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Safety and Environmental Vapor

Control Equipment
Manufacturing and Engineering

Safety & Environmental Vapor Control
What are the Differences Between Flame Arrestor Products?
What are Tank Vents and What Influences Their Use?
What is Tank Blanketing?

Three Basic Arrestor Types

End-of Line Arrestor
At the End of a Pipe
Inline Deflagration Arrestor
Limits on Run-Up Distance, Obstructions
and Bends
Detonation Arrestor
Stable DFA has Installation Limits
NOTE: Unstable DFA may be located anywhere
in Piping System


Confined Deflagration/Detonation

Flame Velocity Profile

Pressure Front Profile

Unconfined/Low to Medium Pressure

Element Designed for Low to Medium

Pressure Deflagration Flame Front

High Pressure Deflagration/Detonation

Multiple Element With Patented Diverter

Screens For Better Heat Transfer Characteristics,
To Extinguish High Velocity Flame Fronts,
Including Detonation. Also Absorbs Momentum Energy.

Industry Standards
EN 12874 ATEX
United States Coast Guard USCG
Factory Mutual FM
ISO-EN 16852
API 2000 Compliance

Flame Arrestor Selection Basics

First, Determine The Location Of All Potential Ignition Sources
Second, Evaluate The System To Determine Exactly What Should Be
Third, Place The Arrestor Device Between Potential Ignition Source And
The Item To Be Protected.

Flame Arrestor Options

Differential Pressure
Drain Ports

Relief Valve Products (Breather Vents,

Pressure Vacuum Relief
Valves (Breather Vents)

Emergency Pressure
Relief Valves

Standards Scope
API 2000 Covers the Normal and Emergency Venting Requirements
for Aboveground Liquid Petroleum Product Storage Tanks and
Underground Refrigerated Storage Tanks
Designed for Operation at Pressures from Vacuum through 15 psig.
API 12F Provides Information for Venting Requirements for Both
Normal Venting and Emergency Venting for Shop Built Welded
Atmospheric Storage Tanks

Key Issues
Tank Venting Products should
Protect the tank from over pressure and
over vacuum conditions during normal day-to-day operations
Protect the tank from emergency conditions such as ruptured heating
coil or fire
Provide tight sealing at normal operating pressures
Meet increasing regulation and environmental concerns

How Could This Happen?

Or This?

Pressure Relief for Pipe-Away PVRV

Tank Vapors

Vacuum Relief for Pipe-Away PVRV

Atmospheric Air

Combination Vent Valve & Flame Arrestor

Provides Flame
Protection and

Dead Weight Emergency Pressure Relief

Vent with Spring Loaded Vacuum Port
The Weight of Lid
Determines the
Pressure Setting
Spring Selection
Vacuum Setting

Model A Deadweight Hatch / 920 Stack

Vent Valve
2 Stack Vent Valve

Model A Deadweight
Thief Hatch

ES-660 Hatch / 950 PVRV / 2000 EPRV

Model 950
Pressure / Vacuum Vent
Series 2000
Emergency Vent

ES-660 Thief Hatch

850 Pipe-Away Vent / 2000 Emergency


Series 850
Pipe-Away Vent
Series 2000
Emergency Vent

950 Pressure / Vacuum Valve and 8 API

Adapter with ES-660 & 2000 EPRV

Tank Blanketing Products

Fisher Regulator
Type 1190

Type ACE95jr

Type T205/T205B

Type ACE95

Type Y693

Tank Blanketing

Tank Blanketing is the process of using an inert gas at very low pressures to keep
atmospheric air out of the vapor space in a storage tank.
The main reasons to use Tank Blanketing are:
Product Quality
Tank Integrity
Key markets/applications:
Oil & Gas
Food & Beverage

Tank Pressure Control

Air & moisture can enter tank

Volatile emissions can escape from

Tanks are not sealed enclosures

Air & moisture can enter the tank
During temperature decreases and pump-out operations
To prevent this, a slight positive pressure can be applied
inside the tank (gas blanketing)
Pressure Regulators are the normal, accepted device
for this type of service.
Volatile emissions can escape from tank
During temperature increases and pump-in operations
To prevent this, pressure relief can be used
Relief gas can be sent to an environmental device before
discharge to atmosphere

How is the Vapor Space Pressure

Controlled in a Gas Blanketed Tank

Through a combination of make-up pressure and pressure relief devices


Pressure Reducing Regulator


Conservation Vents (Self and Pilot Operated)

Pressure Relief Regulators (Self and Pilot Operated)

Make-up pressure

Pressure relief

How Do These Systems Work Together on

a Gas Blanketed Tank?

Make-up pressure and pressure relief work together with Emergency Venting through establishing proper setpoints for

Setpoints for pressure relief are higher than those for make-up pressure to minimize blanketing gas usage

Emergency Venting (pressure/vacuum) values are set outside of the normal operating range of operation

Set to protect tank structure in event of a upset condition

Setpoints should not overlap for proper operation!

The result will be decreased device cycling, less blanketing gas consumption, and less venting

Best Practices in
Protection and
Tank Safety

Solving Backpressure Issues on

Rupture Disks
Relief Valve Isolation with
Rupture Disks
Jay Baker
BS&B Safety Systems
Sales Manager Engineering Firms

What is a Rupture Disk?

A non-reclosing pressure relief
device designed to activate at a
specified pressure, thus protecting
the vessel and personnel
A designed weak point in a system
The last line of defense in pressure

What is a Safety Head?

A Safety Head is rupture disk holder
A Safety Head is designed for
compatibility with its rupture disk
The Safety Head clamps the disk into the
piping scheme to ensure proper
Not all rupture disks require a safety head

Solving Backpressure Issues

on Rupture Disks

Typical Pressure Protection

Tank has a MAWP
Rupture disk is set at or
below tank MAWP
No backpressure
Venting to atmosphere
Venting to catch tank

Tank is protected

Rupture disk

Concerns with Backpressure

Backpressure will increase the burst pressure

Rupture disks are pressure differential devices

Tank may no longer be protected
Code violation may occur
Personnel and equipment at risk

Concerns with Backpressure

Disk design may not be suitable

Damage to disk could occur

Disk could activate in the wrong direction
Burst pressure can be affected
Other equipment may be damaged

Concerns with Backpressure

BP Thunderhorse 2008

Incorrect rupture disk installed

Activated in wrong direction
Fragmentation went inside of compressor
Entire rig shut down for weeks

Types of Backpressure
Superimposed Backpressure
Downstream pressure applied on the disk prior to
May come from unintended source
Affects the burst pressure and disk design

Built-Up Backpressure
Pressure resulting from the flow of fluids through an open
rupture disk
Does not affect burst pressure

Designs for Backpressure

Backpressure Support (Disk)

Similar to a vacuum support, but stronger

Prevents disk from reversing
Formed to match curvature of disk
Bar or dial type support
Flat disk designs

Reverse Buckling
Circular-Scored or Solid Metal
Withstands 1 to 5 times the marked burst
Must be tested to confirm damage does not


Designs for Backpressure

Backpressure Support (Holder)
Used for very high backpressure
Welded or machined into the holder inlet
Bar or dial type support
Flat disk designs

Size may need to be increased to offset

reduced flow area

Accounting for Backpressure

Derate the rupture disk
Reduce burst pressure by the amount of
Ensure datasheet shows the reduced
burst pressure and explains why
Example: A 100 psig tank has 20 psig
constant backpressure. The rupture
disk should be specified at 80 psig.

Accounting for Backpressure

Double Disk Assembly
Used when the operating pressure
does not allow disk to be derated
Upstream disk specified at the
desired burst pressure
Downstream disk is derated by
backpressure amount
During an overpressure event, both
disks will activate

Accounting for Backpressure

Double Disk Assembly
Ensure the space between the disks
contains no pressure
Tagging must be clearly defined so
disks do not get switched
Datasheet (or datasheets) need to
show two distinct rupture disks
Alternatively, two single assembles
separated by a spool may be used

Relief Valve Isolation with

Rupture Disks