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Exercise 4. Loci<i¡'lg at gramrnüL (Cnart 3-l)
Complere the sentences with since or far.

1. There

it

has been snolv on the

ground Sirrcc

cod,--.-_-.7{o,

@,r

2.

The wearher has been

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3.

Ntaria has studied

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rVlr. and &'lrs. Roberts have been

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t

,milu'
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el /.fi=

e

ffiÍ /
@[
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ffil
ffil

Bl

a long time.
less rhan a year.

/

togeüer

fu¿zl€

- -

they were in coilege.

more than fifty years.
other
last month.
6. 1ü(/é hayen't seen Aziz lirttC
v
over a week.
i. I've had a cold -.-¿...-7-Ju
rhe begrnning of lvlarch'
B. I haven't heard frorn my stxer Í/ac?

5.

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English

NewYear's Day.

They have knorvn each

Exercise

5. Let's toli<.

(Chori 3-l)

Complete ¡he senrences wi¡h any appropriate rime expression. \)7ork in pairs, in small groups,
or as a class:

1. Today ft

the 14th of

.

June

I bought

rhis booi<

ts^

I have had this book since
I have had this book for

2. I moved to this ciry

f;B\ Í

w1

I have been in rhis ciry

ffil

;t

I have been here

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/qq

since

¡o,

/

A

I ;¿a rJ

;JN

#i

3. It is the year

ef

I started

wl

I've been a student

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m.!

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wl

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going to school in rhe year

for
-

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I've been a srudent since

4. I flrst me[ our teacher
I've known her/him for
I've known herihim

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*^-//¡

sínce ÚráJe.

that I bought -/
5. I have (alan) a ¿c//n "e
"v¿ú/
I have had it since //ta an/,na ol' #e )*/ Jear¡

I

have had

it for

-/ )tear

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Perfect ond Perfecl Progressive Tenses

39

Vhar dme áia yo. € Let's islk. A: Hi. Vr'elcome to the parry' Have you ever met my cousin? B: No. What is rhe úme frame in anyone here' attended any parties since I came to this city' I don't know Example: . using since2 \-. (Chort 3-l) 3.I"-'haven't piesent pefbct aerb: haven't auended . So far rhis week..v long has $iace) known ( L' )? IJse/or' To C: To i¡ t :l each siruation? Underiine rhe presenr p-erfeciverbs. e e 6 6 A: \. 2.¡cltsR: use/or' e Srucienr C will use @ Hor'v iong has (Srudenrl) been here? He/She h"as been here for two weeks' Use/or' @ C Or.using sincel To B: Horv long has tfu-lhaci his/her watch? T)se for. get up this morning? using sznce2 To B: How long has (9. e ? a B: Ho. I haven't eaten 5.rample: To Sruprxr B: TercuER: 6 € € A: When did you come here? To B: Use/or' To C: Or' using since? TEscHEn.Stu'lenr B since. since finished Nadia started her homework right after dinner.: s J-r 40 CHAPTER 3 l & é' .¿c) been up? lJsefor' To C: Or' To To tl a. but she sdll hasn't probabiy won'[ be able to go to bed until after midnight' it' ? o o \. I'.v long has C/.'Y'b¿r' *Exercise ó. A: Do you know (92e4? lWhen did you meet him/her? Or' using sincel To B: Hor. E:. When did You come here? SruPeNr A: I came here on June 2ncl' T¡. Try not to be absent from class again for the resr of the term' You've already missed I many ciasses. To To e C is married? \X7hen did you get married? A: Who To B.@ 6 @ & e' a o Ü ¡E! . A: When did you get to class today? To B: Horv long has élZ-<) been in class? To 5.Juciy. ü ü 6 t.) To Q been married? Use/or' To ! C: Or' using since2 :i l :í 6. (chort 3-l) will Answer rhe questions in complere sentences. I got up' I'm really hungry. I haven't.:. Use for. IC Exercise 7. How long has Q4" .ve had lwo tes[s and a quiz. To C: Or. @ usiRgsincei ) had a carlbicyct'e)'Ü{for' To C: Or' a V: A: lffho is wearing a watch? Whry'cfd you'get it? C: Or. using since? SrupEN'r C: He's/She's been here since June 2nd' i. And it's oniy wednesday! too 2. Looking ol grommcr.. 4. ? Sl¡e + ? tü üti¡ e.@ . Close Your book.

for the first time io mY life. 2.tr v. so we (go) to a show. 1 (take) 102.. My classes keep me reallY busY. haae gotten I have got is present perfect.ve 101 th. L Farima is from a hor. Greg Adams? Yes. Last January. him since college. In ¡his sentenc e. In rhis sentenc e. 7. MingWon á this (áe) getting berrer and berter.u (ocntr) ru/ /rt. jtut) in sourhern California. and just. .. Ga¡¡¿n occurs only in American (a) t hate gottel oR haoe Ga¿ is useci as rhe pasr English.I (see) snow. \t aC. I already\ (ruke. (knout) l4ve kne'u ni* lvere in college together. I admir that I older since I last fu'el*) (se¿) you.fr. Perez br. but then she left bec ¿t school to get a job. yet. Sa-a. Joe North weil r. # CHAPTER 3 .vhen ¿¿-rU ]"b ^/re it last semester. J'utl . especially American Engiish.K-semester? (knozu) k n¿r¡s I'm sorry to hear that. some free time.. iCo. (Nole: pardciple of get in both American Eng. 1 1.ir. This semester I'm in I i<now him.rave gotmeans "havc" and is common in informal spoken English. Late..vtraR€: got four leuers so Jar this week. I passeci away? \.^/ (haae. She never) (see. He plans 6.--Dehef txercise I3. Last night my friend and I (haae) / 4. f l. .ac'ltt/ at 9:25 a. have goris NoT presenr perf'ecr./ ). Since classes began. Mrs. I ír. (Chorts 2-ó ond 3-3) present perfecr form of the verbs in Complere rhe sentenc. but in some sicuarions the simple past is also commonly used rviü üese adve¡bs in informal Engiish.breaking newsl A major earthqrrake (occur. t U¿' J aere'l SCqz sno!v. with no difference in meaning.lish and Bridsh Englisir.-Ur.¿.ing is present.u.I 9. arid part of her counrry. but with any luck at all. it has no pasr form. I':ue got a problen = I have a problent' The expressioo l.. 5. B.not) much free rime. i nZr" *rlypicall¡ rhe presenr perfecr is usecl in sentenc es wirh alruady.r. in our class for three months.) ¡o1 got ct problem. Paiific Standard Time.o.veru{ . *"o 10. L. !-ooking ol grürflrncr. ti*pi" p"rt o. parentheses. Its mean. A: Are you taking Chemistry B: No. (óe) t ciass for three months' His English 1S take rhis class un¡il the end of fulay.

she (reaiezu) . The bed . and illrs. 5. i{e ar a checkour rhere for or¡er five minures.rl uu. He (stand. rsnd J-4) Write about tire picture using rhe verbs in rhe lisr and rhe verb form cook i 2.. (play) in ¡he mud. Right now.s rr:00. i ' Mr. sara is ar ihe iibrary.) /al he: .3-1.. p. p.a'f re7 / ' _ her no¡es right non. 1. fix ¡nemorize piant vacuum given in each item wash Tom has had a busy day so far.s wrile. (chorr 3-4) Compiere the sentences' Use th. Use the present perfect. g /Vlarco is in a s¡ore.h.ressive.a lot in the iasr few weeks. her nores ali rnorning % 3.$ C 4l é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é é € .. He wishes he courd find a sarpsperson.é//a-4c. Rewrite your. Righr now jt.r r My baci< hurrs. Use rhe simple past.senrences usingyesterday. The children a¡e excir ut the concerr. \üZhat hasTom been doing? §rrire ar least four sentences on anorhe¡ piece of pap. Perlacl ond Perfeci progressive fenses p fr v L v h w . :t . /*r.-nl /ar" / a pad on ¡he floor iately. ó. he's taking a break. They're going to sing for rheir parenrs.ffi#'r. .sit) (szl) are hav¿ beer eitting ourside on their norch righr Eifitnq there since af¡er dinner. 3. The resr begins ar t:00. looking o{"rommsr. a a 2. Jones noiv.r"rrt progressive or the presenr perfect prcgressive form of the verbs in pareniheses.J . Rewrire your senrences usingTz¿s¡.o". (Chr:rts Z_ó. She (reuieu) lo. so I (sleep) - / o" Exercíse ! 7.fl / . The limle girl is dirry from head r-f{otbecause she a pair of jeans.v. f|¡gy (. irrrrs to buy 4. (siatLd) /'r *--: counrer right nor. They (pracice) . Lel.¿:¿ ) Exercise Ió. H.

i\fter r. en:barrassnenr.' ..appear) .. I € € (-aistt) the art museurl 7. I r.' . (Chorts 2-e cnci 3-5) Use lhe simple past or rhe past perfecr foril of rhe verbs in pareniheses ro conlpiere ¡he senteilces. but d m¡¡ 'r¡qile¡ Io pay rny pa¡r oí rhe biil for me.ter.vent to Rosa's offlce ro give her a ride (ieav-e) discovered r):.. -. . 8.:rir (be) ¡./.nosaurs (roam) (become) rhe earth. it'. bur by rhe dne class (áe) / 4.vas iare. ( Nlillions of years ago. aiready) . Looking a? grfirfir?lrr.\ l¿tt/ t.:.r: '*' j'¿'- " Exerr:ise 23.r.atl (leave) . With some (rrorget) ¡ .':...i.i é1 She wi¡h someone else.. ...l'allei at home.i. Sa. bur when I (iook) She home./ in my pocker.i. I told my frie::d thatl kindly I couldn'¡ hncj her." + Ger) a quiz u. lhe O C .'.'¡'t )t /.. h¿ca¡..:. The teacher lrgite. t/ 3. I | ! lf n:y r. ov3r. (ffir) . I gor ready ro pay dre biil.t.vas raining hard.. Perfect ond Periect Progressive Tenses 51 F{ ial f{ I -{ . ne.vork.¡e € é d a ne w'spape r reporrer i:efore he (bicome) € é é é é é é € 3 DUSrnessman Itt o' th: nedicine./'::t' /.lJ ¡rl EI J . l+-:{ ? € ? 6... FI Ei i . di.. I (see. extinct by the dme people frrst (.:'r any of Pícasso's painrings belcre í.aE / hat ¡re. bur € é é € € € € r1:e1./. In some casesr either rense is correcl l...hen ic ciass. I r. .

4. 2. 3.not) L r'l Rick Coliins. f. f'm sorry . (Chorr 3-ó) Listen for reduced speech in rhese senrences.9. I (. At firsr. g' ug . That tI ó .oWnE st E)§rnffior. 10. to a foreign country.f) @' @' Exercise 25. I were born there and Orr-n/ alwa3ts) . le/ to the Uniied States f¡om China. never) outside of China and were. My dreams finally came rue. my parents (ernigrarc) ¿ . of course. and moved was t}re beginning of his adventure. 4nut Yesterday at a meedng. @" @ e e & @ @ 52 cHAPTER 3 & o 4a o o o o -.. Lg.AyáBeijing Universiry. We had forgorten about ir. They (*avel.veight.. . 1.."V 2 e/ him in years. e s - ook at his life. My roommate had already gone to bed. ñg he orvned.not) 7-rl a great deal of r.¿ @rozu) I roujt? rnia. excited by the challenge of reloca rhey (se*le) )a/ ./ to visit China and learn more about my own family background. In 1980. I had already pianned my day. I gor home late.e ///e. I(see. rrvly sister and Lasr year. Warrn-up: I¡sien¡ng.t.I (see) mine. Eventually.re¿. so she rushed out the door rvi¡hout locking ir.g. The school called and rold her that her son was sick. The movie had already begun by the rime we got rhere. . to London. I (go) China for the firsr rime to .:3_i.. we missed the meering.. I couldn't change my schedule. Exercise 24. him because he (/ose) I (recognize. Which of the passages is typicai of fiction writing? Vhich of 'What the passages is ffi ces in verb form usage? $oken English? s e € 6 6 6 & @ 6ñ the door. (Chort 3-5) Underline the pa§t perfect uJñs.want.an old friend of frert haú'/. How is had pronounced? . ín . .

I (sntdj.1.t..:il<:irg c. or b.ihe funer.ai.i ca¡re lnsiCe S. Ar'.! '¡ai¡ing for Ja:k since 5:C0.. _ 2. This iense also rnay er. Use the piesenr Í:er¡tcr DrogÍessive oi the past pü:fect tbrrn of ihe verbs in parenrheses. been '*'alting for Jack since 5:C0.) \c lvonder J'rn gerti:g r::eci. Bu¡ I gor toc ho¡ an.. I had been waiting fcr llirn srncelour-ihir-ry.plete ihe serltences.utside i.* ibilo'ws fJ R. -a'. ior Ílve srraigirr hcurs Pe¡recl ond Perfect Frogressive Tenses fiJ i§.g55.{.i ffi m & Eric finally ceme at six c'ctock. Then I ie-ft. . i-. each sraremenr? Discr-iss ihe neanings of t-he verrhs in blue. 2.r N:ancy fcr or.* ti¡|t. &.. See Chart 3-5.¡ When ¡uov oot ho.:¡ ai¡rost an hour.Ai lrl I oi'waircg j. r'. aciivity ¡n ptagress close tn t¡ne io anaiher acriv¡ty. example-s ig) and (h). (Chci'i 3-7) \{l:ich sentence (a. (Choris _l_4 cnd 3_7) Corr. ha. i \uY'e (zuazr) het'e bs:r ¡'atiint ¡-. r. I haC ber¡r '. her hair was s1.yares: Lia tald me fhal she hacj been v¿aitino for me. been crying. The past peifecl progressive aiso occurs in reported speech.l .-i. I . I l'iave Deeri worl<ing ourside lcr alinosr ar hcu¡. a. mi .t 55 . #: $): q.) logicail.i:-ne tii :..:r ü:-ee ¡curs before she ñnaliy arrived yeslerday.1 &.B & Exercise 29.. Locking cf grsrnrnrr. i¡. His eyes ware rei because he had i I The past perÍeci progressive ei'::phasizes ihe duration af an eciivit'f that was in prcgress before enctner acf¡vii/ or t¡me ¡n ihe past r...bee n swir-rrinc. vvl lr{ ^^ r pr ciLls: I weni tc Ed's house after..' ^-.ri. V/orrn-up. It is mionight.press e. 'X'e (zoarr) - had beert w'eitne f. ¡4. It's hct. Tle ¡eSi CeleCi nr¿g.rog:essr'.d I'n s:ill ilere. tu ry..' i.'e been I irri a. |. I thinl< I'il go inside.vi.. 'U Exercise 30. (e) Aciual I (i) s¡:oken wcrds: I have been waiting for you.me. b.t. a. bu¡ she srlll hasn'r arrived. b.C.jl we: becaJse she haa .E.ve iS used infrequently coi-npareo io ctirer verb tenses. 3.i i ffii :.ror-two years before ther: (b) --\-"1 ñ.lurrr:on -?. arc m | L_-__-*. or time in the past. .-" for Nancy for the iast twc horiis. ¡r udus¡ L.{ The police hed been laokíngÍor the crimina! . Jil it ñ y-. Reparred '. 4.

' a quesrion. '1r.. LIe couldn't answer for the lasi ten minutes.. a reacher. She learned that a few She found out students had been Einlinq üat a couple of students 4n. loudly. a group of students i.iist (or your /" own words). tr /\ !.w §m Srru¿rtoN: Nls.. Sorneone told her that one student i/¿i'a'/ 4. .. 5.tF! for live straight 4. Wake upl You (sleep) Exercise 31. . t on cell phones. '/'l long enough.'/ .uI Ir t€ Ie I€ . 5ó CHAPT:R 3 " tn i¿.. She found out that A t.' . She happily discovered rhat a few students rhe whole ¡ime.vanted. ieft the classroom for fifteen minutes.€ l@ &G §e t* Ie I€ l. Looking at glomñ]ar../ ). / I//r.' ffi- . Jack suddenly realized th at the teacher was asking him because he (daytdream) 6.. in üe aisles.. hours. She salv that a couple of studen¡s ¡he board. Ia §@ Ec le i? te §w BÁ §e §@ look dance /sing play talk studl- f. -' .o' . loud music. She heard thar several studen¡s ).* t ''). her students did whatever they r. lJse rhe past perfect progrlssive form of the verbs in the. t. her grade book pictures on Ie i@ flfl H' tó i+ ioié' io i@ ie iP i@ Ti l@ i@ lw fe íe @ @ @ @ @. When she came back. It's time to get up. Reed. .' ..\y'' f. (Chori 3-7> Complete rhe sentences. i. . During that rime. No rvonder I was getring tired.

l I'\'t rt.. in class? Yes.i.. but I didn't. I haven't finished it. It started raining an hour ago./ yesterday.. Since then.-'\ir?t'ú'Y1 luncn -. A: is Mary B: -- I'm expecting her soon.rilh *lree. [¡'s 3. The Present Perfect __. I've read it three times.r. sril/ andyer express similar meanings. Lookl The rain has stopped..¡i.E!E!ErE+|É"-. A: Is N1ary home -----_-? B: Nio. he-aie a candy bar a ferv minutes ago'.l-rytr/.i'l..r.. Eric I'm not hr-ingr. ' Lei's -----' 7.í/ i. '1 4. §7e can't go for a walk because it's I hope it stops 6.l:t yesterday. I used to eat Iunch at the cafeteria ever)'day.s C 185 ) j I . It isn't raining go for a *'aik. 5.. I've homework. i1.:! finished all mv 8. I didn't understand this chapter in my biology book when i read it : .! last night before I lvent ro bed. I don't have to study tonight. s.i1:: )r-'jt¡-rr..'ri 2. so he's going tó have another can'cy bar'\ ---:i¿- 2. I started a letter to my pul. but 2. IXERCISE 30: f i.. but I .. soon. / haoen't ond the Posl Perfect +-----!!qt=u. I'i-ir hLrngrY I haven'l eaien 1:00 p.\ .i don't understand itl . The meanings of finkhed it yet and I still hazten't finished it are similar. Istartedaletter to my parents yesterday. I don't eat at ¡he cafeteria -J-Lt .o¡et.. . i.-t. I0. bu_t I haven't finished it I'11 iinish it later today and put it in the mail.. I{er class doesn't end until 11:30.-.. *In negative sentences. bur now I bring my lunch to sbhooi in a paper bag instead. . L.. ). sti. I thought dialogues by using Yet aboui finishing ii . r::i..i-J' t't .'. hungri.'. But he'5'1.-. A4-t ealei-i iunch' was hr:igry.c1r::r:. * ot still. she is.d3t. it t 1:00 P. 9.