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# MATH 895-4 Fall 2010

Course Schedule

f a cu lty of science
d epa r tm ent of m athema tic s

## MACM 201 FACT S HEET

Basic Counting

Week

Date

Sections
from FS2009

Part/ References

Topic/Sections

Notes/Speaker

1
Sept 7 I.1, I.2, I.3
Symbolic permutations,
methods
Description
BasicCombinatorial
counting of words,
and subsets.
2

14

21

## II.1, II.2, II.3

Structures
FS: Part A.1, A.2
Comtet74
Handout #1
(self study)

Recall
from
MACM 101
4
28
II.4, II.5, II.6

Combinatorial

5
III.1,
n! 5= nOct (n
1)III.2 (n parameters
2) . . . 2 1
n
FS A.III
n!
=
12
IV.1, IV.2
(self-study)
k6
k!(nk)!
7

19

26

Nov 2

IV.3, IV.4

Analytic Methods
FS: Part B: IV, V, VI
Appendix B4
Stanley 99: Ch. 6
Handout #1
(self-study)

Unlabelled structures
Labelled structures I
Labelled structures II
Combinatorial
Parameters

Asst #1 Due

Multivariable GFs
Complex Analysis

Singularity Analysis
Words, permutations,
subsets,
and how to count them
IV.5 V.1
Asymptotic methods

Asst #2 Due

9 (also
VI.1known as lists) The notion of word corresponds
Sophie
Words.
to totally ordered sets of objects from a
10
12
A.3/
C
Introduction
to
Prob.
Mariolys
given alphabet: there is an object in first position, an object in second position, . . . . A permutation is
18 with
IX.1no repetitions (each alphabet
Limit Laws and
Comb can
Marni appear at most once).
a word
object
11

Random Structures

20
IX.2
Discrete Limit Laws
Sophie
We consider
two kinds
of alphabets.
First, if an alphabet
of size n is composed of distinct objects:
and Limit
Laws
12

13

23

IX.3

30

IX.5

FS: Part C

Combinatorial

Mariolys

## The number of(rotating

words of size rinstances
is nr .of discrete
presentations)
25
IX.4
The
number
of permutations Continuous
of size Limit
r isLaws
P (n,Marni
r) = n!/(n r)!.
Quasi-Powers and
Gaussian limit laws

Sophie

Next, if an alphabet is a multiset with repeated objects (ni objects of type i, with k different types of
14
Dec 10
Presentations
Asst #3 Due
objects and n = n1 + + nk ):
The number of permutations of size n (i.e. each object appears exactly once) is n!/(n1 ! nk !).
All these results follow from the following principle: a family of words defined by some characteristics
(composition, prescribed positions, . . . ) can be counted by figuring out the number of choices for the
first position, then for the second position and so on, and then multiplying all these together.
Subsets. Next, when order does not matter, we are dealing with subsets of a ground set of size n that
has only distinct objects.

## Dr. Marni MISHNA, Department of Mathematics, SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY

Version of: 11-Dec-09

The
 number of subsets/combinations of size r with no repetition is the binomial number C(n, r) =
n
r = n!/(r!(n r)!).

.
The number of combinations of size r with possible repetitions is n+r1
r

n+r1
The number
is also the number of positive integer solutions to x1 + + xn = r and the
r
number of ways to place r identical objects among n distinct bins.
Note that the concept of list implies a total order on the elements in the list: as lists, abc 6= acb, but
as sets {a, b, c} = {a, c, b}. The notation used is important: lists are written as consecutive elements
or with parentheses (a, b, c), while sets are written using the notation {, }.

Examples
1. All permutations of abcde: abcde, abced, abdce, . . . , edcba
Total: 5! = 120

M ATERIAL FROM C EDRIC C HAUVE 2010, 2014, M ARNI M ISHNA 2010, K AREN Y EATS 2013, 2015

f a cu lty of science
d epa r tm ent of m athema tic s

Week

Date

Sections

Part/ References

Course Schedule

Topic/Sections

## MACM 201 FACT S HEET

Notes/Speaker

from FS2009
2. All permutations
of aabbcc: aabbcc, aabcbc, aabccb, aacbbc, . . . , ccbbaa
1
Sept 7 I.1,6!/2!/2!/2!
I.2, I.3
Symbolic methods
Total:
= 90
Combinatorial
2

14

28

## II.4, II.5, II.6

Structures

Unlabelled structures

## 3. Lists from {a, b,FS:

c,Part
d, A.1,
e} A.2
of length 3: abc, abd, abe, bac, bad, bae, . . . , edc
Comtet74
3
21
II.1, II.2, II.3
Labelled structures I
Handout #1
Total: 5!/2! = 60
(self study)
Labelled structures II

4. 3-subsets
b, c, d, e}: {a, b,Combinatorial
c} = {b, a, c}, {a,
b, d}, {a, c, d}, . . . {c, d, e}
Oct 5
III.1, III.2
Asst #1 Due
of {a,Combinatorial
parameters
Parameters
Total: 53 = 10FS A.III

5
6

12

IV.1, IV.2

(self-study)

Multivariable GFs

{a, b,Methods
c, d, e}: {a,
a, a},
{a, a, b} = {a, b, a} = {b, a, a}, . . . , {e, e, e}
75. 3-multi-sets
19
IV.3, IV.4
Complex
Analysis
 of Analytic
7
FS: Part B: IV, V, VI
=
35
Total:
8
26
Singularity Analysis
3
9

Nov 2

IV.5 V.1

Appendix B4
Stanley 99: Ch. 6
Handout #1
(self-study)

Asst #2 Due
Asymptotic
6. Words using {a, b, c, d, e} of length
3:methods
aaa, aab,
aac, aad, aae, aba, . . . , eee
3
9
VI.15 = 125
Sophie
Total:
10
12

A.3/ C

Introduction to Prob.

Mariolys

18
IX.1
Laws and Comb
Lattice
paths
very naturally give Limit
nice
examplesMarni
which reduce to words and nice examples which
11
Random Structures
20
IX.2
Discrete Limit Laws
Sophie
reduce to subsets. and Limit Laws
FS: Part C
(rotating
presentations)

Combinatorial
instances of discrete

Mariolys

## Continuous Limit Laws

Marni

Quasi-Powers and
Gaussian limit laws

Sophie

23

IX.3

25

IX.4

13

30

IX.5

14

## String, word, alphabet.

Dec 10
Presentations
Asst #3 Due
Permutation.
Subsets, combinations, multiset.
Binomial numbers (also known as binomial coefficients).

12

Vocabulary

Skills to acquire
1. Master the vocabulary of words and subsets.
2. Count families of words/combinations over a given alphabet described by characteristics in
terms of content, prescribed positions, . . . .

## Dr. Marni MISHNA, Department of Mathematics, SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY

Version of: 11-Dec-09

M ATERIAL FROM C EDRIC C HAUVE 2010, 2014, M ARNI M ISHNA 2010, K AREN Y EATS 2013, 2015