3 %    $     % 50  ,  1   +    

        2 C  %    1              
: Q2     ?  1  
. Med ian

.  
       F  
<  3  !   , 1   

. <  3  !   , 1    3  )        %    $    % 7 5  ,  1           
: Q3 7    ?  1  

Q3-Q1
,  
!  #
.    . h in g es 

,  " 3  " . 

!        =    Q3
Q1   

.  
 .       . I n t er Qu art ile R an g e  )  1   M   1 H ) 
h sp read D  " 3  " . 

Med ian .  

,  
!  #  

. 9   $  G   2 # 2 
C " 3  C  
!           
: W h isk ers 
!  B  % -  .     .;

: E xt remes  .       
o u t liers 9   $      .B

  .           
!  #
.   1. 5      
!        3 ) 1  9   $        7  

:     #  $      

!  #
.   3      
!        3 ) 1  
E x tre m e s

o u tlie rs

Q 3 (h in g e )
w h is k e rs

M e d ia n
Q 1 (h in g e )

hspread

L a rg e s t V a lu e (n o t o u tlie r)

s m a lle s t v a lu e (n o t o u tlie r)
o u tlie rs

E x tre m e s 

  .   
         (S k ew n ess/ 
 -  ) %    $   ?  4
  3 9    . )  . .         

     C 
 "  ?  4
   E  #
  ?  1   C  ;2  .  
      A   
 "  ?  4
   E  
!  H !   

   (/ 
 -  ;   )     C 
 "  ?  4
   E  7    ? 1   C  ;2  .  
      A
(/ 
 -  ;
 )
. ?  4
  #   #
.  3 9    . )  W h isk ers          #  $   

8 8 

  

" ?4 

/  
# ) ?4   

 
" ?4 

:     %      B o xp o lt s

.   )      #    4  ?     " . .    (

. .     @  

3    : F ac to r L ev els to g eth er

.   4 3
  #  #   9   )   %      " . .    ( 

3    :D epen d en t to g eth er

. B o xp lo t . .   ( 

3  3 :N o n e

F ac t o r   4     

 ) K 
   
 #
          +   $ E      #         

. V ariable

D esc riptiv e                .2

:    % . .    ( 

3     

   
(N   ) S t em #
    4 C   2  +    2    . .         : S t em-an d -leaf . .   S

             %         .       / 4   leaf
    / 4  S t em #   
( 2 
 ) L eaf 

   
%   $ )    #    +   S t em #
    4 C   ,     E  5، 7 ، 12، 15، 16 ، 20 ، 21، 23، 30

. .         6  = 
%   10  ,  #  #
. %    C    2       E 
  V    #    +   L eaf 

    1 #         9  3 E 1 #    H ist o g ram 

 %          ,  1  0 
h ist o g ram . .   D 1 $ 

. 9

      )  1 .  3 %  
" )  >  )  D E  K 
S t em-an d -L eaf          

VAR1 Stem-a n d -L ea f
F r eq u en c y
2 . 0
3 . 0
3 . 0
1. 0

8 9

0

0

Stem &

0

0
0

Stem w i d th :
E a c h l ea f :

.
1 .
2 .
3 .

P l o t
L ea f
5 7

2 5 6
0 13
0

10 . 0 0
1 c a s e( s )

. +    B    ( 

)

: H i s to g r a m

+    B    S;

. %  1 "  )1 .  ?4  
1  - % . .   #3 : Normality Plots with Tests.3 

   <"3 . ;    !     1   > 
  L @ 
 ). F a c to r V a r i a bl e 

 1  - : sp read v s. L ev el with L ev en e Test .4

 4    K    
  3 -  (<. $ ) <- )  
 -  - 

:    5    , 6  E x pl o r e

E x p lo r e

. ( 3 #     #! 0  1    


! 

 OK 4  3 

Case Processing Summary

T A L L

N

V a lid
56

P e rc e n t
1 00. 0%

C a s e s
M is s in g
N
P e rc e n t
0
. 0%

N

T o ta l
56

P e rc e n t
1 00. 0%

Descriptives
T A L L

M e a n
9 5 % C o n fid e n c e
In te rv a l fo r M e a n

L o w e r B o u n d
U p p e r B o u n d

5 %

T r im m e d M e a n
M e d ia n
V a r ia n c e
S td .D e v ia tio n
M in im u m
M a x im u m
R a n g e
In te r q u a r tile R a n g e
S k e w n e s s
K u r to s is

S ta tis tic
68.1607
63 .5 618

S td .E rro r
2 .2 9 4 8

72 .75 9 6
68.5 63 5
70.0000
2 9 4 .9 01
17.172 7
3 2 .00
9 9 .00
67.00
2 6.2 5 00
- .3 14
- .63 9

S ta nd a r d E r r o r

.3 19
.62 8

. 
I + ) E .  

Me a n = 6 8 .16 07 , S td .De v i a ti o n = 17 .17 27 , S td . E r r o r = SD / n = 17.1727/ 56 = 2.2948
. ( )    1  
1   . 
I + )  H  - ) + )  E .   
S td . E r r o r   7 
:  "  B   : µ "   #     $     % 9 5           

X m t.0.025,55 * Std .Error
  
( t    2   C   ) 0.025 #- t ?4 
#
  B   t   7  

 #=      # 
 C  N
  

S PS S
Co m pu te V a r i a bl e  

!

5  1   9 $ 1  ,      
n-1=5 5 

 I DF .T(p,d f )       Tr a ns f o r m 

Co m pu te

I DF .T(0.9 7 5 ,5 5 ) =  E  D "3
d f = 5 5
p = 1-0.025 = 0.9 7 5  )   # #  p   7 
:  "  .  
" % 95   9 
  
 D "3
= t.0.025,55 2

90

U ppe r Bo u nd = 6 8 .16 07 +2*2.29 4 8 =7 2.7 5
L o w e r Bo u nd = 6 8 .16 07 -2*2.29 4 8 =6 3.5 7
:    9 
!  C "3    9  ; 

Pr ( 63.57 < µ < 72.57 ) = 9 5 %

% 95 + 
7 2. 57
6 3. 57     1 ?   .  
N
2
#   +  #-  #  Pr   7 
7   F =  3  De s c r i pti v e s

: 

#
<=   S PS S 5  1 %    C "3 %  )0     )  4 A   

J  1    

D   
F o nt .   N
J De c i m a l s $ )  ;  3 J #
       
S PS S V i e w e r 

    ;
".   #
  1 K   
..… 9 3  ( 

3 J Al i g nm e nt ?2  

C  "3 %   ) /  F o r m a t  Ta bl e Pr o pe r ti e s      (%     ( 

3 $ $ ) 

       )   "  C "3 H
2 
)1   #
   ) " % 0 !  
 
#  #

. F o r m a t  Ce l l Pr o pe r ti e s 

Trimmed Mean % & '    ( )  $     $    

  #0         % 5
C "3         % 5 H     < 3 !     ; )1 B  

. 9  $    1    +    1     " .   
;

;  D   +  2. 8 + 
     % 5  
2 56 
ta l l     2 3   #      

2 5 6 *0.9 0= 5 0.4 

,  H    )1  1       #0    2 2. 8
C "3    2 2. 8 H  

:  "  ; $   .  
2 B   7 
68.1607* 56 − 99 − 95 − 32 − 33 − 0.8 * 93 − 0.8 * 35 3455.5992
TrimmedMean =
=
= 68.5635
50.4
50.4
C   =   33
32  
 2 C "3   =   95
99  
2 56 N 
 #  6 8 .16 07 *5 6   7 
C "3  "!  2
. ;  C "3  
")    "     
")      =   35
93
:    #
   

E x tr e m e s  .     " S PS S 5  1 %         F  
Extreme Values

T A L L

H ig h e s t

L o w e s t

91 


 2

1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5

C a s e N u m b e r
28
38
6
16
23
43
41
5
42
44

V a lu e
9 9 .0
9 5. 0
9 3. 0
9 2. 0
9 2. 0
32. 0
33. 0
35. 0
37 . 0
41. 0
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 

*+   , ) 

 
  2  )1  C  3 
    
Q1,Q2,Q3  2  =    Qu a r ti l e s % )1    
 

 2   C  3 
     Pe r c e nti l e s %      ( % )1   H ) # 
Bo x pl o t . .   ? ) 
   
%  1     % 95 D "
< 3 !  ,  3 %  1    % 5 D  1  >       + 

.   
… %  1    % 90 D "
< 3 !  , 1  3 %  1    % 10 D  1  $ ) 
(25 th Pe r c e nti l e ) 25     #1   Q1 # 
?1     <"3

(5 0th Pe r c e nti l e ) 50     #1   Q2 (.  
)   ?1    

(7 5 th Pe r c e nti l e ) 7 5     #1   Q3 7   ?1    

: %   " 5  1  %    #     #


Percentiles
5

T A L L

2 5

P e r c e n tile s
50

75
9 0
9 5
W e ig h te d
T A L L
34.7000 43.1 000 55.2 500 70.0000 8 1 .5000 9 1 .3000 9 3.3000
A v e r a g e ( D e fin itio n 1 )
T u k e y 's H in g e s

1 0

55.5000 70.0000 8 1 .0000

Q1= 5 5 . 2 , Q2= M e d i a n = 7 0
I n t e r q u a r t i l e R a n g e = 8 1. 5 - 5 5 . 2 = 26 . 25

W e i g h te d Av e r a g e

,

Q3= 8 1. 5 

   

4 
  .    
  .    %     ;   )1    .   

+  (n+1)*P = 5 7 *0.05 = 2.8 5      !  #) <=   >       ; ;" Me th o d

   1 ?  >       2  E  D "3
. < 3 !     ; 3 2. 8 5 
>       ;  
# !  D "3
( E x tr e m e

V a l u e s #
 ) 35  
3 , 1      
33  
2 , 1    

:  " 
         1 I nte r po l a ti o n  .  #  / E 1     2 C "3
5 th Pe r c e nti l e = 33 * 0.15 + 35 * 0.8 5 = 34 .7 

                       
    

D  + )  E .   C  S k e w ne s s / 
-  #) 1  6 =     )1 .  ?4  
1     
F      1
–0.314 / 0.319 = - 0.9 8 

"  1   %  #      
( De s c r i pti v e s #
) 

  .  )1 .  ?4  
?1  Ta l l     E 1 "    )  @  #1    E  (-2,2) M    @

–2

?  1   

 #2  1   %   
(   C ) <1 
</  

" ?4  
   )  ,  2   1   1   % 

. (  C ) <1  W /  

" ?4  
   )  ,  

 . )1 E 1 1  

M-E s ti m a to r s  1   . 
" !   %      1     B   

  . 1 ;  .   

 .  F   ; 
1 ;  .   
 1 > 
 

 3 6 = 

.ta l l  "  3 

92

M-Estimators
H u b e r 's
M - E s tim a to ra
69.1469

T A L L

a .T h e w
b .T h e w
c .T h e w
d .T h e w

T u k e y 's
B iw e ig h tb
69.3 8 5 9

e i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t i s 1.3 3 9.

H a m p e l's
M - E s tim a to rc
68 .97 5 4

A n d re w s '
W a v e d
69.3 7 49

e i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t i s 4.68 5 .

e i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t s a r e 1.7 0 0 , 3 .40 0 , a n d 8 .5 0 0
e i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t i s 1.3 40 * p i .

? 4  
? 1         #  D 
#
.    S te m -a nd -L e a f

S t em-and-L eaf    

. .   #     B   

. .   
# 
<1   <=  
1 
,   )1 . 

TALL Stem-a n d -Lea f

P l o t

F r eq u en c y

Stem &

4 .
5 .
7 .
9 .
1 4 .
9 .
8 .

3

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

4
5
7

9

Stem w i d th :
E a c h l ea f :

6

.

8
.

.
.

.

Lea f
2 3
1 4
0 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

.
.

5 7
7 8
2 3
1 3
0 0
0 2
1 2

9
5 6
3 4
1 1
3 3
2 3

9

5 6 8
2 2 3 4 4 6 6 9
4 5 8
5 9

1 0 . 0 0
1 c a s e( s )

H is t o g ram -       .  /   

+    )1 .  ?4  
C   D   H @  2
#
.    +    B    #     . .   

. ( +    B    # 
#! 0     4 % . .    #!  ?  ) .   
# 
<=  
1 
16

Histogram

14
12
10
8

Frequency

6
4

Std. Dev = 17.17

2

Mean = 68.2
N = 56.00

0

97

.5

.5

.5
87

77

.5

.5
67

57

5

5

.5

7.
-9

07
-1

7.

5

-8

5

5

7.
-7

5

7.

7.
-5

-6

7.

5

-4

7.

-3

93

.5
47

.5
37

.5
27

TALL

B o x p lo ts    

9  $ 
 .   2

 3 6 =  D 
Ta l l  " Bo x pl o ts . .   #     B   

. ( /  


 3 ) <)1 . N 4 
     C  $   <1   
!  . 
  .  
?2 
 

120

100

80

60

40

20

N=

56

TALL 

  1 %  1 "  )1 .  ?4  
1     A     L  : N o rmal it y P l o t s w it h Tes t       
  3
   1 %  1 "  )1 .  ?4  
1   C   @ & 1 Ko l m o g r o v -S e m i r no v 

1  

:  % . .   
N o r m a l Q-Q Pl o t De tr e nd e d N o r m a l Q-Q Pl o t   )1 .  ? 4 
" ")=  % 1  -    )
: ( ,  )    "    0  K o mo g ro v -S mirno v   )    .1 

 )   %   $   E 1 "    )  @  1   7  N o n-Pa r a m e tr i c G o o d ne s s o f F i t Te s t

B    C "3 #
!     2
. <)1 . N 4 
- %  1   E 1 "   " 1  @ 0  @ 

)1 .  ?4  
?1 

. ta l l    %   $   )1 .  ?4  
1  -   

Tests of Normality

T A L L

K o lm o g o r o v - S m ir n o v a
S ta tis tic
d f
S ig .
.096
5 6
.2 00*

*. T h i s i s a l o w e r b o u n d o f t h e t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e .
a . L illie fo r s S ig n ific a n c e C o r r e c tio n

?4  
 #  Fs (x)   7  D = sup FS ( x ) − FT ( x ) 1  -    D  ! &     7 
x
?      
(#        )1 .  ?4  
) + 6  ?4  
 #  FT (x)  
)"  )  

6 =

. ( )   ) n  % 
 ) - M 
1 Ko l m o g r o v #
  D  6   

M 
1  )  @  #
1 2 C  
3   P-V a l u e = 0.20>0.05  
D= .09 6   #      

.  )1 .  ?4  
?1  #
.  ?4 
  +  % 5 -
N o rmal Q -Q

94

P lo t 

   .2

?4  
 2 #1         
C "3 "!  %  1    9  $  #     . .        

  ;  . # 
R a nk Ca s e s  ? ) E x pe c te d Z S c o r e 

, )2  
    )1 . 

. ta l l  "    . .       ( )2  
 

Normal Q-Q Plot of TALL
3
2

Expected Normal

1
0
-1
-2
-3

20

40

60

80

100

120

Observed Value

? 4  
%     )2  
   . 
1 #  F = 3  . .          .   C "3 .  #  

C "3
      
C "3 %  1 "  )1 .  ?4 
" )  %    #1   + 
)    
C "3  )1 . 

<)1 . N 4 
?    1 
)  %    .   
… (1.5 ,1.5 ),(0,0),(-1.5 ,-1.5 )    # $  

 ,       .    3 9 )1 ?  %         .   9  1 <1   ?  $  -  # $ .   E 

C   $      .   9  1 F = 3  # $    .   $     .  )1 .  ?4  
?1 - %  1     )
.  )1 .  ?4  
?1  ta l l    %   $    

D et rended N o rmal Q -Q

P lo t 

   .3

E       .   9  1 %   $   $    3    D   1   . .  " 1  1    

.    3 %   -   
 M  +  C  Q .  +   #'    
 )1 .  ?4  
?1 - %  1    5  
.  .  ( 

) S PS S 5  1   . <    )1 . N 4 
 - %     $            

      
C "3 "!  %   $   #    7  ( 

  , De tr e nd e d N o r m a l Q-Q Pl o t

., )2  
 )1 .  ?4  
 2  3 %   $ " )     %    # 1  + 
)    

(-2,2) M    @

?  ( % 90 
% 95 1         ) $  -  # $ .   6 ) %   P 

.     3 (-2,2) M    @

. L !

>  ) 
%  1 "  )1 . ?4  
       

?  Ta l l  " %   -   6 )   6 =

F   . .     

< )4 
N 4 
 # 
.             D "3
( %   -    % 90 ;   +  ) <1  
. <)1 .

95

.2

Detrended Normal Q-Q Plot of TALL

.1

Dev from Normal

0.0
-.1
-.2
-.3
-.4

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Observed Value

 !  "3 . 1  Ch a r t E d i to r   L i ne a r I nte r po l a ti o n #=    . .    .  . 1   

.    >  
41 . .     1 D  # 
    +  
%   - 

%  1 " % =  
 # 3    D E  <)1 . N 4 
-    %   $   E 1 B  -     :     
tall

96

8 0
8 4
7 1
7 2
3 5
9 3
9 1
7 4
60
63
7 9
8 0
7 0
68
9 0
9 2
8 0
7 0
63
7 6
48
9 0
9 2
8 5
8 3
7 6
61
9 9
8 3
8 8
7 4
7 0
65
51
7 3
7 1
7 2
9 5
8 2
7 0
3 3
3 7
3 2
41
44
49
47
50
59
55
53
56
52
64
60
66

factor
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

. (3 #     )1    .  > 0 )  )1 . ?4  
#) ( 

Tr a ns f o r m a ti o n

 0  #
.  #  C 
 22    1 3 
Ta l l  "  1   #    

2   

 ;G 
%  1        0  #
.  #     34  
%  1    C  

  #  A ; 
  F     9  C "3 3 
 #   ! A #" / 

+    E x pl o r e

% 1    


! 



F a c to r L i s t  2   (F a c to r D  )  4 
:    # $ 1 D 1   

:   "    
  Da ta E d i to r   %  1  ; 

9 
! 1 B
A   0    # (

D at a E dit o r (    *   )   

) %      E  E x pl o r e
:  "  ( 

 0  3 

)  .      <=   " 

Extreme Values
F AC T O R
A

T AL L

H ig h e s t

L o w e s t

B

C a s e N u m b e r

1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5

H ig h e s t

L o w e s t

:                 

Bo x pl o ts

6
16
7
15
22
5
21
9
19
10
28
38
23
30
24
43
41
42
44
45

V a lu e

93
92
91
90
90
35
48
60
63
63
99
95
92
8 8
8 5
32
33
37
41
44

  

120

100

80

60

TALL

40

20

5

N=

22

34

A

B

FACTOR

?1    3 )1  ,  7  35 , 2
5  2     
A  0    Ou tl i e r 9  $ 2

6 = 


4 1 , 4
18 . 7 5
!  #
.   3  3 # 
1. 5  3 4  1 Q1=6 6 .7 5 C 

L a be l

 3    @  -    

5    2  (
. ( E x pl o r e  

! 

1  + 

> 

 L a be l Ca s e s by 

) 4  ;  1
Bo x pl o ts . .  

Test of Homogeneity of Variances

 2   D  A    ) " 

    ( 2 – 6 ) 

 
AN OV A  1   #" /  3   
  1     % @ 0    

  .  % 2 C  #! 
" + '  H 
K   E  . $        3   0  (% = ) ) %  ) 
. ( %  )  .  
+ 

) % = )   E  + 
1 !   @ 0  1   3

 "     )  @  1   7  L e v e ne Te s t 
 1   > 

 1   S PS S 5  1   

G %  1    
  3 <1 G
.  1   > 

  )1 "   " 1  @ 0  @

# )  % =  
  F  , 1     
 1   > 

  @ Tr a ns f o r m a ti o n %  1  C "3 % =  
/  

1  - +  
@

%  )   1  > 

1

. $   
%  )  #   )1 .  ?4  
. $     3 C  + '  K   E   

; 
  F    
. ε ~ N (0, σ 2 )  )1 . ?4 
D   
$ )  E .     ( 0 7  % @ 0 

97

. <@  ) # #   )1 .    ;  ?4  

> 

 % =   
 3        2 C  #
!
" !  $  9   Bo x &

Co x Q 2   

     ; ) )  ,   
%  )  .  
 1 2 = 3

  C "3 9   ) . %  1   
G
     #  ;   7 . ( 1   > 

  @ + )  H  -   3 "  .  

; %  1 " Po w e r Tr a ns f o r m a ti o n   
 %  )  .  
 G
C "3 .   
 3 %   - 

% =  
  (

)1 F  
Po w e r >  #  1-b  
"!  %  1  #  y   7  y1-b     ! 

Trans f o rmat io n
P o w er
S
S q u a re
2
1
N o ne
S q u a re R o o t
1
0
L o g a r i th m
R e c i pr o c a l o f S q u a r e R o o t
-1
R e c i pr o c a l
-1
.   
    )   ,  1 + 
 #   2 %    2 C  1–   Q 

 +   1   > 
    

 <6

: #)-  ) $

lo p b
-1
0

1
1

3
2 

>    6 = 

# 
C  %  1  B  -   1
)  ,     3 "  %  ) 

E  0. 329  
  1-b >   E  0. 6 7 1 C   
#  ") %   
0 + 
> 

E  1 + 
 > V        1/2   1 2 0. 329   "!  %  1 "  )1     " 

. 10 > I  G
"  
 )1 .   G
"  #)  1   
- D  <"3  G
"  " 
 

 1  > 

 1     A (< 1  


.  .    .  
1  1   >

S p read v s . L ev el w it h L ev en Tes t      

Pl o ts  

! 

 , 6  +  )    L  

 1   C   @ A L e v e ne S ta ti s ti c s    1 (%  ) ) % = ) 

#      7   (. 1 1 
? Bo x &

Co x ;
" > 0 # ) S pr e a d –V e r s u s L e v e l Pl o t

M      G
# 
. .     ,       
C "3 (L e v e l M  
) %  )" .  
 G 

1 2 = 3

 3   0  (S pr e a d 3 1  ) + 
)    
C "3 I nte r Qu a r ti l e R a ng e  )1   
 1  >
> 

 C    $  +   (S l o p=0)     .    ?  . .      .   E  3 1  
M   

  3   1
2 = 3

 ) Tr e nd  3 F   .  # 
.   ?   E  K  >  3
%  ) 

D   < "3 . < 0   
   % =   
#
; %  1  C "3 # 
/   4"  %  )   1  

3 %   2 #  
"3         ( 

#  
)1 . .     1  
 5  1  #)   & 1
. (0 !    ;2  
 #    +  )  1   > 

 

  12 ?  A,B,C,D %  ) )1  ,  %    D "3 1   5   #     #
 :3    
Tr e a tm e nts
O bs

98

.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

: ) #

A
8 9 5

540
1020
470
428
620
760

B

C

D

1520
1610
1900
1350
980
1710
1930

43300
32800
28800
34600
27800
32800
28100

11000
8600
8260
9830
7600
9650
8900

8
9
10
11
12

. 4 9R
.>

537
845
1050
387
497
670. 75

1960
1840
2410
1520
1685
1701. 25

18900
31400
39500
29000
22300
30775

6060
10200
15500
9250
7900
9395. 83

Me a n
S td . De v i a ti o n 233.9 2
35 6 .5 4
6 6 8 8 .6 8
2326 .04
J   1 ) J ;   #"
 !  J   , $    
"3 #
  , $   
. : !   

   3    %  1 " ;   #  
  ? %  )   1  > 

 1   ;
".   

 7   (     0 ! )   
 S PS S 5  1 Da ta E d i to r 9    C  %  1  # A  

#  
 )    "  4    
tr e a t  
( )    ) %   $   #  d e pe nd   
:    % 
.   ?1  %  1   >

E x pl o r e  


! 

 1  - . A,B,C,D %  )   

, 6  7 Ana l yz e De s c r i pti v e S ta ti s ti c s  E x pl o r e  


! 

 Pl o ts 4   

.          
.   ?1    ( Tr e a t  4   

<6

:  "  D 1  )1 Pl o ts  

! 

:    # $  C "3 D 1 1  
+  

s pr e a d v s . L e v e l w i th l e v e ne te s t   
E x pl o r e

99 

  
 . $   

<- )  
 +  ) 

, 6  7  Po w e r E s ti m a ti o n   : 2   3       
:    
9
.   F     H ,   

A

3 # " Da ta E d i to r   %  1  ;
Treat
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
C

B
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

D
D
D

D

D ep en d
8 9 5
5 4 0
1 0 2 0
4 7 0
4 2 8
6 2 0
7 6 0
5 3 7
8 4 5
1 0 5 0
3 8 7
4 9 7
1 5 2 0
1 6 1 0
1 9 0 0
1 3 5 0
9 8 0
1 7 1 0
1 9 3 0
1 9 6 0
1 8 4 0
2 4 1 0
1 5 2 0
1 6 8 5
4 3 3 0 0
3 2 8 0 0
2 8 8 0 0
3 4 6 0 0
2 7 8 0 0
3 2 8 0 0
2 8 1 0 0
1 8 9 0 0
3 1 4 0 0
3 9 5 0 0
2 9 0 0D 0 E P E N D
2 2 3 0 0
4 0 0 0
8 6 0 0
8 2 6 0
9 8 3 0
7 6 0 0
9 6 5 0
8 9 0 0
6 0 6 0
1 0 2 0 0
1 5 5 0 0
9 2 5 0
7 9 0 0

1 00

. L e v e ne

 ! A . 
1  1   > 

   ! &  1  -  .1

?  1     #=    $  - 
M  
 1 2 = )  1   .2 

 Po w e r Tr a ns f o r m a ti o n
. (>

%  1 "   =   #  
N
  

 G  1   +  ) 2 = 3



:    5    C "3 #!   OK 4.   Co nti nu e 4   

L ev ene   +    4   $       )    5 *  #   ( +    3    )   3  .1

(   1   > 

 )  )  @  1     1  F   B   

L e v e ne   ! A    1 (  1   > 

  3 ) " 1  @ 0  @ 

Me a n .    
C  "3  1   
   ! &  F   2   7 

C  "3   1    ! O 1  1  ; $   .  

Me d i a n .  

.000<0.05 ) ≈ (p-v a l u e   3 
)1
10. 7 8 3 %  "1   .   

 " 1  @ 0    ' 
% 5 - M 
1  )  @  (
 3  ,  A #! 
     > 0  
%  1   > 

 D "3 

  )1 "  

. ; $   .  

.  
C "3  1    ! &  2 3 

Test of Homogeneity of Variance

B a s
B a s
B a s
w ith

e d o n
e d o n
e d o n
a d ju s

M e a
M e d
M e d
te d d

n

ia n
ia n a n d
f

B a s e d o n tr im m e d m e a n

L e v e n e
S ta tis tic
10.783
10.6 2 1

d f1

3
3

10.6 2 1

3

10.779

3

d f2

4 4
4 4

15 .85 3
4 4

S ig .
.000
.000
.000
.000

S p read v s . L ev el P l o t             )    5 *  #    )   4 .2 

 1   > 

  3 " $  R 

$  . .      #=      

" $  

#   %  1  # 
;   >     C   @ & 1

:    . .       (Po w e r e s ti m a ti o n )

9.0

Spread vs. Level Plot of DEPEND By TREAT

8.5
8.0
7.5
7.0

Spread

6.5
6.0
5.5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Level

* Plot of LN of Spread vs LN of Level
Slope = .744 Power for transformation = .256

%  )" .   
 G
 1 2 = 3

$  -  # $  )  F  -  #=    L @  7  

 %  1  #  
 4=   >   
b=0.7 4 4 #   
,  )1   M    G

A,B,C,D
#  
) 0 >   1 ?  0. 256 >  2  

) $  % =   
#
C  N
 1
1-b = 0.25 6

#   
   3
 =  1        F    
( )1     " 
)1/2 >   1
( G 

  K    0    ( 
+ 
>  
0 !    ;2 #) #@   5    . ) +   #  
3 

. (    9
.  ) Pl o ts  

! 

1   #) %  1  # 
1  
"3
> 

 Tr a ns f o r m e d   . 
1 9 $ 1 

Trans f o rmed         $   )   *   )        :   *           
 G %  )   1    C 
9
.     5  

  L 1  !  Tr a ns f o r m e d      E x pl o r e :Pl o t  
 
!
:    # $    
N a tu r a l L o g

C  9
) 1 K   
  

"  
    ) Po w e r #  

: (  "  % G
"  )  
%  1  . .   , 6  OK 4   Co nti nu e

1 01 

4  3

Spread vs. Level Plot of DEPEND By TREAT

.7
.6
.5
.4

Spread

.3
.2
.1
6

7

8

9

10

11

Level

* Data transformed using P =
Slope = -.087

.    4   
 
%  1 " $  - 
.  
 1 2 = )"  3 F  

 3 L @  7 

 2       
%  1 "   1   > 

   3 "  $  /0   C  $   
    .  #  

 # 
  ?.   +    
  ;2 

1-b = 1.08 7  
 >   E  D "3
b=-0.08 7 # 
.  1   > 

  3 " $     )-  
%  1 

:    . .    C "3 #!   )1     " 
     

18

Spread vs. Level Plot of DEPEND By TREAT

16
14
12
10

Spread

8
6
4

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Level

* Data transformed using P =
Slope = .078 

 )  
 
  ;2 D  +  0. 922  
 >   E  D "3
0. 07 8 + 
#    7 

D "3
% =   
   3
 =  1   5    %  2
.  )1    1  
%  1 "  1   > 



. ,  +  3    

1 02 

  C "3 3 - 1 . .     0  D E  Pl o ts  

! 

 U ntr a ns f o r m e d 

" 1  1 

% G

1 ( I QR )  )1   M  
.  
 1 2 = )   1 K 
( %  1  # 

1 ) "! 
Spread vs. Level Plot of DEPEND By TREAT

7000

:    # $    

6000
5000
4000
3000

Spread

2000
1000
0

0

10000

20000

30000

40000

Level

* Data transformed using P =
Slope = .201 

 #) - . .        

 <"3  )1   M  
.  
 1 2 = )"  3 F  

6 = 

.%  )"  )1   M    G

.  
 G
 1 2 = )  #  - D  #  
N
   

 
 ! 

      
( 3– 6 ) 

 Opti o ns 4   1 9 
0  <2 + 
   % -   )1  0      
:    O p t i o n s  

!

C  "3 + 
%    (%      ) , " 1   )1 - #): E x c l u d e 

, 6  E x p l o r e

:   7 

C a s e s

L is tw is e

   
     
F a c t o r  4     
D e p e n d e n t )       +  9 
0  2

. @  -  

   %    =  
  +  9 
0   2 ,    % -   )1    : E x c l u d e C a s e s P a i r w i s e
 @ &   0  F  , 5    (

. )  !  ;   #) 

3  
"   0   4     9 
0      #) : R e p o r t V a l u e s

: D a t a E d i to r $ $   % "        %  1    (

1 03 

0  1   L @ 

.

d e p 1 d e p 2
1
10
2
11
.
.
4
13
5
14
.
6
.
7
8
A n a ly z e 
D

fa c
1
1
1
2
2
2
e s c r ip tiv e S ta tis tic s

E x p lo r e  

 0

 1   

:  " ?1  E x p l o r e  

! 



. F a c t o r L i s t  C  D " 
f a c 0    

. D e p e n d e n t L i s t  C  , " 
d e p 2
d e p 1     

5

5

. E x c l u d e C a s e s l i s t W i s e  
O p t i o n s 4  

:      , 6  O K 4  

5

Case Processing Summary

D E P 1
D E P 2

F A C
1
2
1
2

N

V a lid
2
2
2
2

P e rc e
6 6
6 6
6 6
6 6

n t
.7
.7
.7
.7

N
%
%
%
%

C a s e s
M is s in g
1
1
1
1

P e rc e n t
33. 3%
33. 3%
33. 3%
33. 3%

N

T o ta l
3
3
3
3

P e rc
10
10
10
10

e n t
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
%
%
%
%

Descriptives
D E P 1

D E P 2

F A C
1

M e a n

S ta tis tic
1.50

2

M e a n

5.50

1

M e a n

10.50

2

M e a n

10.50

S td .E rro r
.50
.
.
1.50
.
.
.50
.
.
2.50
.
. 

  7  E x cl u d e Cases Listwise    (#    # 1  C " 3 ) %.  
; 0 6-

Facto r List 
D epend ent List  2   %      +  9 
0 2 C " 3 + 
 +  ) 1 

C  " 3
2
1      C " 3 3 -1 fac  4      1  " d ep1   " .  
; <=   .
;      4       1  " d ep2 . 
1  1   4      2  " 7
4 %- 
.  
... 2
1     C " 3 3 -1

:  "   ; %.  
 E  E x cl u d e Cases Pairwise       

1 04

Case Processing Summary

D E P 1
D E P 2

F A C
1
2
1
2

N

V a lid
2
3
2
2

P e rc e n t
6 6 .7 %
100. 0%
6 6 .7 %
6 6 .7 %

N

C a s e s
M is s in g
1
0
1
1

P e rc e n t
33. 3%
. 0%
33. 3%
33. 3%

T o ta l

N

3
3
3
3

P e rc e n t
100. 0%
100. 0%
100. 0%
100. 0%

Descriptives
D E P 1

D E P 2

F A C
1

M e a n

S ta tis tic
1.50

2

M e a n

5.6 7

1

M e a n

10.50

2

M e a n

10.50

S td .E rro r
.50
.
.
.8 8
.
.50
.
.
2.50
.
.

1   1   2
1 %-    ; 2 fac  4       d ep1     . 
  6-

. d ep2   " /  $  > 0
7
6
4 %-    ;    4      2  " d ep1 . 

?   E x pl o re   
 
! 

 Facto r List  2   fac        
# !     V 

Y E x cl u d e Cases Pairwise    C " 3 /  1 & 

# !  7  "   9 
! 1
   #  9 
0 2 C " 3   
%-  ) 1   1   F    

. 1   %. 
"       C " 3

Descriptives
D E P 1
D E P 2

M e a n
M e a n

S ta tis tic
4.17
11.2 0

S td .E rro r
.9 5
1.0 7 

  11. 0 2   
d e p 1    " 7
6
5
4
2
1 %-  . 
  4. 17  

. d e p 2   " 7
5
4
2
1 %-  .  

 C   fac     ?   . Repo rt V al u es 9 
0    " 9       1      # 
 
 
 
 !

105 

  Repo rt V al u es       $ E  ?  E x pl o re   

!
:    5    C " 3 # !  E x pl o re   

! 

 O K 

 Facto r List 

4   3 . O ptio ns

Case Processing Summary

D E P 1
D E P 2

F A C
. ( M is s in g )
1
2
. ( M is s in g )
1
2

N

V a lid
1
2
2
1
2
2

P e rc e n t
100. 0%
6 6 .7 %
6 6 .7 %
100. 0%
6 6 .7 %
6 6 .7 %

C a s e s
M is s in g
N
P e rc e n t
0
. 0%
1
33. 3%
1
33. 3%
0
. 0%
1
33. 3%
1
33. 3%

N

T o ta l
1
3
3
1
3
3

P e rc e n t
100. 0%
100. 0%
100. 0%
100. 0%
100. 0%
100. 0%

   Repo rt V al u es       
2
1     <= !  D Fac  4        6-

Repo rt   " ( #    # 1  C " 3 ) %.  
;  . 9 
0    " M issing  E 1     %0@ 

:  "   V al u es

Descriptives
D E P
1

D E P
2

F A C
1

M e a n

S ta tis tic
1.50

2

M e a n

5.50

1

M e a n

10.50

2

M e a n

10.50

S td .E rro r
.50
.
.
1.50
.
.
.50
.
.
2.50
.
.

7  E x cl u d e Listwise   . > 0 1   2 .  
;
9 
0     ) 1    6= 

. < 5    > 0 C " 3  " ! 

106 

 

(  
3
 0! 

    
Crosstabs 

  
) 2 × 2 Tabl es   2 - # 
# 3   Cro sstabs   # ) 

%  $ '  ;  ?   (  
3 
 0! 

       
) M u l tiway Tabl es 9 )   # 


<=    1 .  7 
1    9  1  9       ,   .       ! &  % 1  -
# 
 F  , .1  -

.  ! &  % 1 - "   9 )   # 

  2 - # 
 3 A " 3 # ,  

)  @      
a B = ) 
) @     C @  " 9  $  22 ,   3 #      #
 : 1  
3
a1 / 0$ " 4   ( 

    / 0$  #   reco v er      treat     K   3  1 ) 
b B = ) 

$ $   % 1  %"   2
7  O f
 
" m (
treat
a
b
b
b
a
a
b
a
b
a
a
b
a
b
a
b
b
b
a
b
a
b

reco v er
a1
a1
b1
b1
a1
a1
b1
b1
b1
a1
a1
a1
a1
b1
a1
b1
b1
b1
a1
a1
b1
b1 

  >

#   g end er      b2 / 0$ 

g end er
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f

:  "   D ata E d ito r

:  "  ;" . 

      1  =  -  1   ?  reco v er
treat       1 2 = ) "   2  #
  

.1 

      1  =  -  1   ?  reco v er
treat       1 2 = ) "   2  #
  

.2

:    %
.  ? 1  # 
 ;
" .   0 

.1

.( 

    / 0$ 
B = )   .)   1 
)  2 = 3

 1   +    
 
. g end er >

107

    ;   
 

Anal y z e 

D escriptiv e Statistics

. #
   <
0! 

Cro sstabs  

:  "   D 1 

+   Cro sstabs   

!

D   # )   ;G 

. #
   9 3  D   # )   ;G 
.  $ E   3  1  . $   ( 

  
 . $    

, 6

:   7 

+        @  : Row(s)

+        @  : : C ol u m n (s) 

) : D i sp l a y C l u st e r e d b a r C h a r t s

.  $ E   3 9 )   # 

  2 - # 
/ 0 -: S u p r e ss t a b l e s

:  "   D 1 

+   Statistics    

! 

, 6 Statistics  4   3 

:   7 

. 9 3    3 H
0!   =    1  - ,  " 
ch i-Sq u are  ! A ; : C h i -S q a r e 

   ;  D  <" 3 <)      Pearso n
Spearman  .1  -  " )  ; : C or r e l a t i on

108

H
0!    =     1 3 1 Spearman .1   # )  ;   Nu meric  3 "    %     2 

$ $    M easu re 
)    O rd inal    ) O rd ered V al u es 1    2  3 9  1 3 9 3  

Pearso n . 1   # )  ;  (… ;
    J    J   ) " )    <=   (V ariabl e v iew

Scal e  1 , 3  1 ) 
Q u antitativ e V ariabl es  %   9 3  
H
0!    =     1 3 1
.I nterv al <@  ,  $ 
V ariabl e V iew $ $   M easu re 
3  

H
0 !     <=    
   (.1  )   2 = %= )  ) 1   ;    F   L : N om i n a l 

(7  A J  
) > 

    <=   % 1  ;   A  3 C   @ & 1   G # 
3 9 3  

. (9  ! 1 J # ! 
J   1 ) 6     

9  3  
H
0 !  =    
      2 = %= )  ) 1   ;    F   L  : O r d i n a l

. 1   %  

9    @

>   )          1   2 = E ta  ! A ; : N om i n a l b y I n t e r v a l

Categ o ries % 0   
 3 D #          
I nco me #      #   I nterv al Scal e
R

. g end er >

 #   

    " )    , 6-    >  
 4 1    1 
!  % ! A  1 C " 3 H  )   K  

 No minal    , ) No minal  %   #        9 3  
H
0!   
< 6

. , 1 

 1  - Ch i- Sq u are   ! A ; 1  0    ( V ariabl e V iew $ $   M easu re 
3

.No minal V ariabl es - %  "   2 = Ph i and G ramer’s v >   ?   =  -

Cro sstabs   
 
 ! 

  o k   Statistics   

! 

 Co ntinu e  4   3

:    %     C " 3 # ! 

TREAT * RECOVER Crosstabulation
Count

T R E A T
T otal

a1

a
b

R E CO V E R
8
3
1 1

b1

T otal

2
9
1 1

1 0

1 2
22

Chi-Square Tests

P e a rs o n C
C o n tin u ity
L ik e lih o o d
F is h e r 's E
N o f V a lid

h iC o
R a
x a c
C a

S q
rre
tio
t T
s e

s

u a re
c tio n
e s t

a

V a lu e
6.600b
4 .5 8 3
6.9 9 4
2 2

d f

1
1
1

A s y m p .S ig .
( 2 - s id e d )
.010
.03 2
.008

a . C o m p u te d o n ly fo r a 2 x 2 ta b le
b . 0 c e l l s ( .0% ) h a v e e x p e c t e d c o u n t l e s s t h a n 5 . T h e m i n i m u m
5 .00.

109

E x a c t S ig .
( 2 - s id e d )

E x a c t S ig .
( 1- s i d e d )

.03 0

e x p e c te d c o u n t is

.015 

 @

/ 0$   3 B = )   =   +  9 3    3 H
0!   =  1 "     )  @    1     

 ,    Ch i-Sq u are  ! A    1 / 0$ 
B = )   1 2 = 3

1 "    "  1  @  0 

:     !  ;
9 3   3 c
H
0!  3 #   r   7  (r-1)(c-1)  
2
χ 2 = (Oi − Ei )

Ei 

6. 6   ! &  2 %  2
? 2  
    #   Ei
 $       #   Oi   7  

 1 2 = 3


+  %5 - M 
1  )  @   ( 

 C  
3  p-v al u e= 0.010 < 0.05 2
.( 

    / 0$ 
B = ) 

Symmetric Measures

N o m in a l b y
N o m in a l

N o f V a lid C a s e s

P h i
C r a m e r 's V

V a lu e
.548
.548
2 2

A p p r o x .S ig .
.0 1 0
.0 1 0

a . N o t a s s u m in g th e n u ll h y p o th e s is .
b . U s in g th e a s y m p to tic s ta n d a r d e r r o r a s s u m in g th e n u ll
h y p o th e s is .

C  A  $  p-v al u e =0.010 2  E 

χ2
=
n

6 .6
= 0.548 Ph i =  2   >   
22 

 1  =   -   1  - χ 2   ! A # )   7  J % 5  - M 
1   2 - 
) 
. (r-1)(c-1)   

          Co ntinu ity Co rrectio n   = Y ates L !  ; : 1  

2
( Oi − Ei − 1 / 2) 2
χ
.
=∑   
 !  ; 2 × 2 # 
  +  
+ 

Ei
>      , )   
2*2   2 - # 
?  # )   <1 G Ph i   2   >     : 2  

:    2 = )    r*c 9 )  # 
; +   Cramer Co efficient C  1 H  )   

C=

χ2
=
N ( L − 1)

6 .6
= 0.548
22 

    
#
   9 3  
H
0!   1   !   )  L
)    #   N   7 
>        2   6=
(r-1)(c-1)    1  =  -  1  - χ 2  ! A # )  7 

. Ph i   2 - >   <   

  

) Co nting ency Co efficient     
# ) 1 H  )  ;      >   K   : 3  

r*c     
#
+  ;
(<0   
  Cro sstsbs:Statistics   

!

110 

 No minal 

:    2 = )   

χ2
=
2
χ +N

C=

6.6
= 0.480
6.6 + 22 

    1  =   -   1  - χ 2   ! A # )  
 )    #   N   7 

F =  3   =   %= ) " , 0    =  -  1         P-V al u e 2   7 . (r-1)(c-1) 

  D ispl ay Cl u stered Bar Ch arts    
  Ch eck Bo x   $ E  5    . 0. 010 + 

:    ..    .)  Cro sstabs   

!

10

8

6

4

RECOVER

Count

2

a1
0

a

b1

b

TREAT 

 
 
 !

: 4 
 

  Cel l s  4     1 K 
Cro sstab #
% 
( 

) 1     

.1

:     @  +   Co u nts

: %   =   @  +   Percentag es

:    %   + 
+   Cel l D ispl ay 

 

! 

, 6 7  Cro sstabs

. Oi  $      1 #
 =  I  7   @   -    

: O bserv ed
. Ei ? 2  
   1 #
 =  I       ; 
1 : E x pected
. H !  N 
   '   ; 1 #
 =  I : Ro ws

. 
)  N 
   '   ; 1 #
 =  I  : Co l u mns
.  "   N 
    '   ; 1 #
 =  I  : To tal
: %   =   @ 
: Resid u al s

.

Oi − Ei ? 2  
   
 $        1   0 1 #
 =  I  : U nstand ard ised

C  " 3 < 
  ?  2  
   
 $        1   0 1 #
 =  I  : Stand ard iz ed
. D +  )   E . 

. .  
 3 +  )   H   - % 
1 D 3 < 1 )   1      > 0 : Ad j .Stand ard ised 

 !

111 

  Fo rmat  4      1 <  4   
< 3  !  #
  H
0!

;    : 5  


Cro sstabs   

Anal y z e 

D escriptiv e Statistics

:    %
.  ? 1     ;
" .   0 
Cro sstabs   

:  "   D 1 

9  .      1 H   ) 
(   1 .) Lay er   2  @ 

  
 . $  

+   Cro sstabs   

!

.2  

, 6

g end er     #  A   D  6=

#                3 D ) categ o rical V ariabl e + 
    

Co ntro l V ariabl e

treat         1  2 = ) " Cro sstabs #
   
  7  ( f
m  2 g end er   "

m  
"    
  
  D  +  9  .      2   2 #  >    ;
reco v er
. f 7  O    

:    5    C " 3 # !  Cro sstabs   

! 

 O K

TREAT * RECOVER * GENDER Crosstabulation
Count
G E N D E R
f

T R E A T

m

T otal
T R E A T

a
b

a1

a
b

T otal

R E CO V E R
2
1
3
6
2
8

b1

T otal

1
4
5
1
5
6 

 3 

3
5
8
7
7
14

Chi-Square Tests
G E N D E R
f

m

P e a rs o n C
C o n tin u ity
L ik e lih o o d
F is h e r 's E
N o fV a lid
P e a rs o n C
C o n tin u ity
L ik e lih o o d
F is h e r 's E
N o fV a lid

h iC o
R a
x a c
C a
h iC o
R a
x a c
C a

S q u
rre c
tio
t T e
s e s
S q u
rre c
tio
t T e
s e s

a re
tio na
s t
a re
tio na
s t

a . C o mp u t e d o n l y fo r a 2x 2 t a b l e

V a lu e
1.742b
.3 20
1.76 2
8
4.6 6 7c
2.6 25
5 .0 0 4
14

d f

1
1
1

A s y mp . S i g .
( 2- s i d e d )
.187
.5 72
.184

1
1
1

.0 3 1
.10 5
.0 25

E x a c t S ig .
( 2- s i d e d )

E x a c t S ig .
( 1- s i d e d )

.46 4

.286

.10 3

.0 5 1

b . 4 c e l l s ( 10 0 .0 % ) h a v e e x p e c t e d c o u n t l e s s t h a n 5 . T h e mi n i mu m e x p e c t e d c o u n t i s 1.13 .
c . 4 c e l l s ( 10 0 .0 % ) h a v e e x p e c t e d c o u n t l e s s t h a n 5 . T h e mi n i mu m e x p e c t e d c o u n t i s 3 .0 0 .

112 

. )   1 2 = 3

 3 Pearso n Ch i-Sq u are  ! & p-v al u e 2 # =    6=

1   1  2 = 3 

C " 3  ! &  '      7  &  C @  " 1  1 ( 
      C  " 3 R 

    / 0$ 
/ 


. %5 - M 

 
 C @  " 

2 × 2 N
  # 
   Ch i-Sq u are  1  - %@  0  M A  

5    C  
 H 
 1  -  E  -
#
 =    +  #  + E 1 5  3 #  -   ;  Ei ? 2   

      # 
%100#
 =    5  3 #   ? 2  
      6=

#       
" " 6

.  1  - 5   3          
; 
 7  & 

Symmetric Measures
G E N D E R
f

N o mi n a l b y
N o mi n a l

N o fV a lid C a s e s
N o mi n a l b y
N o mi n a l

m

V a lu e
.467
.467
8
.5 77
.5 77
1 4

P h i
C r a me r ' s V
P h i
C r a me r ' s V

N o fV a lid C a s e s

A p p r o x .S ig .
.1 87
.1 87
.0 3 1
.0 3 1

a . N o t a s s u mi n g t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s .
b . U s i n g t h e a s y mp t o t i c s t a n d a r d e r r o r a s s u mi n g t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s .

GENDER=f

GENDER=m

4.5

7

4.0

6

3.5

5

3.0

4

2.5

3

2.0

2

RECOVER

1.0

a1

1

a1

.5

b1

Count

a

TREAT

113

b

Count

RECOVER

1.5

0

a

TREAT

b

b1 

 

        
Compare Means

Means 
 ( 1– 8 )

C     @ & 1  )     su bg ro u ps  4  ?  " %.  
;   # "     0

H    - J #  
  J .  
J   4   3 
" %-  3 J N 
  ) #   M    % $ ' 

Test o f %= ) "  .    E    1  

 )   1   # "  /   <@   
(Z … +  )  
. eta   2 -  1  
Linearity

>

1  

 ;
C J B J A 0"   ?   3 C   
 ; . 16 %  ? 4 
 1     #

: :    # $  C " 3 D ata E d ito r $ $   ,  A     
G end er

d eg ree
70
90
8 8
8 6
6 8
6 4
76
8 3
79
5 5
97
100
6 4
5 9
90
73

g ro u p
A
B
A
B
C
C
B
A
B
C
B
A
C
C
A
A

g end er
Femal e
M al e
M al e
M al e
M al e
M al e
M al e
Femal e
Femal e
Femal e
M al e
M al e
Femal e
Femal e
M al e
Femal e

+   )   H   -
%-  3
C J B J A 3  0  ?    ; %   . 
;

S:    %
.  ? 1  3 
 #  

 !

114 

, 6 Anal y z e 

Co mpare means 

M eans       
 . $   

S:    # $  C " 3 D 1  1  
+   M eans   

S:   7 

F   E   < 6 Respo nse V ariabl e 1  -   1 H  )   
)       : D epend ent List 

 #        )         . I nd epend ent V ariabl e #       1
. D eg ree 1 " .  %  

 !     Treatments %= )   #  
  '   
#        

: I nd epend ent List

?    
#        #          . ANO V A  1   # "  
;   
Stand ard

. 1 " .  %   4     # )  +   g ro u p  4 

J No . o f Cases J M eans      M eans   

! 

 O ptio ns  4   

?    ; , 1  ;
" .  % $ '    
M eans:O ptio ns   

! 



D ev iatio n 

S: "   ;   ) 1 
!     , 6 7   4 

S:    5     , 6 O K

115 

 Co ntinu e  4    

Report
DEGREE
GRO U P
A
B
C
T o ta l

M e a n
8 4 .0 0
8 5. 60
62 . 0 0
7 7 . 63

N

6
5
5
1 6

S t d . De v i a t i o n
1 1 .1 9
8 .4 4
5. 0 5
1 3 . 65

.  4 3 
 #  ; D eg ree   " 1
" .  % $ '   ;   D  6=
: 2 #  

%        +  )   H   -
%-  3
.  
; ;" . 1 #    % 1 > 0 

 9   
%
.  > 0 ? 1  K   0  . "   9 
! 1 g end er >

 ;
g ro u p ?    ;

:    # $  C " 3 M eans   

!

; 1  
  1 #    

"   ;     5    , 6
DEGREE * GROUP
DEGREE
GRO U P
A
B
C
T o ta l

M e a n
8 4 .0 0
8 5. 60
62 . 0 0
7 7 . 63

N

6
5
5
1 6

S t d . De v i a t i o n
1 1 .1 9
8 .4 4
5. 0 5
1 3 . 65

DEGREE * GENDER
DEGREE
GENDER
F e m a le
M a le
T o ta l

116

M e a n
6 9. 0 0
8 4 .3 3
77. 6 3

N

7
9
1 6

S t d . De v i a
1 0
1 2
1 3

tio
.2
.4
.6

n

5

3

8

3 #  

;  d eg ree    " +  )   H   -
%-  3
.  
; ;" . 1 #    > 0 

  1 .   
1  
 K   0  . C J B J A 3  0  ?      #  #     (7  A J  
) > 
      @        1 . 
g ro u p      @  C 
  1 .  M eans   

!
:    # "   ; M eans   

! 

 Lay ers 

, 6 3 % 1 .  F   # 3  
g end er

. Lay er1 C 
  1 .    I nd epend ent List  C  g ro u p     #  

. Lay er2     1 .  C  #   = I nd epend ent List  C " 3  Nex t  4   

.Lay er2     1 .    I nd epend ent List  C  g end er     #  
:     1 ." M eans   

! 

1     # $  

  5     , 6. I nd epend ent List  C " 3  Prev io u s  4    C 
  1 .  C  N
 "
:  "   O K 

4    3 ;  

Report
DEGREE
GRO U P
A

B

C

T o ta l

117

GENDER
F e m a le
M a le
T o ta l
F e m a le
M a le
T o ta l
F e m a le
M a le
T o ta l
F e m a le
M a le
T o ta l

M e a n
75.33
92.67
8 4.0 0
79.0 0
8 7.25
8 5.60
59.33
66.0 0
62.0 0
69.0 0
8 4.33
77.63



N

3
3
6
1
4
5
3
2
5
7
9
16

S t d . De v i a t i o n
6.8 1
6.43
11.19
.
8 .77
8 .44
4.51
2.8 3
5.0 5
10 .28
12.43
13.65

.1

.2

.3

( Test o f Linearity  .    E    1  ) : 4 #   

  % )   . 
+
)  Linear trend  .  3 F  

H $    0  1  -  

% 1 " %=  ) "  .    E    1       A .O ne-W ay ANO V A
:  "   M eans   

! 

  ! 

   Test fo r Linearity


 )   1   # " 

; 1  
(1S9) 1    1 #      9   

ANO V A and

eta             $ E 1  
     

:  "   5     , 6 7  <0    
M eans : O ptio ns   

ANOVA Table

P R O D U C T * M E T H O B De tw e e n
G ro u p s
W ith in G r o u p s
T o ta l

( C o m b in e d )
L in e a r ity
D e v ia tio n fr o m

S u m o f
S q u a re s
402.000
86 .400
L i n e a r 315
i t y .6 00
15 2.000
5 5 4.000

d f

3
1
2
8
11

M e a n S q u a re
134.000
86 .400
15 7 .800
19 .000

F
7 .05 3
4.5 47
8.305

Measures of Association
P RO D U C T * M E T H O D

R
-.395

RS q u a re d
.1 56

E ta

.8 52

E ta S q u a re d
.7 2 6 

 . (F=7.05 3 ) % )   %. 
 1 
)   


C   $   1   # "  #
 

:  "   .   3 %   - %) 1   N 
 #
!  
SS D ev iatio n Fro m Linearity = SS. (Co mbined ) – SS. Linearity =402-8 6 .4=3 15 .6
:  "   Test fo r Linearity 

1  - F 2 ;

F=M S. D ev iatio n Fro m Linearity / with in G ro u ps M S.=15 7.8 /19=8 .3 1

118

S ig .
.012
.06 6
.011

% )   . 
 E 1 "     )  @   ( 

 C A 
3  0. 011 + 

" 1    P-v al u e 2   

   .   3 H    . 
   +  %5 - M 
1  1  - /         . C " 3 ?  
. ( P-V al u e H  )  # 
2S8 1   6  )

 )          1 M easu re o f asso ciatio n (.1  -)   2 = >     E ta 2   
 $  1  
.1  -   )  C   $  0     7  1 C  0 M    @

?  
#        

 0    (pro d u ct) )         "   % 1   1  #   E ta-Sq u are  J   .1   C 
E ta-Sq u are = SS. between G ro u ps / SS. To tal =   7   (M eth o d ) #         
402/5 5 4= 0.726 . 
  
(pro d u ct)      1 Simpl e Co rrel atio n .1  .1  - # )  #   R 2  

#           

  
4C  1   % 
1 D 3  1 )           1 3 1 (M eth o d )

B  
    
9 
>   
,  R-Sq u are  M u l tipl e R )   .1  - # )  #   R  E 

. Linear Reg ressio n C .     -

O ne S am p l e T-Test 

  
   T     ( 2 – 8 )

?     .  
Sig nificant D ifference +
)  H =  

H $     1  -   0
?     .  
  9        A C   @ A .

Co nstant 1  2  3 )  D  %1  +  

. (n< 3 0) 9   !  % ) "  1  -   # ) 
Co nfid ence I nterv al

#   A    2
< 
52  ) 1 B      4 
10 ,   3 #   W eig h t       

#  

. D ata ed ito r $ $      

W E I G HT
1.10
1.10
.90
.8 0

.8 0

1.20

1.20

1.00

.90

1.20 
"  ;" . 

@  0  @ 1. 25 
)  D  %1  +   ?  "  1   .  
 E 1 "     )  @    1   .1
. %1
%5 - M 
1 1. 25 + 
- ?    . 
 E 1 "    "  1 

. ?  "  1   .
" %99   9       .2

S:  "   H1 "  1 
H0  )   @   1   

#  

H 0 : µ = 1.25 or µ - 1.25 = 0
H 1 : µ ≠ 1.25

t=

S:  "    1  -       t  ! A  

x−µ

s/ n
n=10
) " +  )   H   - #   S =.16 2  
) "  1   . 
#   =1.020 x   7 

? 1   ! &  F    
1. 25 + 

 )  @   ; 
1 ?  "  1   . 
µ  
)   

119

. (5   1  # 1 2   S
x   ! A ; ) v = n-1 = 9    1 t ? 4 

:    %
.  ? 1   1  -    0  

    
 . $  
Anal y z e  Co mpare M eans 
O ne sampl e T-Test
:  "   D 1  1  
+   O ne sampl e t-Test   

!  , 6

:    # $     D 1 

+   O ptio ns   

! 

, 6 O ptio ns  4      

1 1  
 7  ( #         ;
" . )    9     O ptio ns    .
1  

.Co nfid ence I nterv al #     %99 9  0 

T-Test /       ) 9 
0     ?  # )     D  0 M issing V al u es #    

    @  O ne sampl e T-Test   

! 

 Test V ariabl es    +  %   3 


:           $ E      F    
(     

  " M issing Cases 9 
0  %-  ) 1    : E x cl u d e Cases Anal y sis by Anal y sis

9 
0  2 + 
-      

  
9 
0  2 C " 3 D   
   T  1   D " 3 M   +  

%   " < 0"    )     
    D  +  T  ! A ;-         2    E 

. # "     @  

%      .  (9 
0   G )V al id !  %-   @    : E x cl u d e Cases List W ise

%   
) %      1 6  2    ) 1    D E  %     9 
0 =   6   %   P 
. # "     @   %  " < 
)     
  F    
( %    F  , 9 
0  G

- 
9 
0  2

 ) # " "  ,  5    C " 3       +       '  - #       

. <  
   C " 3 Test V ariabl es  /  
-

: # " "    5     , 6 O ne sampl e T-Test   

!

12 0 

 O K 

4   3 

T-Te s t
One-Sample Statistics

W E IG H T

N

10

M e a n
1. 02 0

S td . D e v ia tio n
. 16 2

S td . E rro r
M e a n
5 . 12 1E - 02

One-Sample Test
T e s t V a l u e = 1 .25

W E IG H T

t
-4.492

d f

9

S i g . ( 2-ta i l e d )
.0 0 1 5

M e a n
D iffe r e n c e
-.23 0

99% C o n f i d e n c e
I n te r v a l o f th e
D iffe r e n c e
L o w e r
U p p e r
-.3 96
-6 .3 6 E -0 2

F   
t = ( 1.020-1.25 )/ 0.05 12 = -4.492     !  ; 
1 t  ! A ; 7 
M 

v = 9    1 )

t(tab 
 t  1 ,     +  
t(cal .) 1  
t  1 H  ) 

B    ) 
 t 2   7  t (cal.) ≥ t (tab.), v, α / 2     

H0 ( 

  7  α -

:      ( Two Tail ed test    .    1     -) α / 2 - M 

(t ? 4 
# 
 
t, 9, 0.025 = 2.26 2 ( α = 5% )
t, 9, 0.005 = 3 .25 0
( α = 1% ) 
 E
 )  @   (      J 
    1  (4.492) 1  
t   " .      1

. %1
%5 -   
1. 25    3 <
)  H "   ?  "  1   . 
  +  "  1  @  0 

C  
   .  C " 3 4 
P-v al u e 

 C " 3 )   1  -            .   

Sig .    
SPSS 5   1 # 1 2   9  $ 1  , 1   
%) 4  
# 
   - B  - , 

7  .  )  @    3 ( 

     α  2 # 2  , E 1 P-v al u e H  )   
. F = 3  #
  

. P-v al u e ;   . L @ 
   ..   . α   # 2  P-v al u e %     )  @   (

T-d i s t r i b u t i o n

0.0007
5

0.0007
5
-4 . 4 9 2
4 .4 9 2

12 1

0 

P-v al u e = Pr ( t ≥ 4.492 ) + Pr ( t ≤ −4.492 ) =0.0007 5 + 0.0007 5 =0.0015
Pr o babi l i ty #    -  #    Pr
%1 %5 -   
  )   @   (  

  P-v al u e <0.01  
P-v al u e < 0.05 

  1 

     M e an Di f f e r e n c e ?      .   

 )  .  
  1   0 " %9 9   9  0 1   1   
:  "      , 1  

Pr ( − 0.396 < x − µ − 0.23 < −0.0636 ) = 9 9 % 

 K    <- 1
   !  &  #  "      #   )  -  #  " 2 .   
   1  
0 "   9        

:  "     µ ?     .  
%9 9   9      1

Pr ( x - t9 , 0.005 * (S/ n )< µ < x + t9 , 0.005 * (S/
Pr ( 0.8 5 3 6 < µ < 1.18 6 4 ) = 9 9 %
( 



n) )=9 9 %

D   " 3
%9 9 + 
  1.1864
0.8536         1 ?     .  
?     #     +  

  1  -         .  1 )  F  
   9   B    ?   1.25       %5 - M 
 1  )   @  

. % @  0 

I n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s T-Te s t  
         T  ( 3 8 )

/     T     !  A #  )  
% -        3 
  .  
  1     "   1  -     #  )  
H

.   1  - 

!

#    <  1 12   1     B
A .       0 !
B  

9.4
8 .4
1 1 .6
7 .2
9.7
7 .0
1 0 .4
8 .2
6 .9
1 2 .7
7 .3
9.2

 -   
    0  !        
 1  1 

  1   

:      5     %  
 ,      
1  1 
A  
12.5

H 1 : µA ≠ µ B

%  2

9.4
1 1 .7
1 1 .3
9.9
8 .7
9.6
1 1 .5
1 0 .3
1 0 .6
9.6
9.7 

.  
  1 +
)    

  1   ;
" .  

H 0 : µA = µB

122 

    
1  1 

# 

:      @  0    1   + . %1
%5

Pr o te n

:     % 
.   ? 1  K    0  

       7    
  #  $     , 6     Data E d i to r
.  4      
G r o u p

Proten G rou p
12.50
9 .4 0
11.7 0
11.3 0
9 .9 0
8 .7 0
9 .6 0
11.50
10.3 0
10.6 0
9 .6 0
9 .7 0
9 .4 0
8 .4 0
11.6 0
7 .20
9 .7 0
7 .00
10.4 0
8 .20
6 .9 0
12.7 0
7 .3 0
9 .20

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B 

 %    1  #   P 1   

   
   
1  1 

#    

     
 .   $   

An al y z e  C o m p ar e M e an s  I n d e p e n d e n t
Sam p l e s T Te s t 

 +    I n d e p e n d e n t Sam p l e s T Te s t   

!  , 6  

:  "     D 1   

Te s t V ar i abl e s     2    Pr o te n 

    #   P 1   2   

 G r o u p i n g V ar i abl e    2   (  4       ) G r o u p     

7   De f i n e G r o u p s  4       .  3 B
A ?      H   ) 

C              ) B
A   4        2 D G r o u p 

     

D   <   " 3 2
1         E        
( d i c h o to m o u s V ar i abl e 

 !

.  4       % -   9    ! 
9   1   H 
    1 4      ;  

 C u t Po i n t # !  .     # =    ?           M       . K        

    4       10   # 2    2  ,    % -    #   ( 10     <=   ) De f i n e G r o u p s 

  

    E     F     )    3 
  
 10 + 
  
 1     2  ,    % -   
9  
3 


. (N u m e r i c <  3  
   ;   4   

   0  6
 >  0 D "  I n d e p e n d e n t s am p l e T Te s t   

! 
.   
   1   0    1   1  
+  Te s t V ar i abl e s 

 O p ti o n s  4    

. O n e Sam p l e T Te s t   

!

   2             #   A     : 6  = 
. < )      %      9 )   3 


:     5      , 6  I n d e p e n d e n t s am p l e T Te s t   

! 

 O K

Group Statistics

P R O T E N

123

G R O U P
A
B

N

12
12

M e a n
10 . 4 0 0 0
9 .0 0 0 0

S td . D e v ia tio n
1. 13 14
1. 8 7 4 2

S td . E
M e a
.3
.5

rro r
n
26 6
4 10 

4   3 

Independent Samples Test
L e v e n e 's T e s t
f o r E q u a l i ty o f
V a r ia n c e s

P R O T E N

E q u a l v a r ia n c e s
a s s u m e d

F

2.776

t- te s t f o r E q u a l i ty o f M e a n s

S ig .

.1 1 0

t

d f

2.21 5

1 8 .0 8

2.21 5

E q u a l v a r ia n c e s
n o ta s s u m e d

.0 3 7

1 .4 0 0

S td .
E rro r
D iffe r
e n c e
.63 20

8 .9 3 6E - 0 2

2.71 0 6

.0 4 0

1 .4 0 0

.63 20

7.267E - 0 2

2.7273

S ig .
( 2- ta i l e d )

22

9 5 % C o n fid e n c e
I n te r v a l o f th e
D iffe r e n c e
L o w e r
U p p e r

M e a n
D iffe r
e n c e 

    )    ,  9  
E     )        1  + 
  (  0  C 
        M     1  -    6  =
2 %    1   + 
   3 (  0            σ 2 = σ 2 +  
E   C  
     0  . σ 2A ≠ σ B
B
A 

   
+  %5  - M 
 1  )   @   (   C   )   P-V al u e = 0.03 7 <0.05   2 
E   %1  - M 
  1    1  -           .    0 !    
1  1  

.  
  1 
) 

. %1 - M 
 1  )   @   # 1    ,
P-V al u e > 0.01 

)   @   #
1 2 C  
3  P-v al u e = 0.11>0.05 

E     1   > 

 L e v e n   1     

.     )    ,  9  
E     )        1  (+ 
 ) >

 2 

1 "    

P a i r e d -S a m p l e s T-Te s t               T    
( 4 8 )

7    9   
(  3 ) 3 
        .  
  1  
0  
)  H  $  -   1  -     #  )   

.   )  # 1 2 # 
  
 1 

.  
  1   0  
)    1   <=   B 
4     C " 3  )  %    $   

. < !  $ 12   
  3   F ) 1
  )     3

% 3  4  .  #       
    ) . 2 %    
 .    $ 3   /   0 !  9      (B
A)  0 !
: ) . 2 #    #
!       #        %    1 
B H 

  

A 
 
B 
 

! 1 M     % 3  4
A H

N  4

!  1      A

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

127
135

195
200

162
160

170
182

143
147

205
200

168
172

175
186

197
194

136
141

. %5 - M 
 1  
!   " B   &      .  
+ 
 1 "      @  0    1   ;
" .  

:     % 
.   ? 1    1  -       0 

An al y z e  C o m p ar e M e an s  Pai r e d Sam p l e s T Te s t       
 .   $  
:     #  $  C " 3 D 1   1  
+   Pai r e d Sam p l e s T Te s t   

!

124

:    

, 6  

>  0           =  #   A ; 
7   b
a   0 !  %    $   =    b
a       

:     % 
.   ; 
4  %    $       1 3  1 Pai r e d v ar i abl e s    2   % 2

. F     -      > 
   4 1 a       

. < )             -      > 
   4 1 b        ? 

Sh i f t Q  0  .  @  .2

   2 C         # 

Pai r e d v ar i abl e s

.1 

4     .3

:  "    
  1  -  5    C " 3 #
!  " O K 

4    

Paired Samples Statistics

P a ir
1

M e a n
167.80
171.70

A
B

N

10
10

S td .D e v ia tio n
2 6.5 8
2 4 .60

S td .E rro r
M e a n
8.4 0
7.78

Paired Samples Correlations
P a ir 1

N

A & B

10

C o r r e la tio n
.9 7 8

S ig .
. 000

Paired Samples Test
P a ir e d D iffe r e n c e s

P a ir 1

A-B

M e a n

-3.90

S td .
D e v i a ti o n

5 .7 4

S td .
E rro r
M e a n

1 .8 2

9 5 % C o n fid e n c e
I n te r v a l o f th e
D iffe r e n c e
L o w e r
U p p e r
-8 .01

.2 1

t

-2 .1 4 7

d f

9

S ig .
( 2 -ta i l e d ) 

  . %1
%5  - M 
 1 +
)  

0.9 7 8          1 .  1  -  #   )  ;      7  

.06 0

+  H 0 : µA = µB  )   @   #
1 2 C  
3  P-v al u e =0.06 0>0.05   2  E  T   1  - 1   1
. .    0 ! B   &   .  
  1 
)  %   =  

 3

125 

 

     
Analysis of Variance

%    1    3 
  "   %  ) 1    N 
     1 !     @     %   "  )     1   #  "  1 !   

. AN O V A Tabl e     1   #  "   #
1 H  )  #
  #  "    5    R 

" 
0 "    F   !  C 

%   )   1 H  ) 
%   )    3 
 %  .  
+ 
   @     1   
#  "       /      H , 

 @  0    1  - #  )   +   t   1  - < )   
 1 ) 
,    ,
9  
)  ( Tr e atm e n ts % =   )   
)
. .       3  .  
+ 
 1 !   

One Way ANOVA  
    ( 1  9 )
%  
  . #  %     = 1
\       )  N
B - 3  !

: 1#    

 . ) 1   %    

:    #
      1     

.  


5 0

3
4 8

2

1

47

55

61

64

64

55

52

52

49

55

45

41

44

50 

1     

  

2    
3    
4    

J    1  )   J ;    #  "  
   !  J   , $   #   
  , $   
  . :  !  
. 63R

J 19 89

:  "    ;
" .  

.%5 - M 
  3  !    .  %  .  
  1   0  
)    1  
   1   #  "   /   
:  "    ;" .  F   1        1  3  !    .    1  
0  
)  
, 6    

+ 
)      0      .       1 (     . )     )  #   .  
  1  
0  
)    1  
. %5 - M 
 L.S.D.   !  

   .   , @     1 1    .  .  
  1
4
3
2   .    #  .  
  1   0  
)    1  
 @

. Du n n e tt    .      1 (9  .    )      

.1

.2
.

.; 

  .  %  .   
+ 
  1 "      )   @     1   
   1   #  "   /      H ,    .1

:      @  0    1   +  # 2   C " 3      .  .  
+ 
   3 C " 3 R
H 0 : µ1 = µ 2 = µ 3 = µ 4 

   "  1   @  0 

H 1 : µ1 ≠ µ 2 ≠ µ 3 ≠ µ 4

  )  .  
#    F = 3  #
    
 .  
       . " ?     .  
#    µ   7  

.  . # 

126

:     % 
.   ? 1     1   #  "   /   

:     #  $  C " 3 Data E d i to r 2 
  %    1  #   A
m e th o d
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4

p ro
5
4
4
5
6
6
5
4
5
5
4
4
5

7

d u c t
8
5 


        

4

An al y z e
4
5

C o m p ar e M e an s 

O n e -W ay N O V A 

  +    O n e -W ay AN O V A   
 
!
9

:  "     D 1   1

2
0
4
1  

, 6 

:  7 

<   1    
    ; 
#          1      #   
 )        #    : De p e n d e n t Li s t
F      
Fac to r %    )   > 0 (%       )  )                     -  1 D  <  " 3 . <  3
. De p e n d e n t       @   %       3   1    1   #  "   # 
  3 C " 3 # ! 

 

#           3  !     .  N
#   
%   0  H   )    #  )   +   #          #    : Fac to r

.N u m e r i c <  3 <      
   ;           

:        1   #  "   #
5    1  ( 

) O K 

4   3 

ANOVA
PRODUCT

S u m
S q u a
4 0 2
1 5 2
5 5 4

B e tw e e n G ro u p s
W ith in G r o u p s
To t a l 

)   @   (

127 

 ?  . 

o
re
.0
.0
.0

f

s
0 0
0 0
0 0

d f

3
8
1 1

M e a n S q u a re
1 34 . 0 0 0
1 9 .0 0 0

F
7 .0 5 3

S ig .
.0 1 2 

 ,
0.05   # 2  F    !  & 1   !   P-V al u e =0.012   2  

. ? 1     3  !    .  %  .  
  1 
)   
 
+  %5 - M 


#  2   C " 3      .  .  
+ 
   3  )    ,    .  %  .  
  1 
)   


<  6
M u l ti p l e

9  )   %        C   E  " %    )      B
4 #     0  
)    1  -

Po s t H o c 

 

!

:     % 
.   N  1 E 1 Du n n e tt
L.S.D.     .      1 C o m p ar i s o n s 
, 6   O n e -W ay AN O V A   

!
:  "     D 1  

 Po s t H o c  4   

+   M u l ti p l e c o m p ar i s o n s

.2 

9     I 1   1
Du n n e tt
LSD   $ E 1   2 7   9 )   %      " 9  3   .

6  =

    .    Fi r s t      2
( Fi r s t , Las t ) C o n tr o l C ate g o r y 9  .    3 
    ;  

      . 
 
H  .   )   1  -  N
   ?   , 1      ;" .     9  .       .   C 


. Si g n i f i c an c e Le v e l   %5 ;
" .   
)   M 
    <    
. Te s t
:     %      C " 3 # ! 

O K 

4   C o n ti n u e

Multiple Comparisons 

4   3 

Dependent Variable: PRODUCT

( I ) M E TH OD
1

L S D

2
3
4
Du nnett t ( 2- s ided)

a

2
3
4

( J ) M E TH OD
2
3
4
1
3
4
1
2
4
1
2
3
1
1
1

*. Th e m ean dif f erenc e is s ig nif ic ant at th e . 0 5 lev el.

M ean
Dif f erenc e
(I-J )
- 11. 0 0
- 2. 0 0
5 .0 0
11. 0 0
9 .0 0
16 . 0 0
2. 0 0
-9 .0 0
7 .0 0
-5 .0 0
- 16 . 0 0
-7 .0 0
11. 0 0
2. 0 0
-5 .0 0

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

S td. E rro
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5

r
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

a. Du nnett t- tes ts treat o ne g ro u p as a c o ntro l, and c o m pare all o th er g ro u ps ag ains t it.

128

S ig .

. 0 15
.5 9 0
. 19 8
. 0 15
. 0 35
.0 0 2
.5 9 0
. 0 35
.0 8 5
. 19 8
.0 0 2
.0 8 5
. 0 37
.8 9 6
. 40 9

9 5 %
L o w er B o
-

-

-

-

-

-

Co nf idenc e I nterv
u nd
Upper B
19 . 21
10 . 21
- 3. 21
2. 7 9
.7 9
7 .7 9
- 6 . 21
17 . 21
- 1. 21
13. 21
24. 21
15 . 21
.7 5
- 8 . 25
15 . 25

al
o u nd
- 2. 7 9
6 . 21
13. 21
19 . 21
17 . 21
24. 21
10 . 21
-.7 9
15 . 21
3. 21
-7 .7 9
1. 21
21. 25
12. 25
5 . 25

%  .  
  1 %5 - M 
 1 
)   
 %  , 6   LSD    . #   )   1 D  6  = 

∗  =

3

?  0.05   # 2  Si g . 
P-V al u e   2 %   7   (4
2)J(3
2)J (2
1) %   )  
. %  .  
  
 C " 3

C 
    .   .  
  1 %5 - M 
 1 
)   


C    $   Du n n e tt   1     
. 9  .   3 
     1 3  1 C 
    .  1      3        . 

:       
 
! 

, 6  O n e W ay AN O V A   

!

: ! "  

 O p ti o n s  4   3

.… +    )   H    -  J  1     . 
 #    0 !
 >       ( 

     1 (#               .  ) %   )      1  >
.    1   #  "   /       ,   (

)1 (

:  7  

) : De s c r i p ti v e 

   1  - : H o m o g e n e i ty -o f -V ar i an c e 

0       1   > 

  1 )  7   . Le v e n e    !  A

. %   )   .  
#    .  .   ( 

) : M e an s p l o t

 $   %      " 9 
0  <   2 + 
    % -     ) 1   : E x c l u d e C as e s An al y s i s by An al y s i s

. .   #  "    1

. %          
+  9 
0  <   2 + 
    % -     ) 1   : E x c l u d e C as e s Li s tw i s e
O n e -W ay

. 9 
0    2 C " 3 %    1  /  
  )          +    $ E   ,  - #          

 
 
 ! 

 O K 

4   F = 3    
 
! 

 C o n ti n u e  4   3

:     5     ( 

3   AN O V A 

Test of Homogeneity of Variances

>

PRODUCT
L e v e n e
S ta tis tic
.6 6 7

d f1

3 

   3 ) "  1   @  0  @

d f2

8

(    1   >

S ig .
.5 9 6 

 )  )   @     1       1  F = 3  B    

  @   # 
1 2 C  
3  P-V al u e =0.5 9 6 >0.05   2   7   Le v e n e    !  A      1 (    1  
. ( Le v e n e    !  A # 
E x p l o r e     ?   ).%    1   >

M e a n s Pl o t s

129 

1 "      ) 

:  )  #   1     . 
 #        . .   

70

Mean of PRODUCT

60

50

40

1

2

3

4

METHOD

Orthogonal Comparisons  
( 11– 9 ) 

           .     G 
%   )   (

) 1   1     /   E 1 7   1   ,  ;     6 )   

C o n tr as t     1 H   ) 
"      %         t-1   
     D E  t   3 ( %  3 
 ) %   ) 

]Q = ∑ Ci Yi. w i th

:      .   2 = )    E  +   (% = 1   )

∑ Ci = 0 

           C o e f f i c i e n ts % =    )    Ci  
i  )   N 
 #    Yi.   7  
O r th o g o n al (      )  )   "      
   , E  Q2 = ∑ C 2i Yi.  
Q1 = ∑ C1i Yi. 
 
  D +   SSt%   )   %  ) 1   N 
              
 D  " 3
∑ C1i C 2i = 0 

  A

#   
)    1       &  1  

9  
     ,  # 
"     %         t-1 C  t-1   

:     #       E  1    L  @ 
. 9  C " 3 %       F    
:2 #   

 ) 1  E 1
 4 
  3 %    1 % " 
^   0  
C " 3   = )    N 
       E     1   %   
Yi. 
  
16 8
18 8
16 8
17 2
144

40
42
46
43
36

W e i g h t 

42
47
44
45
37

40
48
42
42
36 

   #
   %  6
N
#  %     
46
51
36
42
35 


1
2
3
4
5 

                         :
      . : 

. 56  

:  "    ;" . 

. %   )   %  .  
  1   0  
)    1  -    1   #  "   /   
Q1 = 4Y1. − Y2. − Y3. − Y4. − Y5. = 0

13 0

:     t-1 "     ) 1    %       
)    1  

.1

.2

Q2 = Y2. + Y3. − Y4. − Y5. = 0
Q3 = Y2. − Y3. = 0

Q4 = Y4. − Y5. = 0

tr e at
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5

:  "     Data E d i to r 2 
C  %    1  #   A     1   

w e ig h t
:   
 

 

 

4 6
4 0 
    

 

4 2 
  !  " #  A n a l y z e  C o m p a r e M e a n s  O n e -W a y A N O V A
4 0
:  % &   ' 
O n e -W a y A N O V A 
$
5 1
4 8
4 7
4 2
3 6
4 2
4 4
4 6
4 2
4 2
4 5
4 3
3 5
3 6
3 7
3 6 

 
 
 ! 

 , 6   O n e -W ay AN O V A   
 
 ! 

  C o n tr as ts 

4   

#    A    C  
      " 1   1  M    
"  9  
%       #   P 1  
7   C o n t r a s t s 

:  "      , =   ) 

4#   )     @ A    A d d  4      4  2   ;    C o e f f i c i e n ts  "   
  ? 1      

. # 0      #  .    C 

- #   )     @ A    A d d  4       C o e f f i c i e n ts  "   
  ? 1      -1  2   ; 

. # 0      #  .    C  1

- #   )     @ A    A d d  4       C o e f f i c i e n ts  "   
  ? 1      -1  2   ; 

. # 0      #  .    C  1

- #   )     @ A    A d d  4       C o e f f i c i e n t s  "   
  ? 1      -1  2   ; 

. # 0      #  .    C  1

- #   )     @ A    A d d  4       C o e f f i c i e n t s  "   
  ? 1      -1  2   ; 

. # 0      #  .    C  1

131

N e x t  4             % =   )  #   & . C 
      % =   )      "   2  
  , 1 

, 6  . %         1    
. C 
      % =   )  #   A    . > 0 1 % =   )   #   P 1  1   
:  "     C o n t r a s t s   

! 

 <=   C 
      % =   ) 

.P r e v i o u s  4      1       C  9
) "
N e x t  4             C  #    =

5     1   
  O n e -W a y

A N O V A   

! 

 O K  4   C o n tin u e  4   
:     B     ( 

)1 

ANOVA
WEIGHT

S u m
S q u a
2 48
1 3 0
3 7 8

B e t w e e n Gr o u p s
Wi t h i n Gr o u p s
To t a l

o
re
.0
.0
.0

f

d f

s
0 0
0 0
0 0

4
1 5
1 9

M e a n S q u a re
6 2 .0 0 0
8 .6 6 7

F
7 .1 5 4

S ig .
.0 0 2

. %1
%5 - M 
 1 (  = )  ) %   )   %  .  
  1  
0  
)  C    $  F   1    
Contrast Coefficients
C o n tra s t
1
2
3
4

1

4
0
0
0

2

-1
1
1
0

T R E A T
3

-1
1
-1
0

4

-1
-1
0
1

5

-1
-1
0
-1

%         
)  t  1     1       #
   . ) 1    %       % =   )    1  F = 3  #


  1    P-V al u e =1 > 0.05   %5 - M 
 1 (Q1=0) 
)    G C 
        L @  D 

      P-V al u e < 0.05   %5 - M 
 1 ( 0 !   3 <   
H "  ) 
)   ,  %      

:  "     B     V al u e o f C o n tr as t        2    " )  ?  . %    1   + 
  (
V al u e o f C o n tr as t = ∑ Ci Yi. / r
. 4      

     
   
 :

132 

  
: r

Contrast Tests
V al u e of
Contrast Contrast S td . E rror
W E I G H T A ssu m e e q u al v ari anc e 1s
.00
6 .5 8
2
1 0.00
2 .9 4
3
5 .00
2 .08
4
7 .00
2 .08
D oe s not assu m e e q u al1
.00
6 .3 9
v ari anc e s
2
1 0.00
2 .9 7
3
5 .00
2 .8 6
4
7 .00
.8 2

7   … 1)   J

3
2
3
3
1
8

t
.000
.3 9 7
.4 02
.3 6 3
.000
.3 6 5
.7 5 0
.5 7 3

d f

4 .7
6 .8
5 .8
4 .8

S i g . ( 2- tai l e d )
1 .000
1 5
.004
1 5
.03 0
1 5
.004
2 7
1 .000
2 3
.01 2
8 0
.1 3 2
00
.000
1 5

Trend Analysis  
( 219)

       J .  % 1   C  %  )   % ) 1  N
  4     

#   "          0   
%   )   3 #    t   7   t-1 +
   Polynomial
  )     
     0 "    %           <=      #   ) %  
    3 9   1 3  ,   %   )   
     ;      

 
   0!  1    3 9     
  ( 

 0"   % 1    
)   1 
 H ,  
 
 ) 

. >
   #  )    #    M
        1
)   M
 

D   +  5-1=4 +
   
  )     E   1    #    " %   )   %  ) 1   N
  #  "   

  7   .  ) 1      J 1)   J        J .   1    C "3 #
!      & 1
:  "     Contrasts  
 
!  

6  - . Contrasts %       %  0 ! 


 1

> 0  ,
 , @ ) 1  3 "     
  %  1     F     <  " 3

    )      
Polynomial        ) 1 Coef f icients % =   )   1    C  B       C "3 # ! 

133

O ne-w ay AN O VA  
 
! 

 O K 

4   Continu e  4   3 .4th

:   

ANOVA
WEIGHT
B e tw e e n
Gr o u p s

( C o m b in e d )
L i n e a r Te r m
Q u a d r a tic
Te r m

Wi t h i n Gr o u p s
To t a l

S u m o
S q u a re
248 . 0 0
10 2. 40

C o n tra s t
D e v ia tio n

C o n
D e v
C u b i c Te r m
C o n
D e v
4t h - o r d e r Te r m C o n

tr
ia
tr
ia
tr

a s
tio
a s
tio
a s

t

t

t

n
n

f
0

4
1

M e a n S q u a re
6 2. 0 0 0
10 2. 40 0

145 . 6 0 0

3

9 2. 5 7 1
5 3. 0 29
1. 6 0 0
5 1. 429
5 1. 429
130 . 0 0 0
37 8 . 0 0 0

1
2
1
1
1

0

s

d f

15
19

F
7 . 15 4
11. 8 15

S ig .
.0 0 2
.0 0 4

48 . 5 33

5 .6 0 0

.0 0 9

9 2. 5 7 1
26 . 5 14
1. 6 0 0
5 1. 429
5 1. 429
8 .6 6 7

10 . 6 8 1
3. 0 5 9
. 18 5
5 . 9 34
5 . 9 34

.0 0 5
.0 7 7
.6 7 4
. 0 28
. 0 28

?  ) 1    %  1     C " 3 Betw een Grou ps %   )     1 %  ) 1    N
  ?  4
   D  6  -

 - M
   1   1  3 
)  %  , 6 % 1    ?      1   #  9  
   / . 3 

. Cu bic term  1  )    1      3 % 5

Tw o W ay AN O V A 
 
  
  
(29)

C    @ A #
  #  )  %  )  % . 
 +
   1      )   1  # "    0 

R CB


 $ )   "   % 3 .     !  ;   B 
   
   #  )  % . 
 +
   1 

. ;        !    Desig n
: 3#   

K          0    1 +      #
 C "3 #
!     
$ 3 "  % 3 . 2 1   

(#
  #    )  ) %     . &     N 
 ) 1   %      2
 )      ? . 2 ) 1 (   )         )  .  
: !  
(   
)    
         

( 

#  )    1) 
% 3 .  ) %   ) 1  %    

D

C

B

A

0

-1
-1
-3
-4

1
1
0

4

-2
-2
-4

-5

1
0
0 

(
) 
1
2
3
4

" #    

                    
  : 
. 83 # 

1984            

     ! "

N 
  % .  
  1   0  
)   1 -   )   1  # "  #
 
    7  1  ; G  

. % 5 - M
   1
car%       N 
   1   0  
)  K  
Tyre %    . & 
:  "    
Data E ditor  2 %    1  #   P 1 
   1   

134

car
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D

tyre
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4 

 1     %  @

th in
4
1
0
0
1
1
0
-5
-1
-1
-3
-4
0
-2
-2
-4

:   
 

       
  $   *   % 
:      

 +  

Analyze G ener al L i near M o d el  U ni v ar i at e
:  
% +  &  #  ' 
U ni v ar i at e 
$   !  

" #  ,

2 #   )  %   )         1  3  C " 3 Fixed Factors     "   )   "  

%  1    #    )    6  - . R andom Factors   #  )     E  #   )  %   )     3       

;  7   O ne-W ay AN O VA     D  >  )  C " 3 <  4   <      
        Fixed Factor

K 
Fu ll Factorial   <- 1 Cu stom     J M odel  
 
!


  ) (car*tyre)     1   #  "   #
 

:  "     D 1     ) 1 M odel  
 
!

. <  3 <      Factor 
    
, 6   M odel  4   

I nteraction # 3  0   
, 6   ; G 

-    

, 6  7   1   E.  "    %   

.   B 
    % 1         @  C " 3 #  )  I nclu de I ntercept in M odel   $ E    7  

.     B 
 F  13 1  ) 

#  "   #
      , 6 A       E f f ects %     E   N
   )  #  )     Bu ild Terms      
  1 M odel   C  Factors &

135

Cov ariates     car
tyre         #  1   2 7      1   

     E   ) 1 ) M ain E f f ects      %     E    , 6 

.( M ain ef f ects        @   Bu ild Terms  

:    B     C "3 # ! 

Between-Subjects Factors
T Y R E

CAR

A
B
C
D
1
2
3
4 

4          4 1  ,  # 

N

U niv ariate  
 
! 

 O K 

 Continu e  4   3 

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: THIN
S o u rc e
C o rrec ted M o del
Interc ept
TY R E
C A R
E rro r
To tal
C o rrec ted To tal

Ty pe III S u m
o f S q u ares
69. 37 5 a
14 . 0 63
30 . 68 8
38 . 68 8
11. 5 63
95 . 0 0 0
8 0 . 938

df

6
1
3
3
9
16
15

M ean S q u are
11. 5 63
14 . 0 63
10 . 2 2 9
12 . 8 96
1. 2 8 5

F
9. 0 0 0
10 . 94 6
7 . 962
10 . 0 38

a. R S q u ared = . 8 5 7 ( A dj u s ted R S q u ared = . 7 62 )

S S . Corrected M odel = S S . TYR E + S S . CAR
S S . Corrected Total = S S . Total –S S . I ntercept
#
    .   1     
    B 

 +   GL M   )   .   B 
  R

S ig .

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

2

9
7

3

:  6    #
    

:  "     Tw o-W ay AN O VA     )  1    1  #  "   #

  (  
   #
  # !  ?   )
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: THIN
S o u rc e
TY R E
C A R
E rro r
C o rrec ted To tal

Ty pe III S u m
o f S q u ares
30 . 6 8 8
38 . 6 8 8
1 1 .5 6 3
8 0 . 938

. % 5  .  /   


df

M ean S q
1 0
1 2
1

u are
.2 2 9
. 8 96
.2 8 5

F
7 . 96 2
1 0 . 0 38

S ig .
.0 0 7
.0 0 3

car  #    %   , -  tyer  #  $  %   &  # '     (
) *   + 


 0   ) #     , F  2 C "3 # ! 

136

3
3
9
1 5 

D  <  " 3 ) car
tyre

:    

1 # 3 0   , 6 &

:     % 
.   ? 1  (     %  

.1 


  
 ! 

 I nteraction    
Bu ild Terms     # 0   


tyre        1 ) % 2
 > 0   Factors &

D    ,     

Cov ariates      car
tyre            

.M odel

. (car         ?  S h if t Q   0  .  @   

. M odel   C    
            # 

. M odel  
 
! 

4   

• 

)   .   B 
  #  )      

.2 

 Fu ll Factorial       1 4       1 /  $  > 0   <  " 3

.  
   )     1   #  "   /      GL M

(  1    9 
#  9   $        #    ?       )     1   #  "   ) : 4 #   

S h elf L ocation H    ?  2
 ;          "  "   3
1    %  )  1   #        #
 

   
     #         $  %    2
(    #   )  ) S tore S iz e      
( #
  #   )  )
S h elf L ocation H   ? 2


D
48
53
60
57
7 1
7 5
#   3 %  )  % . 
  1 

C
65
7 1
7 3
8 0
8 2
8 9

 0  
)  

B
56
63
69
7 8
7 5
8 2 
1  ?    )  

   
S iz e

:    

A_
45
S mall
50
57
M ediu m
65
7 0
L arg e
7 8
 1  # "  #
 
  ; ". 

 - M
   1 S iz e*L ocation # 3  0   
)    1   
L ocation ? 2
  %   )    1
S iz e   

. <    1 K  L  @
 ?  % 5

location
A
S
A
S
A
M
A
M
A
L
A
L
B
S
B
S
B
M
B
M
B
L
B
L
C
S
C
S
C
M
C
M
C
L
C
L
D
S
D
S
D
M
D
M
D
L
D
L

137

size
m all
m all
ed iu m
ed iu m
ar g e
ar g e
m all
m all
ed iu m
ed iu m
ar g e
ar g e
m all
m all
ed iu m
ed iu m
ar g e
ar g e
m all
m all
ed iu m
ed iu m
ar g e
ar g e

sales
4 5
5 0
5 7
6 5
7 0
7 8
5 6
6 3
6 9
7 8
7 5
8 2
6 5
7 1
7 3
8 0
8 2
8 9
4 8
5 3
6 0
5 7
7 1
7 5

:  "    
Data E ditor   %    1  #   P 1 
   1   

:   
 

- . $ -  
      

Analyze

:      

 +   

G ener al L i near M o d el  U ni v ar i at e

:  
% +  &  #  ' 
U ni v ar i at e 
$   !  

" #  ,

I nteraction # 3  0   C " 3 #
!     ; G  

 Fu ll Factorial    
M odel  4   

.  
$ )  E.  "    %        3

 

 <   " 3 (  1
" .   %     E      
Cu stom    %     E     / 4         ; G   %    A )

. Def au lt  @     -      
 Fu ll Factorial

#   =  D " 1         
   C " 3 siz e       %    D   #    .  .    3  Plots  4   

 Prof ile Plots 


  
 ! 

  , 6   L ocation        " ?   1    %  .   
    

6 
B 
      )        "    %  . 
       D   0    +   I nteraction Plot
:  "  

:  "   F = 3  
!    %     #  A  

.H oriz ontal Axis   C  Factors     siz e       #   
  Plot

. S eparate L ines   C  L ocation       #  

   C  siz e*location # 3  0   H  @   F    <-  )  L 1 !  Add  4    6  =  

.# 0  

. 7   #   3 %  
     M
   #  3 .  .   #  3    ,   0     S eparate Plots    2   
. U niv ariate 
 
!

C  N
 " Continu e  4   

#  3  0  " E stimated M arg inal M eans     %  .  
   (

:     #  $  1 O ptions  
 
!

138

• 

 ) O ptions  4       

6  7   location*siz e

.    5   C "3 # ! 

U niv ariate  
 
! 

 O K 

 Continu e  4   3 

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: SALES
So u rc e
C o rrec ted M o del
I nterc ept
LO C AT I O N
SI Z E
LO C AT I O N * SI Z E
Erro r
T o tal
C o rrec ted T o tal

T y pe I I I Su m
o f Sq u ares
30 19 . 333a
10 8 27 2. 667
110 2. 333
18 28 . 0 8 3
8 8 . 9 17
25 8 . 0 0 0
1115 5 0 . 0 0 0
327 7 . 333

df

M ean Sq u are
27 4 . 4 8 5
10 8 27 2. 667
367 . 4 4 4
9 14 . 0 4 2
14 . 8 19
21. 5 0 0

11
1
3
2
6
12
24
23

F
12. 7 67
5 0 35 . 9 38
17 . 0 9 0
4 2. 5 14
. 68 9

Sig .
.0 0 0
.0 0 0
.0 0 0
.0 0 0
. 663

a. R Sq u ared = . 9 21 ( Adj u s ted R Sq u ared = . 8 4 9 )

B 
  ?  <   =   
  D .   1      &  1
  )   .   B 
 "    -  5    #    #
     
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

:  "  
 1  # " 

Dependent Variable: SALES
So u rc e
LO C AT I O N
SI Z E
LO C AT I O N * SI Z E
Erro r
C o rrec ted T o tal

T y pe I I I Su m
o f Sq u ares
1 1 0 2. 333
1 8 28 . 0 8 3
8 8 .9 1 7
25 8 . 0 0 0
327 7 . 333

df

M ean Sq
367
9 1 4
1 4
21

3
2
6
1 2
23

u are
.4 4 4
.0 4 2
.8 1 9
.5 0 0

%    )    1 K  
L ocation #   )  %   )    1 
)  %  2
 

F
1 7 .0 9 0
4 2. 5 1 4
. 68 9

Sig .
.0 0 0
.0 0 0
. 663

C A  $  F  1   

. p-Valu e = 0. 663> 0. 05  % 5 - M
   1 # 3  0    
)   , 6      1 siz e #   ) 

Esti m a te d M a r g i n a l M e a n s

LOCATION * SIZE

Dependent Variable: SALES
LO CAT I O N
A
B
C
D

139

SI Z E
Larg e
M ediu m
Sm all
Larg e
M ediu m
Sm all
Larg e
M ediu m
Sm all
Larg e
M ediu m
Sm all

M ean
7 4 .0 0
6 1 .0 0
4 7 .5 0
7 8 .5 0
7 3 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
8 5 .5 0
7 6 .5 0
6 8 .0 0
7 3 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
5 0 .5 0
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Std. Erro
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
3 .2 7
9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

r

9 5 % Co
Lo w er Bo u
6 6 .8
5 3 .8
4 0 .3
7 1 .3
6 6 .3
5 2 .3
7 8 .3
6 9 .3
6 0 .8
6 5 .8
5 1 .3
4 3 .3

nf idenc e I nterv
nd U pper Bo
5 6
8 1
5 6
6 8
5 6
5 4
5 6
8 5
5 6
8 0
5 6
6 6
5 6
9 2
5 6
8 3
5 6
7 5
5 6
8 0
5 6
6 5
5 6
5 7

al
u nd
.1 4 4
.1 4 4
.6 4 4
.6 4 4
.6 4 4
.6 4 4
.6 4 4
.6 4 4
.1 4 4
.1 4 4
.6 4 4
.6 4 4

.
 .     6   =  7    S iz e
L ocation   "    )    1 # 3  0      1      . .   

  4 
   .
 .                  1      - ? 2 
    
 0    C    $     < 1      4 
 

. F   1      1 .  1 D    " !
    3    
location
siz e   "   )    1 # 3  0 

 3  $ ' 

P r o f i l e P l o ts

90

Estimated Marginal Means of SALES

Estimated Marginal Means

80

70

LOCATION
60

A
B

50

C

40

Large

Medium

Small

D

SIZE

Covariance Analysis  

( 3– 9)

( 1    !  ) "      #   
3 K      ;         ! 
    1   #  "   D 
    #   $     
, 4   
, "3 %  )    E > 2    9   6  C "3  '     X

4    1  , 4    Cov ariates

(%   )   )   G     3    E  >   2 3 <=   Dependent Variable   )        

Y 4    1 
 1
/   " D 1   M  C "3  '  1    1   X  
   4
 E Y  
   4
9 4 C "3 

 )  
 " ,   4
   1 % =  -  %   A    )  ? .   - 

         R

"   (

1   ,   7  1   E 

 . 1      1    4
     3   /         3   ( 1      ,

.    - 
 1  # "   1 ?   ;
" 

K  $    1  # "    

X ;  !  
: 5 #  

4
9    4 C  " 3 0 "    (%   )   )   = 3 ) 1      E      ^          C " 3 1   %   
 ,    Y ^     4
  9 4   1    #
. )  #  %   $  

%    
^   

. 1    1 3 X ^     4
 1   1  

140

O bserv ations    

2 9
1 5 1

33
1 6 7

2 1
1 5 6

2 0
1 30

2 5
1 7 0

2 0
1 8 0

2 6
1 6 1

2 0
1 7 1

29
172
36
1 8 9

30
160
2 8
1 4 2

35
190
35
1 9 3

35
138
30
2 00

X  1       1     4
     4 A ) 1 % 

#  1 


X
Y
X
31
2 4
1 6 9
1 8 0
Y
32
X
34
1
5
6
189
Y
X
32
4 1
1 7 3
2 01
Y 
)   % . 
  1 
 0  
)   1  ;
2 7
1 7 0

30
1 6 5

141

X
30
27
20
21
33
29
24
31
20
26
20
25
34
32
35
35
30
29
41
32
30
35
28
36

Y
165
170
130
156
167
151
180
169
171
161
180
170
156
189
138
190
160
172
201
173
200
193
142
189

treat
T1
T2
T3
T4
". 

. (K   $      1   #  "   ;
"   )

:     #  $  1 Data E ditor 2 
  #
 %    1 ;  
treat
T1
T1
T1
T1
T1
T1
T2
T2
T2
T2
T2
T2
T3
T3
T3
T3
T3
T3
T4
T4
T4
T4
T4
T4 

 (


 1   

:   
 

    /  + 
   
  $  -  .      

  

 

Analyze G ener al L i near M o d el U ni v ar i at e
:     % &    ' 
U ni v ar i at e 
$   !

:  
 *   
2  1 ! $  O K 

0    1  

" #  , 

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: Y

T y pe I I I S u m
o f S q u ares
2 8 45 . 9
6 9 38 . 6
6 8 2 .8
16 0 9 . 5
5 2 5 5 .0
6 9 9 32 3. 0
8 10 0 . 9

S o u rc e
C o rrec ted M o del
I nterc ept
X
T R E A T
E rro r
T o tal
C o rrec ted T o tal

5 6

a

df

0 2
31
9 5
0 2
0 0
5 8

4
1
1
3
19
2 4
2 3

a. R S q u ared = . 35 1 ( A dj u s ted R S q u ared = . 2 15 )

M ean S q u are
7 11. 48 9
6 9 38 . 6 0 2
6 8 2 . 8 31
5 36 . 5 32
2 7 6 .5 7 9

:  "  
K  $    1  # "  9 
!

F
2 .5 7 2
2 5 .0 8 7
2 . 46 9
1. 9 40

S ig .

.0 7 1
.0 0 0
. 133
. 15 7 

 
  F = 3  #
  .  1 2

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Y
S o u rc e
T R E A T
E rro r
T o tal+ E rro r

T y pe I I I S u m
o f S q u ares

a

1 6 0 9 .5 9 5
5 2 5 5 .0 0 2
6 8 6 4 .5 9 7

df

M ean S q u are

1 9
2 2

3

5 36 . 5 32
2 7 6 .5 7 9

F
1 .9 4 0

S ig .
.1 5 7

a. R S q u ared = . 35 1 ( A dj u s ted R S q u ared = . 2 1 5 )

% 5 - M
   1  )   @   #
1 2 C  
3     P-Valu e= 0 . 157 > 0. 05   2   6  = 
. X ;  !         4 A ) 1  = )    ) 1   N 
  % . 
 +
  C "3 R

142 

   

  

          
Correlation & Regression Analysis
Correlat ion    ( 1  10 ) 

,  1     K = ,   - 
#     1 2 = )  <=   Correlation .  1   -  1       6   1 2 = )  C   

) "   )  N  0         (   . 2 = 3 ) %    
? "     D  = ,    9   4 C  + '   0  #  9   4   
 .     G
 L inear <  .  
  2 .  1   -    <  " 3 (    3 2 = 3 )  ,  " 3 ; " .    C  + '   

Correlation .   1   -  #    )  1 H  )  .  1   -   >    +         >        . N on L inear
. (−1 ≤ r ≤ 1) 1 C  1–   1 D    2 Q
   
r D 4   
Coef f icients

? 

S im p le L inear Correlat ion  
        ( 2  10 )

.  %           1 .  2= 3

( 

1 .  1   .   . 1 -  #  )  ;    

         1 2 = 3

 3  )  - #   )     , ( 0 !    1   2 ) 9    !

 2 C "3 #
!      ") 

. (  .   G . 1 )        2= 3
 

%    @        1   
L ang   "    1      ; = . 10  ,       %    #        %    1 
L ang

6 0
6 8
6 0
7 4
8 0
8 4
8 0
7 2
6 2
8 2

M ath

5 6

:  "     S PS S 5    1 Data E ditor 2 
   , 6 
M ath

6 0
6 4
8 2
7 6
7 2
7 4
6 6
6 4
8 6

:  " ;
".  

. S pearman  ;    .  1    #   )  J Pearson  .   1   .   .  1   -  #   ) 


. % 5 - M
  1 . 1 -  #  )  
)   1  


  
 !

143

:1 #   

:    % 
.   ? 1 F = 3  ;  .    0  

, 6   Analyz e  Correlate Biv ariate
:  "   D 1 

   
  .  $  

.1

.2 

+   Biv ariate Correlation

:     %       Correlation Coef f icients #     @  

.     %       " .   1   .   .  1   -  #   )  B      - : Pearson

      R anks ;    #   )    1
  " )  =    .  1 .  1   -  #   )  B      - :K endall’s Tau 

    #  )          + 
 @    D    . 1  9 
! 1 . 1 -  #  )       1G  

 4  
  3  !  < 1    ,   . 3 A      
(    %       %   )          G    = 
       6  M  A
.  " !         <- 1       6 " 9  6     ;    #   A       F    

. K endall #   )  1   1 #   
    ;   " .  1    #   ) 
 : S pearman
. S pearman
Pearson          $  2 

  1   - .     .    @  0    1   - Tw o Tailed        $  Test sig nif icance #    

. O ne Tailed  $ '  
H  .    @  0 

. ( S tar  = 3   , 6 A ) 
)   %  .  1   -    " )  : Flag S ig nif icance Correlation
:    5    , 6  O K

Correlations
L A NG
M A T H

P e a rs o n
S ig .( 2 - ta
N
P e a rs o n
S ig .( 2 - ta
N

C o r r e la tio n
ile d )
C o r r e la tio n
ile d )

L A NG
1.000
.
10
.7 7 6 * *
.008
10

* * . C o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.01 l e v e l
( 2 - ta ile d ) . 

4   3

M A T H
.7 7 6 * *
.008
10
1.000
.
10

 @  0    1   - r = 0. 776   M ATH
L AN G   1 
   1  .   .  1   -  #   )    2  

H 0: ρ = 0

H1 : ρ ≠ 0

144 

: (    .     1    )    

 3 k
?       #    n   7   n-k     1 T ?  4
 ? 1      T    !  A    
T =r
P- C " 3

n−k

1− r2

= 0.776

10 − 2

1 − 0.776 2

#
!   K    

 "     
T ?  4
  )       #   )      Transf orm

. %    

= 3.48

Compu te     # =    Valu e 

  1 .   1   -    C    $  P-Valu e=0. 008<0. 05  1 2   . (1 − CDF .T (3.48,8)) * 2 = 0.008

+
 )  H =    -  ) % 5 - M
   1  0 !   3 < 
)  H "    %   @          
 "        

. (< @   % 1 - M
   1

:    1 ;   . 1  #  )  #      B    

Nonparametric Correlations
Correlations
S p e a r m a n 's r h o

L A NG
M A T H

C o
S ig
N
C o
S ig
N

r r e la tio n C o e ffic ie n t
.( 2 - ta ile d )
r r e la tio n C o e ffic ie n t
.( 2 - ta ile d )

* * . C o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l ( 2 - t a i l e d ) .

L A NG
1.000
.
10
.7 8 6 * *
.007
10

M A T H
.7 8 6 * *
.007
10
1.000
.
10

S pearman #    )  H1 : ρ ≠ 0  "  1    @  0  @ H 0 : ρ = 0  )   @     1   S pearman .  1    #   )        P-Valu e  1 2   . F = 3  Pearson   1    T    !  A > 0     

. % 1 K  
% 5 - M
  1 #  )     
)  C   $  


  
 ! 

 O ne Tailed       $ '

: 

 
H  .   . 1 -  #  )  @    1 -

:   1   I     
  
Biv ariate Correlations

:    @  0   1 1 5    1  
 1
 9    . 1 -  #  )   2 %   
H 0: ρ = 0

H1 : ρ f 0

:  
     
      
! "  0.766   
     
  

145

.1

Correlations
L A NG
M A T H

P e a rs o n
S i g . ( 1- t a
N
P e a rs o n
S i g . ( 1- t a
N

L A NG
1.000
.
10
.7 7 6 * *
.004
10

C o r r e la tio n
ile d )
C o r r e la tio n
ile d )

* * . C o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.01 l e v e l
( 1- t a i l e d ) .

#
!      
3. 48

+
 

M A T H
.7 7 6 * *
.004
10
1.000
.
10 

 .    1 -     ,  0

T !  A ;      7 

?   4
  )       #   )      Transf orm  Compu te     # =          P-Valu e C " 3
H  .    1 -    2   ;  @  -       6  -

(1 − CDF .T (3.48,8)) = 0.004  "    
T

%   @          
 "           1 .  1   -    C    $  P-Valu e=0. 004<0. 05  1 2   .  

. (< @   % 1 - M
   1 +
)  H =   -  ) % 5 - M
   1  0 !     1  

:    @  0   1 1 5    1  
 1  9    . 1 -  #  )   2 %   
H 0: ρ = 0

.2

H1 : ρ p 0

 2 C "3 # ! 

Partial Correlation   
( 3 10 )

2 <=   . 7        %
1  1          1 2 = )  9
2   4  .  1   -  #   )  >    

1 ")  2= 3
-  /     
 " 
/ @ 1  
 "   )    1 2= ) " .  1  . 1 -  #  )   3 

 )  M
     ) 1      )  I  )  M
  
 7  #  ) 1  E      =   
    

#  2     2 C " 3 #
!        /     
/  @  1  
 "    )     1 2 = )  >   2 3 (D   1  
 )   )  I
>    2  3 %          3 +   ) 1        D  <  " 3 .   4  .  1   -  1 H  )    
.  1   -  #   ) 

.    6  1 2= ) 

:  "    ; " .  13  )    ` " 1    

( 3 – 4 S 10 ) 1    6 #       9  
 %    1 "

. X3 %  1  1 X2
Y   1   4  .  1   -  #   )  ;   

. X4  X3 %  1  1 X2
Y   1   4  .  1   -  #   )  ;   

:2 #   

.1

.2

.% 5 - M
   1 (    .   ) .  1   -  % =   )  
)   1    .3 

  
!

146 

, 6   Analyz e

Correlate  Partial

: #
  ;
".  "  "   D 1 

   
  .  $   

+   Partial Correlation

:#  

   
J  ,   4  .  1   -  #   )  ;          %        #   A    Variables    

. F     ) 1       +   (%        )       #   A    Controlling f or
.      C "3 # ! 

--- PAR TI AL

CO R R E L ATI O N

Controlling f or. .

CO E FFI CI E N TS

(

1 . 0 0 0 0
0 )
P = .

. 2 8 5 1
1 0 )
P = . 3 6 9

X 2

. 2 8 5 1
1 0 )
P = . 3 6 9

1 . 0 0 0 0
0 )
P = .

( C o e f f i c i e n t

/

(

(

"

i s

---

X 2

Y

. 

X 3
Y

"

O k  4   3

(

( D . F . )

p r i n t e d

i f

a

/

2 -t a i l e d

S i g n i f i c a n c e )

c o e f f i c i e n t

c a n n o t

>  0 #  )     (     .
 )   4  .  1   -  #   )  
)    1   -

b e

c o m p u t e d

r yx 2.x3 = 0.285   7  

F = 3  #
    , 6  +  
  
2 #   10  2     6  - . .   1  .  1   -  #   )    1   - T    !  A

 2 T  
df = n – k = 13-3 = 10 7   T   1   -  4 =      %     
 )    #    T =r

147

n−k

1− r2

= (0.2851)

13 − 3

1 − 0.28512

:  "   % 1  

= 0.941 

0  !    3 < 
)  H "    >  0    

ρ ?      " )   E    ,
P-Valu e=0. 369 >

:     #  $  C " 3 Partial Correlations  
 
!

CO R R E L ATI O N

Controlling f or. .

X 3

CO E FF I

1 . 0 0 0 0
(
0 )
P = .

. 2 3 3 8
(
9 )
P = . 4 8 9

X 2

. 2 3 3 8
9 )
P = . 4 8 9

1 . 0 0 0 0
0 )
P = .

( C o e f f i c i e n t

/

(

i s

p r i n t e d

148

:  "   5    , 6 

C I E N T S
- -

(

( D . F . )
i f

a

/

2 -t a i l e d

c o e f f i c i e n t

S i g n i f i c a n c e )
c a n n o t

. % 5 - M
   1  0 !   3 < 
)  H "     
  
 !

; 
1  % 
.  

X 2

Y

"

;  

X 4
Y

.

. % 5 - M
  1

(     ;
 " .   ) X 4  X 3 %  1  1 X 2
Y   1   4  .  1   -  #   ) 

--- PAR TI AL
-

"

0. 05   2  

b e

c o m p u t e d

r yx 2.x3 x 4    , 6  D 

:  

  O ptions  4    1 Pearson  .   1  .  1   -  #   )  B          

. Z ero O rder Correlations        $ E    Partial Correlations

R eg res s ion A naly s is         ( 4 10 ) 

   
  
  1
Dependent Variable   )         1 2 = 3  3  1 )     -  B 
  

#          C " 3 B 
  M
       R eg ressors
 I ndependent Variables "      %         
#            M
    

S imple R eg ression model .   1     -  B 
 1 H  )    

L inear M odel 

$  % &     M u ltiple reg ression M odel )       -  B 

, 
. N on L inear M odel  .    G 

 
            ( 1 4 10)

Y = B0 + B1 X + e :       )    !    E 
:   7 

 )       : Y
#       : X

. I ntersection Parameter +  !  
   ?     -  .  ? .     " ) 
 % 1      : B0

∆Y
S lop Parameter #     " )  : B1
∆X
7    residu al   1    1 H  ) 
Yˆ          
Y             1   0 

  
$ )  E .   :e
. e = Y − Yˆ  
B1 =

M    !  %   ) 1        .    B1
B0     -    )        < 1  G ) 1       .   

%    @  0         ;  .   1   .      -  B 
   <  " 3 (O L S ) L east S q u ares M eth od
. X
Y   1  .  2 = 3

E  .       1  >
+ 
  @

:   

.  0! " +
  . 
 1 N 4
 
$ )  / .      

    @   ) σ 2 +
    %  1       1    ,   
 $ )  /   .     

D  
O L S    . 1   )       <  
 @
. B1
B0

. ( H omoscedasticity  
$ ) 

>  .  $    
<  )  1 . N 4
  /  .    

  -  % =  )  1 ")   % @  0   1 -

.   
$ )  /  .      1 Au tocorrelation     .  1   

 3

.1

.2

.3
.4

.5

yˆ #     1 S catter plots .  .   # =    .   1   .   B 
  %   @    
           1

S tandardiz ed R esidu als      )   /   .   
 e   
$ )  E .   D " 1    ( x
 )     
   C " 3

.     #  $    L @ 

         
   C " 3 es  , 4   

149

e o r es

e o r es 

 
           R es id u als              

(a

(b

e o r es

e o r es

(c

. (  
$ )  E .      1  >

(d)

. ( "  $ 

 3 ) #  "    %   @    
 (a )
. y 9   4 1   
$ )  E .      1  9   4 (b ) 

  3 " $  )  
$ )  E.    1   R

2  
9   4 (c )

. (         B 
 <=   M    B    #   )    ;
  )  .   2 = )    =   3 (d) 
  2
R 

 $  10  
   ) ( 1  4  "  ) Y

O bs.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Y
112
128
130
138
158
162
140
175
125
142

X
35
40
38
44
67
64
59
69
25
50

: 3 #  

 .  @
X   )  #      %  1 

:  "    
Data E ditor 2 
  %    1  #   A

:  " ; ". 

. B 
    )  
)    1   
 .   2 = )  < @   0  Y/X      )  B      
. B1
B0    -     " )    #  % 9 5   9    B     

15 0

.1

.2

. ANOVA    1   #  "   #
B      

   
$ )  /   .    #   "   ?  ( R2     #   )  #   )    1 )  .   B  
    
9
 1   
.  1     1

. <    1   
$ )  /  .  I  )  1 .  ?  4 
  1   

L i n ea r           An a l yz e

.3

.4

.5

: #  

:     % 
.   ? 1  F = 3  ;   .     0  
Reg res s i o n  L i n ea r  
  5
:         
Reg res s i o n

:   7 

.   )         #    :D ep en d en t

#  "      %          3 
       #   A     . ( "      %        
)       : I n d ep en d en t

Next    4   1     C   Bl o ck 

  #     -     
 "  "    2  D Bl o ck   @

#   3 
 

    ?  Z #          D     B  

X #                  
         . Prev i o u s 

  Z       
Bl o ck 1    X        #   A       F        
 =  Y 
 
  ) 

. Bl o ck 2

. ( E n ter       3 -     .  )    -             .  N
: M eth o d 

      )    2  ,    % -       )  3 
 #  "         #  )    : S el ecti o n

Va ri a b l e 

  (5    1   Ob s erv a t         2  ,    
    % -    C " 3    -  B  
  !  2  <=   )      - 

. Ru l e  4  .  
1    

. S ca tterp l o ts   $    #  $ .     
)  D   2           : Ca s e L eb el s

:  "   D 1

151

+   S ta ti s ti cs   

! 

, 6   S ta ti s ti cs  4   

5

:    %     $ E   2

.       t %    1   
   -  B  
  )      : E s ti m a te

.   -     " )    #  % 9 5   9        : Co n f i d en ce I n terv a l
. ANOVA
R2 ( 

  1   - No rm a l Pro b a b i l i ty Pl o t        $  Pl o ts   

! 

) : M o d el Fi t 

, 6   Pl o ts  4   

5 

, 6  S a v e  4   

5

. (>     ;
" .   )     )     
$ )  /  .  I  )  1 .  ?  4 


:  "   D 1

152

+   S a v e   

!

S ta n d a rd i z ed

K   
yˆ +  U n s ta n d a rd i z ed Pred i cted Va l u es         

6   -

?  1    ;
" .          . $ " S ca tterp l o ts                #   )        es +  Res i d u a l s
X %       ;  C  D a ta

E d i to r 2 
C  (5    1   $   3 )              @ A     D  <  " 3 J

H   @ 
Pre_ 1   E 1 U n s ta n d a rd i z ed Pred i cted Va l u es 

      

  

     H  @  7   Ob s erv a t
Y

. Zre_ 1   E 1 S ta n d a rd i z ed Res i d u a l s     

Op ti o n s "  
#   $ %       &  
  #   ' 
  
 (     )   
.L i n ea r Reg res s i o n
: , 
 
-   
.  + $    L i n ea r Reg res s i o n        OK "     +
5
Coefficientsa

U n s ta n d a r d i z e
d C o e f f i c i e n ts
M o d e l
1

( C o n s ta n t)
X

B
85.044
1.140

a . D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : Y

S td
E rro
9 .9 7
.19

.
r
0
5

S ta n
r d iz
C o e
ie n

d a
e d
ffic
ts

Be ta
.9 00

9 5%
t
8.53 0
5.846

S ig .
.00002 7
.0003 8

C o n f i d e n c e I n te r v a l
fo r B

L o w e r
Bo u n d
6 2 .052
.6 9 0

U p p e r
Bo u n d
108.03 6
1.589

:  "     B  
 1        F = 3  #
 # =   

1.140      1   .  @

yˆ = 85.044 + 1.140 x
(9. 97) (0. 195)
9 4 C  + '  9  
   )  9 4   C   $  #    ")   

. " 1      " )  " +    )   E .   #    > 
2   #     2    .  1  4  " 
: B1 #     " )       @  0    1   - T   1    #  )   
H 0 : B1 = 0 

)  @  

H1 : B1 ≠ 0

" 1  @  0 

H 0 : B0 = 0 

)  @  

: B 0 (% 1      ) ? .      " )       @  0    1   - T   1    #  )      
H1 : B0 ≠ 0

" 1  @  0 

:  "       1   -     " )  " T    !  &       P-Va l u e   2    
. % 5 - M 
  1  )   @   (

. % 1 - M 
  1  )   @   (  

P-Va l u e < 0. 05 %     

P-Va l u e < 0. 01 %     

.  )  @   # 1   >  3

     " )  P-v a l u e  
0 . 0 1    # 2   
0 . 0 0 0 38 + 
  #     " )  P-v a l u e  

=     +     ")      #   )  @   (  

 ,
0 . 0 1   # 2   
0 . 0 0 0 0 2 7 + 
  % 1   

. B  
     )           >  )  
)  #     " )  
, 6    0 !   3 <   
H "        " )  

153 

    B  
 " #     " )   ,  Beta  1  ,   $ 
S ta n d a rd i z ed Co ef f i ci en t  " )     

  + 
  -
 " !       # 1   )  
#              #  ( X − X ) / S     )       #   )    1
.     )  %       x *
yˆ *   7   yˆ * = β x *  "    
B0 ? .     " )  C " 3 B  

:  "   % 1   " % 9 5  9   1    
Pr(62.052 ≤ B0 ≤ 108.036) = 95%

:  "     #     " )  % 9 5   9    1           #     -  #   1 Pr   7  

Pr(.690 ≤ B0 ≤ 1.589) = 95%
>  0    1   - F     !  A C  " 3 #   $ 
ANOVA    1   #  "   #
1 H  )      #
 

 6   - ) #       " )  T    1   - <      a        1   -    
B1 #     " )  1 !     @  0 
.F=T2   <  " 3 (     1     =   
   P-Va l u e   2
ANOVAb
M o d e l
1

R e g r e s s io n
R e s id u a l
T o ta l

S u m o f
S q u a re s
2661.050
622.950
3 284 .000

a . P r e d ic to r s : ( C o n s ta n t) , X
b . D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y

d f

1
8
9

M e a n S q u a re
2661.050
7 7 .869

F
3 4 .17 4

S ig .
.0003 8a

Co ef f i ci en t Of      #    )  

    -  B  
   $ '       @       #
 

     1   #  "   #
  ;    
. B  
    
9
<       1  ) 
R2 D 4   
D eterm i n a ti o n
R2 =

ExplainedVariations SSR 2661.05
=
=
= 0.81
Total Variations
SST
3284

:  "

0 ≤ R2 ≤ 1

+  .   2= )     0 ( Y      2   "  %   - ) %  1    % 8 1   K    0 

 @    ,  %       K    
  E    
$ 3 #  
3 C  ?   %    1     % 19  
   -  B   


    . B  
     
9
C " 3 K  # % 10 0   R2   2 % 1   2    "   
)  C " 3
. B  
  
. #    ")  9  $ A > 0  

r 9   $ A  
 
  1 .   1   .   .  1   -  #   )  r   7  

r = R2

Model Summary
M o d e l
1

R
RS q u a re
.900a
.8 10

a . P r e d ic to r s : ( C o n s ta n t) , X

A d ju s te d
RS q u a re
.7 8 7

S td .E rro r o f
th e E s tim a te
8 .8 2

K       
C   ? 0     D    2  E  B  
" #          H  @ 
D E 1     #   )  H !  

R2 9    4 C  + '     -  B  
C  #            @ A   7   B  
   #           "    

154 

      ,
S S T   "   %  ) 1    N 
 %  1  ?  S S R    = 9   )  %  ) 1    N 
 9   4 ; 1  1

%      # !      !     1  3 -  1   E  +   Ad j u s ted R S q u a re L  !       #   )  ;      

 # 
        ,
% 7 9 #          (L  !     G )     #   )    2   # 2  <    D    2
   
.   
  B  


.     3 9   $       %  $  >     S ta n d a rd E rro r o f E s ti m a te     " +    )   E .     
#      9 
    1
  
$ )  /  .      !

C  "3 

)   $ '    , 9   !

  2 C " 3 #
!    
   - 

.  $  -  #  $ .     -  . 

yˆ            #     1 S ca tterp l o ts   $  -  #  $  
<    1   
$ )  /  .    #  "  

: (    1  %  . .    # !  ?   )  "    
+ 
)   
  C " 3 e s     )   /  .   
      
  
 
   
 
!  , 6   G ra p h s  S ca tter 
S i m p l e        
 .   $   5
. S ca tter   

!

. S ca tterp l o ts 

 Y   C  D   & Zre_ 1         

5

. S PS S Vi ewer $  $   . .     , 6   OK  4   

5

. X   C  D   & Pre_ 1         

. S PS S Ch a rt E d i to r $  $ C  #    =      . .       

    C   Ref eren ce L i n e   @ & Ch a rt  Ref eren ce L i n e        
 .   $  

:  "     . .     , 6   .  0 !  # 
    

5

5

5

1.5

1.0

.5

Standardized Residual

0.0

-.5

-1.0

-1.5
110

120

130

140

150

160

170

Unstandardized Predicted Value

#  "    %   @     
C " 3 #      0 !  # 
+ 
       .   $ #  $ 1 N 4 
 .      6  = 
    -   
-
  
$ )  E .      1  >

155 

  3 "  $    B  
   )  - 7     3 9 
! 1
. C "3  %     2= 3

: 

C  "3

y    )         "           #     1 , 1  $     . 1 <    1   
$ )  /  .    #  "      

D  1

+   Pl o ts   

!

. .   " ;     . .   C  # ! 
     7   + 
)   
  C " 3 e s     )   /  .   
      
 
:  "  
 1  
, 6   L i n ea r Reg res s i o n   

! 

 Pl o ts  4   

:  "  

5

)       ,   %           2     )         +  D E PE ND E NT       #  1   2 

     )   ( 2  
1  ) /   .          "     X          &    C  (<     "  ;     %        F   

! 

 O K  4

!       Co n ti n u e  4   3
Y          &    C  Z R E S I D 

" ! 
+   B     -  > 0 C   
 +  
      $  -  #  $ . .   (

Scatterplot

Regression Standardized Residual

1.5

: 1    . .    # =    D  

Dependent Variable: Y

1.0
.5
0.0
-.5
-1.0
-1.5
110

Y

156 

3    L i n ea r Reg res s i o n

120

130

140

150

160

170

180 

 C 
 :       . 1          (>     ;
" .   )   
$ )  /  .  I  )  1 .  ?  4 
   1     

N 4 
  /   .     E   (-2, 2) M     @ 
 C "3 # 

/  .      % 95 % ) 2
        )   /  .    !  # = 

D 
(-1. 5, 1. 5) M   M )   -     )   /  .      6  =

+    No rm a l p ro b a b i l i ty Pl o t .  .   ( 

    . .      J <  )  1 . 

3   #             .     .   )  1 . N 4 
 /  .   

: 5    1   0  3    . .    ( 

)  7   P l o t   

! 

 F  $ 

Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual
1.00

Dependent Variable: Y

Expected Cum Prob

.75

.50

.25

0.00

0.00

.25

.50

.75

1.00

Observed Cum Prob

/   .  I  )  1 .  ?  4 
 C " 3 #    
       .   ;  2 ?    < 1     .     6 )    6  =

.   
$ ) 

Weighted Least Squares Method  
 
 
( 2 4 10 )

H o m o s ced a s ti ci ty  
$ )  E .      1  > 

 @       3     .  F      

%    1    , 6    <  
Cro s s -S ecti o n D a ta  @  )  ? .    %    1   "  $   F    , 6    < 1  G

.   4  #  =  

Y Q      #      4  ?    4   C K = ,   -     1    9       4   7 
1   <=   6 
  
 1  ! 

  7   Y #   ? 1   ?  < 1      
 ;     
<  1    
 - E .      1   E  D  " 3 

      Wei g h t  4
 #    W = 1 / y 2        1  3      var e = σ 2Y 2  "       
$ )  E .  
C = β 0 + β1Y + e

:       !    E     -  B  

W = 1 / Y       1   )       . L     1    
$ )  E .      1  %  1       &  1  


:     B  
     1  
7  

C B0
e
=
+ B1 +
Y
Y
Y 
   "        ;                B  
   "    
  $ )  E    .             1   
e
1
1 2 2
;  
.    
$ )  E .  " % 1      1  C " 3  " !    +  var =
var e =
σ Y =σ2
Y Y2
Y2

157 

   " )  ?  . #     " )  %  1 !  2 B0  
  B  
   <  1   <  %  1 !  2

B1   6  = 

B      -  " !   B  
     )   F               B  
     )   ;    1  
 S PS S 5    1
H   )      .  F     . %             G
S E E , R 2 ;     
   1   #  "   #

 2 
1 
. G L S   )   M   !  %  ) 1       . 1 < @  

(
4 
 M   !  %  ) 1       . C " 3 ) : 4 #   

#        2
.2 9    30   3       ) y Q     #  
c K = ,   -  #        #


: ( ) 1     ;     w       )  "     S PS S 5    1 D a ta ed i to r $  $ C     
          
c
y
w

10600
108 00
11100
114 00
117 00
12 100
12 3 00
12 600
13 2 00
13 000
13 3 00
13 600
13 8 00
14 000
14 2 00
14 4 00
14 9 00
15 3 00
15 000
15 7 00
164 00
15 9 00
165 00
169 00
169 00
17 5 00
18 100
17 2 00
17 8 00
18 5 00 

 1 >

12 000
12 000
12 000
13 000
13 000
13 000
14 000
14 000
14 000
15 000
15 000
15 000
16000
16000
16000
17 000
17 000
17 000
18 000
18 000
18 000
19 000
19 000
19 000
2 0000
2 0000
2 0000
2 1000
2 1000
2 1000

6. 9 4 4 4 E-09
6. 9 4 4 4 E-09
6. 9 4 4 4 E-09
5 . 9 17 2 E-09
5 . 9 17 2 E-09
5 . 9 17 2 E-09
5 . 102 0E-09
5 . 102 0E-09
5 . 102 0E-09
4 . 4 4 4 4 E-09
4 . 4 4 4 4 E-09
4 . 4 4 4 4 E-09
3 . 9 063 E-09
3 . 9 063 E-09
3 . 9 063 E-09
3 . 4 602 E-09
3 . 4 602 E-09
3 . 4 602 E-09
3 . 08 64 E-09
3 . 08 64 E-09
3 . 08 64 E-09
2 . 7 7 01E-09
2 . 7 7 01E-09
2 . 7 7 01E-09
2 . 5 000E-09
2 . 5 000E-09
2 . 5 000E-09
2 . 2 67 6E-09
2 . 2 67 6E-09
2 . 2 67 6E-09

:  "  ; ".  

   1      OL S     3 -  M   !  %  ) 1       . 1 Y C " 3 C      )  B       .1 

    var e = σ 2Y 2     2 = )  1 Y ?  . 1   
>

.    1          
$ )  E .   

    G   
$ )  E .      1    ( 

    1 .2

.    -  B  
     
4 
 M   !  %  ) 1       .

. 217 .

158 

1982 
    
            

2

: #  

2
 1    #       ) 1    % 
.   > 0 1 OL S    . 1 .   1   .      -  B  
        .1
:     B  
 C  # ! 
  

R 2 = 0.97
Cˆ = 1408.0 + 0.788Yd
(4 4 9. 6) (0. 27)
E  .       1  >    3 "  $ 

  1   - .   )  " +    )   E .   #    > 
2   #     2   
/   .   
   $  -  #  $       
  C " 3 Cˆ   )        "  ' 1       #     1  
<    1   
$ ) 
:     % 
.   ? 1  K    0  J S ta n d a rd i z ed Res i d u a l s + 
)   
  C " 3     )  

L i n ea r 
 !

L   0    
 .   $   An a l yz e  Reg res s i o n 

      $  
!       S a v e 
! 

   "          5    1  ( 

L i n ea r 

 

L  0 
!       S a v e  4      Reg res s i o n

5 

)    Pred i cted Va l u es #      U n s ta n d a rd i z ed
S ta n d a rd i z ed        $    ( Pre-1   E 1 $  $     , 6  ) D a ta ed i to r $  $   Cˆ   )   
 
 
 !

. ( Zre-1   E 1  , 6  )     )   /  .    5    1  ( 

)    Res i d u a l s #      

 , 6   G ra p h s  S ca tter  S i m p l e         
  .    $   

:  "     
!     ;        S ca tterPl o ts
. Y-a xi s #   C  Zre-1       #  

. X-Axi s #   C  Pre-1       #  
. OK  4   

5



:  "    
D  A Ref eren ce L i n e   @ A ) 1     . .     , 6  
3

2

1

Standardized Residual

0

-1

-2
-3

10000

12000

14000

Unstandardized Predicted Value

16000

18000

20000

E .      1  9   4   <   3      K    
 0 !  # 
  6   1 N 4 
 -   $  -  #  $ .     6  =
.  ,   )  ; 

E .      1  >    3 "  $ 

C    $     Yˆ %  4   "    
$ ) 

159 

 1. 

 "  var e = σ 2Y 2     2 = )  1 Y #            ?  . 1    E .      1    (      1 .2 
   ;    1  

W = 1 / y 2    1   ;
"   

 4
 
4 
 M   !  %  ) 1       .
F = 3  #
      D a ta E d i to r $  $ C  D    @ A
Tra n s f o rm
 ) 1 L i n ea r Reg res s i o n   

! 

Co m p u te     1       

, 6  7    .      -  /    % 
.  > 0  1 . 

:  "   D 1 

. WL S  4   ) 1 WL S Wei g h t     W  4
      #   P 1   2   6  :     B      , 6  OK  4   3

5

Coefficientsa,b

M o d e l
1

( C o n s ta n t)
Y D

U n s ta n d a r
C o e ffic ie
B
S
1421.278
.79 2

d iz e d
n ts
td . E r r o r
3 9 5 .49 6
.0 25

S ta n d a r d i
z e d
C o e ffic ie n
ts
Be ta
.9 86

a . D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : C
b . W e i g h te d L e a s t S q u a r e s R e g r e s s i o n - W e i g h te d b y W

t
3 .5 9 4
3 1.5 11

S ig .
.0 0 1
.0 0 0

:  "    
4 
 M   !  %  ) 1       . 1 9      )   1       

Cˆ = 1421.278 + 0.792Yd
R 2 = 0.97
(3 95. 4 96) (0. 25)
N 4 
  %    1       E  "     )   /  .    1           2 = )   $  -  #  $       # 


.  
$ )  E .      1  %  1      1
 0 !  # 
    .   $ #  $ 1 

 
   ( 3– 4 10 )

:       !    )   .   B  
   E 
y = β 0 + β1X 1 + β 2 X 2 + ... + β k X k + e

16 0 

 7 

. % 1      #    : β0
.   4  # 
  
Pa rti a l reg res s i o n Co ef f i ci en ts   4     -  % =   )  : β1, β 2 ,..., β k

.   
$ )  E .   : e 

  "      %        3 #    K) P = K+1 
  )   .   B  
   )  3  
 7  

. (B  
 

3  @   K  C  H  @  .   1  B  
 %   @    ,  0   )     .   B  
 %   @    

. (M u l ti co l l i n ea ri ty) "      %          1 )    .  .  1   

1   ) x1  3   4     "   )  9 
 1 
D a ta

y
6
8
8
7
7
12
9
8
9
10
10
11
9
10
11

?  ( -
H  ) y  0  #    @       #


: 5  

$  $   %    1  % "   2
.19 8 13   
15  x2     "   " )   % 
 .  

(  

x1
9
10
8
7
10
4
5
5
6
8
7
4
9
5
8

:     #
      E d i to r

x2
8
13
11
10
12
16
10
10
12
14
12
16
14
10
12

: ;
" .  

. 5        0 
x2
x1 C " 3 y      )  ;   

. % =   )   
)    1   
ANOVA    1   #  "   #
  


. D W !  A     1 #  "      . 1 -  " $   1  

 
 
! 

, 6   An a l yz e 

:     % 
.   ? 1  9  
   ;   .     0 

Reg res s i o n 

L i n ea r 

      
 .   $  

:      ;    +   L i n ea r Reg res s i o n

. D ep en d en t   C  D "  
Y         

. I n d ep en d en t   C    , "  
X1, X2          $ 

. E n ter     3 -     .       -     . N
   E  M eth o d    

. 17 2 

16 1

.1

.2

.3
5



• 

1982 
             

3

7   Statistics  

! 

, 6   L ine ar

Re g r e ssio n  

! 

 Statistics   

:  "     #   $ E  1  

.     %  /  !  & 
B  
   )    : E stim ate
:    5   (

.D W

.A N O V A
R2   : M o d e l Fit

   !  A ;    : D u r b in - W atso n 

3    L ine ar r e g r e ssio n  

! 

 O K 

4  3 

Model Summaryb
M o d e l
1

R
.833a

RS q u a re
.6 9 3

a . P r e d ic to r s : ( C o n s ta n t) , X 2 , X 1
b . D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y

A d ju s te d
RS q u a re
.6 4 2

S td .E rro r o f
th e E s tim a te
1.0 1

D u r b in - W
a ts o n
.9 4 6

Coefficientsa

M o d e l
1

( C o n s ta n t)
X 1
X 2

a . D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : Y

U n s ta n d a r d i z e d
C o e f f i c i e n ts
B
S td . E r r o r
6.203
1.8 62
- .37 6
.133
.4 5 3
.120

S ta n d a r d i
z e d
C o e ffic ie n
ts
Be ta
- .4 61
.615

t
3.331
- 2.8 34
3.7 8 6

S ig .
.006
.015
.003

:  "     )      -  B  
1     )     
yˆ = 6.203 − 0.376 X 1 + 0.453 X 2
R 2 = 0.64
(1.862) (0.133)
(0.120) 
       %1   1 3  4    "   )  M 
 1  9   4   C   $  X1       " ) 

9    4      X2      %  1  (

J X1      %  1  ( 

   1 -
37 6   1 0  #      !  C  + '  "   )  M 
 

   1 -
453   1 0  #  9   4 C  + '  9  
   " )   % 
 .  

. B  
" .  
    
9
C A  $  R 2   2      

   SST  "   %     -  %  ) 1  N 
 #  "   
   1   #  "   #
;      (

E .   

 

  

%   ) 1  N 

SSR   = 9   )  %  ) 1   N 
 C  ∑ ( y − y ) 2   )       
:      @ 0   1       ,   0       F    !  A ;            . SSE
H 0 : β1 = β 2 = 0

H1 : β1 ≠ β 2 ≠ 0

:        1   #  "   #
C " 3 #
!      . B0 ? .     " )  #  $  - F  1      6  -

162

ANOVAb
M o d e l
1

Re g r e s s i o n
Re s i d u a l
T o ta l

Su m o f
Sq u a r e s
(SSR)27.728
(SSE )12.272
(SST )4 0

a . P r e d i c t o r s : (C o n s t a n t ), X 2, X 1
b . D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y

d f
(p - 1) 2
(n - p ) 12
(n - 1) 14

P-V al u e = 0.001< 0.05    2  .   )   

M e a n Sq u a r e
(M SR) 13 .86 4
(M SE ) 1.0 23

F
13 .5 5 7
F = M SR/ M SE

Si g .
.0 0 1a

#   n
 )   3 #  
P = 3   7  

 "                
+ 
)     -    +  %5 - M 
  1  )   @  ( 

 C  
3 

H  "    B2
B1    -     " )    # 2   C " 3 9  
  
  -  C " 3 +
)    E    ,   )   
. 0 !   3 < 
) 

#
 ) t   1    C   E "   0  9 
! 1   )        C " 3 #        #    E   ) 

D  " 3
%5 - M 
  1 X2
X1   #  #       " )  
)  L @   D 
(C " 3     C o e f f icie nts
.   -  B  
    ,   1 P 1 C ! 

   '         =  

     1
%5  - M 
   1    
$ )  /   .  I       .  1  - 

 1    3
.   
$ )  /  .      ; 
    .  1  

C   $  1 
   D W

   !  A    p = 3
n =15

(   B  
# @        ?  /  .   )   "  $ 

 1    ) :6 #   

 2 
  % "     
X1, X2, X3 "     %      
Y   )          @   4    #

Y
43
63
71
61
81
44
58
71
72
67
64
69
68

X1
5
9
10
8
11
12
9
7
8
13
4
10
11

X2
3
5
7
4
6
5
4
7
5
8
5
9
10

X3
18
27
34
24
33
22
28
32
23
20
21
36
30

:  "     D ata E d ito r

X4
12
9
11
10
6
8
9
7
8
5
4
10
11

. )     .     -   )  

. "     %         1 M u l tico l l ine ar ity  .   )   "  $ 

1   
. Ste pwise Re g r e ssio n ;
"  E 1     )  # @   

:     % 
.   ? 1  #          
# 
   1
" .     0 

.2 7 7 "

163 

1988    

     
      

.1

.2

.3

.1 

!       

                   .

4 

  
 ! 

, 6   A nal y ze  Re g r e ssio n  

     
 .  $  

L ine ar

5

:      ;   +   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n

. D e pe nd e nt   C  D "  
Y      $ 

. I nd e pe nd e nt   C   , "  
X1, X2, X3 %       $ 

. E nte r     3 -   .      -   . N
   E  M e th o d    

Statistics  
 
! 

, 6   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n  

!



• 

 Statistics 4   

"     #   $ E  1  
7  

5

.     %  /  !  & 
B  
   )    : E stim ate

.A N O V A
R2   : M o d e l Fit

. .  1  -  % =   )    : Par t &

.  .   )   " $  R

:    5   (

Par tial C o r r e l atio ns 

 $  : C o l l ine ar ity D iag no stics 

3    L ine ar r e g r e ssio n  

! 

 O K 

4  3 

Model Summary
M o d e l
1

A d ju s te d
RS q u a re
.4 84

R
RS q u a re
.810a
.6 5 6

a . P r e d i c t o r s : ( C o n s t a n t ) , X 4 , X 1, X 3 , X 2

S td .E rro r o f
th e E s tim a te
7 .7 2

Coefficientsa

U n s ta n d a r d i z
e d
C o e f f i c i e n ts
M o d e l
1

( C o n s ta n t)
X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4

B

47.06
- .43
1.19
1.15
- 2 .03

a . D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b le : Y

0
9
3
8

S td .
E rro r

13 .0

1.010
1.48 6
.476
.9 5 0

S ta n
d a rd
iz e d
C o e f
fic ie
n ts
Be ta
- .104
.2 3 2
.63 1
- .462

t

S ig .

- .42 5
.8 07
2 .42 3
- 2 .1

.68 2
.443
.042
.064

3 .611

.007

Z e ro o rd e r

C o lli n e a r i ty
S ta ti s ti c s

C o r r e la ti o n s

.2 10
.5 40
.63 4
- .3 3 1

P a r ti a
l

- .149
.2 74
.65 1
- .604

P a rt

Tolerance

- .08 8
.167
.5 02
- .445

.713
.5 2 0
.63 3
.9 2 8

:  "     )      -  B  
 )  1       
yˆ = 47.06 − 0.43 X 1 + 1.199 X 2 + 1.153 X 3 − 2.038 X 4
R 2 = 0.48
(13)
(1.01)
(1.486)
(0.476)
(0.950) 
  !    , 3 E  $         2   9  
9 
   2 9   4   C   $  X1       " )   
  1   0      .  > 0 1
. X3
X2

164 

      %  1  ( 

   1 9 
0.430   1   )       
. B  
   ) 

V IF
1.403
1.9 2 5
1.5 8 0
1.077

 
)  % , 6 2 .  X3       " )    t    !  &     P-v al u e   2 # =   
6  = 
<  1 

@ 0    L  !       #   )    2      . (% 1       " )  C    @ &  1 ) %5 - M 
  1

. 9  9 
! 1  .   2 = )   3 1 )  - B  
   C   $ 
:  "    
%  .  1  -    N 
  =  B        

.   )       
#            1  
 1 .   1  .  1  -  #   )  : Z e r o -o r d e r C o r r e l atio n

%        %  1  1 ) #         
  )          1   4  .  1  -  #   )  : Par tial C o r r e l atio n
. (M    "    

%            ) 1    1 #         
  )          1 / 4  .  1  -  #   )  :Par t C o r r e l atio n
. .  #           3 "    

  )       
"     %         #    1   4  %  .  1  -    )  )      -  B  
 

D  "  t    !  &   2 C " 3  D  
 D  " 3
  )        ?    4 .  1   #   )  C " 3  D X3   6  =

.  )   

   
#            1 .   1  .  1  -  #   )  .   1    -  B  
  )       X4 

  #  To l e r ance #   )   ;      1       )     .   .  1  -  "  $  R   $  ( 
To l e r ance = 1-   7   "     %      
#    )  ? 1  #    R 2 
 7   R2
X i .others
X i .others

#        #  V I F #   )  B       . "     %        1
i #            1 )    .  1  - 
1 
 E   <      #    )       1  )  . VIF = 
 7   (V ar iance I nf l atio n Facto r )
Tolerance
N  0   1  .   )   "  $  4     ) #           " )     1  9   4 C " 3 "     %         1 .  1  -  
         G   1 t    !  A   2 ( 

0     
)   " )   
, 6  3     1
B  
   )     1  

5   3  4  "     %         V I F #   )    2 C " 3 #
!     . (B  
   <  ,   
 2 

 $  B  
 %      V I F   2  ,  .   )   "  $  1  E        " )       C   $  10


0  !     X )   .    )   "  $  R

,  .   )   "  $  1  ,  +   E   3 C  

 $    X ′X 
0 !  9 4      
     

 )   "   $  C  " 3 #     ,  0 !    1  2 9 4     
9 3

   0  ( "     %      

C o nd itio n     #   1 H )    #  )    "     %         1  .  .  1  

 1   - .  .  
<=    9 4       
   #  C " 3

4     1     2 # !    )  1      3 9  1 3 

I nd e x

:  "   % 1   " #     ;   

Condition Index =

4.813
=1
4.813

:  "     ;     X1     " 1   1

condition Index =

165

4.813
= 7.020
0.09868 

3 %  4   A   .  .   )   "  $ 

    A C " 3 $ '    ,  15  3 #     2 %  4    


    A +  16   #  "   2 1     6  = 

       1  1   

   #
   . "  $   9 
.  C " 3 $ '    ,  30
. " $  

#    

V ar iance Pr o po r tio n  1 H )    
"  $  "    >    

"   $   1  )  7    4     #       Pr incipl e C o m po ne nt        
  .  
1  0   
     <  1 

? 0   C o nd itio n I nd e x   #              
       A 9  '   .   )  

>              
   #          . "     %            
       1         9 
! 1

C  " 3  1  #  $ 1 9  '   .   )   "  $  1  )  -   ,
.  X3         1    9  1  9 
! 1     

:     #
   L @ 

  
%    1 

Collinearity Diagnosticsa

M o d e l
1

D im e n s io n
1
2
3
4
5

E ig e n v a lu e
4.813
9 .7 6 8E - 0 2
4.345E - 0 2
2.9 0 7 E - 0 2
1.6 6 9 E - 0 2

a . D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y 

  
!

C o n d itio n
In d e x
1.0 0 0
7 .0 20
10 .525
12.86 8
16 .9 83

V a r ia n c e P r o p o r tio n s
(C o n s ta n t)
X 1
X 2
X 3
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 6
.17
.0 0
.0 1
.7 1
.29
.0 8
.30
.0 5
.26
.22
.6 8
.18
.28
.7 0

X 4
.0 0
.35
.0 1
.6 3
.0 1

:  "    
)      =     3 -  % 
.   ? 1  #       7    ;
" .    0  
, 6   A nal y ze 

Re g r e ssio n 

L ine ar 

     
 .  $  

:      ;   +   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n

. D e pe nd e nt   C  D "  
Y      $ 

. I nd e pe nd e nt   C   , "  
X1, X2, X3 %       $ 

B  
 #  @       -     %      , 6   # 0  I D     ,     M e th o d    



:   

. (  -    0  +    3 -  ;
"    )   -  B  
C  "     %          #   A : E nte r

 ) 1     ?   B  
  C  A "   "    % 
.  1    ) 1 <  
%       #   A : Ste pwise

. %        1

1 9  '   G L 1 !     %      

. B  
   9  
9
.  1  ,    G %        ) 1    : Re m o v e

. "  "    % 
.  1    ) 1 <  
9  '    G %        ) 1    : Back war d

L 1  !     %        ) 1       -
B  
 C     ) 1 <  
%       #   A : Fo r war d

. B  
   ) 1     9  '   G

. ( .  # @   1  )  ) Ste pwise   -   . N
  

166

5

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

Statistics  
 
! 

, 6   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n  

! 

 Statistics 4   

"     #   $ E  1  
7   

.     %  /  !  & 
B  
   )    : E stim ate 
 
O ptio ns  

!

. A N O V A
R2   : M o d e l Fit 

, 6   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n  

! 

 O ptio ns 4  

:  " 

 ) 1    
#   A  , 1 
1       F   2 

)   M 
     C  Ste pwise  . B    

:             ; 
1 K 
Ste pping M e th o d cr ite r ia #    . B  
   %      

#    & 9 
.  #            +   
)   M 
     : U se Pr o b ab il ity o f F •

 ) 1     - M 
    # 2   
   ;  %       #   & -  M 
   
%        ) 1    

1   3  ) 1   - . E ntr y   2   4 B  
      %         @  . D   
  
%      
. Re m o v al   2   # " 2 B  
   %         


%         ) 1   
#   & 9
.  #          +   F   2    : U se F V al u e • 

   %         @  . %        ) 1   - F   2   C " 3   
   ;  %       #   & F   2

   2    4 B  
     %          1   3  ) 1   - . E ntr y   2   # " 2 B  
  
. Re m o v al

+    Par tial F Te st    4  F  1    
%        ) 1   
#             1   -    

    .  9  
 " )  
)   1            
B  
   )    / 4 
)   1           

E $ 1  2 C  # ! 
  B  
 C  #           , 0  @     %  ) 1   N 
 
)   1   -   

1    #   )        t  1   - <     <       
 F  1   -         " 3 J B  
   D   1 
F  ) 1   

. .  9  
 " )  
)   1   - F

0.10
#    O 0.05 +  U se Pr o b ab il ity o f F # 
     "   @    -         3  

. ) 1 =

167

:    5   ( 

3    L ine ar r e g r e ssio n  

! 

 O K 

4  3 

Variables Entered/Removeda
M o d e l
1

V a r ia b le s
E n te re d

V a r ia b le s
R e m o v e d

X3

.

2
X4

.

a . D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y

S te
P ro
< =
P ro
e >
S te
P ro
< =
P ro
e >

M e
is e ( C
b ility - o
0 ,
b ility - o
= .10 0 ) .
p w
b a
.0 5
b a

th o d
r ite r ia :
f-F -to -e n te r
f-F -to -re m o v

p w
b a
.0 5
b a

is e ( C r ite r ia :
b ility - o f- F - to - e n te r
0 ,
b ility - o f- F - to - r e m o v
= .10 0 ) . 

 <   " 3 B  
  C      ) 1 <  
) 1   %       #       Ste pwise

 . ; 
1

. M    %      

1 D  
)   3 %  1    A  =  % 
.      ) 1   = @ 3 #        

   )        ?  .   1 .  1   #   )  1   D   B  
 C  "    %       # 
X3    

  2   6   =

C o e f f icie nts     =  #
       . t      !  &     2   1         1 

 ,
( E ntr y #   O -  M 
  ) 0.05   # 2   
0.02 + 
  t    !  &     P-V al u e

D  " 3
(   4  F  1    <     a       F  "  )    +   t  1      6  - ) B  
 C  X3 #   P 1 L   

:  "     C 
 9
.     B  
 L 1 ! 

yˆ = 33.007 + 1.158 X 3

%   1  1    )        ?    4 .  1   #   )  C " 3  D +        #   A        9
.    

#
    ) D T    !  A ;    1      
)     E   <- 
;   
X4      

X3     

( E ntr y #   O -  M 
  )0.05   # 2   
0.033 + 
  t    !  &     P-V al u e   = 

:     #  $  C " 3 L 1 !  B  
 C  X4 #   P 1 L      , 

yˆ = 46.152 + 1.345 X 3 − 2.147 X 4 

1        +  X4
X3       " t    !  & # 2      

-  M 
  ) 0.10   # 2   
0.033 + 
 

F = 3  B  
  

X4    " %   2
t    !  &     P-V al u e

. B  
          =  C 1    ,
( Re m o v al  ) 1   =

X2
X1          @   -
   B  
# @   #   
   ,  B  
 
F = 3  B  
  

. 0.05 - M 
  1   )        1 .  1   C " 3  D +        
)  , 6   7  

.    ,  B  
 C  #
!
       1         B       1      #


168

Coefficientsa

M o d e l
1
2

( C o n s ta n t)
X 3
( C o n s ta n t)
X 3
X 4

S ta n d a r d i
z e d
C o e ffic ie n
ts
Be ta

U n s ta n d a r d i z e d
C o e f f i c i e n ts
B
S td . E r r o r
33.007
11.6 4 8
1.15 8
.4 26
4 6 .15 2
11.011
1.34 5
.36 0
- 2.14 7
.8 71

.6 34
.737
- .4 8 6

a . D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : Y

(   ,  )     B  
 (2)

t
2.8 34
2.720
4 .19 1
3.735
- 2.4 6 6

S ig .
.016
.020
.002
.004
.033

# 
 B  
 (1)

t2    1         E  Ste pping M e th o d C r ite r ia   U se F V al u e          : 6  = 

# 
 1 L  

t2 > F (E nte r ) %  

. B  
        /  1 1 L   

 A     #   A )   ) 1   - 
#   O F    !  & 9       

t2 > F(Re m o v e ) %     A     B   A 3 . B  
 C      

:    
# 
    
   #       ) 1         %         1      #

Excluded Variablesc

M o d e l
1
2

X 1
X 2
X 4
X 1
X 2

B e ta I n
.027a
.26 7a
- .4 8 6 a
- .012b
.175 b

t

.108
.9 4 1
- 2.4 6 6
- .05 8
.721

S ig .
.9 16
.3 6 9
.03 3
.9 5 5
.4 8 9

a . P r e d i c to r s i n th e M o d e l : ( C o n s ta n t) , X 3
b . P r e d i c to r s i n th e M o d e l : ( C o n s ta n t) , X 3 , X 4
c . D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : Y

P a r ti a l
C o r r e l a ti o n
.03 4
.28 5
- .6 15
- .019
.23 4

C o llin e a r it
y
S ta ti s ti c s
T o le r a n c e
.9 15
.6 8 2
.9 5 5
.9 09
.6 6 3

.  =  9
.     B  
 C  #  
        "    )    " )   #    Be ta in   7  

169 




  
  

Factor Analysis 

  ( 1– 11)

  
 3
'    
    Facto r s #  
)    3 
    C   "   )  #  "     . H , 

Re spo nse

V ar iab l e s 1    -  %         1  3   
 3 
   V ar iatio ns %   =   -  

3 1 )    < 1  G
Facto r s 9      #  
)    3     9   $   %        3  1 )       7   

  1  2 = )   
 7   . 9      #  
)    L ine ar C o m po u nd s  .  ;     1    -  %     

. M   #  
3   %       ?  2 = )    M
2   
 #   )  #   %      

#   " 2 3 # =    K  $      1   
.  1  -  
0 !  ;     ,  C " 3 3     "   )  #  "     

. #  
)   

Principal Components Method  
          
 ( 211) 

 .          E 
 "   )  #  "     .      9  
        %  
   .  
Re spo nse

. , .  1

1     -  %          .  ;     3 9  1 3 
(#   )  
)        
   

:  "     D 3 1 )  # 
        
   E  1    -  %        p      1  3  1 . V ar iab l e s
Z1 = a11 X 1 + a 21 X 2 + ....... + a p1 X p 

          
    . # 
 #   )  1 1    -  %      L o ad ing s %  ) 1 $  #    aij   7  

Z 2 = a12 X 1 + a 22 X 2 + ....... + a p 2 X p
( 1    -  %      %    1   #      1 

:  "     D 3 1 )   

1    0  ) V ar iance    1   6 3  D # 
  
    

   
O r th o g o nal   ,  1     9   )    
 %  
  F    
.    
..…            
  D  " 
:     . 1 %  
  ;    

 
1     -  %      V ar iance -C o v ar iance M atr ix

K  $      1   
0 !  #   )   

.1

%  .  1  -  
0 !  #   )   

.2

. X − X  1     . 
  3 %     -  1 D     
 %        E     F  

#  )       F    
1    -  %      C o r r e l atio n M atr ix
>     %  
H =        <   
@

K   

Stand ar d ize d

V ar iab l e s    )   %      
. 1    -  %     

: 1 # 

17 0

r e g io ns  .     ;     $  )   M 
     3    -  %       (

) 1 #      %  1 

5    1 D ata E d ito r  $  $    ,   A ) 1  "     , 6    
19 7 7    )    (%  6      )
Re g io n
g d p
D o h o k
17.2
N ine v e h
24.0
A r b il
22.2
Su l ay m an
16.2
Ta' m e e m
32.3
Sal ah A L -D e e n
98.4
D ial a
23.1
A nb ar
22.7
Bag h d ad
75.0
W asit
19.5
Bab y l o n
22.8
K e r b al a
21.5
N aj af
18.7
Q ad isia
21.0
M u th ana
21.3
Th i-Q ar
18.1
M ay san
20.4
Basr ah
19.0
#    l ite r acy     
 3    -   

l ite r acy
30.1
44.2
35.2
33.5
49.4
37.9
44.1
44.3
61.6
36.7
44.1
47.7
46.2
35.2
33.5
33.8
34.4
53.6  
%    

h ig h e d u c
1.09
1.85
1.18
1.01
1.85
1.32
1.93
1.58
4.04
1.11
1.82
1.53
1.59
.95
.84
.73
.90
2.24
0  ;  ! #

d o cto r s
17
14
13
10
18
15
10
16
36
28
18
24
27
9
18
12
11
25
)  #   g d p

h o spb e d
139
172
163
115
143
80
153
144
280
199
145
173
190
195
178
144
301
219 
      7  

: SPSS 

  " 3 9  ,  $ C  " 3   " !   "  
  1   #    h ig h e d u c     
 1        " )   "  
  1  

9     3 #     h o spb e d      
       100000 #  /  1 .   3 #    d o cto r s     

.        100000 #  %   0 $    

.       %  
   .       1 9  
   %      " %  .  1  -  #    #  "   ; " .  

! 

, 6   A nal y ze 

D ata Re d u ctio n 

:     % 
.   ? 1  K    0 

Facto r 

     
 .  $  

:  "     D 1   +   Facto r A nal y sis  

.                   

17 1

Re g io n       


:      
 
! 

, 6  D e scr iptiv e s 4  3

5

:        2   @  +  

Stand ar d

:  "      @  
Statistics

J M e an #    %      " .   1  %     !  &  (

)1 (

.1 

) 
: u niv ar iate d e scr iptiv e s

(      
)       
 J C o m m u nal itie s %      $ =  
     (

… D e v iatio n 

) 
: I nitial so l u tio n

.  0      1  "  
  1  
E ig e n V al u e s

9     J  
)   M 
   J %  .  1  -  % =   )  
0 !  
    
 
! 

, 6 

( 

)  : C o r r e l atio n M atr ix

.2 

 E x tr actio n 4   3

5

.I nv e r se %  .  1  -  
0 !  > 
) 

Facto r A nal y sis  

!

: "     D 1   +  

:     #  !  0   
!    @   

  @   )       %  
   .     #          #  "      1
" .    .      - : M e th o d

. ( "   )  #  "     .    . ) 1  5   1 

    <   
@

17 2

:  "      @  
: A nal y se

K   

 
  %      " %  .  1  -  
0 !  #  "      : C o r r e l atio n M atr ix

. 
$   %      " >     %  
H =   

   3     
 
  %      " K  $      1  
   1   
0 !  #  "      : : co v ar iance

M atr ix

. >     %  
> 0  ,  
  %             K 

:  "    
(#  
)  
) %  
  R

=    -   1
"     @  
: E x tr actio n  

  1 ) < @   H )  
    
 ,          %  
  R

=        : E ig e nv al u e s O v e r

. (  
+ 
  ; " G   C " 3 )  0          )    2  3  4  ( 9 4    

.  0     # 1 2     3   (#  
)  )%  
      )  3 R

  4 =     4  
 %  
.  ) C " 3        : M ax im u m 

Facto r M atr ix 9 
   G #  
)  1 %       %  ) 1 $  (

.       %  
   . #  )  

=        : N u m b e r o f Facto r s
I te r atio n f o r C o nv e r g e nce

. #  C  #
!
"

:  "      @   : D ispl ay 

3    U nr o tate d f acto r so l u tio n 
 C o m po ne nt M atr ix #         

  #      +   !   
      
   2       
  #    . .   (
Ro tatio n  
 
 ! 

,  ( 

, 6  Facto r A nal y sis 

! 

3    : Scr e e Pl o t

. E ig e n V al u e s     

 Ro tatio n 4  3

5 

      .    
   
   7    
   
  .    C " 3 + 
  

      .
  # 1 2 D  " 3       !  9   !  %  ) 1 $  
1   9  1   (L o ad ing s)%  ) 1 $   # ) 

.    0  K    
 -    % -       0 !  %  ) 1 $      4 
1    %  ) 1 $     # "   

J D ir e ct O b l im in J V ar im ax )   

 "  .    5   1   

. ? 1 $  " 1    9  $ O 

    3 +  N o ne      -   $  #          . ( Pr o m ax J E q u am ax J Q u ar tim ax
Facto r Sco r e s  

! 

, 6  Facto r A nal y sis  

!

.  
   

 Sco r e s 4  3

5

:  "  

:     %  0  
!    @   

      ) Facto r Sco r e s#   
)  ;    1 5   1   
        $ E  3 : Sav e as V ar iab l e s
D ata E d ito r  $  $    9

 %           C  %  
  F   H  @ 
(       %  
  #     

    .  ;       3 9   1 3 
#                 
  
Facto r Sco r e #   )    <  " 3 

    "   #  
)  3 ) i  2  (       
  ) #   )  ;       
Z Sco r e s    )   %      
:      )   ; 
1 ( p + 
 
%       3  1

17 3

p
Fi = ∑ wij z j
j =1

( j = 1,2,... p )
:  7 

Facto r Sco r e s C o e f f icie nts #  
)  % =   )   
  4 
 #    : w J    )   %       #    : z

:          $ E  3  ,  " 3 # ! 

.    ! "      #   
)  ( 

)  5   1    <  " 3 D ispl ay Facto r Sco r e C o e f f icie nt M atr ix

. , =  ) 

1    1    (A nd e r so n-Ru b in J Bar tl e ttJ Re g r e ssio n)  .  =  1 #  
)  ;       :   

. % =   )  "  
D   K     7      $ E  3 5     > 0  . )   =    .   E  %  
 "

 
  % -     ) 1      6  Facto r

      ) C o m po ne nts M atr ix

A nal y sis  

! 

 O ptio n 4  .  
1    

%  
  
0 !    %  ) 1 $   ;    K  
9 
0    2 C " 3

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