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- IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Volume 61 Issue 9 2014 [Doi 10.1109%2FTIE.2013.2290769] Babaei, Ebrahim; Gowgani, Saeed Sheermohammadzadeh -- Hybrid Multilevel Inverter Using Switched Capa

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Gregory Ivensky, Svetlana Bronstein and Sam Ben-Yaakov

Power Electronics Laboratory

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

P. O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, ISRAEL, Phone: +972-8-646-1561, Fax: +972-8-647-2949

Email: sby@ee.bgu.ac.il, Website: www.ee.bgu.ac.il/~pel

ABSTRACT

An approximate analysis of LCL converters operating

above and below resonance is presented. The study based

on replacing the rectifier and load by an equivalent

parallel resistance, applies the fundamental harmonics

method and the assumption that the current through the

diodes of the output rectifier has a sinusoidal waveform.

Equations obtained for the conduction angle of these

diodes (less than in Discontinuous and equal to in

Continuous Conduction Modes) are used for the

developing the output to input voltage ratio as a function

of three independent parameters. The theoretical results

coincide with good agreement with the experiments.

1. INTRODUCTION

LCL converters have a number of advantages: they can

operate in both step up and step down modes, they will

accommodate a wide range of output to input voltage

ratios with a relatively small frequency deviation, and soft

switching could be achieved over the entire operating

range [1]-[4]. Approximate analysis of LCL converters

operating in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) above

resonance is described in [4].

The objective of the present study was to develop a

simple approximate analysis of LCL converters operating

above and below resonance. The focus of attention was

devoted to the Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM),

but the results are applicable to the Continuous

Conduction Mode (CCM) as well. The study is based on

the equivalent circuit concept in which the rectifier and

load are replaced by an equivalent parallel resistance [5],

[6], and applies the fundamental harmonics method.

2. ANALYSIS

The LCL resonant inverter topology can be implemented

as a full-bridge, half-bridge or half-way type [7], and the

output rectifier could be built as a full-wave bridge or as a

full-wave center tapped configuration with capacitive

output filter. Fig. 1 represents one of the possible

realizations of the LCL converter: L1-C-L2 is the LCL

resonant tank, T is a transformer, n=n1:n2 is the turns ratio,

D1-D4 are the diodes of the rectifier, Cf is the output filter

capacitance, and Ro is the load resistance. The current and

Fig. 2.

2.1 Main assumptions

The analysis is carried out under the following main

assumptions:

a) Switches, diodes, the transformer and all reactive

elements are ideal.

b) The current through the diodes D1 ... D4 of the output

rectifier has a sinusoidal waveform:

i D = I D.pk sin

(1)

diode turn on instant o, t is the real time, is the

operating frequency, is the conduction angle, ID.pk is

the peak value of the diode current. The latter can be

expressed as a function of the load current Io or load

voltage Vo:

I D.pk = I o

2 Vo 2

=

2 R o 2

(2)

conduction angle is changing linearly:

i L 2 = I L 2 o + I L 2

(3)

the increment of the current iL2 during the conduction

angle . This current increment can be expressed as a

function of the load voltage referred to the primary nVo:

nVo

(4)

I L 2 =

L 2

I L 2 =

2I D.pk n 2 R o 2

L 2

n

(5)

Q1

Q2

L1

L2

V in

Q4

b

n1

Q3

n2

D1

D2

D4

D3

Cf

R o Vo

iD

Io

iD1=iD3

iL2

From which:

Io

rs

IL2

rs =

Vo

The diodes conduction angle can be obtained from the

following equation that is derived by Kirchoffs law:

v ab

iD

di

+ i L 2 d + VCo + L 2 L 2

d

(6)

the inverter bridge (Fig. 1) and VCo is the initial value of

the capacitors C voltage. We consider a time interval

where the voltage vab is constant: vab=Vin (Vin is the input

voltage) and when identical diodes of the rectifier

continue to conduct. In this time interval the voltage

across the inductor L2 is equal to the reflected output

voltage:

L 2

di L 2

= nVo

d

(7)

component proportional to the reflected output voltage:

di

L

(8)

L 1 L 2 = nVo 1

d

L2

L

Vin = 1 + 1

L2

i

d D

1

nVo + L1 n +

d C

iD

+ i L 2 d + VCo

(9)

iD

n + 1 i D + i

0 = L 1

L2

C n

d 2

d2

(10)

2

1 I D.pk

sin

L 1 sin +

n

C n

1

+

I L 2o + I L 2

C

0=

1

0.8

I D.pk

L1

L2

B=2

1

0.23

0.8

20

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

(11)

=0.5

0.6

0.8 1

(a)

rs

(12)

L1

L2

0.4

0.6

0.8 1

(13)

L1C

Applying the assumption:

d D + i L 2

1

n

= L 1

+

d

C

2

2

I n I n

+ 1 sin + L 2o + L 2

=0

I D.pk I D.pk

Vin

vab

vT2

Vo

iD2=iD4

ID.pk

=1

| I L 2o |<<

I D.pk

(14)

approximate expression of the conduction angle as half

sum of two angles:

(15)

= 0.5( 1 + 2 )

The angle 1 is solution of (12) for the case < 0.1 , i. e

when sin

1

L 2

2

=

+

16

4 n 2R o

L 2

n 2R

o

+ L 2

2 n 2R o

rs

(16a)

= 0.5 :

2

L 2

2 L 2

=

+

2 n 2R o

4 n 2 R o

+ L 2

n 2R o

rs

(16b)

operating frequency / rs , calculated by (15), (16a),

(16b) for different values of load coefficient

and for different inductances ratio L1/L2

B = n 2R C

o

L1

higher for smaller values of B and L1/L2. When = ,

DCM is replaced by CCM. The plots (Fig. 3) also include

points that were obtained by PSPICE simulation. The

agreement between theoretical prediction and simulation

points is good.

2.3 The output to input voltage ratio

To obtain the output to input voltage ratio

V

(17)

ko = o

Vin

we replace the transformer and the rectifier by an

equivalent resistance R 'eq (Fig. 4a) calculated by energy

balance consideration:

rs

(b)

/s for different values B (a) and L1/L2 (b) (dots

simulation, solid lines theoretical prediction).

I o2 R o =

R 'eq

1 2

I (1) pk 2

2

n

(18)

the rectifier input current (to simplify the analysis we

dont take into account higher harmonics). Under the

the dependence I(1)pk on the load current Io and the

conduction angle :

I (1) pk = 2I o

cos

2

(19)

VL 2(1)pk

R 'eq =

n 2R o

2

2

1

cos 2

2

R 'eq

(20)

(21)

n 2R o

network R 'eq L 2 by the equivalent series network

R "eq L"2 (Fig. 4b) using the following equations:

R 'eq

'

R 'eq

=

2

R 'eq

1+

L 2

L2

''

L 2 =

2

L

1+

R'

eq

(22)

1

+ L"2

C

L1

(23)

Vab(1)

'

Req

L2

I(1)

Vab(1)

cos

=

cos

X

1 + "

R

eq

(24)

I (1) R "eq , while is the angle between the vectors VL2(1)pk

and I (1) R "eq ; I(1) is the peak of the fundamental current

through the network (Fig.4b).

To obtain the input to output voltage ratio, the peak

voltage Vab(1)pk in (24) needs to be expressed as a function

of the inverters input voltage Vin while VL2(1)pk in the

same equation should be expressed as a function of the

reflected output voltage nVo.

The instant voltage across ab has a square waveform

with steps Vin (Fig. 2). Therefore, under the first

harmonics assumption Vab(1)pk=4Vin/ is the fundamental

harmonics of Vin.

The expression V L 2 (1)pk as a function of nVo is more

L1

L''2

R''eq

1. The symmetrical axis of the waveform of the

inductor L2 voltage coincides with the middle of the

rectifier conduction angle.

2. The waveform of the inductor L2 voltage coincides

with its fundamental harmonic during the time intervals

when both diodes of the rectifier are not conducting.

Under these assumptions:

(a)

Fig. 4.

L"

1+ " 2

R

eq

only during the rectifier conduction angles < (Fig. 2).

We obtain the expression VL 2(1)pk = (nVo ) using

X = L 1

Vab (1)pk

the known expression [5]:

R 'eq =

harmonics of the voltages across the inductor L2 and

across the diagonal ab of the inverter bridge is defined

from the vector diagram (Fig. 5):

(b)

VL2(1)

VL 2(1)pk

I(1)L''2

Vab(1)

I(1)X

I(1)R''eq

Fig. 5. Vector diagram of the voltages in Fig. 4b.

(25)

of the output to input voltage ratio as:

ko =

4 sin

2

= nVo

+ sin

+ sin

n sin

2

L"

1+ " 2

R

eq

X

1 + "

R

eq

(26)

as a function of the normalized operating frequency /r,

load coefficient B and inductances ratio L1/L2, calculated

using the obtained equations, is depicted on Fig. 6, a, b.

3. EXPERIMENTAL

The experimental set up included a half-bridge inverter

and a full bridge output rectifier. The inverter was built

around a half bridge configuration with two power

MOSFETs (IRF840), LCL resonant tank, and planar

transformer (200W T250DC-4-24 by Payton, n=3:1).

Inductances of the tank were constructed on ETD29 3F3

cores using Litz wire. The rectifier diodes were MUR460.

The input voltage was kept constant around 100V. Load

resistance varied from 10 to 250. Parallel inductance

L2 was 78H. Series inductance was varied: 16H,

38.5H, and 95H. Operating frequency was varied from

40kHz to 500kHz, covering all operating modes.

Maximum power involved in experiment was 70W. It was

limited by high hard-switching losses when operating at

low frequencies. Experimental voltage ratios nko as a

function of the load resistance Ro for different frequencies

(Fig. 7), and as a function of the operating frequency for

different load resistances (Fig. 8, a,b), show good

agreement with the theoretical predictions.

4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

An approximate analysis of the resonant LCL converter

was carried out, based on the equivalent circuit concept

and applying the fundamental harmonics method. The

convenient approximate closed formed equations derived

for the conduction angle and output to input voltage ratio

as a function of three independent normalized parameters

(frequency, load resistance and inductances ratio) allow to

define the operating regime of the converter for the given

circuit parameters and operating frequency and can be

used in the design purpose. The analytical results were

examined by simulation and experiment and found to be

in a good agreement.

Although this study gave focus attention to the DCM,

analytical expressions obtained here are applicable to the

CCM as well by setting = in the calculations.

Notwithstanding the fact that some of the expressions

developed in this study looks complex, their use is

obviously simple once implemented into computer

mathematical packages such as MATLAB, Mathematica

or MathCad. Hence, the analytical expressions developed

in this study could help the designer to study the behavior

of a given LCL converter and to optimize the values of the

elements per the target specifications.

nVo

nVo

L1

10

L2

=0.5

1

0

L1

Vin

Vin

3-10

B=1

0.4

0.6

(a)

0.8 1

1

2

rs

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

L2

=1.5

B=3

0.5

0.25

0.25

1.5

0.4

0.6

0.8

rs

(b)

frequency for different values of B (a) and L1/L2 (b).

nVo

Vin

L1

L2

=1.22

f= 84kHz

fr=117kHz

5

4

96kHz

3

2

70kHz

150kHz

0

20

10

50

200 Ro []

100

resistance for different operation frequencies (dots

experiment, solid line theoretical prediction).

nVo

nVo

Vin

Vin

10

L1

100

L2

10

100

=0.5

L1

L2

fr=183.8kHz

Ro=10

100

=1.22

fr=117kHz

Ro=10

200

300

400

f, kHz

100

(a)

200

300 f, kHz

(b)

operating frequency for different load resistances (dots

experiment, solid line theoretical prediction).

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research was supported by THE ISRAEL

SCIENCE FOUNDATION (grant No. 113/02) and

by the Paul Ivanier Center for Robotics and

Production management.

5. REFERENCES

[1] J. F. Lazar and R. Martinelli, Steady-state analysis of LLC

series resonant converter, IEEE APEC2001 Record, pp.

728-735.

[2] H. Jiang, G. Maggetto, and P. Lataire, Steady-state

analysis of the series resonant DC-DC converter in

conjunction with loosely coupled transformer above

resonance operation, IEEE Trans. Power Electronics,

vol. 14, no. 3, May 1999, pp. 469-480.

[3] Bo Yang and F. C. Lee, LLC resonant converter for front

end DC/DC conversion, IEEE APEC2002 Record,

pp. 1108-1112

[4] A. K. S. Bhat, Analysis and design of LCL-type series

resonant converter, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics,

vol. 41, no. 1, Feb. 1994, pp. 118-124.

[5] R. L. Steigerwald, A comparison of half-bridge resonant

converter topologies, IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol.

3, no. 2, pp. 174-182, Apr. 1988.

[6] G. Ivensky, A. Kats, and S. Ben-Yaakov, An RC load

model of parallel and series-parallel resonant converters

with capacitive output filter, IEEE Trans. Power

Electronics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 515-521, May 1999.

[7] M. K. Kazimerczuk and D. Czarkowski, Resonant power

converters, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.

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