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Art Montemayor

Vessel Design Tips

August 21, 2000


Rev: 2(05-05-03)

The following are some guidelines and experienced hints for the design and utilization of process vessels.
This information is never taught nor discussed in University courses or academic circles. It has been
historically expected that graduate engineers will learn this information using their own efforts.
1) Always try to design around existing or available standard materials such as:
a. Standard pipe caps. These are usually available off-the-shelf in carbon steel, as well as stainless,
in sizes up to 42" and in various pipe schedule thicknesses.
b. Standard seamless pipe. This is basic material that can be readily found available today. Always
make this your first priority in selecting the vessel shell because of the convenience of eliminating
any plate rolling, longitudinal weld seam, and reducing the possibility of stress relief. This
option should be rejected only if required alloy, wall thickness, or diameter is not available.
2) Own a copy of Eugene Megyesy's "Pressure Vessel Handbook" as published by Pressure Vessel
Handbook Publishing Inc.; P.O. Box 35365; Tulsa, OK 74153. This is probably the most useful and
practical engineering book ever published in the USA. It clearly belongs on every process plant
engineer's desk. Study it thoroughly and your project problems will start to fade away.
3) Ellipsoidal 2:1 heads have, by definition, 50% of the volumetric capacity of a hemispherical head with the
same internal diameter.
Ellipsoidal heads are designed and fabricated on the basis of using the inside diameter as their nominal
diameter.
These type of heads are used in preference to ASME Flanged and Dished heads for pressures in the
range of 100 psig and for most vessels designed for pressures over 200 psig. Their inside depth of dish
(IDD) is defined as half of the minor axis and is equal to 1/4 of the inside diameter of the head.
4) ASME F&D (also called Torispherical) heads are designed and fabricated in the USA on the basis of using
the outside diameter as their nominal diameter.
Flanged and dished heads are inherently shallower (smaller IDD) than comparable ellipsoidal heads.
These heads (like the ellipsoidal) are formed from a flat plate into a dished shape consisting of two radii:
the "crown" radius or radius of the dish and the inside-corner radius, sometimes referred to as the
"knuckle" radius. Because of the relative shallow dish curvature, ASME F&D heads are subject to
higher localized stresses at the knuckle radius as compared to the ellipsoidal type. The pressure rating
of these heads is increased by forming the head so that the knuckle radius is made at least equal to 3
times the plate thickness. For code construction, the radius should in no case be less than 6% of the
inside diameter.
ASME F&D heads are used for pressure vessels in the general range of from 15 to about 200 psig .
Although these heads may be used for higher pressures, for pressures in excess of 200 psig it may be
more economical to use an ellipsoidal type.
5) The straight flange that forms part of each vessel head is part of the cylindrical vessel portion and should
be accounted for as such in calculating the vessel volume. These flanges vary in length depending on the
head thickness. A typical head flange length is about 1.5" to 2".
6) Try to stay away from the immediate area of the knuckle radius with respect to locating nozzles or doing
other welding, cutting or grinding. The need to locate a nozzle, insulation ring, clips or other item
near the knuckle radius should be consulted with a mechanical or fabrication engineer.
7) Be aware of the fact that the outside diameter of the cylindrical section may be bigger than that of the
head if a flush fit is required between the two inside diameters. This occurs because the required head
thickness for a given design pressure is usually less than for the corresponding cylindrical section.
This is especially true in the case of Hemispherical heads.

Page 1 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Notes & Experience

Art Montemayor

Vessel Design Tips

August 21, 2000


Rev: 2(05-05-03)

8) Hemispherical heads are the strongest of the formed heads for a given thickness. A sphere is the
strongest known vessel shape. However, the main trade-off here is that all spheres have to be fabricated
as welded spherical segments. This requires more manual intensive work and results in a higher cost.
9) Always be cognizant of the need for vessel entry into a vessel as well as vessel internal parts such as
trays, baffles, agitators, dip pipes, downcomers, separator vanes, demister pads, etc. Sometimes these
items directly affect not only the height of a vessel, but also the diameter. A chemical engineer should
take these factors into consideration even though they normally are not considered while doing process
calculations and simulations. Often, if not in the majority of cases, these factors and items are the
controlling parameters that practically establish the diameter and height of the fabricated vessel regardless
of what the simulation program output states.
10) As you consider the physical dimensions of a process vessel, always keep in mind that you must have,
as a minimum, certain required nozzles built into the vessel - besides those required for basic process
operations. Many times some of these nozzles are not identified early in a project and their introduction
later requires costly change orders or, worse, vessel field modifications after the vessel is installed. Some
of these nozzles are: manways, inspection ports, drains, cleaning (spraying) ports, auxiliary level
instrument nozzle, liquid temperature probe, sample(s) probe, top head vents, critical high and low level
probes, etc. Process Chemical Engineers are the best qualified to identify this need and specify the
location and size. Never expect to lift a vessel by its nozzles. Lifting lugs are required for this, and a
qualified structural or mechanical engineer should be commissioned to design this critical need.
11) Do not forget to allow for insulation support rings. You must allow sufficient nozzle length so that any
required vessel insulation can be applied in the field without obstructing nozzle flanges and bolts.
It is always advisable for the process Chemical Engineer to participate in the specification of the ultimate
insulation requirements and type since he/she are the most informed people of the temperature ranges
and insulation types compatible with the vessel material, temperature, and service. Again, if this is not
considered initially and is found to be required later, project timing and costs will suffer due to field vessel
modifications that could involve an ASME "R" stamp procedure.
12) This Workbook was originally compiled to organize and utilize the techniques, formulas, basic data,
and other information that I saved and used over the course of approximately 40 years of experience
in Chemical Engineering. Users will probably find it useful for carrying out day-to-day process plant
projects such as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Calculating the maximum volume capacity of a vessel;


Calculating the partial volumes of a vessel at different levels ("Strapping" a vessel);
Calculating the required vessel size for a given partial volume;
Calculating the surface area of a vessel for primer, painting and insulation purposes;
Calculating the location of critical liquid levels on a vessel for alarms and shutdown;
Calculating the weight of a process vessel for cost estimates or foundation work;
Calculating the "Line Pack", or volume content, of a piping system with fittings.

There are probably more uses or applications for this Workbook, but the above should suffice to
indicate the utilitarian value of this information to a Process or Project Engineer - especially in an
operating process plant in the field. Most of the basic information contained here was kept by me for
years in notes, 3-ring binders, between pages of text books, in formal calculations, etc. Thanks to God
for giving me the good common sense to save and document this information and for giving us the digital
computer and a spreadsheet to organize and distribute it for use and exploitation by others. I hope this
helps others - especially young, striving, and determined engineers who earnestly want to do a successful
and safe project.
Arthur Montemayor

Page 2 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Notes & Experience

Art Montemayor

May 15, 1998


Rev:1(01/22/00)

Partially-Filled Horizontal Vessels

VOLUMES IN PARTIALLY FILLED HORIZONTAL VESSELS


Steps:
(1) Enter the required information in the YELLOW cells;
(2) The calculated results appear in RED numbers.

Name: GeneralPurposeTank
Item No: TC15

VesselVolume
FlatHeads

Case: PartialVol

Tank Inside Dia. in =


Cylindrical Length, in =
Liquid Height, in
=
L/D
=
H/D
=

2:1Ellip.
Heads

Unit

3,381,604

in

3,901,853

1,956.95

ft

2,258.02

14,638.9

gal

16,891.1

126.00

276
120.00

HemiHeads

Unit

2.2
0.9524

F&DHeads

4,422,102

in

3,595,708

2,559.09
19,143.3

ft
gal

2,080.85
15,565.8

Cylindrical radius =
Chord Length
=

r
CL

63.00

53.7

in.
in.

Segment Area

12,252

in2

U. S. Gallons

Cylindrical Volume =

Aseg
Vcyl

3,381,604

in3

14,638.9

F & Dished Volume =

VFD

214,104

in3

926.9

Ellipsoidal Volume =

Vell

520,249

in3

2,252.2

Spherical Volume =

Vsph

1,040,498

in3

4,504.3

Page 3 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Partial-Filled HorizontalVessel

Art Montemayor

Horizontal Storage Tank


November 11, 1999
Volume Calibration
Rev: 1(03/12/00)
CALIBRATION DATA FOR HORIZONTAL TANK WITH FORMED HEADS
Steps:
(1) Enter the required information in the YELLOW cells;
(2) The calculated results appear in RED numbers.

Tank Inside Diameter (ID)


Tank length, tan/tan

inches
feet

Tank HeadType
1) Std. dish (non-pressure)
2) Torispherical (ASME F&D)
3) Ellipsoidal (2:1)
4) Ellipsoidal (non-std)
5) Hemispherical

Pressure
< 15 psig
< 200 psig
> 200 psig
Varies
To Suit

Head type selected:


Inside depth of head (IDD): inches
Head thickness: inches
Number of calibration increments:

Calibration curve for

120.0

120.000
23.000

=
=

10.0000 ft
276 inches

Note: Place an "x" in only one of the


5 head options available. If more than
one option contains an "x", the
program will use the first one it finds.

2:1 Ellipsoidal
Head Volume =
130.90
20 NOT REQUIRED FOR THIS HEAD TYPE
0.375 NOT REQUIRED FOR THIS HEAD TYPE
120.000 (max 200)

cu.ft.

in. dia tank,

heads

23.000

Page 4 of 72

ft tan/tan,

2:1 Ellipsoidal

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Horizontal Tank Strapping

Art Montemayor

Horizontal Storage Tank


Volume Calibration
Liquid Depth
Inches Centimeters
1
2.54
2
5.08
3
7.62
4
10.16
5
12.70
6
15.24
7
17.78
8
20.32
9
22.86
10
25.40
11
27.94
12
30.48
13
33.02
14
35.56
15
38.10
16
40.64
17
43.18
18
45.72
19
48.26
20
50.80
21
53.34
22
55.88
23
58.42
24
60.96
25
63.50
26
66.04
27
68.58
28
71.12
29
73.66
30
76.20
31
78.74
32
81.28
33
83.82
34
86.36
35
88.90
36
91.44
37
93.98
38
96.52
39
99.06
40
101.60
41
104.14
42
106.68
43
109.22
44
111.76
45
114.30
46
116.84
47
119.38
48
121.92
49
124.46
50
127.00

November 11, 1999


Rev: 1(03/12/00)

Liquid Volume Content


Ft3
US Gals
Liters
2.38
17.9
68
6.78
50.9
192
12.51
93.9
355
19.33
145.0
548
27.08
203.1
768
35.67
267.5
1,011
45.01
337.6
1,276
55.05
412.9
1,561
65.75
493.1
1,864
77.05
577.9
2,184
88.93
666.9
2,521
101.34
760.1
2,873
114.27
857.1
3,240
127.69
957.7
3,620
141.58
1,061.8
4,014
155.90
1,169.3
4,420
170.66
1,279.9
4,838
185.82
1,393.6
5,268
201.36
1,510.2
5,709
217.29
1,629.7
6,160
233.57
1,751.8
6,622
250.19
1,876.4
7,093
267.15
2,003.6
7,574
284.42
2,133.2
8,063
302.00
2,265.0
8,562
319.87
2,399.0
9,068
338.02
2,535.2
9,583
356.45
2,673.4
10,105
375.13
2,813.5
10,635
394.06
2,955.5
11,172
413.23
3,099.3
11,715
432.63
3,244.8
12,265
452.25
3,391.9
12,821
472.08
3,540.6
13,384
492.11
3,690.9
13,951
512.34
3,842.5
14,525
532.74
3,995.6
15,103
553.32
4,149.9
15,687
574.07
4,305.5
16,275
594.97
4,462.3
16,867
616.02
4,620.2
17,464
637.22
4,779.1
18,065
658.54
4,939.1
18,670
680.00
5,100.0
19,278
701.57
5,261.7
19,889
723.25
5,424.3
20,504
745.03
5,587.7
21,122
766.90
5,751.8
21,742
788.87
5,916.5
22,364
810.91
6,081.8
22,989

Page 5 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Horizontal Tank Strapping

Art Montemayor
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103

Horizontal Storage Tank


Volume Calibration
129.54
833.03
6,247.7
132.08
855.20
6,414.0
134.62
877.44
6,580.8
137.16
899.73
6,748.0
139.70
922.06
6,915.5
142.24
944.43
7,083.2
144.78
966.82
7,251.2
147.32
989.24
7,419.3
149.86 1,011.67
7,587.5
152.40 1,034.11
7,755.8
154.94 1,056.55
7,924.1
157.48 1,078.98
8,092.3
160.02 1,101.39
8,260.4
162.56 1,123.79
8,428.4
165.10 1,146.15
8,596.2
167.64 1,168.49
8,763.6
170.18 1,190.77
8,930.8
172.72 1,213.01
9,097.6
175.26 1,235.19
9,263.9
177.80 1,257.31
9,429.8
180.34 1,279.35
9,595.1
182.88 1,301.31
9,759.8
185.42 1,323.19
9,923.9
187.96 1,344.97 10,087.3
190.50 1,366.65 10,249.9
193.04 1,388.22 10,411.6
195.58 1,409.67 10,572.5
198.12 1,431.00 10,732.5
200.66 1,452.19 10,891.4
203.20 1,473.24 11,049.3
205.74 1,494.15 11,206.1
208.28 1,514.89 11,361.7
210.82 1,535.47 11,516.1
213.36 1,555.88 11,669.1
215.90 1,576.10 11,820.8
218.44 1,596.13 11,971.0
220.98 1,615.96 12,119.7
223.52 1,635.58 12,266.9
226.06 1,654.98 12,412.4
228.60 1,674.15 12,556.1
231.14 1,693.08 12,698.1
233.68 1,711.77 12,838.3
236.22 1,730.19 12,976.4
238.76 1,748.34 13,112.6
241.30 1,766.22 13,246.6
243.84 1,783.79 13,378.4
246.38 1,801.07 13,508.0
248.92 1,818.02 13,635.2
251.46 1,834.65 13,759.9
254.00 1,850.93 13,882.0
256.54 1,866.85 14,001.4
259.08 1,882.40 14,118.0
261.62 1,897.56 14,231.7

Page 6 of 72

November 11, 1999


Rev: 1(03/12/00)
23,616
24,245
24,875
25,507
26,140
26,775
27,409
28,045
28,681
29,317
29,953
30,589
31,224
31,859
32,493
33,127
33,758
34,389
35,018
35,645
36,270
36,892
37,512
38,130
38,744
39,356
39,964
40,569
41,170
41,766
42,359
42,947
43,531
44,109
44,682
45,250
45,813
46,369
46,919
47,462
47,999
48,529
49,051
49,566
50,072
50,571
51,060
51,541
52,012
52,474
52,925
53,366
53,796

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Horizontal Tank Strapping

Art Montemayor
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120

Horizontal Storage Tank


Volume Calibration
264.16 1,912.31 14,342.3
266.70 1,926.64 14,449.8
269.24 1,940.52 14,553.9
271.78 1,953.94 14,654.6
274.32 1,966.87 14,751.5
276.86 1,979.29 14,844.7
279.40 1,991.16 14,933.7
281.94 2,002.47 15,018.5
284.48 2,013.16 15,098.7
287.02 2,023.20 15,174.0
289.56 2,032.55 15,244.1
292.10 2,041.14 15,308.5
294.64 2,048.89 15,366.6
297.18 2,055.70 15,417.8
299.72 2,061.43 15,460.8
302.26 2,065.83 15,493.8
304.80 2,068.22 15,511.6

Page 7 of 72

November 11, 1999


Rev: 1(03/12/00)
54,214
54,620
55,014
55,394
55,761
56,113
56,450
56,770
57,073
57,358
57,623
57,866
58,086
58,279
58,442
58,566
58,634

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Horizontal Tank Strapping

Horizontal Cylindrical Tank


Partial Volume Determination

Art Montemayor

May 5, 2001
Rev: 0

D
D/2

D/2

H1

Horizontal Cylindrical Tank with Ellipsoidal or Hemispherical Heads


Total tank volume = (Total volume in two heads) + (Total volume in cylindrical section)
3
2
= ( 1/6 K1 D ) + ( 1/4 D L )

K1 = 2b/D
Ze = H1/D
Zc = H1/D
3
2
Partial tank volume = ( 1/6 K1 D ) ([f(Ze)]) + ( 1/4 D L ) ([fZc)])

f(Zc) = Horizontal cylinder coefficient (from Doolittle tables)


or,

f ( Zc )=

sin ( ) cos ( )

f(Ze) = Ellipsoidal coefficient (from Doolittle tables)


or,

H
f ( Ze )= 1
D

( )(

Where,

=2 A tan

( (

3+

2 H1
D

H1
2 H1

D
H 12
2

is in radians

For Ellipsoidal 2:1 heads,


b = (1/4) D
K1 = 1/2

Page 8 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Partial Horizontal

Horizontal Cylindrical Tank


Partial Volume Determination

Art Montemayor

May 5, 2001
Rev: 0

Oct 31, 1999


www.about.com

The volume V of a liquid in a horizontal cylindrical tank is:

V = LD2 (2Z-sin(2Z)) /8
Where,
Z = arccos(1-2h/D)
h = height of liquid in the horizontal cylindrical tank
D = diameter of the tank
L = length of the tank
Note that the result of the arccos-function has to be taken in radians.
Bernhard Spang

Page 9 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Partial Horizontal

Vertical Cylindrical Tank


Partial Volume Determination

Art Montemayor

May 05, 2001


Rev: 0

D
b

H2

H3
H3

H1

H1

Vertical Cylindrical Tank with Ellipsoidal or Hemispherical Heads


Total tank volume = (Total volume in two heads) + (Total volume in cylindrical section)
3
2
= ( 1/6 K1 D ) + ( 1/4 D L )
3
2
Partial tank volume = ( 1/6 K1 D ) ([f(Ze)]) + ( 1/4 D H3)

K1 = 2b/D
Ze = (H1 + H2)/K1D
f(Ze) = Ellipsoidal coefficient (from Doolittle tables)
or,

H 1+ H 2
f ( Ze )=
2b

)( (
3+

H 1+ H 2
b

Page 10 of 72

))

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Partial Vertical

Art Montemayor
f(Zc)
0.000000
0.018692
0.052044
0.094061
0.142378
0.195501
0.252315
0.311918
0.373530
0.436445
0.500000
0.563555
0.626470
0.688082
0.747685
0.804499
0.857622
0.905939
0.947956
0.981308
1.000000

Coefficients for Partial Volumes of Horizontal Cylinders


1.200000

1.000000

f(x) = - 1.1440298947x^3 + 1.716044842x^2 + 0.4364926265x - 0.0042537869


R = 0.800000
0.9999514324
f(Zc)

Zc
0.000000
0.050000
0.100000
0.150000
0.200000
0.250000
0.300000
0.350000
0.400000
0.450000
0.500000
0.550000
0.600000
0.650000
0.700000
0.750000
0.800000
0.850000
0.900000
0.950000
1.000000

May 15, 1998


Rev: 0

Regression of Doolittle Partial Volume Coefficient

0.600000
Data Source:
NGPSA Engineering Data Book
9th Edition; 1972; p. 13-7

0.400000

0.200000

0.000000
0.000000

0.200000

0.400000

0.600000

H/D = Zc

Page 11 of 72

0.800000

1.000000

1.200000

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Partial Cylind. Vol.

H/D
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.22
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.46
0.48
0.50
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.60
0.62
0.64
0.66
0.68
0.70
0.72
0.74
0.76
0.78
0.80
0.82
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.90
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
1.00

Vol. Fraction
0.0012
0.0047
0.0104
0.0182
0.0280
0.0397
0.0533
0.0686
0.0855
0.1040
0.1239
0.1451
0.1676
0.1913
0.2160
0.2420
0.2680
0.2950
0.3230
0.3520
0.3810
0.4100
0.4400
0.4700
0.5000
0.5300
0.5600
0.5900
0.6190
0.6480
0.6770
0.7050
0.7320
0.7580
0.7840
0.8087
0.8324
0.8549
0.8761
0.8960
0.9145
0.9314
0.9467
0.9603
0.9720
0.9818
0.9896
0.9953
0.9988
1.0000

Doolittle Equation for Parially-Filled Vessel Heads

May 27, 1998


Rev: 0

Volume Fraction of Horizontal Vessel Heads

1.2000

1.0000

f(x) = - 2.0026059555x^3 + 3.0039665652x^2 - 0.0015535616x + 0.0001080069


R = 0.9999997558
Volumetric Fraction

Art Montemayor

0.8000

0.6000

0.4000

0.2000

0.0000
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

Liquid Depth/Head ID, (H/D)

Reference: Chemical Engineers' Handbook; Perry & Chilton; 5th Edition; P.6-87
Page 12 of 72
Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls
WorkSheet:
Partial
Vol.
To obtain the total volumetric capacity of a process vessel, the volumetric capacity of the vessel
headsHds
must
be calculated

Art Montemayor

Doolittle Equation for Parially-Filled Vessel Heads

Reference: Chemical Engineers' Handbook; Perry & Chilton; 5th Edition; P.6-87

May 27, 1998


Rev: 0

To obtain the total volumetric capacity of a process vessel, the volumetric capacity of the vessel heads must be calculated
separately and added to the vessel's cylindrical volume.
The five types of formed vessel heads most frequently used are:
1. Hemispherical
2. 2:1 Ellipsoidal
3. ASME F&D (Torispherical)
4. Standard Dished (a misnomer, since there are no existing standards for dished heads)
5. Conical
The Standard Dished head is not suited for pressure vessels and, consequently, does not comply with the A.S.M.E.
Pressure Vessel Code. It is restricted to pressures less than 15 psig. The ASME F&D head is usually restricted to
pressure vessels designed for less than 200 psig. Above this design pressure the 2:1 Ellipsoidal head is usually
employed, with the Hemipherical head reserved for those applications that require the maximum in pressure resistance
and mechanical integrity.
To obtain the partially-filled liquid contents' volume of a horizontal tank requires the determination of the partial volume of
the two vessel heads as well as the cylindrical partial volume. The contents of a partially-filled vessel are arrived at by
adding the partial contents of the Cylindrical portion and both heads:
Partial Volume = (Total Cylinder volume)(Zc) + (Total Heads' volume)(Ze)
where,

Zc = Cylindrical partial volume coefficient


Ze = Heads' partial volume coefficient

The cylindrical partial volume can be expressed by the following explicit analytical expressions:
1)
2)

V1 = {r2cos-1[(r-h/r]-(r-h)(2rh-h2)0.5}L .........(Kowal,G.; Chem. Eng; pp. 130-132; 6/11/73)


V2 = 0.00433 L{d2/8-[(0.5d-h)(dh-h2)0.5 + 0.25d2arcSine(0.25d-0.5h)]}
..........(Caplan, F.; Hydrocarbon Processing; July 1968)
3) V3 = L r2[(/57.30) - sincos]
..........(Chem. Engrs. Handbook; Perry/Chilton; 5th ed.; p.6-86)
where, V1 = in3
V2 = gal
V3 = in3
r = vessel's inside radius, in.
h = depth of liquid content in the horizontal head, in.
L = total straight, cylindrical, horizontal length, in.
= 1/2 of the total angle subtended by the chord forming the liquid level, degrees
The partial volumes of horizontal-oriented heads (except for Hemi-heads) are not defined in a mathematically exact
formula but can be expressed by the following analytical expressions:
(From Caplan, F.; Hydrocarbon Processing; July 1968)
VDH = 0.0009328 h2 (1.5d - h) .......................Volume of a dished-only head, in US gallons
VEll = 0.00226 h2 (1.5d - h)
.......................Volume of 2:1 Ellipsoidal head, in US gallons
VHH = 2 VEll
.......................Volume of Hemispherical head, in US gallons
where, h = depth of liquid content in the horizontal head, in.
d = inside diameter of the horizontal head, in.

The calculation of the partially-filled cylindrical portionPage


of a horizontal
and can285215532.xls
be done using the
13 of 72 vessel is straight-forward
Electronic FileName:
analytical expressions noted above. The equation given by Caplan (V ) should be very accurate
sinceHds
it isPartial
directlyVol.
derived
WorkSheet:

Art Montemayor

Doolittle Equation for Parially-Filled Vessel Heads

May 27, 1998


Rev: 0

The calculation of the partially-filled cylindrical portion of a horizontal vessel is straight-forward and can be done using the
analytical expressions noted above. The equation given by Caplan (V 2) should be very accurate since it is directly derived
from an exact mathematical model presented in C.R.C. Standard Mathematical Tables; 12th Ed.(1959); p. 399.
The partial volume of heads is open to inaccuracies and while the analytical equations are suitable for estimating, the
method usually used is the Ze method for determining the liquid fraction of the entire head. For this purpose, the Doolittle
[Ind. Eng. Chem. 21, p. 322-323 (1928)] equation is used:
Vpartial = 0.00093 h2 (3r - h)
where,

Vpartial = partial volume, gallons


h = depth of liquid in both heads, in.
r = inside radius of the horizontal heads, in.

(Note that this is the same equation offered by Caplan, above, for a dished-only head. His equation for an ellipsoidal
head, although of the same form, is 142% in excess of the basic Doolittle relationship.)
Doolittle made some simplifying assumptions which affect the accuracy of the volume given by his equation, but the
equation is satisfactory for determining the volume as a fraction of the entire head. This fraction, calculated by Doolittle's
formula, is given in the Table listed above and regressed in the accompanying Chart. The Table or the resulting 3rd order
polynomial equation,
Ze = -2 (h/d)3 + 3 (h/d)2 - 0.0016 (h/d) + 0.0001
can be used to arrive at a partial volume of standard dished, torispherical (ASME F&D), ellipsoidal, and hemispherical
heads with an error of less than 2% of the entire head's volume.
Conical heads' volumes are defined by the exact mathematical expression for a truncated cone:
Vc = h (D2 + dD + d2) / 12
where,

Vc = total conical volume, cu. ft.


h = height of the cone, ft
d = diameter of the small end, ft
D = diameter of the large end, ft

When a tank volume cannot be calculated, or when greater precision is required, calibration may be necessary. This is
done by draining (or filling) the tank and measuring the volume of liquid. The measurement may be made by weighing, by
a calibrated fluid meter (i.e., Micro Motion Coriolis flowmeter), or by repeatedly filling small measuring tanks which have
been calibrated by weight. From the known fluid density at the measured temperature, the equivalent volume can be
quickly converted from the measured fluid mass.

Page 14 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Hds Partial Vol.

Doolittle Equation for Parially-Filled Vessel Heads

Art Montemayor

Horizontal vessel
diameter (D)
(major axis)

May 27, 1998


Rev: 0

minor axis
(D)
H

Horizontal Vessel Heads' orientation

Vertical Vessel Heads' orientation

The Doolittle relationship can be applied to Horizontal and Vertical-oriented Ellipsoidal (and F&D) vessel heads. However,
it is important to note that the H/D ratio that sets the fractional Coefficient, Ze, is measured differently in both
cases. Refer to the above illustrations of Ellipsoids oriented horizontally and vertically.
For Horizontal Vessel Heads:
In this case, note that the H/D ratio represents the Liquid depth divided by the Major Axis (internal diameter) of the
Ellipsoidal heads.
For Vertical Vessel Heads:
The H/D ratio corresponding to this orientation is the Liquid depth divided by the Minor Axis, not the Major Axis (internal
diameter) of the Ellipsoidal heads. This means that the Inside Depth of Dish (IDD) must be known. The IDD is the depth
of the head at its center and includes the inside corner radius but not the straight flange or nominal thickness of the head.
Characteristic IDD's for various types of heads are:
Standard dished head:
ASME F&D head:
Ellipsoidal, 2:1 head:
Hemispherical head:

OD / 7 (Note: This is only approximate, since no standards exist for dished heads)
OD / 6
ID / 4
ID / 2

An analytical equation for the partial volume of vertical oriented, "standard" dished heads at various depths is:
V = 0.01363 H2 L - 0.004545 H3 ......................(Chemical Processing Nomographs;Dale S. Davis;
Chemical Publishing Co.;1969; p. 276)
where,

V = liquid volume in the dish, gallons (excluding flanged section)


H = liquid depth in the dish, inches
L = radius of the dish, inches (usually equal to the tank ID, minus 6 inches)

Page 15 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Hds Partial Vol.

Art Montemayor
f(Ze)
0.000000
0.007250
0.028000
0.060750
0.104000
0.156250
0.216000
0.281750
0.352000
0.425250
0.500000
0.574750
0.648000
0.718250
0.784000
0.843750
0.896000
0.939250
0.972000
0.992750
1.000000

Data Source:
NGPSA Engineering Data Book
9th Edition; 1972; p. 13-9
NOTE: These capacity coefficients
apply for the volume of 2 ellipsoidal or
hemispherical heads..not the
volume for 1 head!!

Coefficients for Partial Volumes in Ellipsoids & Spheres


1.200000

1.000000

f(x) = - 2x^3 + 3x^2 - 2.56061827796986E-015x + 3.11227034484436E-016


R = 1

0.800000
f(Ze)

Ze
0.000
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
0.700
0.750
0.800
0.850
0.900
0.950
1.000

May 15, 1998


Rev: 1(02/25/01)

Regression of Doolittle Partial Volume Coefficient

0.600000

0.400000

0.200000

0.000000
0.000

0.200

0.400

0.600

0.800

1.000

1.200

H/D = Ze

Page 16 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Partial Ellip. Vol.

Art Montemayor
Internal Diameter
Inches
Ft
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120
126
132
138
144
150
156
162

1.0000
1.1667
1.3333
1.5000
1.6667
1.8333
2.0000
2.1667
2.3333
2.5000
2.6667
2.8333
3.0000
3.1667
3.3333
3.5000
4.0000
4.5000
5.0000
5.5000
6.0000
6.5000
7.0000
7.5000
8.0000
8.5000
9.0000
9.5000
10.0000
10.5000
11.0000
11.5000
12.0000
12.5000
13.0000
13.5000

August 04, 1998


Rev:1(08/21/00)

Pressure Vessel Heads


Volume of one head, Ft3
Internal Surface Area of one head, Ft2
Hemisphere Ellipsoidal ASME F&D Standard F&D Hemisphere Ellipsoidal ASME F&D Standard F&D
0.26
0.42
0.62
0.88
1.21
1.61
2.09
2.66
3.33
4.09
4.96
5.95
7.07
8.31
9.70
11.22
16.76
23.86
32.72
43.56
56.55
71.90
89.80
110.45
134.04
160.78
190.85
224.46
261.80
303.07
348.45
398.16
452.39
511.33
575.17
644.12

0.13
0.21
0.31
0.44
0.61
0.81
1.05
1.33
1.66
2.05
2.48
2.98
3.53
4.16
4.85
5.61
8.38
11.93
16.36
21.78
28.27
35.95
44.90
55.22
67.02
80.39
95.43
112.23
130.90
151.53
174.23
199.08
226.19
255.66
287.59
322.06

0.08
0.13
0.20
0.28
0.39
0.51
0.67
0.85
1.06
1.30
1.58
1.90
2.25
2.65
3.09
3.58
5.34
7.61
10.44
13.89
18.04
22.93
28.64
35.23
42.75
51.28
60.87
71.59
83.50
96.66
111.14
126.99
144.29
163.09
183.45
205.44

0.05
0.09
0.13
0.18
0.25
0.33
0.43
0.55
0.68
0.84
1.02
1.22
1.45
1.70
1.99
2.30
3.43
4.88
6.70
8.92
11.58
14.72
18.38
22.61
27.44
32.92
39.07
45.96
53.60
62.05
71.34
81.52
92.62
104.69
117.76
131.88

1.57
2.14
2.79
3.53
4.36
5.28
6.28
7.37
8.55
9.82
11.17
12.61
14.14
15.75
17.45
19.24
25.13
31.81
39.27
47.52
56.55
66.37
76.97
88.36
100.53
113.49
127.23
141.76
157.08
173.18
190.07
207.74
226.19
245.44
265.46
286.28

Page 17 of 72

1.00
1.36
1.78
2.25
2.78
3.36
4.00
4.70
5.45
6.26
7.12
8.04
9.01
10.04
11.12
12.26
16.02
20.27
25.03
30.28
36.04
42.30
49.05
56.31
64.07
72.33
81.09
90.35
100.11
110.37
121.13
132.40
144.16
156.42
169.19
182.45

0.93
1.26
1.65
2.09
2.58
3.12
3.71
4.36
5.06
5.80
6.60
7.45
8.36
9.31
10.32
11.38
14.86
18.80
23.22
28.09
33.43
39.23
45.50
52.23
59.43
67.09
75.22
83.81
92.86
102.38
112.36
122.81
133.72
145.09
156.93
169.24

0.79
1.07
1.40
1.77
2.18
2.64
3.14
3.69
4.28
4.91
5.59
6.31
7.07
7.88
8.73
9.62
12.57
15.90
19.64
23.76
28.27
33.18
38.48
44.18
50.27
56.75
63.62
70.88
78.54
86.59
95.03
103.87
113.10
122.72
132.73
143.14
Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls
WorkSheet: Hds Vol & Surf Area

Art Montemayor
168
174
180
186
192
198
204
210
216
222
228
234
240

14.0000
14.5000
15.0000
15.5000
16.0000
16.5000
17.0000
17.5000
18.0000
18.5000
19.0000
19.5000
20.0000

August 04, 1998


Rev:1(08/21/00)

Pressure Vessel Heads


718.38
798.13
883.57
974.91
1,072.33
1,176.04
1,286.22
1,403.08
1,526.81
1,657.62
1,795.68
1,941.21
2,094.40

359.19
399.06
441.79
487.45
536.17
588.02
643.11
701.54
763.41
828.81
897.84
970.60
1,047.20

229.12
254.56
281.81
310.94
342.02
375.09
410.24
447.51
486.97
528.69
572.73
619.14
668.00

147.08
163.41
180.90
199.60
219.55
240.78
263.34
287.26
312.60
339.38
367.64
397.44
428.80

307.88
330.26
353.43
377.38
402.12
427.65
453.96
481.06
508.94
537.61
567.06
597.30
628.32

196.22
210.48
225.25
240.52
256.28
272.55
289.32
306.59
324.36
342.63
361.40
380.67
400.44

182.01
195.24
208.94
223.10
237.72
252.81
268.37
284.38
300.87
317.81
335.22
353.10
371.44

153.94
165.13
176.72
188.69
201.06
213.83
226.98
240.53
254.47
268.80
283.53
298.65
314.16

Note: The Volume and Surface Area attributable to a head's straight flange is not included in this data.
The Internal Diameter is used in calculating the Surface Area; therefore, the resultant Area is slightly less than the
actual external surface area.
References and Sources:
(1)
Pressure Vessel Handbook; Eugene F. Megyesy; 8th Edition; Pressure Vessel Handbook
Publishing, Inc.
(2)
Process Vessel Design; L.E. Brownell & E.H. Young; John Wiley & Sons; N.Y.; 1959
(3)

A. Montemayor personal files

Page 18 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Hds Vol & Surf Area

Art Montemayor

Mfr's Hds' Vol

September 12, 1997


Rev 0

Head Volume in Cubic Feet


Head Volume in U.S. Gallons
Diameter
ft
Ellipsoidal ASME F&D Hemispherical Dished Ellipsoidal ASME F&D Hemispherical Dished
1.00
0.131
0.082
0.262
0.053
0.980
0.613
1.960
0.396
1.50
0.442
0.277
0.884
0.182
3.306
2.072
6.613
1.361
2.00
1.047
0.656
2.095
0.430
7.832
4.907
15.672
3.217
2.50
2.045
1.370
4.091
0.842
15.298
10.248
30.603
6.299
3.00
3.535
2.216
7.069
1.454
26.444
16.577
52.880
10.877
3.50
5.613
3.692
11.225
2.310
41.988
27.618
83.969
17.280
4.00
8.378
5.255
16.756
3.448
62.672
39.310
125.344
25.793
4.50
11.928
7.767
23.857
4.909
89.228
58.101
178.463
36.722
5.00
16.364
10.264
32.725
6.733
122.411
76.780
244.800
50.366
5.50
21.779
13.803
43.557
8.963
162.918
103.254
325.829
67.048
6.00
28.276
18.072
56.548 11.636
211.519
135.188
423.008
87.043
6.50
35.951
22.351
71.896 14.794
268.932
167.197
537.819 110.667
7.00
44.902
29.081
89.797 18.477
335.890
217.541
671.728 138.218
7.50
55.226
34.903
110.447 22.727
413.119
261.093
826.201 170.010
8.00
67.025
43.239
134.041 27.582
501.382
323.450
1,002.696 206.328
8.50
80.394
50.764
160.778 33.083
601.389
379.741
1,202.703 247.478
9.00
95.432
59.098
190.852 39.271
713.881
442.084
1,427.672 293.768
9.50
112.237
70.821
224.460 46.188
839.591
529.778
1,679.078 345.510
10.00
130.908
81.172
261.799 53.871
979.260
607.209
1,958.393 402.983
Data source:
Trinity Industries, Inc.
Head Division
Catalog No. 7962M; Page 15

Page 19 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Mfr's Hds' Vol

Art Montemayor

Ellipsoidal Curve Fit

210
216
222
228
234
240

5248.21
5711.03
6200.29
6716.73
7261.07
7834.06

2:1 Ellipsoidal Head Volume


9000.00

8000.00
f (x) = 0.000567137 x^2.9998426901
R = 0.9999999872

Volum e, gallons

I. D., inches Vol. Gallons


12
0.98
18
3.31
24
7.83
30
15.30
36
26.44
42
41.99
48
62.67
54
89.23
60
122.41
66
162.92
72
211.52
78
268.93
84
335.89
90
413.12
96
501.38
102
601.39
108
713.88
114
839.59
120
979.26
126
1133.61
132
1303.39
138
1489.33
144
1692.16
150
1912.61
156
2151.43
162
2409.34
168
2687.08
174
2985.39
180
3304.99
186
3646.63
192
4011.04
198
4398.95
204
4811.09

September 12, 1997


Rev 0

7000.00

6000.00

5000.00

4000.00

3000.00

2000.00

1000.00

0.00
0

50

100

Ins ide Diam e ter, inche s


150

Ellipsoidal Head Inside Diameter =

126 inches

Volume of Single Ellipsodial Head =

1133.61 Gallons =

200

250

300

151.541 Ft3

Reference:
Trinity Industries, Inc.
Head Division
Navasota, TX
Product & Services
Catalog # 7962M (1996)

Page 20 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Ellipsoidal Curve Fit

Art Montemayor

2:1 Ellipsoidal Heads

Inches
Start of Knuckle Radius

mm

100.80

May 21, 2003


Rev: 1

Approximate area for nozzle attachment

2560

Inside Depth
(= I.D./4)
31.5
Inches
800
mm

Knuckle Radius
Inches 21.76
mm
553
Tangent Line

Note:
Verify all dimension
with vendor drawings

41.24

Inches

1047

mm

Key In the Head I.D.

126
3200.4

Dish Radius
113.97 Inches
2895
mm

Straight
Flange
(Varies)
2" Nom.
51mm

Inches
mm

2:1 Elliptical Head


NOTE:
Ellipsoidal 2:1 heads are fabricated and measured using the Internal Diameter (ID) of the head.
Note that this measurement convention is opposite to that of the ASME F&D head.
Any cylindrical shell fabricated to fit these heads must conform to or match the ID dimension.

Page 21 of 72

FileName: 285215532.xls
Worksheet: Ellipsoidal Heads

Art Montemayor

ASME F&D Curve Fit

204
210
216
222
228
234
240

3,078.42
3,324.02
3,582.12
3,853.00
4,187.61
4,700.90
5,025.88

ASME F&D HEAD VOLUME


6,000.00

Volum e, gallons

I. D., inches Volume, gal.


12
0.61
18
2.07
24
4.91
30
10.25
36
16.58
42
27.62
48
39.31
54
58.10
60
76.78
66
103.25
72
135.19
78
167.20
84
217.54
90
261.09
96
323.45
102
379.74
108
442.08
114
529.78
120
607.21
126
714.90
132
809.04
138
934.15
144
1,015.27
150
1,227.02
156
1,361.28
162
1,504.82
168
1,712.89
174
1,879.89
180
2,057.21
186
2,312.53
192
2,515.83
198
2,730.51

September 12, 1997


Rev 0

5,000.00
f(x) = 0.0003650453 x^2.9957737184
R = 0.9999295479
4,000.00

3,000.00

2,000.00

1,000.00

0.00
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Ins ide Diam eter, inches

ASME F&D Head Inside Diameter =

84 inches

Volume of Single ASME F&D Head =

205.29 Gallons =

27.443

Ft3

Reference:
Trinity Industries, Inc.
Head Division
Navasota, TX
Product & Services
Catalog # 7962M (1996)

Page 22 of 72

Electronic File: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: ASME F&D Curve Fit

Art Montemayor

May21, 2003
Rev: 0

ASME Flanged and Dished Heads

Flanged and Dished Head (ASME)


Area for nozzle attachment
O.D. - (R2+T)x2

Wall Thickness "T"

Knuckle Radius
"R2"

Inside Depth
of Dish
"IDD"

Tangent Line
All Dimensions
are in Inches (mm)
Verify all dimension
with vendor drawings

Straight
Flange
(Varies)
2" Nom.
51mm

Dish Radius
"R1"

Outside Diameter (O.D.)


NOTE:
ASME F&D heads are fabricated and measured using the Outside Diameter (OD) of the head.
Note that this measurement convention is opposite to that of the Ellipsoidal head.
Any cylindrical shell fabricated to fit these heads must conform to or match the OD dimension.
Not all wall thicknesses are shown. Interpolate for approximate inside depth O.D. dish IDD
Inches (Flanged & Dished Head ASME Table)
Millimeters (Flanged & Dished Head ASME Table)
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
O.D
"T"
"R1"
"R2"
IDD
ASME
O.D
0.38
24
1.63
4.50
10
610
41
114
0.50
24
1.63
4.44
26"
13
610
41
113
26"
0.63
24
1.88
4.50
660
16
610
48
114
0.75
24
2.25
4.69
19
610
57
119
0.38
26
1.75
4.81
10
660
44
122
0.50
26
1.75
4.75
28"
13
660
44
121
28"
0.63
26
1.88
4.75
711
16
660
48
121
0.75
26
2.25
4.94
19
660
57
125
0.38
30
1.88
4.88
10
762
48
124
0.50
30
1.88
4.81
30"
13
762
48
122
30"
0.63
30
1.88
4.81
762
16
762
48
122
0.75
30
2.25
5.00
19
762
57
127
0.38
30
2.00
5.56
10
762
51
141
0.50
30
2.00
5.50
32"
13
762
51
140
32"
0.63
30
2.00
5.38
813
16
762
51
137
0.75
30
2.25
5.50
19
762
57
140
0.38
34
2.13
5.56
10
864
54
141
0.50
34
2.13
5.50
34
13
864
54
140
34"
0.63
30
2.13
6.00
864
16
762
54
152
0.75
30
2.25
6.06
19
762
57
154
0.38
36
2.25
5.94
10
914
57
151
0.50
36
2.25
5.88
36"
13
914
57
149
36"
0.63
36
2.25
5.81
914
16
914
57
148
0.75
36
2.25
5.75
19
914
57
146
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
O.D
"T"
"R1"
"R2"
IDD
ASME
O.D
0.38
36
2.38
6.50
10
914
60
165
0.50
36
2.38
6.44
38"
13
914
60
164
38"
0.63
36
2.38
6.38
965
16
914
60
162
0.75
36
2.38
6.38
19
914
60
162
0.38
40
2.50
6.63
10
1016
64
168
0.50
40
2.50
6.56
40"
13
1016
64
167
40"
0.63
36
2.50
6.94
1016
16
914
64
176
0.75
36
2.50
7.00
19
914
64
178
0.38
40
2.63
7.19
10
1016
67
183
0.50
40
2.63
7.13
42"
13
1016
67
181
42"
0.63
40
2.63
7.06
1067
16
1016
67
179
0.75
40
2.63
7.00
19
1016
67
178
0.38
42
3.00
8.00
10
1067
76
203
0.50
42
3.00
8.75
42"
13
1067
76
222

48"

Page 23 of 72

FileName: 285215532.xls
Worksheet: ASME F&D Heads

Art Montemayor

48"

54"

60"
O.D

66"

72"

78"

84"

90"

96"
O.D

102"

108"

114"

120"

126"

132"
O.D

138"

144"

0.63
0.75
0.38
0.50
0.63
0.75
0.38
0.50
0.63
0.75
"T"
0.38
0.50
0.63
0.75
0.38
0.63
0.75
0.88
0.38
0.50
0.75
1.00
0.38
0.63
0.88
1.00
0.38
0.50
0.75
1.00
0.38
0.50
0.88
1.25
"T"
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.13
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.13
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
0.50
0.88
1.25
1.63
0.50
0.88
1.25
1.38
0.75
0.88
1.25
1.63
"T"
0.63
1.00
1.38
1.75
0.63
1.00
1.38
1.75

ASME Flanged and Dished Heads


42
42
54
48
48
48
60
60
54
54
"R1"
66
60
60
60
72
72
72
66
78
72
72
72
84
84
84
84
90
84
84
84
96
90
90
90
"R1"
96
96
96
90
102
102
102
96
108
108
108
108
114
114
108
108
120
120
120
114
126
120
120
120
"R1"
132
132
132
132
132
132
132
132

3.00
3.00
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.63
3.63
3.63
3.63
"R2"
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
5.13
5.13
5.13
5.13
5.50
5.50
5.50
5.50
5.88
5.88
5.88
5.88
"R2"
6.13
6.13
6.13
6.13
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.88
6.88
6.88
6.88
7.25
7.25
7.25
7.25
7.63
7.63
7.63
7.63
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
"R2"
8.38
8.38
8.38
8.38
8.75
8.75
8.75
8.75

8.69
8.63
8.94
9.75
9.75
9.63
10.00
9.88
10.69
10.63
IDD
11.00
10.94
11.75
11.63
12.00
11.88
11.88
12.63
13.00
13.81
13.69
13.50
14.00
13.88
13.75
13.69
15.13
15.81
15.69
15.56
16.13
16.88
16.63
16.44
IDD
17.88
17.69
17.56
18.50
18.88
18.75
18.56
19.44
19.88
19.75
19.63
19.50
20.88
20.69
21.44
21.25
21.88
21.69
21.50
22.31
22.81
23.69
23.44
23.25
IDD
23.94
23.75
23.56
23.38
25.88
25.63
25.44
25.19

1219

54"
1372

60"
1524
ASME

O.D
66"
1676

72"
1829

78"
1981

84"
2134

90"
2286

96"
2438
ASME

O.D
102"
2591

108"
2743

114"
2896

120"
3048

126"
3200

132"
3353
ASME

O.D
138"
3505

144"
3658

Page 24 of 72

16
1067
76
221
19
1067
76
219
10
1372
83
227
13
1219
83
248
16
1219
83
248
19
1219
83
245
10
1524
92
254
13
1524
92
251
16
1372
92
272
19
1372
92
270
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
10
1676
102
279
13
1524
102
278
16
1524
102
298
19
1524
102
295
10
1829
111
305
16
1829
111
302
19
1829
111
302
22
1676
111
321
10
1981
121
330
13
1829
121
351
19
1829
121
348
25
1829
121
343
10
2134
130
356
16
2134
130
353
22
2134
130
349
25
2134
130
348
10
2286
140
384
13
2134
140
402
19
2134
140
399
25
2134
140
395
10
2438
149
410
13
2286
149
429
22
2286
149
422
32
2286
149
418
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
13
2438
156
454
19
2438
156
449
25
2438
156
446
29
2286
156
470
13
2591
165
480
19
2591
165
476
25
2591
165
471
29
2438
165
494
13
2743
175
505
19
2743
175
502
25
2743
175
499
32
2743
175
495
13
2896
184
530
22
2896
184
526
32
2743
184
545
41
2743
184
540
13
3048
194
556
22
3048
194
551
32
3048
194
546
35
2896
194
567
19
3200
203
579
22
3048
203
602
32
3048
203
595
41
3048
203
591
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
16
3353
213
608
25
3353
213
603
35
3353
213
598
44
3353
213
594
16
3353
222
657
25
3353
222
651
35
3353
222
646
44
3353
222
640

May21, 2003
Rev: 0

FileName: 285215532.xls
Worksheet: ASME F&D Heads

Art Montemayor

156"

168"

180"

192"
O.D

204"

210"

216"

228"

0.75
1.13
1.50
1.88
0.75
1.13
1.50
1.88
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00
"T"
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00
1.00
1.38
1.75
2.25
1.00
1.38
1.75
2.00
1.00
1.38
1.75
2.00

May21, 2003
Rev: 0

ASME Flanged and Dished Heads


144
144
144
144
144
144
144
144
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
"R1"
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
180
180
180
180

9.38
9.38
9.38
9.38
10.13
10.13
10.13
10.13
10.88
10.88
10.88
10.88
11.63
11.63
11.63
11.63
"R2"
12.25
12.25
12.25
12.25
12.63
12.63
12.63
12.63
13.00
13.00
13.00
13.00
13.75
13.75
13.75
13.75

27.75
27.50
27.31
27.06
31.81
31.50
31.31
31.13
31.44
31.25
31.00
30.81
35.44
35.19
34.94
34.75
IDD
39.56
39.38
39.19
38.94
41.81
41.63
41.31
41.00
44.25
44.00
43.69
43.50
46.56
46.31
46.06
45.69

156"
3962

168"
4267

180
4572

192"
4877
ASME

O.D
204"
5182

210"
5334

216"
5486

228"
5791

Page 25 of 72

19
3658
238
705
29
3658
238
699
38
3658
238
694
48
3658
238
687
19
3658
257
808
29
3658
257
800
38
3658
257
795
48
3658
257
791
22
4318
276
799
32
4318
276
794
41
4318
276
787
51
4318
276
783
22
4318
295
900
32
4318
295
894
41
4318
295
887
51
4318
295
883
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
22
4318
311
1005
32
4318
311
1000
41
4318
311
995
51
4318
311
989
25
4318
321
1062
35
4318
321
1057
44
4318
321
1049
57
4318
321
1041
25
4318
330
1124
35
4318
330
1118
44
4318
330
1110
51
4318
330
1105
25
4572
349
1183
35
4572
349
1176
44
4572
349
1170
51
4572
349
1161

FileName: 285215532.xls
Worksheet: ASME F&D Heads

Art Montemayor

Reference:
Trinity Industries, Inc.
Head Division
Navasota, TX
Product & Services
Catalog # 7962M (1996)

HEMISPHERICAL HEAD VOLUME


300

250

f(x) = 0.261930186 x^2.9997356256


R = 0.9999999971

Volum e, CuFt

Internal
Hemispherical
Diameter, ft Volume, cu. Ft.
1.00
0.262
1.50
0.884
2.00
2.095
2.50
4.091
3.00
7.069
3.50
11.225
4.00
16.756
4.50
23.857
5.00
32.725
5.50
43.557
6.00
56.548
6.50
71.896
7.00
89.797
7.50
110.447
8.00
134.041
8.50
160.778
9.00
190.852
9.50
224.46
10.00
261.799

September 12, 1997


Rev 0

Hemispherical Curve Fit

200

150

100

50

0
0.00

Hemispherical Head Inside Diameter =


Volume of Single Hemispherical Head =

2.00

4.00

Inside Diam
6.00e te r, Ft

8.00

10.00

12.00

120.000 inches
261.900 Ft3

1,959.1 Gallons

Page 26 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Hemispherical Curve Fit

Art Montemayor

Reference:
Trinity Industries, Inc.
Head Division
Navasota, TX
Product & Services
Catalog # 7962M (1996)

DISHED HEAD VOLUME


60.000

50.000

f(x) = 0.0535515348 x^3.0032720473


R = 0.9999975663

Volum e , CuFt

Internal
Dished
Diameter, ft Volume, Ft3
1.00
0.053
1.50
0.182
2.00
0.430
2.50
0.842
3.00
1.454
3.50
2.310
4.00
3.448
4.50
4.909
5.00
6.733
5.50
8.963
6.00
11.636
6.50
14.794
7.00
18.477
7.50
22.727
8.00
27.582
8.50
33.083
9.00
39.271
9.50
46.188
10.00
53.871

September 12, 1997


Rev 0

Dished Curve Fit

40.000

30.000

20.000

10.000

0.000
0.00

2.00

Dished Head Inside Diameter =

120.000 inches

Volume of Single Dished Head =

53.60 Ft3

4.00

Inside Diam
6.00ete r, Ft

8.00

10.00

12.00

401.0 Gallons

Page 27 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Dished Curve Fit

Art Montemayor

May 21, 2003


Rev: 0

Flanged and Dished Heads

Flanged and Dished Head


Area for nozzle attachment
O.D. - (R2+T)x2

Wall Thickness "T"

Knuckle Radius
"R2"

Inside Depth
of Dish
"IDD"

Tangent Line
All Dimensions
are in Inches (mm)
Verify all dimension
with vendor drawings

Straight
Flange
(Varies)
2" Nom.
51mm

Dish Radius
"R1"

Outside Diameter (O.D.)


NOTE:
F & D heads are fabricated and measured using the Outside Diameter (OD) of the head.
Any cylindrical shell fabricated to fit these heads must conform to or match the OD dimension.
Not all wall thicknesses are shown. Interpolate for approximate inside depth O.D. dish IDD
Inches (Flanged & Dished Head Table)
Millimeters (Flanged & Dished Head Table)
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
O.D
"T"
"R1"
"R2"
IDD
O.D
0.38
24
1.13
4.25
10
610
29
108
0.50
24
1.50
4.38
26"
13
610
38
111
26"
0.63
24
1.88
4.50
660
16
610
48
114
0.75
24
2.25
4.69
19
610
57
119
0.38
26
4.50
4.50
10
660
114
114
0.50
26
4.63
4.63
28"
13
660
118
118
28"
0.63
26
4.75
4.75
711
16
660
121
121
0.75
26
4.94
4.94
19
660
125
125
0.38
30
4.50
4.50
10
762
114
114
0.50
30
4.63
4.63
30"
13
762
118
118
30"
0.63
30
4.81
4.81
762
16
762
122
122
0.75
30
5.00
5.00
19
762
127
127
0.38
30
5.00
5.00
10
762
127
127
0.50
30
5.19
5.19
32"
13
762
132
132
32"
0.63
30
5.31
5.31
813
16
762
135
135
0.75
30
5.50
5.50
19
762
140
140
0.38
34
5.00
5.00
10
864
127
127
0.50
34
5.19
5.19
34
13
864
132
132
34"
0.63
33
5.44
5.44
864
16
838
138
138
0.75
30
6.06
6.06
19
762
154
154
0.38
36
5.25
5.25
10
914
133
133
0.50
36
5.44
5.44
36"
13
914
138
138
36"
0.63
36
5.63
5.63
914
16
914
143
143
0.75
36
5.75
5.75
19
914
146
146
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
O.D
"T"
"R1"
"R2"
IDD
O.D
0.38
36
1.13
5.81
10
914
29
148
0.50
36
1.50
6.00
38"
13
914
38
152
38"
0.63
36
1.88
6.13
965
16
914
48
156
0.75
36
2.25
6.31
19
914
57
160
0.38
40
1.13
5.81
10
1016
29
148
0.50
40
1.50
5.94
40"
13
1016
38
151
40"
0.63
36
1.88
6.69
1016
16
914
48
170
0.75
36
2.25
6.88
19
914
57
175
0.38
42
1.13
6.06
10
1067
29
154
0.50
42
1.50
6.25
42"
13
1067
38
159
42"
0.63
42
1.88
6.38
1067
16
1067
48
162
0.75
40
2.25
6.81
19
1016
57
173
0.38
48
1.13
6.88
10
1219
29
175
0.50
48
1.50
7.00
42"
13
1219
38
178
48"
0.63
48
1.88
7.19
1219
16
1219
48
183
Page 28 of 72

FileName: 285215532.xls
Worksheet: Dished Heads

Art Montemayor

54"

60"
O.D

66"

72"

78"

84"

90"

96"
O.D

102"

108"

114"

120"

126"

132"
O.D

138"

144"

0.75
0.38
0.50
0.63
0.75
0.38
0.50
0.63
0.75
"T"
0.38
0.50
0.63
0.75
0.38
0.63
0.88
1.13
0.38
0.63
0.88
1.13
0.38
0.63
0.88
1.13
0.38
0.63
0.88
1.13
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
"T"
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
0.50
0.88
1.25
1.63
0.50
0.88
1.25
1.63
0.63
0.88
1.13
1.50
"T"
0.63
0.88
1.13
1.50
0.63
0.88
1.13
1.50
0.75

May 21, 2003


Rev: 0

Flanged and Dished Heads


48
54
54
54
54
60
60
60
60
"R1"
66
66
66
66
72
72
72
72
78
78
78
78
84
84
84
84
90
84
84
84
96
96
96
96
"R1"
102
96
96
96
108
108
102
102
114
114
108
108
120
120
120
120
126
120
120
120
132
132
132
132
"R1"
132
132
132
132
144
144
144
144
144

2.25
1.13
1.50
1.88
2.25
1.13
1.50
1.88
2.25
"R2"
1.13
1.50
1.88
2.25
1.13
1.88
2.63
3.38
1.13
1.88
2.63
3.38
1.13
1.88
2.63
3.38
1.13
1.88
2.63
3.38
1.50
2.25
3.00
3.75
"R2"
1.50
2.25
3.00
3.75
1.50
2.25
3.00
3.75
1.50
2.25
3.00
3.75
1.50
2.63
3.75
4.88
1.50
2.63
3.75
4.88
1.88
2.63
3.38
4.50
"R2"
1.88
2.63
3.38
4.50
1.88
2.63
3.38
4.50
2.25

7.38
7.69
7.81
8.00
8.19
8.50
8.63
8.81
8.94
IDD
9.31
9.44
9.63
9.75
10.06
10.38
10.69
11.00
10.88
11.19
11.50
11.81
11.69
11.88
12.31
12.63
12.50
13.75
14.00
14.31
13.44
13.75
14.06
14.38
IDD
14.25
15.50
15.75
16.06
15.06
15.38
16.56
16.81
15.88
16.19
17.38
17.63
16.69
17.13
17.59
18.06
17.50
18.81
19.25
19.69
18.44
18.75
19.00
19.50
IDD
20.13
20.44
20.69
21.13
20.00
20.31
20.63
21.13
23.69

54"
1372

60"
1524
O.D
66"
1676

72"
1829

78"
1981

84"
2134

90"
2286

96"
2438
O.D
102"
2591

108"
2743

114"
2896

120"
3048

126"
3200

132"
3353
O.D
138"
3505

144"
3658

Page 29 of 72

19
1219
57
187
10
1372
29
195
13
1372
38
198
16
1372
48
203
19
1372
57
208
10
1524
29
216
13
1524
38
219
16
1524
48
224
19
1524
57
227
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
10
1676
29
236
13
1676
38
240
16
1676
48
245
19
1676
57
248
10
1829
29
256
16
1829
48
264
22
1829
67
272
29
1829
86
279
10
1981
29
276
16
1981
48
284
22
1981
67
292
29
1981
86
300
10
2134
29
297
16
2134
48
302
22
2134
67
313
29
2134
86
321
10
2286
29
318
16
2134
48
349
22
2134
67
356
29
2134
86
363
13
2438
38
341
19
2438
57
349
25
2438
76
357
32
2438
95
365
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
13
2591
38
362
19
2438
57
394
25
2438
76
400
32
2438
95
408
13
2743
38
383
19
2743
57
391
25
2591
76
421
32
2591
95
427
13
2896
38
403
19
2896
57
411
25
2743
76
441
32
2743
95
448
13
3048
38
424
22
3048
67
435
32
3048
95
447
41
3048
124
459
13
3200
38
445
22
3048
67
478
32
3048
95
489
41
3048
124
500
16
3353
48
468
22
3353
67
476
29
3353
86
483
38
3353
114
495
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
16
3353
48
511
22
3353
67
519
29
3353
86
526
38
3353
114
537
16
3658
48
508
22
3658
67
516
29
3658
86
524
38
3658
114
537
19
3658
57
602
FileName: 285215532.xls
Worksheet: Dished Heads

Art Montemayor

156"

168"

180"

192"
O.D

204"

216"

228"

240"

1.13
1.50
1.88
0.75
1.13
1.50
1.88
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00
"T"
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00
0.88
1.25
1.63
2.00

May 21, 2003


Rev: 0

Flanged and Dished Heads


144
144
144
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
"R1"
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180

3.38
4.50
5.63
2.25
3.38
4.50
5.63
2.63
3.75
4.88
6.00
2.63
3.75
4.88
6.00
"R2"
2.63
3.75
4.88
6.00
2.63
3.75
4.88
6.00
2.63
3.75
4.88
6.00
2.63
3.75
4.88
6.00

24.13
24.50
24.94
23.13
23.56
24.06
24.19
26.69
27.13
27.56
28.00
30.50
30.88
31.25
31.63
IDD
34.63
35.00
35.31
35.63
39.06
39.50
39.75
40.00
41.25
41.50
41.75
42.00
46.25
46.44
46.63
46.81

156"
3962

168"
4267

180
4572

192"
4877
O.D
204"
5182

216"
5486

228"
5791

240"
6096

Page 30 of 72

29
3658
86
613
38
3658
114
622
48
3658
143
633
19
4318
57
588
29
4318
86
598
38
4318
114
611
48
4318
143
614
22
4318
67
678
32
4318
95
689
41
4318
124
700
51
4318
152
711
22
4318
67
775
32
4318
95
784
41
4318
124
794
51
4318
152
803
"T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
22
4318
67
880
32
4318
95
889
41
4318
124
897
51
4318
152
905
22
4318
67
992
32
4318
95
1003
41
4318
124
1010
51
4318
152
1016
22
4572
67
1048
32
4572
95
1054
41
4572
124
1060
51
4572
152
1067
22
4572
67
1175
32
4572
95
1180
41
4572
124
1184
51
4572
152
1189

FileName: 285215532.xls
Worksheet: Dished Heads

Art Montemayor

May 27, 1998


Rev:1(06/06/01)

Cylindrical Vessel Volume Relationship

Cylindrical Volumes of Vessels --- expressed as Gallons of Liquid Content per inch length of
Cylinder.
Source: Chemical Engineers' Handbook; Perry & Chilton; 5th Edition; p. 6-86

Diam., in.
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0

Gal./in. Diam., in.


0.765
28.0
0.817
28.5
0.870
29.0
0.926
29.5
0.983
30

Gal./in. Diam., in.


2.666
52
2.762
53
2.859
54
2.959
55
3.060
56

Gal./in. Diam., in.


9.194
96
9.551
98
9.914
100
10.285
102
10.662
104

Gal./in.
31.334
32.653
34.000
35.373
36.774

17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5

1.041
1.102
1.164
1.227
1.293

31
32
33
34
35

3.267
3.482
3.703
3.930
4.165

57
58
59
60
62

11.047
11.438
11.835
12.240
13.070

106
108
110
112
114

38.202
39.657
41.140
42.649
44.186

20.0
20.5
21.0
21.5
22.0

1.360
1.429
1.499
1.572
1.646

36
37
38
39
40

4.406
4.655
4.910
5.171
5.440

64
66
68
70
72

13.926
14.810
15.722
16.660
17.626

116
118
120
122
124

45.750
47.341
48.960
50.605
52.278

22.5
23.0
23.5
24.0
24.5

1.721
1.799
1.878
1.958
2.041

41
42
43
44
45

5.715
5.998
6.287
6.582
6.885

74
76
78
80
82

18.618
19.638
20.685
21.760
22.861

126
128
130
132
134

53.978
55.705
57.460
59.241
61.050

25.0
25.5
26.0

2.125
2.211
2.298

46
47
48

7.194
7.511
7.834

84
86
88

23.990
25.146
26.329

136
138
140

62.886
64.749
66.640

26.5
27.0
27.5

2.388
2.479
2.571

49
50
51

8.163
8.500
8.843

90
92
94

27.540
28.777
30.042

142
144
146
148

68.557
70.502
72.474
74.473

Page 31 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Cylindrical Tank Volume

June 02, 1999


Rev: 0

Art Montemayor
VOLUMETRIC CAPACITY FOR BUTT-WELDED FITTINGS
All volumes expressed in cubic inches
Reference: Piping Engineering; Tube Turns Division of Chemetron Corp.; Nov. 1971; p.47
90o Elbows
Nominal
Long Radius
Short Radius
Pipe
Size, in. Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
30
34
36
42
48

0.7
0.6
0.9
0.8
2.0
1.7
4.4
3.7
7.2
6.2
15.8
13.9
52.2
46.7
119.8
108.3
408.1
368.3
942.3
860.3
1,856.9
1,758.2
3,195.9
3,064.2
4,545.9
4,376.1
6,882.2
6,658.4
9,906.5
9,621.7
13,707.5 13,353.8
18,365.2 17,935.8
23,995.6 23,482.4
30,644.8 30,041.0
47,449.7 46,642.1
69,490.1 68,449.0
82,695.4 81,526.6
132,116.7 130,520.2
198,322.0 196,203.0

1.4
2.9
4.8
10.5
34.8
79.9
272.1
628.3
1,238.0
2,130.7
3,030.7
4,301.4
6,054.0
9,366.8

4.2
9.2
31.1
72.0
245.4
572.7
1,172.2
2,042.8
2,917.4
4,161.5
5,879.9
9,125.1

14,664.0

14,350.3

31,648.8

31,110.5

55,130.3
88,077.8

54,351.0
87,013.4

180o Returns
Long Radius
Short Radius
Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong
1.4
1.9
4.1
8.7
14.4
31.6
104.4
239.7
816.1
1,884.7
3,713.8
6,391.8
9,091.8
13,764.5
19,813.1
27,415.0
36,730.9
47,991.1
61,289.6
94,899.4
110,260.5
176,155.6

1.1
1.5
3.4
7.4
12.5
27.8
93.3
216.6
736.6
1,720.6
3,516.5
6,128.5
8,752.2
13,316.9
19,243.4
26,707.6
23,914.5
46,964.7
40,054.6
62,189.4

2.7
5.9
9.6
21.1
69.6
159.9
544.3
1,256.7
2,476.0
4,261.5
6,061.4
8,602.8
12,108.0
18,733.6

8.3
18.3
62.2
143.9
490.8
1,145.5
2,344.3
4,085.6
5,834.8
8,323.0
11,759.8
18,250.2

29,327.9

28,700.7

63,297.7

62,221.0

110,260.5 108,702.1

Page 32 of 72

45o Elbows
Long Radius
Standard X-Strong
0.4
0.5
1.0
2.2
3.6
7.9
26.1
59.9
204.0
471.1
928.5
1,598.0
2,273.0
3,441.1
4,953.3
6,853.8
9,182.7
11,997.8
15,322.4

0.2
0.4
0.8
1.8
3.1
7.0
23.3
54.1
184.2
430.1
879.1
1,532.1
2,188.1
3,329.2
4,810.8
6,676.9
8,967.9
11,471.2
15,020.5

34,745.0
41,347.7
66,054.8
40,971.0

34,224.5
40,763.3
65,260.1
40,538.0

Tees
Full-size outlets
Standard X-Strong
0.8
0.6
1.6
1.3
3.5
2.9
7.5
6.5
12.4
10.8
22.2
19.7
65.2
58.7
135.8
123.6
413.2
367.1
881.1
811.2
1,675.4
1,594.9
2,816.9
2,712.3
3,809.3
3,681.0
5,804.3
5,634.3
8,396.5
8,179.2
11,701.3 11,429.4
14,348.0 14,049.2
20,647.2 20,249.7
23,912.3 23,493.2
35,985.0 35,442.5
52,836.7 52,135.9
62,945.1 62,157.5
94,207.0 93,209.0
145,443.0 144,092.0

Caps
Standard
0.3
0.6
1.1
1.8
2.5
3.9
11.1
24.2
77.3
148.5
295.6
517.0
684.6
967.6
1,432.6
2,026.4
2,784.1
3,451.0
4,014.3
5,163.1
7,010.8
10,936.3
13,480.0

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes

June 02, 1999


Rev: 0

Art Montemayor

90o Elbows:
V = 2D2A/8
V = Volume
D = Inside diameter
A = Center to face distance
A
180o Returns:
V = 2D2O/8
V = Volume
D = Inside diameter
A = Center to center distance

45o Elbows:
V = 2D2A/8
V = Volume
D = Inside diameter
A = Center to face distance

Full Size Outlet Tees:


V = (D2/2) (C + M/2) - D3/3
V = Volume

Page 33 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes

June 02, 1999


Rev: 0

Art Montemayor
D = Inside diameter
C= Center to end of run
M = center to end of branch

Pipe Caps:
V = (D2/4) (E - t - D/12)
V = Volume
D = Inside diameter
E = length
t = wall thickness

Crosses:
V = (D2/2) (C + M) - (2/3)D3
V = Volume
D = Inside diameter
C= Center to end of run
M = center to end of branch

Concentric & eccentric reducers:

Page 34 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes

June 02, 1999


Rev: 0

Art Montemayor

Page 35 of 72

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes

June 02, 1999


Rev: 0

Art Montemayor

Caps
X-Strong
0.2
0.4
0.9
1.5
2.0
3.2
9.4
20.8
65.7
122.3
264.4
475.0
640.0
911.0
1,363.0
1,938.0
2,682.9
3,313.0
3,884.1
5,006.4
6,811.5
10,666.7
13,157.0

Crosses
Full-size outlets
Standard X-Strong

Stub Ends
Lap Joint
Standard X-Strong

9.5
15.5
27.7
80.5
166.5
501.3
1,061.9
2,010.4
3,371.9
4,171.5
6,311.7
9,081.3
12,634.1

8.2
13.7
24.7
72.9
152.4
441.0
983.0
1,920.6
3,255.9
4,043.7
6,144.0
8,868.1
12,368.2

0.9
1.6
3.5
6.0
8.1
20.1
44.4
76.4
231.1
400.2
788.5
1,131.0
1,654.6
2,191.8
2,804.5
3,492.5

22,189.4

21,802.9

5,094.7

0.7
1.3
2.9
5.1
7.1
17.8
39.6
69.0
208.5
365.3
746.6
1,084.3
1,592.8
2,120.6
2,723.8
3,402.4
4,985.7

Reducers
Nominal Pipe Size,
in.
Concentric & Eccentric
Large end Small end Standard
X-Strong
1

1-1/4

1-1/2

3/8
1/2
3/4
1/2
3/4
1
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
3-1/2
2-1/2
3
3-1/2

Page 36 of 72

1.5
1.8
2.1
2.6
3.1
3.7
4.0
4.6
5.3
6.5
7.6
8.5
10.0
11.4

1.3
1.4
1.8
2.2
2.6
3.1
3.4
3.9
4.5
5.6
6.6
7.4
8.8
10.0

20.2
21.9
25.5
29.5
37.3
41.8
46.6
54.4
62.1
11.9
123.7
134.8

17.9
19.4
22.7
26.3
33.4
37.5
41.8
48.9
55.9
100.6
111.3
121.5

Tees
with Reducing Outlet
Standard
X-Strong
2.7
2.8
3.0
5.8
6.0
6.3
9.4
9.6
9.9
10.8
16.7
16.9
17.6
18.4
50.9
51.8
52.9
55.1
58.6
108.0
110.4
113.9
119.7
125.9
334.1
340.0
346.3

2.3
2.4
2.6
5.1
5.4
5.7
8.3
8.6
9.1
9.9
15.2
15.6
16.5
17.4
45.5
46.4
47.3
49.5
52.6
97.7
99.9
103.2
108.6
114.5
301.8
307.4
313.7

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes

June 02, 1999


Rev: 0

Art Montemayor
6

2 0/2

2 4/2

2 8/2

16

18

20

4
5
3
3-1/2
4
5
6
4
5
6
8
5
6
8
10
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
14
8
10
12
14
16
8
10
12
14
16
18

Page 37 of 72

147.1
175.3

132.8
158.7

221.7
235.6
269.6
309.2
385.9
428.3
476.8
586.0
639.4
697.7
827.0
993.8
1,496
1,738
2,041
2,382

201.8
215.0
245.8
280.9
362.0
401.4
444.8
546.7
606.4
658.8
779.8
947.7
1,419
1,646
1,952
2,288

2,321
2,656
3,029
3,289

2,212
2,552
2,920
3,175

3,413
3,821
4,104
4,598

3,291
3,695
3,973
4,458

6,248
6,922
7,974
9,404

6,059
6,717
7,747
9,150

354.1
375.7
716.9
722.6
730.6
753.0
791.1
1,373.0
1,396.0
1,432.0
1,506.0
2,318.0
2,348.0
2,430.0
2,567.0
1,992
2,587
2,922
2,976
2,621
3,396
3,803
4,891
5,054
4,318
4,849
4,993
6,147
7,180
5,360
6,010
6,204
7,606
8,877
10,163

321.2
361.8
655.5
661.0
668.7
690.5
719.4
1,300.0
1,323.0
1,350.0
1,426.0
2,224.0
2,250.0
2,329.0
2,468.0
1,915
2,488
2,816
3,022
2,532
3,283
3,701
4,741
4,902
4,191
4,711
5,013
5,976
6,985
5,214
5,855
6,221
7,414
8,657
9,916

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes

June 02, 1999


Rev: 0

Art Montemayor

22

24

26

30

34

10
12
14
16
18
20
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30

Page 38 of 72

7,333
8,055
8,848
9,711

8,637
9,451
10,334

7,129
7,841
8,622
9,474

8,419
9,221
10,094

12,027
12,226
12,394
12,620
12,995
1,345,813,172
8,701
14,972
10,979
12,795
14,628
16,477
16,606
20,062
20,233
20,465
20,846
21,316
21,887
22,565
30,283
30,520
30,908
31,386
31,964
32,652
33,458
34,102
44,385
44,779
45,265
45,851
46,548
47,364
48,018
49,058

11,745
11,944
12,110
12,337
12,710
8,519
14,603
10,745
12,526
14,325
16,141
16,287
19,668
19,837
20,070
20,449
20,919
21,487
22,164
29,768
30,006
30,392
30,869
31,445
32,131
32,936
33,583
43,724
44,116
44,600
45,184
45,879
46,693
47,351
48,389

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes

34
June 02, 1999
Rev: 0

Art Montemayor

36

42

48

32
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46

Page 39 of 72

30,539
32,314
34,176

30,071
31,831
33,698

32,031
33,617

31,561
33,132

37,053
38,902
40,840
42,866

36,540
38,375
40,229
42,311

85,143
89,354

83,984
88,163

98,305
103,044
107,959
113,050
118,317
123,760
129,378
135,173
141,144

97,047
101,753
106,635
111,693
116,927
122,337
127,923
133,685
139,622

50,242
52,701
53,098
53,587
54,177
54,878
55,700
56,359
57,404
58,594
59,940
76,746
77,172
77,639
78,899
79,574
80,636
81,462
82,341
83,276
125,186
125,667
126,693
127,344
128,044
129,561
130,462
131,419
133,521
134,710
135,960
138,742
140,256

49,571
51,958
52,353
52,841
53,429
54,128
54,947
55,610
56,653
57,842
59,185
75,825
76,253
76,723
77,972
78,650
79,710
80,540
81,425
82,365
123,874
124,358
125,377
126,031
126,736
128,245
129,151
130,113
132,207
133,402
134,660
137,432
138,954

Electronic FileName: 285215532.xls


WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes

Profiles of Torispherical Dished Heads

The volume calculator assumes the head profile to be a perfect ellipse, which is correct for a semiellipsoidal head but only approximate for a Torispherical profile. Torispherical heads can have dif
profiles depending on the relationship between: - Knuckle radius, Spherical Radius and Diameter.

Two typical Torispherical profiles are shown below in Red, and the true ellipse for the same diame
head height is shown in Blue. Treating a Torisphere as an ellipse for volume calculation will gene
give a slight under estimate of the volume. The error will depend on the relationship between: - K
radius, Spherical Radius and Diameter used.

Art Montemayor

July 20, 2003


Rev: 1

Volume of a Partially Filled Torispherical Bottom Head

VERTICAL TANK BOTTOM TORISPHERICAL HEAD VOLUME CALCULATION


Tank Internal Diameter(3)

D
Ri

Crown Radius
% Knuckle Radius

2,134 mm =

84.02 inches

2,134 mm =
6.55%

84.02 inches

139.8 mm =

5.50 inches

ri

Knuckle Radius

b = D/2 - ri
a = b Ri / (Ri - ri)

927.2 mm
992.2 mm

2
2
c = ((Ri - ri) - b )
-1
= Sin (a / Ri)

4.87 inches

244.7 mm =
368.4 mm =

9.63 inches
14.51 inches

386.1
+
798.4 litres =

Ri

123.7 mm =

/ 6 * z (3a2 + z2)
=
=

ri

0.484 radians
27.7

x = Ri Cos - c
z = Ri - c - x
h= x+z
Approx. Head Volume =

1,765.6 mm

x
a

+ / 3 * x ((D/2)2 + (D/2)a + a2)


approximate calculation for knuckle section
412.3
210.91 US gals

Volume of partially filled Torispherical head:


Level in End dish:
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%

Liquid Height
"h" (mm)
0
37
74
111
147
184
221
258
295
332
368.45

"z"
0
37
74
111
147
184
221
245
245
245
245

Sector Area
"r"
Volume (1)
0
0
395
9
556
36
678
80
779
142
867
221
946
316
992
386
992
386
992
386
992
386

"x"
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13
50
87
124

Knuckle Area
"r"
Volume (2)
992
0
992
0
992
0
992
0
992
0
992
0
992
0
1,000
41
1,022
160
1,045
283
1,067
412

Total Head Volume


litres
%
0
0%
9
1%
36
5%
80
10%
142
18%
221
28%
316
40%
427
54%
546
68%
669
84%
798.4
100%

Notes:
(1)
Sector volume =
PI / 6 * "z" (3 * "r"2 + "z"2)
PI / 3 * "x" ("r"2 + "r" * a + a2)
(2)
Knuckle volume =
(3) Torispherical (also called ASME F&D) heads are designed and fabricated in the USA on the basis of using the
outside diameter as their nominal diameter.

Vertical Torispherical Tank Head Volume


100%

f(x) = - 0.3761518341x^3 + 1.4453300722x^2 - 0.0663660421x


R = 0.9999648571

Volume of Fill

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Level of Fill
Page 41 of 72

FileName: 285215532.xls
WorkSheet: F & D Partial Volume

Art Montemayor

I.D.
k
f
kD
fD

September 30, 2004


Rev: 0

Vertical Tank Bottom Torispherical Head Volume

=
= Knuckle-Radius (kD)
= dish-radius parameter (fD)
=
5.04 inches
=
84 inches

84.0 inches
0.06 inches
1

Cos = 0.883683
0.487 radians
Acos = 1.062004
a1 =
9.7706 inches
a2 =
4.4538 inches
D1 = 78.6383
s = 5.565584
t =
8.9075
8.9075
u(h) = 5.583195

Sin = 0.468085
Asin = 0.508792

Limits of the Equation


0.00
h =
V =

9.77

15.35379 in
58,420 in3 =

9.77

252.90 Gallons

h =
V =

14.22

15.35379 in
54,255 in3 =

Page 42 of 72

14.22

234.87 Gallons

h =
V =

Top

24
in
102,183 in3 =

442.35 Gallons

FileName: 285215532.xls
WorkSheet: Vertical F&D Head Volume

Art Montemayor

Determining Vessel Volumes

June 15, 2003


Rev: 0

The following article appeared in "Chemical Processing" magazine on Novermber 17, 2002; pp. 46-50:

Computing Fluid Tank Volumes


Updated equations allow engineers to calculate the fluid volumes of many tanks quickly and accurately
By Dan Jones, Ph.D., P.E.

Calculating fluid volume in a horizontal or vertical cylindrical tank or elliptical tank can be complicated, depending
on fluid height and the shape of the heads (ends) of a horizontal tank or the bottom of a vertical tank. Exact
equations now are available for several commonly encountered tank shapes. These equations allow rapid and
accurate fluid-volume calculations.
All volume equations give fluid volumes in cubic units from tank dimensions in consistent linear units. All
variables defining tank shapes required for tank volume calculations are defined in the Variables and Definitions
sidebar. Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 graphically illustrate horizontal tank variables, and Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 graphically
illustrate vertical tank variables.
Exact fluid volumes in elliptical horizontal or vertical tanks can be determined by calculating the fluid volumes of
appropriate cylindrical horizontal or vertical tanks using the equations described above, and then by adjusting
those results using appropriate correction formulas.

Horizontal cylindrical tanks


Fluid volume as a function of fluid height can be calculated for a horizontal cylindrical tank with either conical,
ellipsoidal, guppy, spherical or torispherical heads where the fluid height, h, is measured from the tank bottom to
the fluid surface. A guppy head is a conical head with its apex level with the top of the cylindrical section of the
tank, as shown in Fig. 1. A torispherical head is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME-type)
head defined by a knuckle-radius parameter, k, and a dish-radius parameter, f, as shown in Fig. 2.
An ellipsoidal head must be exactly half of an ellipsoid of revolution; only a hemi ellipsoid is valid - no segment
of an ellipsoid will work, as is true in the case of a spherical head that can be a spherical segment. For a
spherical head, |a| < R, where R is the radius of the cylindrical tank body. For concave conical, ellipsoidal,
guppy, spherical or torispherical heads, |a| < L/2.
Figure 1. Parameters for Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks with Conical, Ellipsoidal, Guppy or Spherical Heads

Page 43 of 72

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WorkSheet: Reference Article

Art Montemayor

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

June 15, 2003


Rev: 0

Determining Vessel Volumes

Both heads of a tank must be identical. Above diagram is for definition of parameters only.
Cylindrical tube of diameter D (D > 0), radius R (R > 0) and length L (L > 0)
For spherical head of radius r, r > R and |a| < R
For convex head other than spherical, 0 < a < a , for concave head a < 0
L > 0 for a > 0, L > 2|a| for a < 0
Ellipsoidal head must be exactly half of an ellipsoid of revolution
0 < h < D.

Both heads of a horizontal cylindrical tank must be identical for the equations to work; i.e., if one head is conical,
the other must be conical with the same dimensions. However, the equations can be combined to calculate the
fluid volume of a horizontal tank with heads of different shapes.
For instance, if a horizontal cylindrical tank has a conical head on one end and an ellipsoidal head on the other
end, calculate fluid volumes of two tanks, one with conical heads and the other with ellipsoidal heads, and
average the results to get the desired fluid volume. The heads of a horizontal tank can be flat (a = 0), convex
(a > 0) or concave (a < 0).
The following variables must be within the ranges stated:

|a| < R for spherical heads.


|a| < L/2 for concave ends.
0 < h < 2R for all tanks.
f > 0.5 for torispherical heads.
0 < k < 0.5 for torispherical heads.
D > 0.
L > 0.

Variables used in Volumetric Equations and their Definitions


a

This is the distance a horizontal tank's heads extend beyond (a>0) or into (a<0) its cylindrical
section or the depth the bottom extends below the cylindrical section of a vertical tank. For a
horizontal tank with flat heads or a vertical tank with a flat bottom, a = 0.

Af

This is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in a horizontal tank's cylindrical section.

This is the diameter of the cylindrical section of a horizontal or vertical tank.

DH & DW These are the height and width, respectively, of the ellipse defining the cross section of the body
of a horizontal elliptical tank.
DA & DB These are the major and minor axes, respectively, of the ellipse defining the cross section of the
body of a vertical elliptical tank.
f

This is the dish-radius parameter for tanks with torispherical heads or bottoms; fD is the dish radius.

This is the height of fluid in a tank measured from the lowest part of the tank to the fluid surface.

This is the knuckle-radius parameter for tanks with torispherical heads or bottoms; kD is the
knuckle radius.

This is the length of the cylindrical section of a horizontal tank.


Page 44 of 72

FileName: 285215532.xls
WorkSheet: Reference Article

Art Montemayor

June 15, 2003


Rev: 0

Determining Vessel Volumes

This is the radius of the cylindrical section of a horizontal of vertical tank.

This is the radius of a spherical head for a horizontal tank or a spherical bottom of a vertical tank.

Vf

This is the fluid volume, of fluid depth h, in a horizontal or vertical cylindrical tank.

Horizontal tank equations


The following are the specific equations for fluid volumes in horizontal cylindrical tanks with conical, ellipsoidal,
guppy, spherical, and torispherical heads (use radian angular measure for all trigonometric functions and
D/2 = R > 0 for all equations).
In the Vf equation for torispherical heads, use + (-) for convex (concave) heads.
In the horizontal tank equations, Vf is the total volume of fluid in the tank in cubic units consistent with the linear
units of tank dimension parameters, and Af is the cross-sectional area of fluid in the cylindrical body of the tank
in square units consistent with the linear units used for R and h. The equation for Af is given by:

Horizontal cylindrical tank examples


Two examples can be used to check application of the equations.
Find the volumes of fluid, in gallons, in horizontal cylindrical tanks 108 inches [in.] in diameter with cylinder
lengths of 156 in., for conical, ellipsoidal, guppy, spherical and standard ASME torispherical (f = 1, k = 0.06)
heads, each head extending beyond the ends of the cylinder 42 in. (except torispherical), for fluid depths in the
tanks of 36 in. (example 1) and 84 in. (example 2). Calculate five times for each fluid depth - for a conical,
ellipsoidal, guppy, spherical and torispherical head.
For example 1, the parameters are D = 108 in., L = 156 in., a = 42 in., h = 36 in., f = 1 and k = 0.06. The fluid
volumes are 2,041.19 gallon (gal) for conical heads, 2,380.96 gal for ellipsoidal heads, 1,931.72 gal for guppy
heads, 2,303.96 gal for spherical heads and 2,028.63 gal for torispherical heads.
For example 2, the parameters are D = 108 in., L = 156 in., a = 42 in., h = 84 in., f = 1 and k = 0.06. The fluid
volumes are 6,180.54 gal for conical heads, 7,103.45 gal for ellipsoidal heads, 5,954.11 gal for guppy heads,
6,935.16 gal for spherical heads, and 5,939.90 gal for torispherical heads.
For torispherical heads, a is not required input; it can be calculated from f, k and D. For these torispherical
head examples, the calculated value is a = 18.288 in.

Vertical cylindrical tanks


The fluid volume in a vertical cylindrical tank with either a conical, ellipsoidal, spherical or torispherical bottom can
be calculated, where the fluid height, h, is measured from the center of the bottom of the tank to the surface of the
fluid in the tank. See Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 for tank configurations and dimension parameters, which also are defined
in the Variables and Definitions sidebar.
Figure 2. Parameters for Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks with Torispherical Heads

Page 45 of 72

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WorkSheet: Reference Article

Art Montemayor

June 15, 2003


Rev: 0

Determining Vessel Volumes

A torispherical bottom is an ASME-type bottom defined by a knuckle-radius factor and a dish-radius factor, as
shown in Fig. 4. The knuckle radius then will be kD, and the dish radius will be fD. An ellipsoidal bottom must
be exactly half of an ellipsoid of revolution. For a spherical bottom, |a| < R, where a is the depth of the spherical
bottom and R is the radius of the cylindrical section of the tank.
The following parameter ranges must be observed:
a > 0 for all vertical tanks, a < R for a spherical bottom.
f > 0.5 for a torispherical bottom.
0 < k < 0.5 for a torispherical bottom.
D > 0.
Figure 3. Parameters for Vertical Cylindrical Tanks with Conical, Ellipsoidal or Spherical Bottoms

Vertical tank equations


The specific equations for fluid volumes in vertical cylindrical tanks with conical, ellipsoidal, spherical and
torispherical bottoms are provided in the Vertical Tank Equations sidebar (use radian angular measure for all
trigonometric functions, and D > 0 for all equations).
Figure 4. Parameters for Vertical Cylindrical Tanks with Torispherical Bottoms

Page 46 of 72

FileName: 285215532.xls
WorkSheet: Reference Article

Art Montemayor

Determining Vessel Volumes

June 15, 2003


Rev: 0

Vertical cylindrical tank examples


Two examples can be used to check application of the equations for vertical cylindrical tanks; for each example,
calculate the fluid volumes for conical, ellipsoidal, spherical and torispherical bottoms.
For example 1, D = 132 in., a = 33 in., h = 24 in., f = 1, and k = 0.06. The fluid volumes are 250.67 gal for a
conical bottom, 783.36 gal for an ellipsoidal bottom, 583.60 gal for a spherical bottom and 904.07 gal for a
torispherical bottom.
For example 2, D = 132 in., a = 33 in., h = 60 in., f = 1, and k = 0.06. The fluid volumes are 2,251.18 gal for a
conical bottom, 2,902.83 gal for an ellipsoidal bottom, 2,658.46 gal for a spherical bottom and 3,036.76 gal for
a torispherical bottom.
For a torispherical bottom, parameter "a" is not required input, but can be calculated from the values of f, k,
and D. For these examples, the calculated value is a = 22.353 in.

Horizontal and vertical elliptical tanks


The cross-sections of tank bodies of horizontal and vertical tanks with elliptical bodies are ellipses. For this
article, a horizontal elliptical tank must be one of two possible configurations, shown in Fig. 5, where the major
and minor axes of the elliptical cross-sections are either vertical or horizontal.
The heads of horizontal elliptical tanks and the bottoms of vertical elliptical tanks may be any of those described
above for the corresponding cylindrical tanks, with the assumption that the heads and bottoms are "deformed"
proportionately to the deformation of the cylindrical body to form the elliptical body.
In certain cases such as those with torispherical heads and bottoms and spherical heads and bottoms, it is
necessary to distinguish which elliptical axis defines the head or bottom shape and which axis has been
proportionately stretched or compressed from the cylindrical tank shape to form the elliptical tank shape;
therefore, this distinction will be made for all cases for the sake of consistency, not necessity.
To calculate the fluid volume in a horizontal elliptical tank with the elliptical body oriented in one of the two
orientations shown in Fig. 5 - where the head parameters are defined in the vertical plane through the tank
centerline (plane goes through DH) - calculate the volume of a horizontal cylindrical tank with D = D H using the
equations for horizontal cylindrical tanks with the appropriately shaped heads. Multiply the volume found by
DW /DH to get the elliptical tank fluid volume.
Figure 5. Cross-sections of Horizontal Elliptical Tanks

To calculate the fluid volume in a horizontal elliptical tank with the elliptical body oriented in one of the two
orientations shown in Fig. 5 - where the head parameters are defined in the horizontal plane through the tank
Page 47 of 72

FileName: 285215532.xls
WorkSheet: Reference Article

Art Montemayor

Determining Vessel Volumes

June 15, 2003


Rev: 0

centerline (plane goes through DW ) - calculate the volume of a horizontal cylindrical tank with D = D W and a fluid
height h' = h(DW /DH) using the equations for horizontal cylindrical tanks with the appropriately shaped heads.
Multiply the volume found by DH/DW to get the desired elliptical tank fluid volume.

Examples for horizontal elliptical tanks


Find the fluid volumes (in gal.) of horizontal elliptical tanks with ellipsoidal, spherical and torispherical heads with
the following measurements: DH = 100 in., DW = 120 in., L = 156 in., a = 25 in. for ellipsoidal and spherical
heads, f = 0.8 and k = 0.1 for torispherical heads, fluid height h = 48 in., and head parameters of each tank
defined (1) in a horizontal plane through the tank centerline and (2) in a vertical plane through the tank centerline.
For example 1, calculate horizontal cylindrical tank volumes with D = 120 in., L = 156 in., a = 25 in. for ellipsoidal
and spherical heads, f = 0.8 and k = 0.1 for torispherical heads, and h = 57.6 in. (48 in. x 120/100), and multiply
the volume found by 100/120. For example 2, calculate horizontal cylindrical tank volumes with D = 100 in.,
L = 156 in., a = 25 in. for ellipsoidal and spherical heads, f = 0.8 and k = 0.1 for torispherical heads, and h = 48,
and multiply the volume found by 120/100. The results are summarized in the following table:

The values for "a" in the above torispherical head cases are 27.065 in. for example 1 and 22.554 in. for example 2.
For a vertical elliptical tank, define DA and DB to be the major and minor axes, respectively, of the ellipse
defining the cross-section of the tank body.
To calculate the fluid volume in a vertical elliptical tank, where the bottom parameters are defined in the plane
through both the tank centerline and through D A, use D = DA. Use the equations above for a vertical cylindrical
tank with the appropriately shaped bottom. Multiply the volume found by D B/DA to get the elliptical tank volume.
To calculate the fluid volume in a vertical elliptical tank, where the bottom parameters are defined in the plane
through both the tank centerline and through D B, use D = DB. Use the equations above for a vertical cylindrical
tank with the appropriately shaped bottom. Multiply the volume found by D A/DB to get the desired elliptical tank
volume.

Examples for vertical elliptical tanks


Find the fluid volumes (in gal.) of vertical elliptical tanks with conical, spherical and torispherical bottoms with the
following measurements: DA = 96 in., DB = 72 in., a = 34 in. for conical and spherical bottoms, f = 0.9 and
k = 0.2 for the torispherical bottom, fluid height h = 53 in. Head parameters of each tank defined (1) in a plane
through the tank centerline and DA and (2) in a plane through the tank centerline and D B. For example 1,
calculate vertical cylindrical tank volumes with D = 96 in., a = 34 in. (for conical and spherical bottoms), f = 0.9
and k = 0.2 (for the torispherical bottom), and h = 53 in., and multiply the volume found by 72/96. For example 2,
calculate vertical cylindrical tank volumes with D = 72 in., a = 34 in. (for conical and spherical bottoms), f = 0.9
and k = 0.2 (for the torispherical bottom), and h = 53 in., and multiply the volume found by 96/72. The results are
summarized in the following table:

Page 48 of 72

FileName: 285215532.xls
WorkSheet: Reference Article

Art Montemayor

Determining Vessel Volumes

June 15, 2003


Rev: 0

Calculated values for "a" in the torispherical-bottom cases are 25.684 in. and 22.554 in. for examples 1 and 2,
respectively. CP

Horizontal Tank Equations


Conical Heads
2

( ) ( K )for 0h < R
2a R
V = A L+ (
)( 2 )for h=R
3
2a R
V = A L+ (
)( K ) for R< h2 R
3
2a R
V f = A f L+
3

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Determining Vessel Volumes


1

K=cos

M + M cosh

|
( M1 )2 M 1M where , M =|Rh
R
2

Ellipsoidal Heads

V f = A f L+ a h2 1

h
3R

Guppy Heads (Eccentric Cone)

V f = A f L+

2 a R2
h 2a
cos1 1 +
2 R hh2 ( 2 h3 R )( h+ R )
3
R 9R

( )

Spherical Heads
1. For the condition where:

V f = A f L+

h=R and |a|R

a
( 3 R 2 + a2 )
6

2. For the condition where:

V f Af L

3R 2 a 2
3

3. For the condition where:

V f = A f L+ a h 1

4. For the condition where:

{ [

h=D and |a|R

h=0 or a=0, R , or R

h
3R

hR, D; a0, R , R ; and |a|0.01 D

2
2
a 2 r3
R
1 R r w
1 R +r w z
V f = A f L+
cos
+cos
2+
|a| 3
r
R ( wr )
R ( w+r ) r

( ( ))

cos

3
w
y 4w yz
2 w
2 w r
tan1 +
R
3
z
3

hR, D; a0, R , R ; and |a|<0.01FileName:


D 285215532.xls
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Determining Vessel Volumes

5. For the condition where:

hR, D; a0, R , R ; and |a|<0.01 D

2
2
a
2
2
1 R x
(
)
V f = A f L+
2 r x tan
dx A f z
|a| w
r 2 R 2

For the above 5 spherical heads equations:


2

a +R
r=
2 |a|

where, a0 ; and a=( r r 2 R2 ) + or ( ) for convex or ( concave ) heads

w=Rh
y= 2 R hh2
z= r 2 R2
Torispherical (ASME Flanged & Dished) Heads

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Determining Vessel Volumes

Jones is a senior process chemist for Stockhausen Louisiana LLC, Garyville, La. Contact him at
Dan.Jones@degussa.com.

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