminated benchtop with a timber
edge profiled 180o round.)
Material:

Benchtop:

Front edge profile:

Edge against wall

Splashback:

.................................................................................................................................................
Laminate: ................................................................................................................................
Timber: ....................................................................................................................................
Solid surface material: ............................................................................................................
Natural stone (granite): ...........................................................................................................
Other: ......................................................................................................................................

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What material would you consider for the handles:


Metal: ......................................................................................................................................
Wood: ......................................................................................................................................
Plastic: .....................................................................................................................................
What profile handle do you prefer:
D type handles: ....................................................................................................................
Knob type handles: ..............................................................................................................
Which of the following materials would you consider using for the Flooring:
Cork: ......................................................................................................................................
Vinyl: ......................................................................................................................................
Linoleum: ................................................................................................................................
Ceramic tile: ............................................................................................................................
Timber: ....................................................................................................................................
Natural stone: ..........................................................................................................................
Are there any existing materials that the kitchen space needs to integrate with?:
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................

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4.5 DESIGN SERVICES


Attempt to fill in as much of Part 4 as possible. When you consult a kitchen designer they will be
able to assist you to further fill in areas you may not have been able to complete. Designing a
kitchen is an involved process. It can take four to ten hours to develop the kitchen design to suite
your brief and budget. Preparing a full set of plans i.e. floor plan, elevations, perspective, can take
ten to twenty hours depending on the size of the kitchen and if the plumbing and electrical items
need to be shown on the plans. Ten to twenty hours can also be spent looking for and selected
appliances, tiles, benchtop and cupboard materials, light fittings, floor materials and paint colours.
Fees for this service can be an hourly rate, or they can be based on a design and construct package
and are included in the total costing.
Design Consultation: Prepare Brief, sketch design: .........................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Prepare Cabinetry plansusually at a scale of 1:20 ........................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Prepare Benchtop Detailsshowing joins and location of cutouts, edge details ............................
..........................................................................................................................................................
Prepare Tiling Details: ......................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Extent of Electrical Work: List and mark items on plan ...................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Extent of Plumbing Work: List and mark items on plan....................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Extent of Other Trade Work: List and mark items on plan ..............................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................

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Help you Select Finishes:..................................................................................................................


...........................................................................................................................................................
Cupboard doors ....................... Benchtop ................................... Splashbacks ...............................
Appliances ............................... Light Fittings ............................ Floor ..........................................
Paint Colours for kitchen space .............................. Furniture for kitchen/dining ...........................
Help you Select Appliances and Fittings: ..........................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
Organise quote/s:................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
Coordinate Installation:......................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
Other Service/s required:
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................

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4.6 THE BUDGET


It is essential to establish a budget for a proposed kitchen. The previous lists can be used to
establish the extent of the work. The budget allocations should reflect your selection of appliances,
fittings, finishes and extent of building work. A Kitchen Design Consultant can assist in
establishing budget estimates. Once the design has been finalised, the appliances and fittings
selected, actual quoted prices can be obtained. You can also keep a record of your final costs .

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ITEM:

BUDGET:

QUOTED:

FINAL:

Design Consultation Service:

$..............

$..............

$..............

Structural/Building Work:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Cabinetry:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Benchtop/Worktops:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Appliances and Fittings:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Light Fittings:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Electrical:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Plumbing:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Tiling/Tiles:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Flooring Materials and Labour:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Painting:

$...............

$...............

$...............

Furniture:

$...............

$...............

$...............

..............................................

$...............

$...............

$...............

..............................................

$...............

$...............

$...............

..............................................

$...............

$...............

$...............

..............................................

$...............

$...............

$...............

..............................................

$...............

$...............

$...............

PROJECT TOTAL:

$...............

$...............

$...............

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4.7 CONTACTS DIRECTORY


Service:

Name:

Phone:

Design Consultation
Service:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Structural/Building Work:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Cabinetry:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Benchtop/Worktops:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Appliances and Fittings:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Light Fittings:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Electrical:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Plumbing:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Tiling/Tiles:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Flooring Materials
and Labour:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Painting:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Furniture:

....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................

Other:
....................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
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Appendix -A-

Appendix -AINTERPRETING KITCHEN PLANS


Drawings are prepared for a kitchen design for the following purposes:
To have a record of what decisions have been made between the client, designer, fabricator or
any party involved.
To communicate to the fabricators and installers the type and size of cupboards, panels,
benchtops and trim details.
Plans are also used as a design tool to show a variety of layout options.
It is important to understand how to interpret drawings. This Appendix provides a checklist of
items that should be shown on a floor plan, elevations/sections and perspectives.
A set of kitchen plans should also incorporate a schedule of:
The materials that will be used to make the carcass, the doors and benchtops/worktops.
The selected appliances and fittings.
A Work Order itemising the cost and payment structure for the listed extent of services to be
provided, this needs to be signed by the purchaser.

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View of kitchen

Elevation

Elevation
Plan

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A1 WORK ORDER AND SCHEDULES


A work order is a written agreement between a client and the supplier of a service.
It can incorporate the whole kitchen renovation undertaken as a package by one company
including cabinetry, benchtops, plumbing, electrical, tiling etc.
It can be limited to just supplying and installing one aspect of the kitchen, e.g. cupboards.
Before proceeding with an order for a kitchen check that all the following information is recorded
as part of the signed documents. A WORK ORDER should not only list the following items, it
should also identify clearly who is supplying and who is fitting each item e.g. handles supplied by
client fitted by cabinetry installer.
The name, address and phone contact of the supplier/fabricator/designer,
Client name, address and phone contact.
The scope of work covered in the price e.g. supply and fit 15 cupboards, 7 panels, flip top bin,
capping and laminated benchtop.
Identify the drawings that the work order is based on, e.g. D1, D2, D3 date 2.2.2222
The contract price. The breakup of payments, e.g. deposit, at site check, on delivery, on
completion.
A place to sign and date the order by the Client and the Supplier.
Any special timing considerations.
As part of the documents the following information should be scheduled as separate lists or on the
plans:
Type of carcass construction (see Appendix B for details) listing carcass material, type of
hinges, type of drawer runners and the finish on the front edges of the carcass, e.g. colour to
match cupboard doors.
Selected door finish, profile around the edges, any patterns on the door.
Selected benchtop material, its thickness. A benchtop order should also show location of joins,
benchtop details along the front edge and the back edge against the wall.

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Selected finishes for kickboards, splashbacks, capping, bulkheads, light pelmets .


The selected handles, any accessories like baskets, hooks, tea towel rails etc.
All the electrical and plumbing items.
Any other trade work.
If any items are changed after the initial documents these should be recorded, dated and issued to
both the client and supplier. Avoid giving or accepting changes over the telephone. Always ask for,
or give, a written copy regarding changes.

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Appendix -A-

A2 KITCHEN PLANS
A floor plan depicts what you would see if you were a fly on the ceiling looking down at the
benchtops, cupboards and floor. Typically a kitchen floor plan should show the following
information:
General information on the plan should include: the date, the drawing number/s, the job
number, the client name, the site address, a key if symbols are used, north point, a scale
(kitchen plans are usually at a scale of 1:20), any copyright notes, the name of the designer and
the details of the company supplying the cupboards or services.
Define the spaceshow walls, windows, doors, columns, etc.
Measurementsshow the width of: walls, doors, windows, floor units, wall units, benchtops
and circulation clearances. Note the convention that all measurements shown are in
millimetres.
Show the location of floor units, wall units, full height units, cupboard panels and appliances
that are fitted in the benchtop e.g. sink and cooktop.
The swings of cupboard doors and drawers may be shown on the plan.
Cupboards and panels can be numbered for easy reference.
Identify elevation/section views.
An elevation depicts what you will see while standing up looking directly in front of you at the
doors of the cupboards. The direction you are looking is shown on the plan. A kitchen elevation
can also be referred to as a Section.
An elevation usually shows:
The doors and location of the handles.
Any fitting or shelf located behind the door.
The shape and doors of appliances and fittings.
The benchtop thickness.

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All height measurementsfloor to ceiling height, height of cupboards, benchtop, drawers,


doors, kickboards, bulkheads, height off the floor to the underside of appliances and fittings,
height of openings and clearances.
A perspective is like a photo. It tries to represent depth in an elevation to make is look like what
you actually see.

The elevation above is drawn as a perspective


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Appendix -A-

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Appendix -B-

Appendix -BCONSTRUCTION OF THE KITCHEN


The construction of a home can include a variety of material combinations.
Floors can be concrete slabs, metal framed or timber framed.
Walls can be brickwork, blockwork, metal framed or timber framed.
Ceilings can be concrete or timber framed.
The various materials used to enclose the kitchen space will affect:
The way cabinetry is fixed to the walls.
How floor finishes and wall finishes are fixed,
How electrical wires and plumbing pipes are incorporated in walls, floors and ceilings.

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The installation of a kitchen will generally involve the following work:


The floor will need to be prepared for the selected floor material, e.g. tiles, linoleum or timber.
The electrical wires need to be fitted in specific locations in walls and ceilings as required for
appliances and fittings.
The plumbing waste pipes, water supply pipes and gas pipes need to be fitted in specific
locations on the floor and walls, as required for appliances and fittings.
Walls need to be rendered, or sheeted in preparation for painting or tiling.
Cupboards will be fitted on the floor and walls.
Worktops/Benchtops will be fitted on the floor units.
Splashbacks will be fitted to walls.
Appliances and fittings will be connected to wires and/or pipes.
Appliances and fittings should be delivered to the site prior to the cupboards. They should be
unpacked and checked to ensure they are the selected item and that they are not damaged.
The above stages are illustrated in this Appendix. Key points are identified as a check list for the
installation procedure.

B1 FLOOR FINISHES
It is recommended that all hard materials e.g. stone tiles, ceramic tiles and timber floor boards, are
fitted on the floor before the cupboards are installed. Where floor units will sit on the floor the
tiles do not need to be laid to the walls. Where timber floor boards are used the final sanding and
polish should be left till after the cupboards are installed.
Soft tiles and sheeting materials like the vinyls and linoleums can be fitted before or after the
cupboards are installed. If fitted after the cupboards have been installed the kickboards should be
left off and fitted onto the flooring.

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Preparing the kitchen space: pipes and wires pre-fitted in brick wall prior to render.

Timber Framed Floorfloor joists will have floor boards fitted over. Rendered Walls.

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The finished kitchen in the above space.

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Appendix -B-

B2 CUPBOARDS
Cupboards are constructed as a series of boxes called carcasses. These carcasses are delivered on
site and assembled to form the kitchen cupboards. A solid top panel is not always fitted on top of
a carcass. Rails along the top are used to support the sides. The open side of the carcass usually
has a door or drawer fronts fitted to it.

CARCASSES

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It is important to understand that the cost of the kitchen cupboards is reflected in the materials
used and the way they are assembled. The various materials used for carcases are discussed in Part
2.2. These carcass materials can be assembled in a variety of ways.
The more economic range will have thinner backs (3mm6mm) and use staples to connect the
panels. The durability of these cupboards is limited.
Horizontal rail along top of carcass front to
support the sides.

Vertical rail along the back for fixing carcass


to wall.

3mm stapled backing material.


Solid 16mm board on the base and sides.

Drawer runners on sides. Carcass front edged


with tape to match door finish.

When the selected door finish is a medium to


dark colour it is recommended that the front
edges of the carcasses are finished with a
similar colour edge tape. Usually there is a gap
between doors resulting in the carcass front
being visible. The matching edge tape reduces
this contrast.
A more durable carcass construction consists of
16mm board used throughout and screw fixed
together. The 16mm board as the back panel
supports the whole cupboard and allows fixing
to the wall at any part of the back.
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Cupboards are usually fitted on the floor in one of the following three ways.
Cupboard sides go to the floor:

There is a cut out at the bottom of the carcass


sides to fit a kickboard.

To level the cupboards, the carcass sides can


be cut down or packers are fitted under the
carcass sides.

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Plinth:

A plinth is made. This is fitted on the floor and The cupboard carcases are fitted on the
packed to a level position. In the above example plinth. In this example the kickboard will
the kickboard and plinth have been combined
be a separate panel fitted over the plinth.
into one. In this case if the finish on the plinth
is damaged it is difficult to repair.
Plastic legs:
A plastic leg can be fitted to the underside of
the cupboard carcass. These legs have a device
for adjusting the height to level the cupboards.
The kickboard is clipped onto the legs. It is
important to use legs with a wide top that is
located under the sides of the cupboards. Some
plastic legs and carcass constructions may not
be strong enough to hold up
granite benchtops.
Plastic cupboard leg
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Appendix -B-

Cupboards are usually screw fixed to walls and to adjoining cupboards.

Where a cupboard side meets a wall an infill


panel is always fitted. The face of the infill
panel should be flush with the face of the doors.
This is to allow for walls being not plumb or
square. Infill panels are scribed to the gap
between the cupboard and the wall.

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When the side of a carcass is visible an end panel is usually fitted. This panel matches the
cupboard door in finish.
When there is a change in direction between two cupboards infill panels need to be fitted. This
will enable doors and drawers to open without hitting or scraping the other doors.

Infill panels
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Gap for infill panels.


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It is important to note the two ways of installing full height units beside floor units.
If the benchtop front edge is flush with the full height cupboard doors, then the floor unit doors
will be recessedusually 20mm back from the full height doors.
If the doors of the full height unit are flush with
the doors of the floor unit beside it, then the
benchtop will protrudeusually 20mm beyond
the face of the cupboards.

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Drawers can be constructed in a variety of ways:


Prefabricated vinyl wrapped sides with groove for masonite base. Stapled together.
Recessed areas as guides for sliding.
Metal runners are incorporated as sides of the drawer. The 16mm base and back is screw fixed.
The drawer front is screw fixed to the metal sides.
A box is made with a base and four sides. This is then fitted to a metal runner.
The door is then screw fixed to the front side of the drawer box.

Metal runners act as drawer sides with solid panel


drawer base.
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Solid box fitted on undermounted


runners.

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Appendix -BCupboard doors usually have hinges fitted on the inside of


the cupboard and are not visible from the outside. The
hinges can be a clip off type with a facility to adjust the
door-up/down, left/right and forward/backwards.

Capping along top of cupboards.

Bulkhead along top of cupboards matches door finish

Along the top of the cupboards a capping could be fitted.


The area between the cupboards and the ceiling could be blocked off with a bulkhead. This
bulkhead could be in the same material as the doors, or be build as a frame sheeted with
plasterboard and painted.

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B3 BENCHTOPS
Benchtops and worktops are usually fitted after the floor units and full height units are installed.
Usually the walls of a space will not be plumb or square. Therefore benchtop templates are made
for granite, solid surface and timber benchtops. As a result there will be a two to three week period
between the cupboards being installed and a benchtop being installed. With all the benchtop
materials, cutting on site should be minimised as it can be a very dusty process, especially the
granite and solid surface materials.

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HIGH PRESSURE LAMINATES ON A SUBSTRATE


These are usually made oversize and delivered in sections with the cupboards to the site. The
installer will trim the back of the benchtop to scribe it to the wall. Where two pieces of benchtop
join there is a prefabricated join detail. The benchtop is screw fixed on the underside.
View from cupboard to underside of benchtop.
Laminate rolled 180o over benchtop edge.
Screw fixing benchtop to top of cupboard carcass.
Benchtop join at corner.
Cut out from top of cupboard carcass.
Cut out in underside of benchtop for toggle bolts.
Toggle bolts used to tighten join between two
benchtop pieces.
Top of cupboard carcass.
It is important to keep sink and cooktop cutouts
away from toggle bolt join areas. All cutouts in a
laminated benchtop and edges along a wall should
be sealed with a flexible mould resistant waterproof
sealant.

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TIMBER
A timber benchtop can be installed in a number of ways:
If there are straight lengths with no corners these can be prefabricated and trimmed on site
against the wall.
If there is a cornerone solution is to butt join two lengths of prefabricated benchtop and trim
on site against the wall. This will mean that the laminated strips will not meet at the corner
this may not always be visually acceptable.
If there is a corner and it is required to have the laminations meet at a mitre join a template will
be required.
A template will also be required if there is a coved splashback against the wall.
When timber benchtops are presealed it is important that all the cutouts are made prior to sealing.
A timber benchtop will shrink and expand due to temperature fluctuations. This should be taken
into consideration when installing the benchtop.

NATURAL STONE
It is recommended that you personally
select the slab of granite for your
benchtop. Once the floor units are
installed a template should be made for
the granite benchtop. The location of
sink/s, cooktops, taps and any other
fittings requiring cut outs should be
marked on the template.
Usually the join at the corner between
two benchtop pieces is straight.
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Appendix -B-

At the site check it is important to have the appliances and fittings on site. Undermounted sinks
are taken by the granite fabricator to fit off site. Also ask the fabricator to show you where the
joins will be located. Confirm whether your would like the cut outs to be made out of a single
piece of granite (a more expensive option), or that you are prepared to accept strips of granite to
be used along the front and back of appliances and fittings.

Holes for sinks and cooktops can be cut out of one piece of granite. Each benchtop piece is
prefabricated from the template and brought to the site for assembly. The benchtop is glued to the
carcases. Joins in the granite are filled with matching colour compound.

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SOLID SURFACE MATERIAL


Once the floor units are installed a template needs to be made on site and all cutouts for sinks, taps
and cooktops need to be marked on the templates. It is important to have the appliances and
fittings on site. Solid surface sinks are fixed to the benchtop in the factory. The template is used
to prefabricate the benchtop, any coves along back edges and benchtop front edges.
Prefabricating splashback in factory, piece by piece. Positioning splashback on site.

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A solid surface benchtop installation will occur over a number of days. There is a time lag between
glueing the pieces together, letting them set and then returning to polish the joins and benchtop.
Floor units ready for template, cooktops also required. Carcass top is cut out to fit sink.

Building up substrate for the benchtop. This can be board or metal frame and varies with
fabricators. The build-up depends on the thickness of the benchtop. In this installation the
benchtop is 60 mm thick requiring extra build-up.

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Substrate. Benchtop pieces ready to glue. Temporary clamping rails glued to benchtop. Glue

Glue is scraped off join, then benchtop is sanded, the join polished, cut out for cooktop. Glues
usually match the benchtop material in colour and joins are very difficult to detect.
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Appendix -B-

B4 PLUMBING
The following plumbing items need to be fitted before the cabinetry is installed:
The waste pipe/s for the sink/s are fitted through the floor or wall.
The hot and cold water pipes are in the sink area.
If an ice maker fridge is fitted, a separate cold water pipe will be required in the fridge area an
alternative water supply could be from a water filter unit in another part of the kitchen area.
A gas pipe with a stop cock is located for any gas appliance, this should be located in an area
easily accessible in an emergency.

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Stud frame with plumbing pipes and wires fitted. Same wall sheeted with plasterboard.

Hot and cold water pipes, floor waste,


fitted through the floor.
Pipes and wires from wall fitted through cupboard.
All cutouts (holes) made in carcasses for pipes and wires to pass through
should be sealed by the tradesperson who made the cut out.
Gas stop cock in the cupboard under the cooktop.
There is a lever to turn the gas on and off.
Most gas cooktops require power connection for automatic ignition.
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B5 ELECTRICAL
Wires need to be chased into brick walls or fitted into stud walls.
There should be wires located in dedicated areas for the following items:
Powerpointsabove benchtop on the walls.
Powerpoints in cupboards for appliancesrefrigerator/freezer, dishwasher, waste disposal,
microwave oven and rangehood.
Dedicated cable to the oven.
Dedicated cable to the cooktop if electric, if gas cooktop a powerpoint is required.
Wires for light switches and lights.

Powerpoint to be connected in rendered wall.


Stud frame for bulkhead over cupboards.
Stud walls and ceiling joists have wires fitted
through for lights and appliances.

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Rendered walls with wires chased to dedicated


locations for appliances.

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Appendix -B-

B6 INSTALLING APPLIANCES AND FITTINGS


Complying with Electrical, Plumbing and Gas Regulations/Codes is the responsibility of the
Electrician and Plumber. Guidelines are listed below for items that need to be considered when
installing: power points and switches near sinks, dishwashers, waste disposal units, uprights, builtin ovens, built-in cooktops, exhaust systems and refrigeration.
The overriding principle to these guidelines is to ensure easy access to any appliance or fitting
connection without having to remove the appliance or fitting from its fitted position. In all cases
it is recommended that the manufacturers instructions are consulted for exact installation details.
Powerpoints and Switches on Splashbacks: It is recommended that powerpoints and switches
are NOT fitted on splashbacks, in the first 100mm off the benchtop -C-.

B
C
A

Powerpoints and Switches


Near Sinks: There are restricted
zones for powerpoints and
switches near sinks. For sinks
with a capacity less than 20 litres
there should be no electrical
fitting in the following area: -Ais 150mm. -B- is 400mm.
For sinks with a capacity greater
than 20 litres there should be no
electrical fitting in the following
area: -A- is 500mm. -B- is
1000mm.

D
E

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G
H

Sink waste pipe. Dishwasher waste, water hoses. Cut out should be in the base of cupboard for
dishwasher pipes and power cord. Stop cock -F- and power point -E- for dishwasher is fitted away
from dishwasher space.
Dishwasher connections: There should be no fittings or connections located in the dishwasher
spaces these will prevent the dishwasher from fitting against the wall. The water and waste hoses
and the power cord should be fitted through to adjacent cupboards in the following area: -G100mm, -H- 150mm. All cutouts should occur in this area.
Power points and pipes in cupboard under sinks: There should be no powerpoints, stopcocks,
controls or switches fitted in the sink bowl/s zone -D- 350mm.
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WASTE DISPOSAL UNIT


Cupboard support rail.
Sink bowls.
Power point for waste disposal
unit. Ensure that access to the
power point is not obstructed by
the disposal unit.
Water filter unit requires its own
water stop cock. Filtered water
supply hose (blue) to the filter tap
on the benchtop. Ice maker
refrigerators can also be supplied
water from the same water filter
unit.
S trap waste pipe.

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Waste disposal unit, retractable mixer tap hose. Hot and cold water pipes and stopcocks (controls
for turning water on or off).

REFRIGERATION

OVENS

The powerpoint for a cold


storage unit should be
accessible without removing
the appliance from its fitted
position. It should be
located in a cupboard above
or beside the appliance
space. Powerpoints should
not be fitted behind the cold
storage unit. A cut out will be
required to fit the power cord
from the appliance into the
cupboard with the power
supply.

Ovens built into full height


units will require a
ventilation gap above them.
The cupboard above the
oven is not as deep as the
oven space and allows for
venting heat buildup from
the oven. Cut outs in the
horizontal panel directly
below the oven may also be
required for ventilation.
When the oven is fitted, its
power cable must be clear of
the back and sides of the
oven. Powerpoints or power
connections should be fitted
in an adjacent cupboard. A
cutout in the side of the
cupboard should be made at
the same height as the power
cable outlet.

The refrigerator/freezer and


space should allow a
minimum void of 25mm on
the vertical sides and 30mm
above the appliance. The
cupboard
above
the
appliance is not as deep to
allow for venting heat
buildup.
For built-in units a
ventilation grill is required
to be fitted in kickboard area
below the refrigerator or
freezer.
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Appendix -B-

COOKTOP LOCATION AND CLEARANCES


Fire safety issues must be addressed when locating a cooktop, especially for gas units. This applies
to cooktops built into a benchtop and to cooktops that are part of an upright unit.
Combustible Surface is the surface of a material that is capable of catching fire and burning at a
temperature exceeding 50oC above ambient (room temperature). Laminate, timber, polyurethane
cupboard doors and panels are all combustible,
Vertical Clearance between cooktop elements or gas burners and a combustible material e.g.
rangehoods, must be a minimum 600mm. This vertical clearance applies to the whole cooktop area.
Indoor BBQ cooktop units
and some wok burners
may require greater
clearances.
The Manufacturers
Specifications and Gas
Regulations should be
checked.
Horizontal Clearance from
the back edge of a cooktop
to a noncombustible wall
surface or splashback e.g.
tiles or granite, should be a
minimum 50mm.
Horizontal Clearance from any electric element or gas burner at the side of a cooktop to a
combustible surface e.g. end panel, should be 300mm. There should be enough space on both
sides of any cooktop to allow for a pot to be put down even when there is a non-combustible
surface.

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Horizontal Clearance from the periphery of any gas burner along the back of a cooktop, to a
combustible wall surface or splashback e.g. laminate or solid surface splashbacks, should be a
minimum 200mm.
Underside of cooktop area in a cupboard.
The gas pipe connection outlet in cooktop.
Powerpoint for gas cooktop automatic ignition.
Electric cooktops have a connection box for the
connection cables. Gas supply pipe in cupboard
will have a gas stop cock fitted and supply pipe
will be extended to the gas cooktop. A gas
stopcock needs to be easily accessed in an
emergency to switch off the gas. Avoid locating
behind a bank of drawers. Alternatively, locate
the gas stopcock in an adjacent cupboard. The
underside of the cooktops can become
dangerously hot. A safety barrier may be required
under the cooktop to prevent a person from
touching the underside of the cooktop in a
cupboard.
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DUCTING RANGEHOODS
A rangehood can be ducted to the outside wall.
The duct comes out of the rangehood at the top
and turns 90o into a hole in the wall to the outside
of the building. Alternatively the ducting could
run vertically through the roof to the outside or to
the side, through the cupboard/s to the outside.
The powerpoint for rangehoods are fitted
between 1800mm and 2000mm off the floor.
The location of the ducting on the top of a rangehood can vary from the centre to the side. Ensure
the ducting will not block access to the powerpoint.
Preparing for cooking appliances:

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Hole in wall for canopy rangehood duct,power supply for canopy rangehood.
Cutout in the granite benchtop for gas wok burner cooktop.
Space for a 900mm wide single oven to be fitted under the benchtop.

Installed appliances: Stainless steel canopy rangehood, wok burner and single oven.

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