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STUDENT ID: 14068621


Virtual workplace and communication technology previous

Businesses nowadays focus their attention on reducing costs and
improving quality, while at the same time try to speed up the production
processes. For attaining this, improved information and communication
technologies, market globalization, social trend alterations, unstable and
unpredictable markets as well as greater competitivity are in order (Igbaria &
Guimaraes, 1999; Kurland & Bailey, 1999; Townsend, DeMarie &
Hendrickson, 1998; Vivien & Thompson, 2000). In that case many believe the
virtual workplace is the key for such issues (Igbaria & Tan, 1998; Kayworth &
Leidner, 2000; Townsend et al., 1998).
Communication is one of the major issues manager and workers are
concerned about in a virtual workplace (Cascio, 1999, 2000; Fritz, Rhee &
Narasimhan, 1998; Townsend et al., 1998), and at the same time one of the
greatest obstacles is efficient telecommuting (Ruppel and Howard, 1998).
Studies in communication systems in virtual workspace show that efficient
communication is more vital than in traditional environments (Conner, 2003;
DeSanctis and Monge, 1999; Kayworth & Leidner, 2000) mainly because the
virtual workplace changes the familiar design, content and circumstances of
organisational communications (Nilles, 1998; Townsend et al., 1998).
Negative outcomes of communication and interaction with managers and coworkers in the virtual office have been found by Hill, Miller, Weiner & Colihan
(1998) and also by Huws, Korte & Robinson (1990). Also, Hargie, Tourish &
Wilson (2002) relate that poor communication corresponds with a decrease in
productivity, lesser commitment, greater absenteeism rates and also high
turnover. Staples (2001a) also relates that workers in a virtual environment

STUDENT ID: 14068621

encounter low levels of job satisfaction, manager-subordinate trust and
greater job stress, all these being the result of poor communication.
Green, Hilken, Friedman, Grossman, Gasiewski, Adler & Sabini (2005)
however, found that Instant Messaging in the workplace (a form of technology
based communication) supplies short-term advantages but eventual long term
losses. These discoveries are concurrent with ersatz social engagement
theory (Green & Brock, 1998) predictions. The Instant Messaging, with its
expected quick responses that lead to short replies which might not supply
profound communication, shows to be fun for users providing an
instantaneous boost in disposition (mainly for women), but might cost life
satisfaction on the long run, as predicted by the ersatz theory (Green & Brock,
Even more contrasting is a study conducted by Akkirman & Harris
(2005) which shows that, in the organisation they conducted their research in,
office workers relying on technology for communication displayed notable
higher levels of satisfaction than their colleagues which made use of
traditional ways of communicating.

Aims and purpose

This research audit, named Communication development at the
workplace, aims to ascertain which of the past findings regarding
interpersonal relationships when communicating with the use of technology
are relevant, and nonetheless how they affect social interaction in the
workplace nowadays.
The findings, regarding the Stress buffering hypothesis (Cobb, 1976)

STUDENT ID: 14068621

and Evaluation apprehension theory (Harkins & Jackson, 1985), for this
organisation, and any of its kind in general, should show how communication
could be influenced in a positive/negative manner by technology. Since
communication, especially in a virtual environment (Cascio, 1999, 2000; Fritz
et al., 1998; Townsend et al., 1998) is important to maintain productivity and
cost effectiveness (Igbaria & Guimaraes, 1999; Kurland & Bailey, 1999;
Townsend et al., 1998; Vivien & Thompson, 2000), the way it is regarded to in
a normal workplace environment could influence productivity as well as high
turnover numbers (Hargie et al., 2002), and nevertheless social behaviour.

Participants and selection

The 8 participants were selected on a voluntary basis from a
construction company in Romania with the help of a gatekeeper in this case
the HR Manager there. The construction company was established in 1992
and has around 470 employees, of which 92 work in administration and
management in an office environment.
As the participants are asked to describe communication at the
workplace 20 years ago, participants were firstly selected by age, particularly
they had to be over 43 years old. A second criteria was that the participants
had to be employed in 1994 the least. Last but not least they had to be
working in an office environment both now and in the past 20 years (to ensure
they have a valid means of comparison).


STUDENT ID: 14068621

The approach to conduct this study was by using a 5 item qualitative
questionnaire (figure 3) designed particularly for this research audit. The
questions are regarding typical days at the workplace when communication is
involved, now and 20 years ago, and about advantages, disadvantages and
ways of improving the communication in both cases.
The questionnaire was handed by a gatekeeper, while the instructions
were given online through Skype to all of the participants at once. In addition
to this a Participant Information Sheet (figure 2) and a Consent form (figure 1)
was also administered to each of the participants. They were advised to read
the Participant Information Sheet for further information about the study and
also to read the consent form and sign it if they agree. They were told that
they can at any point withdraw from the survey if they feel the need to (as
highlighted in the Participant Information Sheet). They were told that the
questionnaire would be anonymous and that the data, which would be held for
as long as 7 months, would be kept safe on a password protected computer
(as stated in the Participant Information Sheet ). Then they were advised to
take the envelope (containing the questionnaire), go back to their offices and
complete them by themselves (in order for no psychological discomfort to take
place). They were regarded to the fact that the time for completing the
questionnaire may take up to 30 minutes, and they were prompted to return
the questionnaires to the gatekeeper at the end of the working day.
The results from the questionnaires were dealt with using thematic
analysis. Models (themes) within the given data were recognised, analysed
and described, while also organising the data set (codes) in great detail
(Braun & Clarke, 2006).

STUDENT ID: 14068621

The data was analysed in the form of a comparison between the 20
years ago communication and the one in our times. The 20 years ago point in
time actually marks the beginning of the development of business information
resources. The number of websites has been on an exponential expansion
since 1994 when the first commercial web browsers were created (Liu, 2000,
p. 235). Also, regarding mobile telephony, Romania in particular hasnt been
part of the gsm family no early than 1997 (Nae & Turnock, 2009, p. 59). This
way the comparison between the two environments should show the benefits
and/or flaws of the technology that developed over the years in the case of
The data was analysed first so as to find elements of the text that are
related to the research question: Which of the past findings regarding
interpersonal relationships when communicating with the use of technology
are relevant, and nonetheless how they affect social interaction in the
workplace nowadays? Secondly, the elements found were grouped in analytic
categories (codes). Some elements of the text were included in more than
one category, while some in none. The data was reviewed to ensure the
definition of the codes was relevant. The thematic analysis resulted in 32
codes, which were then again grouped into 7 main themes (figure 4): Benefits
of communication 20 years ago; Benefits of communication now; Downsides
of communication 20 years ago; Downsides of communication now; How
information was transmitted 20 years ago; How information is transmitted now
and Miscellaneous.

STUDENT ID: 14068621

Benefits of communication 20 years ago

First, this theme (consisting of 5 categories) shows a decent amount of
more extracts than the Benefits of communication now theme.
A good part of the data from this theme comes from the Participative
side of communication now category: The manager subordinate relations
were flexible, participative, demanding responsibility; The communication
was good Maybe it also had to do with the still lingering influence of the pre
1989 way of life when most people learned to stick together and aim in the
same direction or my colleagues Each of them was being listened to.
These show that 20 years ago there was greater bonding between co-workers
as to get the job done, while they were treated and were treating each other
equally. Its also very close in context to the next powerful category from this
theme, mainly the Human side of communication 20 years ago which clearly
displays the social benefit of direct verbal communication: communication
was done verbally You had the chance to react in a human manner; We
used to see each other more oftenWe used to socialize more or as verbal
communication was dominant relationships between colleagues were
different. It was a real communication with people whose eyes you couldve
looked into. Also, some generalized the whole communication as being
friendlier: I consider communication 20 years ago being more friendly
because in most cases you were in front of the person you were addressing.
As Cooper & Marshall found that there are over 40 interacting elements that
may cause stress at work (1975), these findings regarding the human
manner correlate with the Stress buffering hypothesis (Cobb, 1976) which

STUDENT ID: 14068621

implies that social support aids people to evaluate a stressful situation and
plan strategies to pull through. Also, in Verbal communication advantages,
some, speak of general verbal communication advantages : Communication
needs to be direct this way fair and much faster results would be obtained,
and particularly about its effects on productivity.
Another category is the Ease of problem solving through
communication 20 years ago with fewer responses than the previous
mentioned, but still essential. It reflects the effortlessness of analysing
problems and the swiftness of the solving of them: The communication was
being done directly, solving different issues or misunderstandings on the spot
or communication was done verbally you had the possibility to analyse
in real time the situation you were facing . These responses highly
correspond to the Evaluation apprehension theory suggested by Harkins &
Jackson (1985), which says that when individuals attend a task while in the
company of others they consider they are being evaluated, thus leading to
tension motivating them to perform better.
In Miscellaneous statements regarding communication quality 20 years
ago participants value good communication either due to the quality of
selection of employees in the workplace: communication was good, because
it seemed that in that organisation arrangement people were placed exactly
were they fitted or either because of the reliability of people back then:
verbal communication was a lot more trustworthy; people would stick to their
initial plans. These answers werent numerous enough so as to fit in codes
on their own so they were all dealt with within this section. They do support
the general theme of Benefits in communication 20 years ago though.

STUDENT ID: 14068621

Brief statements regarding communication quality 20 years ago
category, even if it doesnt show any particular social behavior or influence, it
validates the overall theme through a good number of statements such as I
didnt have any communication issues with my colleagues 20 years ago or
The communication was good. It points out the respect that people had
regarding communication in those times.

Benefits of communication now

This theme, consists of less statements than the previous one (as a
comparison) thus in someway suggesting more downsides of communication
technology nowadays than benefits. It still shows numerous advantages of
communication nowadays at the workplace though. The most consistent
category within this theme is Swiftness in communication now which points
out how fast data is being delivered as opposed to 20 years ago:
Communication made with physical items (Computers or telephone) is
generally the quickest and clearest; e-mail (which means great swiftness
and flexibility in communication); The transmitting of information, projects
and documents was much more difficult The virtual system fixed this
impediment or e-mails, mobile phones etc. lesser time for dealing with
problems. These answers actually show the productivity benefits of
communication technology, as less time needed to send/receive information
could mean more time for other activities. Findings by Clampitt & Downs
support this claim confirming that employees in their study identified certain
communication elements affecting their productivity in various ways (1993), as
well as other findings regarding the relation between communication and

STUDENT ID: 14068621

productivity (Igbaria & Guimaraes, 1999; Kurland & Bailey, 1999; Townsend et
al., 1998; Vivien & Thompson, 2000).
The next code with a decent amount of data is the General statements
regarding communication benefits now. Through statements like: Nobody
denies the efficiency of digital communication or I get in touch with my
superior easily both electronically and by phone people in this audit
underline some ease in communication nowadays. Also, Between colleagues
(same department) - very well sustains the claim that some may interact
poorly with co-workers outside their enclosed working space. Advantages of
written communication now suggests that some prefer indirect forms of
communicating: Today I communicate better in writing with people I have
never seen before, but with whom I collaborate for years while others
appraise the various forms of data that could be sent with the use of present
technology in Greater amounts of information sent now: now, through email any information can be transmitted (written, drawn etc.). Some say
communication gives the opportunity to be more independent when
conducting their projects in Independence in communication now : any of
the administrative employees or board members could be implicated in the
real-time analysis of processed data.

Downsides of communication 20 years ago

This particular theme pointing out the negative aspects in
communication 20 years ago consists of several categories from which the
most consistent is the Result of lack of communication 20 years ago. It
reflects mainly the obvious elements that had been developed through time

STUDENT ID: 14068621

and the lack of their presence: absence of e-mail (which means great
swiftness and flexibility in communication) or

The quantity of information

being transmitted was limited to handwritten documents. Another powerful

code is the Cause of downsides of communication 20 years ago. It states
various reasons including the influences of the ex-communist regime when
you would have to work not to think, the lack of mobile phones, computers,
e-mail communication, electronic data centralization systems (in actual
relation with the statements within the Results of lack of communication 20
years ago category). Other issues were stated in Large packages of
information difficult to manipulate 20 years ago: centralized reports
sometimes consisted of dozens of pages and it was hard to make real time
analysis. The slow transmission of data 20 years ago category again
indicates the greater amount of time wasted due to the shortcomings of
communication and thus maybe resulting in a loss of productivity (Clampitt &
Downs, 1993): The worst part concerning these reports was that they were
firstly heading to the Computing Centre for centralization and printing and only
after that they were sent to the specialised offices .
Resistance to change in communication 20 years ago : I addressed
my colleagues from the Computing Centre for creating personalized programs
for the specific competences of each employee it was like running into a
wall.. emphasizes the difficulty back then to change things in communication
as opposed to now. This, alongside Brief statements regarding
communication downsides 20 years ago : I hired a software programmer
The collaboration was clumsy; Communication between manager and
subordinate was limited to a Hello are the only codes that are actually

STUDENT ID: 14068621

talking about the social side of communication and not the efficiency of
modern technology concerning productivity ( it was hard to make real time

Downsides of communication now

This, consisting of much more items than the Downsides of
communication 20 years ago theme, shows more concerns regarding the
present flaws in communication than it did in the past. The most substantial
category of this theme is the Lack of humanity in communication now. It
shows the melancholy of the change in human communication: The human
side was lost in these 20 years; digital communication it tends to
replace the humanity of the verbal communication between us or 20 years
ago we used dialogues, now we use monologues. These are again in relation
with the Stress Buffering Hypothesis (Cobb, 1976).
Another consistent category within this theme is the Lack of
responsibility now and it actually depicts how people may act in a superficial
manner especially regarding communication: Problems in communication
rise from each individual in particular and his responsibility on how he treats
the received or transmitting of data or a report; All they need more is to be
determined to do it, to get involved. Perhaps the ease of communication
nowadays has made people disregard in a way some communication options.
The other categories from this theme vary in form from Lack of technology
downsides in communication now where some express their view on a
potential improvement in technology so as to improve communication: By
perfecting the electronic communication system so as creating links between

STUDENT ID: 14068621

all departments on the network to Difficulty to analyse data due to large
amounts now where some say the information transmitted has been
increased and thus making it difficult to examine: today there are situations
when the information value received is difficult to process so as sometimes
dealt with superficially. This is also similar to the superficial side of
communication nowadays highlighted above. Some other extracts show that
the difficulty in maintaining an equilibrium between means of communication
may be an issue ( Balance between technology and direct communication
now): but each participant must try to maintain a balance between virtual
communication and direct communication. Then of course there are some
General opinions on downsides of communication now: Between colleagues
(different departments) it leaves much to be desired which identifies poor
communication inside the organisation even though communication inside
their own office is good, or Now communication is, in most cases doubtful,
an opinion that generally clarifies the overall feel of poor or lack of
communication nowadays. These point out the general negative feel of
communication today though not clearly identifying the reason why. Last but
not least, even though the general opinion is about the superficial and
inhumane ways of communication that lead to issues in understanding, some
see verbal communication itself as a flaw: (Verbal communication downsides
now): tasks are being transmitted using a tonality or language that leaves
a lot to be desired.

How information was transmitted 20 years ago & How information is

being transmitted now

STUDENT ID: 14068621

These two themes consisting of two categories each, though separate
from each other, help ascertain the general findings in the previous four
themes. Extracts that depict Verbal communication 20 years ago : from
supervisor to subordinate verbally; meeting and discussing different
problems generally face to face. It was a direct communication between
partners or when mobile phones didnt exist the best way to
communicate between manager and subordinates was verbally, directly are
almost equivalent in quantity to other forms of communication back then:
communication inside and outside the organisation was done by telephone
and fax machines or in urgent situations data being sent through radio
transceiver (Communication by other means 20 years ago). This only might
show that verbal communication was used almost half the time in the
workplace in those times leading to evaluation and managing of stressful
situations better (Cobb, 1976).
In the other case Verbal communication now consists of far less items
than Communication by other means now , and even in some of those cases
it wasnt the only way of sending information: get in touch with my
colleagues from Human Resources both physically and in writing through the
intranet system. Other forms of communication were presented as
reading of my e-mails; I sent the projects in electronic format or through
usb memory sticks.
There was also a seventh theme called Miscellaneous consisting of
two codes, which though they seemed to attempt to answer the study
question at first they were rather vague: An e-mail can change the priorities
scheduled a day before.

STUDENT ID: 14068621


This study shows the importance of direct human communication on a
day to day basis at the workplace. This is mainly because people remember
that 20 years ago there were stronger bindings between colleagues and
greater will towards the same purpose as well as a general good feeling of
more friendly communication. This friendliness remained strong in the
participants minds because they were able to overcome stressful situations
easier in such a manner (Cobb, 1976). It was also stated consistently that it
was easier to solve and analyse issues back when there was little technology
at hand as social presence motivates people to perform better. (Harkins &
Jackson, 1985).
These findings are relevant as there were clearer and more substantial
answers regarding benefits of communication 20 years ago than answers on
benefits of communication nowadays, as well as fewer downsides back then
as opposed to now. As the last two themes show, verbal communication was
predominant 20 years ago when technology in communication was timidly
making its appearance, thus underlining the social benefits of communication.
Even though not so solid, there are numerous references to the
benefits of communication in the present, especially the rapidity and
effortlessness of it, but these have actually more to do with productivity
(Clampitt & Downs, 1993) than with social psychology.
These findings correspond to past studies in this field - the negative
outcomes of communication in the virtual workplace (Hill et al.,1998; Huws et
al.,1990), or the low levels of job satisfaction, trustworthiness and high

STUDENT ID: 14068621

amounts of stress due to poor communication at the virtual workplace found
by Staples (2001a). They didnt however depict neither short term advantages
nor long term losses (Green et al., 2005) in particular.
There are however some limitations of this study regarding its validity
and reliability. First regarding transferability, the sample size is rather small,
and even though it might reflect the opinion of employees from this certain
organisation, it may not be relevant for others. Second, this questionnaire
hasnt been used before, so its credibility might be questionable.
As the use of technology in communication nowadays has made
human relations more distant and rigid, there are some recommendations
regarding improvement in this particular organisation. First, there should be
an environment that would mirror the one when communication technology
was merely existent but without affecting productivity. This could be obtained
with more physical meetings between managers and subordinates, more
physical interactions between employees (if daily situations dont permit it,
more team-building sessions). Also, as some consider communication with
other departments that it leaves much to be desired, the organisation should
consider switching to open workspaces instead of separate, enclosed offices.

WORD COUNT: 3806 words


STUDENT ID: 14068621

Akkirman, A., D. & Harris, D., L. (2005). Organizational communication
satisfaction in the virtual workplace, Journal of Management Development,
24, 5, 397 409

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology,

Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101

Cascio, W. (1999). Virtual workplaces: implications for organizational

behavior, in Cooper, L. and Rousseau, D. (Eds), Trends in Organizational
Behavior, Wiley, New York, NY, 1-14

Clampitt, G., P. & Downs, C., W. (1993). Employee Perceptions of the

Relationship Between Communication and Productivity: A Field Study, The
Journal of Business Communication, 30, 1

Cobb, S., (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress, Psychosomatic

Medicine, 38, 300-314.

Conner, D. (2003). Social comparison in virtual work environments: an

examination of contemporary referent selection, Journal of Occupational &
Organizational Psychology, 76, 1, 133-48.
Cooper, C., L. & Marshall, J. (1975). Stress and Pressures within
Organisations, Management Decision,13, 5, 292 303

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DeSanctis, G. & Monge, P. (1999). Introduction to the special issue:
communication process for virtual organizations, Organization Science, 10, 6,

Fritz, M., Rhee, H. & Narasimhan, S. (1998). Communication and coordination

in the virtual office, Journal of Management Information Systems, 14, 4, 7-28.

Green, M., C., & Brock, T., C. (1998). Trust, mood, and the outcomes of
friendship determine preferences for real versus ersatz social capital, Political
Psychology ,1, 9, 527-544.

Green, M. C., Hilken, J., Friedman, H., Grossman, K., Gasiewski, J., Adler, R.
& Sabini, J. (2005). Communication via Instant Messenger: Short and LongTerm Effects, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 3, 445-462

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turnover intentions and its determinants among telecommuters and nontelecommuters, Journal of Management Information Systems, 16, 1, 64 - 147

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success, European Management Journal, 18, 2, 94 - 183

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working here, there, anywhere, and any time, Organizational Dynamics, 28, 2,

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services on the Internet and its impact on business librarianship, Online
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telecommunications and information technology: a geographical approach,

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Human Geographies Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography,
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Workforce, Wiley, New York, NY

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Figure 1: Consent Form

STUDENT ID: 14068621


School of Psychology, Early Years and Therapeutic

University of South Wales
Consent Form - Confidential data
I understand that my participation in this project will involve completing a
questionnaire about communication at the workplace which will take
approximately 30 minutes of my time.
I understand that participation in this study is entirely voluntary and that I can
withdraw from the study at any time without giving a reason and without loss of
I understand that I am free to ask any questions at any time. I am free to
withdraw or discuss my concerns with Mihai Cosmin Ouatu.
I understand that the information provided by me will be held confidentially, such
that only the Experimenter can trace this information back to me individually. The
information will be retained for up to 7 months when it will be deleted/destroyed.
I understand that I can ask for the information I provide to be deleted/destroyed
at any time and I can have access to the information at any time.
I also understand that at the end of the study I will be provided with additional
information and feedback about the purpose of the study.
I, ___________________________________(NAME) consent to participate in
the study conducted by Mihai Cosmin Ouatu, School of Psychology, Early Years
and Therapeutic Studies, Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of
South Wales

Figure 2: Participant Information Sheet

STUDENT ID: 14068621


Participant Information
Name of researcher: Mihai Cosmin Ouatu
Project Title: Communication development at the workplace
1. What is the purpose of the audit?
The purpose of this audit is to observe some key issues regarding
communication at the workplace
2. Why have I been selected to take part and what are the exclusion
You have been selected to take part in this study because you represent the
sample population of this organisation. The sample population in this
particular study is men and women older than 43 who were employed in 1994.
3. What will I have to do?
You will have to complete a questionnaire with questions regarding
communication in the past 20 years in your own office. The time to complete it
will be approximately 30 minutes.
4. Will my participation involve any physical discomfort?
No physical discomfort will be involved with your participation to this study, as
it has been risk assessed.
5. Will my participation involve any psychological discomfort or
No psychological discomfort or embarrassment should be involved with your
participation to this study
6. Will I have to provide any bodily sample (i.e., blood, saliva)?
No you will not.
7. How will confidentiality be assured?
The research team has put in place a number of procedures to protect the
confidentiality of participants. You will be allocated a participant code that will
be sued to identify and data that you provide. Your name or other personal
details will not be associated with your data, for example the consent form that
you sign will be kept separate from your data. All information you provide will
be treated in accordance with the data protection act.
8. Will I receive any financial rewards / travel expenses for taking

STUDENT ID: 14068621

No financial rewards are provided.
9. How can I withdraw from the study / Experiment?
The information you provide is important. If you have any concerns please
discuss these with the researcher. During the study itself, if you decide that
you do not wish to take any further part then please inform one of the
research team as soon as possible and they will facilitate your withdrawal and
discuss how you would like your data to be treated. After you have completed
the research you can still withdraw your personal information / data, up to the
point of data analyses, by contacting one of the research team. Give them
your participant number or if you have lost this give them your name.
10. If I require further information who should I contact and how?
For questions regarding the study or protocol please contact
Mihai Cosmin Ouatu
The data collected in this study will be used for a Communication Audit
Module Assessment. It may also be published in scientific journals or
presented in conferences. Any information and data gathered during this
research study will only be available to the research team identified in the
information sheet. Should the research be presented or published in any form,
all data will be anonymous (i.e., your personal information or data will not be
All identifiable paper records will be stored in a locked filling cabinet,
accessible only to the research team and all electronic information will be
stored on a password-protected computer. All of the information you provide
will be treated in accordance with the Data Protection Act. This information
will be destroyed 7 months after completion of the audit. If the research is
published in a scientific journal it may be kept for an additional 3 years before
being destroyed. During that time the data may be sued by members of the
research team only for purposes appropriate to the research question, but at
no point will your personal information or data be revealed.
This study and its protocol have received full ethical approval from the School
Of Psychology, Early Years and Therapeutic Studies Ethics Committee.

Figure 3: Questionnaire

STUDENT ID: 14068621


1. Describe a typical day at the workplace, regarding communication nowadays

(subordinate-manager communication, colleagues, associates, clients, other
work-related social interactions etc.)

2. Describe a typical day at the workplace, regarding communication 20 years

ago (1994-1995), with as much facts as you can remember

3. Describe how would you improve/the issues in workplace communication


4. Describe how would you have improved/the issues in workplace

communication 20 years ago (as opposed to nowadays)

5. Please talk about some advantages in communication at the workplace 20

years ago (1994-1995) as opposed to the advantages of todays

Figure 4: Themes formed from codes

STUDENT ID: 14068621


Downides of
n now


20 years ago


downsides 20
years ago

opinions on
downsides of

n now

on by other
means 20
years ago

Result of
n now

Advantages of
- now

packages of
difficult to
mannipulate20 years ago

Lack of

on by other

n 20 years

opinion on

The human
side of
20 years ago

amounts of
sent - now

Result of lack
20 years ago

Lack of
humanity in

side of
20 years ago

Swiftness of
- now

Resistance to
change in
- 20 years ago


quality 20
years ago

- now

Cause of
downsides of
20 years ago

Complying with
rules now


Complying with
rules 20 years

transmission of
data - 20 years

technology and

Benefits of
n 20 years

Benefitss of
n now

Downsides of
n 20 years

quality 20
years ago

benefits of

Ease of
20 years ago

Lack of
downsides in
Difficulty to
analyse data
due to large
amounts - now

Figure 5(a): Example of coding on text

STUDENT ID: 14068621


Figure 5(b): Example of coding on text

STUDENT ID: 14068621


Figure 5(c): Example of coding on text

STUDENT ID: 14068621


STUDENT ID: 14068621