Physics

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Physics

© All Rights Reserved

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AP PHYSICS I

Summer Packet

This packet is designed to assess and help you review math and science

concepts in which youll need to be proficient to give you the best chance of

success in AP Physics 1. Please print this packet out, complete it, and turn it

in on the first day of school. You may be tested on these concepts the first

week of school. I look forward to meeting you in the fall!

Solve the following equations for the variable indicated. There should be enough room to do one step at a time.

x

1 2 1 2

1

2

mv = kx (for k)

1. v=

(for t)

2.

3. mgh= mv (for v)

t

2

2

2

m1 v 2

4.

=m2 gh (for r)

r

5. T =2

1 2

7. x=v i t a t (for a)

2

8.

L

(for g)

g

1

1

1

=

(for R2)

R1 R 2 Req

9. m1 x=m2 3x (for x)

Evaluate the following using the information given. Try algebraically solving for the unknown variable first.

mv 2

2. F=

(find r, if F=10, m=5, v=4)

1. v f =viat (find a, if vi=2, vf=16, t=2)

r

3. T =2

5.

m

(find m, if T=3, k=50)

k

4.

1 1 1

=

(find do, if di=20, f=12)

do di f

P 12

d 13

P 22

d2 3

1 2

6. x=v i t a t (find t, if vi=0, x=125, a=10)

2

Solve the following word problems using the information and steps (I, II, III) provided.

7. If an airplane travels at 120 m/s (v), how long 8. A toy car accelerates from an initial velocity (vi) of

would it take (t) for the plane to travel a distance (x) 5 m/s, to a final velocity (vf) of 17 m/s, in 6 seconds.

of 300 meters?

Find the acceleration of the car?

(I) List givens:

v=

x=

Concept Equation:

v=

x

t

t=?

vi =

(II) Derive Equation (solve for a)

vf =

t=

a=?

equation for time and evaluate.

equation for acceleration and evaluate.

Graphing Techniques

1. Independent Variable quantity that is deliberately manipulated. Plot

this variable on the x- axis. (horizontal)

2. Dependent Variable quantity that changes as a result of the

independent variable. Plot this variable on the y-axis. (vertical)

3. Choose your scale carefully. Be sure that it fits your data.

4. Make your graph as large as possible. It should fill the paper.

5. You do not need to number every line.

6. Not all graphs will go through the origin.

7. Label each axis with the variable and its units.

8. Use a ruler when drawing straight lines.

9. Do not connect the dots (except where appropriate), draw a smooth line

that represents the trend of the data.

10. Title your graph. The title should be descriptive of what the graph

represents.

11. Use PENCIL ONLY!

12. Make a key if you make more than one line on your graph.

notation. Include the unit!

a. 4501 m

b. 75,000 km

of the following measurements and express

the value in scientific notation. Include a unit!

c. 6438 g

a. 903 kg

d. 0.6438 g

b. 600.00 m

e. 0.00048 s

c. 0.0030 mm

f.

d. 8.03010 4 J

24 h

as indicated. Include a unit!

a. 3600 cm to meters

of a substance compared to its volume.

a. What type of relationship is mass versus

volume?

b. 5000
m
to
kilometers

c. 5000
km
to
meters

substance?

d. 15
kg
to
grams

e. 1.5
mg
to
grams

3. Calculate
each
of
the
following
and
express

the
results
in
scientific
notation
with
the

correct
number
of
significant
figures
and

correct
units.

a. 4.098
m
+
56.03
m
+
10.2
m
=

b. 603
km/1000
s
=

c. 4.000
m
20.30
m
=

d. 5.510 1
mm
+
2.010 3
mm
=

e. 38.6010 3 m/s

substance?

as 2.24 m long and 1.103 m wide.

a. Calculate the perimeter of the tabletop.

b. Calculate the area of the tabletop.

c. What is the area of the tabletop,

expressed in square centimeters?

7. As a pump transfers water into a cylindrical

tank, the mass of water in the tank is

measured on a balance. Table 1 shows the

mass of water in the tank and its depth.

set of calibration weights on a triple-beam

balance and an electronic balance, obtaining

the data in Table 2.

a. Which set of results is more precise?

Explain your answer.

b. Which set of results is more accurate?

Explain your answer.

Table 2

Standard Triple-Beam

Value

Balance

draw a curve that best fits all the points.

Electronic

Balance

1.000 g

1.001 g

1.1033 g

2.000 g

2.002 g

2.1033 g

water in the tank to the mass of water.

3.000 g

3.001 g

3.1034 g

5.000 g

5.000 g

5.1033 g

graph?

e. Why is the value for the mass of water

measured at 40 cm not exactly twice the

value measured at 20 cm?

Table 1

your answers contain the correct number of

significant digits and a correct unit.

a. (2.21 kg)(100.0 m/s2)

Depth
of
Water

(cm)

Mass
of
Water

(kg)

b.

10

75

c.

20

149

30

225

40

302

50

376

60

453

3.3 105 m

6.55 106 s

200.0 cm2

1.23 cm

Purpose:

to develop techniques for measuring the circumference and diameter of a

circular object.

to use data to construct a graph

to find the slope of a graph

to analyze error in an experiment

Procedure:

A. Taking Measurements:

1. Find at least six circular objects. They should be of many different

sizes.

2. Measure the diameter and circumference of each one. Use metric

units only. You should use the same units for both diameter and

circumference. Use your understanding of significant figures to

decide on the precision of your measurements. Record your data in

the data table below.

Name of Object

Circumference

Diameter

B. Making a Graph:

1. Plot a graph of the circumference of the circles versus the diameter of

the circles. Put the circumference on the y-axis and the diameter on

the x-axis. Use the rules that you know for proper graphing!!

2. The origin should be in the bottom left hand corner of the graph

because when the circle has no diameter it will have no circumference.

Do not put a break in the scale for your x or y-axis. A break will

make the slope of your line meaningless.

3. Draw a best fit line for the points on your graph.

1. Select two points that are actually on the line on your graph to

calculate the slope of the line. One should be near the beginning of the

line and one should be near the end. Do not use data points unless

they are actually on the line.

2. Use the difference between the y values of these points as y or rise.

3. Use the difference between the x values of these points as x or run.

4. Find the slope of the line using the equation: (Show all work for the

calculations on a separate sheet of paper.)

paragraph on a separate sheet of paper. Make sure that you address all

of the points in the question.

1. What makes it so difficult to measure circular objects? Which

dimension was harder to measure, diameter or circumference and

why? How did you decide to take these measurements to get accurate

results?

2. What was the value of the slope of your graph? What is the

significance of this value?

3. Is the relationship between the circumference and the diameter a

direct relationship? How do you know?

E. Additional Questions:

1. From your graph, write an equation that describes the relationship

between circumference and diameter in the form y=mx+b.

2. What are the units of your slope? Does this unit make sense? Explain

why.

In the following problems, please round lengths to the nearest hundredth, and angle measures to the

nearest tenth.

In problems 1-6, find the value of the missing side or angle measure. All lengths are in centimeters.

2.

1.

3.

x

32

24

20

20

17

50

4.

5.

6.

6

12

5

47

13

11

7. Find:

a. BC =

B

b. BD =

30 in.

25

50

8. Find:

G

a. EF =

b. EG =

35

F

48

c. FG =

E

32 cm

9.

A ladder is leaning against the side of a house and forms a 65 angle with the ground. The foot of

the ladder is 8 feet from the house. Find the length of the ladder.

10.

A lighthouse built at sea level is 150 feet high. From its top, the angle of depression of a buoy is 25.

Find the distance from the buoy to the foot of the lighthouse.

11.

A surveyor is 100 meters from a bridge. The angle of elevation to the top of the bridge is 35. The

surveyors instrument is 1.45 meters above the ground. Find the height of the bridge.

12.

A surveyor is 100 meters from a building. The angle of elevation to the top of the building is 23.

The surveyors instrument is 1.55 meters above the ground. Find the height of the building.

13.

In a parking garage, each level is 20 feet apart. Each ramp to a level is 130 feet long. Find the

measure of elevation for each ramp.

14.

A train in the mountains rises 10 feet for every 250 feet it moves along the track. Find the angle of

elevation of the track.

15.

A plane rose from take-off and flew at an angle of 11 with the ground. When it reached an

altitude of 500 feet, what was the horizontal distance the plane had flown?

16.

As viewed from a cliff 360 m above sea level, the angle of depression of a ship is 28. How far is

the ship from the shore?

17.

A sonar operator on a cruiser detects a submarine at a distance of 500 m and an angle of depression

of 37. How deep is the submarine?

37

500 m

18.

A mountain has a base and peak that are inaccessible. At point A, the angle of elevation of the

peak is 30. One kilometer closer to the mountain, at point C, the angle of elevation of 35. Find

the height PB of the mountain.

P

30

1 km

35

19.

Before Apollo 11 descended to the surface of the moon, it made one orbit at a distance of 3 miles

above the surface of the moon. At one point in its orbit, the onboard guidance system measured

the angles of depression to the near and far sides of a huge crater. The angles measured 25 to the

near side of the crater, and 18 to the far side of the crater. Find the distance across the crater.

18

25

3 mi.

20.

An observer on a cliff 1000 yards above sea level sights two ships due east. The angles of depression

of the ships are 47 and 32. Find the distance between the two ships.

21.

One diagonal of a rhombus makes an angle of 27 with a side of the rhombus. If each side of the

rhombus has a length of 6.2 inches, find the length of each diagonal.

R

H

27

B

M

22.

6.2 in.

B

C

25 cm

38

23.

The legs of an isosceles triangle are each 18 cm. The base is 14 cm. Find:

b) the exact length of the altitude to the base.

18 cm

18 cm

M

K

14 cm

Rule

Example

# of SIG FIGS

438 g

26.42 m

1.7 cm

0.653 L

3

4

2

3

are significant.

506 dm

10,050 mL

900.43 kg

3

4

5

but to the left of an understood decimal

point, are NOT significant. If such zeros

are known to have been measured,

however, they are significant and should

be specified as such by inserting a decimal

point to the right of the zero.

4830 km

60 g

4830. L

60. K

1000 m

3400 kg

3

1

4

2

1

2

negative one, zeros to the right of a decimal

point that are to the left of the first non-zero

digit are NEVER significant. They are simply

placeholders.

0.06 g

0.0047 L

0.005 m

1

2

1

0.8 g

negative one, the zero to the left of the

0.00004 mL

decimal is NEVER significant. It is there to

make sure the decimal point is not overlooked.

1

1

to the right on a non-zero digit are

significant.

8.0 dm

16.40 g

35.000 L

1.60 s

2

4

5

3

0.008009 g

0.02040 mm

100.00 kg

3.00 X 104 L

4

4

5

3

Addition or Subtraction:

The final answer should have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal as the

measurement with the smallest number of digits to the right of the decimal.

Example:

97.3 + 5.85 = 103.15 round off to 1 place to right of decimal 103.2 = final answer

110 32.665 = 77.335 round off to no places to right of decimal 77

Multiplication or Division:

The final answer has the same number of significant figures as the measurement having the

smallest number of significant figures.

Example:

123 X 5.35 = 658.05 round off; need 3 significant figures 658

12.378 3.2 = 3.868125 round off; need 2 significant figures 3.9

Rules for Rounding:

Round Down: Whenever the digit following the last significant figure is a 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4

Example: 30.24 30.2

Round Up: Whenever the digit following the last significant figure is 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9

Example: 22.49 22.5

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