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Jer-Nan Juang, Minh Q. Phan

Book DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547119

Online ISBN: 9780511547119

Hardback ISBN: 9780521783552

Paperback ISBN: 9780521031905

Chapter

1 - Ordinary Differential Equations pp. 1-13

Chapter DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547119.002

Cambridge University Press

1

Ordinary Differential Equations

1.1 Introduction

The formulation of many problems in physical and social sciences involves differential

equations that express the relationship among the derivatives of one or more unknown

functions with respect to the independent variables (Refs. [17]). In an ordinary differential equation (ODE), all derivatives are with respect to a single independent variable.

The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative that appears

in the equation. For example, Newtons law describing the angular position of an oscillating pendulum consisting of a massless string of length and a point mass m under

the inuence of gravity (see Fig. 1.1) takes the form of a second-order differential

equation:

d 2

g

+ sin = 0,

dt 2

where = (t) and t denotes the time variable. Because of the term sin , the above is

a nonlinear differential equation whose solution has been extensively studied. Unfortunately, to date, there is no comprehensive theory to solve general nonlinear differential

equations analytically. This stands in contrast to the well-developed theory of linear

differential equations. In the above example, if the angle of oscillation is small, then

sin , and the solution can be approximated from the following linear differential

equation:

d 2

g

+ = 0.

2

dt

In most cases, a linear differential equation can be obtained by linearization of a nonlinear one. We are fortunate that many physical systems can be adequately described

by linear differential equations.

Perhaps one of the most famous ODE is that of a linear springmassdamper system

(see Fig. 1.2) whose dynamics is governed by

d 2w

dw

+ kw = f,

+

dt 2

dt

where w denotes the position of the mass from its equilibrium position, f (t) is the

forcing function, and m, , and k denote the mass, damping, and stiffness coefcients,

respectively. In practice, many vibration problems are treated as linear even if they

m

1

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y

m

x

mg

involve a large number of degrees of freedom. This is because they typically deal

with small-amplitude motion about an equilibrium position. The control of such linear

systems can be handled conveniently by linear control, which represents a major portion

of control theory in general.

In this chapter, we will show how to solve homogeneous ODEs with constant coefcients. The characteristic equation is derived and its solutions are discussed including

all possible cases such as distinct roots, repeated roots, etc. In the section of the nonhomogeneous ODEs with constant coefcients, the solution of the nonhomogeneous

equations and its properties are discussed. The last section briey introduces coupled

differential equations and the denition of a matrix differential equation.

1.2 Homogeneous ODE with Constant Coefcients

An nth-order linear homogeneous ODE has the form

a0

dn y

d n1 y

dy

+ an y = 0,

+

a

+ + an1

1

n

n1

dt

dt

dt

(1.1)

where a0 , a1 , . . . , an are real constant coefcients. Note that the right-hand side is zero

in this case. In a physical system, a homogeneous ODE may correspond to the situation

in which the dynamic system does not have any input or force applied to it and its

response is due to some nonzero initial conditions.

EXAMPLE 1.1

dy

d2 y

+3

+ 2y = 0.

dt 2

dt

This may represent a springmassdashpot system with mass m = 1, damping

coefcient = 3, and spring constant k = 2.

w(t)

m

f(t)

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Functions of y(t) that satisfy Eq. (1.1) are called the homogeneous solutions of the

ODE. It is anticipated that the solutions are of the form y = e t with appropriate values

of . To nd these values, we substitute y = e t into the differential equations and

simplify the resultant expression to obtain

(a0 n + a1 n1 + + an1 + an )e t = 0.

(1.2)

The equation

a0 n + a1 n1 + + an1 + an = 0.

(1.3)

is called the characteristic equation of the ODE. A polynomial of degree n has n roots,

say, 1 , 2 , . . . , n . Therefore, the characteristic equation can be written in the form

a0 ( 1 )( 2 ) ( n ) = 0.

(1.4)

Each value of represents one solution to the ODE. The general solution is a linear

combination of these solutions:

y = c1 e1 t + c2 e2 t + + cn e1 n .

(1.5)

The simplest situation is that in which all the characteristic roots 1 , 2 , . . . , n are real

and distinct. Minor complexities will occur if there are some complex roots or repeated

roots. The following will summarize various possible cases.

CASE 1: REAL AND NONREPEATED ROOTS

If all the roots of characteristic equation (1.3) are distinct and real, the general solution

is

y = c1 e1 t + c2 e2 t + + cn e1 n .

The coefcients c1, c2 , . . . , cn are determined by initial conditions, which will be addressed later in this chapter.

EXAMPLE 1.2

dy

d2 y

+ 2y = 0

+3

2

dt

dt

is

2 + 3 + 2 = 0,

which has two roots, 1 = 1 and 2 = 2. The general (homogeneous) solution

is

y = c1 e1t + c2 e2t .

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If the characteristic equation has complex roots, they must occur in complex-conjugate

pairs, i, as the coefcients a0 , a1 , . . . , an are real numbers. Provided that the

roots are not repeated, the corresponding solutions that make up the general solution

will have the form e( +i)t , e( i)t . We can carry the mathematics one step further by

considering the linear combination

Ae( +i)t + Be( i)t = Ae t eit + Be t eit

= Ae t (cos t + i sin t) + Be t (cos t i sin t)

= (A + B)e t cos t + i(A B)e t sin t

= c1 e t cos t + c2 e t sin t.

(1.6)

The last equality is possible because of the expectation that the solution of a physical

system is real, so that A and B will be such that the combinations (A + B) and i(A B)

are indeed real numbers. For convenience, (A + B) and i(A B) are denoted by the

real coefcients c1 and c2 , respectively. For this reason, we normally use the real-valued

solutions

e t cos t, e t sin t

as solutions that make up the general solution of the ODE.

EXAMPLE 1.3

dy

d2 y

+ y = 0.

+

2

dt

dt

The characteristic equation is 2 + + 1 = 0, which has two roots:

1

1

3

3

1 = + i

, 2 = i

.

2

2

2

2

The general solution is

3

3

12 t

12 t

t + c2 e

t.

y(t) = c1 e

cos

sin

2

2

CASE 3: REPEATED REAL ROOTS

If the roots of the characteristic equation are not distinct, i.e., some of the roots are

repeated, then some additional solutions to the ODE must be found to make up the

general solution. Fortunately, it can be shown that they have simple forms. If the real

root is repeated s times, then the corresponding solutions are not only

e t ,

(1.7)

te t , t 2 e t , . . . , t s1 e t .

(1.8)

It is easy to verify that the above solutions do indeed satisfy the homogeneous ODE.

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EXAMPLE 1.4

dy

d2 y

+ y = 0.

+2

2

dt

dt

The characteristic equation is 2 + 2 + 1 = ( + 1)2 = 0, which has two repeated roots, 1 = 1 and 2 = 1. The general solution is

y(t) = c1 et + c2 tet .

CASE 4: REPEATED COMPLEX ROOTS

If the complex root + i is repeated s times, then we have 2s solutions because the

complex roots always appear as conjugate pairs (for characteristic equations with real

coefcients). These roots can be shown to be

e t cos t, te t cos t, t 2 e t cos t, . . . , t s1 e t cos t,

e t sin t, te t sin t, t 2 e t sin t, . . . , t s1 e t sin t.

(1.9)

Again, the above solutions can be easily shown to satisfy the homogeneous ODE.

EXAMPLE 1.5

d2 y

d4 y

+

2

+ y = 0.

dt 4

dt 2

The characteristic equation is 4 + 2 2 + 1 = ( + i)2 ( i)2 = 0, which has

two repeated roots:

1 = i, 2 = i, 3 = i, 4 = i.

The general solution is

y(t) = c1 cos t + c2 t cos t + c3 sin t + c4 t sin t.

In solving for the characteristic roots, it is sometimes necessary to solve for the multiple

roots of a number , which can be real or complex. In general, may be written

as

= Rei ,

(1.10)

where R is the amplitude and is the phase angle. For a real number , is zero or

integer multipliers of 2. Therefore, we need to solve for the s roots of the equation

s = Rei .

(1.11)

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1 = R 1/s ei/s .

(1.12)

To nd the remaining s 1 roots, rst realize that the angle of a complex number is

determined up to only a multiple of 2. This means that the number can be represented

by = Rei( +2n) , where n can be zero or any positive or negative number. Thus, to

be more general, the equation to be solved becomes

s = Rei( +2n ) ,

(1.13)

= R 1/s ei( +2n)/s .

(1.14)

the remaining s 1 roots for a total of s roots. It can easily be veried that setting

n equal to any other integer value, either positive or negative, will reproduce one of

these s roots.

EXAMPLE 1.6

4 = 1 = ei(+2n) .

Hence,

= ei(/4+n/2) .

2, (1 + i)/ 2 and (1 i)/ 2. The four roots are located on the complex

plane shown in Fig. 1.3.

Imag()

1

1+ i

2

1+ i

2

1

Real()

1 i

2

1 i

2

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Imag()

-1

Real()

-1

EXAMPLE 1.7

= ei(n/2) .

Setting n = 0, 1, 2, 3, yields the four roots:

1, i, 1, i.

The four roots are located on the complex plane shown in Fig. 1.4. Note that in

both Examples 1.6 and 1.7 the roots are equally spaced in the complex plane.

This is a general property of the complex roots of a number.

The general form of the solution to a homogeneous ODE is known from the roots of the

characteristic equation. However, the general solution contains the unknown coefcients

c1 , c2 , . . . , cn , which need to be determined. To be able to solve for the unknown

coefcients, new information is needed. The new information comes in the form of

the initial conditions that must be specied. The initial conditions are the specied

values of

dy

d 2 y

d n1 y

y(0),

,

,...,

.

(1.15)

dt t=0 dt 2 t=0

dt n1 t=0

Satisfying n initial conditions gives us n linear algebraic equations with n unknowns

c1 , c2 , . . . , cn . Solving this set of algebraic equations will give us the values of

c1 , c2 , . . . , cn . In a physical system, the initial conditions can be the values of its initial

position and initial velocity. It is clear that the response of a system can be uniquely

determined only after its initial conditions are specied.

EXAMPLE 1.8

dy

d2 y

+5

+ 6y = 0

dt 2

dt

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dt |t = 0 = 1.

The general solution is

y(t) = c1 e2t + c2 e3t .

To satisfy the initial conditions, the coefcients must satisfy

c1 + c2 = 0,

2c1 + 3c2 = 1.

Solving these equations gives c1 = 1 and c2 = 1. Thus, the solution that satises

the initial conditions is

y(t) = e2t e3t .

When the right-hand-side term is not zero, the ODE is said to be nonhomogeneous.

Thus, a general nonhomogeneous ODE with constant coefcients has the form

a0

dn y

d n1 y

dy

+ an y = f (t).

+

a

+ + an1

1

n

n1

dt

dt

dt

(1.16)

In a physical system, this may correspond to the case in which the dynamic system is

subjected to some input or forcing function f (t).

1.3.1 General Solution

The general solution of a nonhomogeneous ODE is the sum of the solution of the homogeneous part of the ODE and a particular solution of the nonhomogeneous ODE. It is

simple to show mathematically why this is the case. Let the solution of the homogeneous

part of the ODE be denoted by yh (t) and the particular solution by y p (t),

a0

d n yh

d n1 yh

dyh

+ an yh = 0,

+

a

+ + an1

1

n

n1

dt

dt

dt

dn yp

d n1 y p

dy p

+ an y p = f (t).

+

a

+ + an1

1

dt n

dt n1

dt

Adding the two equations and recognizing the property

a0

(1.17)

d i (yh + y p )

di yp

d i yh

=

+

dt i

dt i

dt i

(1.18)

a0

d n (yh + y p )

d n1 (yh + y p )

d(yh + y p )

+

a

+ + an1

1

n

n1

dt

dt

dt

+ an (yh + y p ) = f (t),

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(1.19)

Forcing Function f (t )

Constant

t

t2

sin t

e t

t 2 e t cos t

a

at + b

at 2 + bt + c

a sin t + b cos t

ae t

at 2 e t cos t + bt 2 e t sin t

y(t) = yh (t) + y p (t)

(1.20)

is the general solution to the nonhomogeneous ODE. From previous sections, we know

how to nd the general form of the homogeneous solution. It is very important to realize

that the unknown coefcients c1 , c2 , . . . , cn in the homogeneous solution must not be

determined at this stage. These coefcients can be determined only after a particular

solution has been found and the general solution is constructed. This is because any

initial conditions of the system are for yh (t) + y p (t), not yh (t) alone.

1.3.2 Particular Solution

For a simple forcing function f (t), it is sometimes possible to guess the form of the

particular solution with a certain number of undetermined coefcients that will make

this candidate solution satisfy the nonhomogeneous ODE. This method is known as

the method of undetermined coefcients. Table 1.1 gives some simple cases that are

commonly encountered in practice (for control applications).

EXAMPLE 1.9

dy

d2 y

+ y = et .

+2

2

dt

dt

We try y p (t) = aet as a candidate particular solution. Substituting aet back to

the differential equation will yield a = 1/4. Thus y p (t) = et /4 is a particular

solution.

In the following, we provide a justication for the above process. Because

we know how to handle a homogeneous ODE, we try to nd a way to turn our

nonhomogeneous ODE into a homogeneous one by looking for a differential

operator L such that

d2 y

dy

L

+ y = L{et } = 0.

+2

dt 2

dt

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10

= 1 must be a characteristic root. A corresponding characteristic equation

is then 1 = 0, which implies that the desired differential operator is L =

d(.)/dt 1. Having found L, we now apply it to the original nonhomogeneous

ODE to turn it into a homogeneous one:

2

d

d y

dy

1

+

y

= 0.

+

2

dt

dt 2

dt

The solution to this homogeneous ODE, which we know how to solve, will contain

a particular solution to the original nonhomogeneous problem. The characteristic

equation for this homogeneous ODE is

( 1)( 2 + 2 + 1) = ( 1)( + 1)2 = 0.

Thus, the general solution has the form

y(t) = aet + c1 et + c2 tet .

The constant a can be determined by substituting the above general solution back

into the original nonhomogeneous ODE. Note that the part c1 et + c2 tet is

simply the solution to the homogeneous part of the ODE and will be eliminated

automatically. Completing this procedure will yield a = 1/4. Hence,

y p (t) =

1 t

e

4

part of the ODE:

yh (t) = c1 et + c2 tet .

The general solution is the sum of the homogeneous solution and a particular

solution, as claimed. The constants c1 , c2 can be determined if the general solution

y(t) = yh (t) + y p (t) is made to satisfy the initial conditions

dy

y(0) and

,

dt t=0

which must be specied.

The earlier sections in this chapter address the ODE of only a single variable. This is the

case when single-inputsingle-output (SISO) systems are considered. The dynamics of

a multiple-inputmultiple-output (MIMO) system can be described by a set of coupled

ODEs. The set of equations

d x1

= a11 x1 + a12 x2 + f 1 (t),

dt

d x2

= a21 x1 + a22 x2 + f 2 (t)

dt

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(1.21)

1.6 Problems

11

is one such example. Here the inputs (or forcing functions) are f 1 (t) and f 2 (t). To

handle this type of problem, it is mathematically convenient to express it in matrix

form:

d x1

a11 a12

x1

f 1 (t)

.

(1.22)

=

+

f 2 (t)

a21 a22

x2

dt x2

This brings us to the study of linear algebra in the next chapter, which deals with matrix

operations.

EXAMPLE 1.10

d x1

= 2x1 + x2 + 2et ,

dt

d x2

= x1 2x2 + 3t

dt

can be represented in matrix form as

t

d x1

x1

2 1

2e

.

=

+

1 2

x2

3t

dt x2

When we say coupled, we really mean that x1 (t) in the rst differential equation

cannot be solved without knowing x2 (t) nor can x2 (t) in the second differential equation be solved without knowing x1 (t). In fact, both x1 (t) and x2 (t) must be solved

simultaneously.

In this chapter, we have focused on the mathematics of scalar linear differential equations (with constant coefcients) for single-degree-of-freedom systems. The solutions

of linear differential equations are discussed, including homogeneous solutions and

particular solutions. In the next chapter, this elementary knowledge will help us handle

equations that describe multiple-degree-of-freedom systems by using matrix theory.

These rst two chapters will provide the basic mathematical foundation for studying in

subsequent chapters the dynamics and control of such systems.

1.6 Problems

1.1

Assume that yh1 (t) and yh2 (t) satisfy the homogeneous part of the following linear

equation,

dn y

d n1 y

dy

+ an y = h(t),

+

a

+ + an1

1

dt n

dt n1

dt

and that y p1 (t) and y p2 (t) are two linearly independent particular solutions. Prove

that both c1 yh1 (t) + c2 yh2 (t) (for any constant values of c1 and c2 ) and y p1 (t)

y p2 (t) satisfy the homogeneous part of the above equation.

a0

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12

1.2

(a)

d2 y

dy

2y = 0,

2

dt

dt

(b)

d2 y

dy

d3 y

+ y = 0,

3

2

dt

dt

dt

(c)

dy

d2 y

+ 2y = 0,

2

dt 2

dt

d3 y

y = 0.

dt 3

Solve the following differential equations that describe the structural problems

noted:

d2 y

(a)

+ 2 y = 0 (free vibration of a string under tension),

dt 2

(d)

1.3

(b)

d4 y

4 y = 0

dt 4

(c)

d4 y

+ 164 y = 0

dt 4

(beam on an elastic foundation),

2

d4 y

2 dy

2

+ 4 y = 0 (bending of an elastic plate),

dt 4

dt 2

where is a nonzero constant.

Find the complete solution of each of the following differential equations:

d2 y

2

i f t

+

y

=

ae

,

(i

=

1),

(a)

dt 2

(d)

1.4

(b)

d4 y

4 y = aei f t ,

dt 4

2

d4 y

2 dy

2

+ 4 y = aei f t ,

dt 4

dt 2

where a, , and f are nonzero constants.

Solve the following differential equation:

(c)

1.5

d 4 y1

d 2 y1

+

2

= (1 2 ) sin t,

dt 4

dt 2

where is a constant. Prove that the solution also satises the simultaneous

equations

d 2 y1

y2 + y1 = sin t,

dt 2

d 2 y2

+ y2 y1 = 0.

dt 2

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Bibliography

1.6

13

d4 y

d2 y

d 2u

+

2

=

+ u,

dt 4

dt 2

dt 2

can be represented in matrix form as

1

x1

x1

0 0 0 0

x 1 0 0 0 x2 0

d

+ u

2 =

dt

x3 0 1 0 2 x3 0

0 0 1 0

x4

x4

0

x1

x2

y = 0 1 0 1

x ,

3

x4

where x1 , x2 , x3 , and x4 are commonly called state variables.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Arnold, V. I., Ordinary Differential Equations, Translated by Richard A. Silverman, Cambridge University Press, U.K., 1991.

[2] Coddington, E. A. and Landin J., An Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations,

Dover, New York, 1989.

[3] Hildebrand, F. B., Advanced Calculus for Applications, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,

NJ, 1962.

[4] Hurewicz, W., Lectures on Ordinary Differential Equations, Dover, New York, 1990.

[5] Ross, S. L., Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons,

New York, 1980.

[6] Sanchez, D. A., Ordinary Differential Equations & Stability Theory: An Introduction,

Dover, New York, 1979.

[7] Wilson, H. K., Ordinary Differential Equations, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1971.

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