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SPWLA 31st Annual Logging Symposium.

June 24-27, 1990

CHARACTRRISTICS OF DRILL BIT GRNRRATRD NOISE

E. Iversen Naklcenand 0. Baltzersen


IKU - Continental Shelf and Petroleum
Technology Research Institute
and
b. Kristensen
Statoil

ABSTRACT
The sonic
log
is still
missing
in the suit
of new MWD formation
evaluation
tools.
This paper focuses
on the drill
bit induced noise as a
possible
acoustic
source for passive MWDsonic applications.
The noise signatures
of drill
bits obviously
play an important
role in
evaluating
the feasibility
of performing
acoustic
waveform measurements
while
drilling.
The full
scale
drilling
bench
at
the
Petroleum
Technology
Center in Trondheim was applied
in an experimental
study on
acoustic
noise produced during drilling.
842 hybrid PDC and roller
cone
(IADC 517)
bits
were
tested
in chalk-dolomite
samples.
A triaxial
accelerometer
attached
directly
on the rock
sample
detected
noise
signals
within
a bandwidth of 30 kHz. Spectral
analysis
of bit noise
concludes
that both PDC bits and roller
cone bits are broadband random
Significant
noise components are produced in the frequency-band
sources.
sonic
logging.
A characteristic
(l-30
kHz) applied
in conventional
difference
between the two sources
is the distinct
impulsive
nature of
the acoustic
noise
emitted
from a roller
cone bit,
in contrast
to the
continuous
character
of PDC noise.
The laboratory
measurements indicate
that roller
cone induced noise may
be used as a downhole acoustic
source
for sonic logging.
Recent crosshole
measurements
conducted
while
drilling
onshore
support
this
assumption.
Acoustic
waveform measurements based on active
transmitter
pulses
are,
however,
likely
to interfere
with bit
noise
and should
therefore
be restricted
to periods
where drilling
is interrupted.

INTRODUCTION
Sonic
array
tools
for
full
waveform logging
measure compressional-,
shear(when present)
and Stoneley-wave
(when present)
velocity
and
attenuation.
From processed
interpretations
of data,
one can provide
information
on rock properties
and mechanical
characteristics;
fluid
saturations
for porosity
evaluation;
lithology
and seismic
correlation.

-l-

SPWLA 31st Annual Logging Symposium.

June 24-27, 1990

The capabilities
of recently
developed
MWDformation
evaluation
sensors
neutron
porosity
and gamma density)
(electromagnetic
wave resistivity,
allow more quantitative
evaluation
of rock and replacement
of wireline
logging.
The MWDsonic log is, however, still
not available.
we describe
some characteristic
features
of drill
bit
In this
paper,
noise
signatures
that address
possible
future
applications
within
MWD
sonic logging.
Present sonic tools use piezoelectric
transmitters
with a
typical
acoustic
bandwidth of 5-25 kHz. Acoustic
laboratory
measurements
were performed
to examine the drill
bit induced noise produced
in this
interesting
application
is to use the
frequency
band. One particularly
drill
bit as an acoustic
source and derive
sonic
velocity
data from a
passive
sonic array.
In horizontal
drilling,
it is important
to know the
bit position
relative
to adjacent
bed-boundaries.
A passive
MWDborehole
on-line
information
on relative
bit
sonar,
POSLOG [ 11, may provide
location.
Surface
seismic
measurements have confirmed
that it is feasible
to use
the natural
acoustic
noise
generated
from a rotating
drill
bit as a
means of continuously
locating
the drill
bit
position
in the earth
[1,2].
The recently
introduced
TOMEXSurvey [3] technique
uses the drill
bit as a downhole energy source
to produce Vertical
Seismic
Profiling
The acoustic
noise emit ted from roller
cone bits has been
(VSP) data.
characterised
as a series
of impulsive
events caused by the interaction
between bit teeth and the rock. The events occurred
randomly in time and
amplitude.
The above mentioned references
report a typical
low-frequency
(< 35 Hz) nature of the signals.
However, this feature
seems to reflect
transmission
effects
rather than a band-limited
acoustic
source.

The experimental
setup
is
illustrated
in Figure
1. The horizontal
drilling
bench at the Petroleum Technology
Center in Trondheim,
consists
of a 5 m long drill
collar
section
powered by a hydraulic
swivel
and
hydraulic
WOB. Drilling
is performed
under atmospheric
conditions
with
relatively
low pressure
fresh
water
circulation
to remove cuttings.
Cylindrical
samples of chalk-dolomite
rock,
0.25 m OD. and about 1 m
were mounted in the core-holder
of the drilling
bench.
Acoustic
long,
noise produced while drilling
was measured with a triaxial
accelerometer
attached
to the front
end of the samples.
The signatures
of 8% drill
bits,
hybrid
PDC and roller
cone (IADC 517))
were recorded.
Both bit
types are frequently
used in soft to medium hard formations.
The two bit
types remove rock differently:
PDC bits by a cutting
action
and roller
cone bits
by crushing
rock through the impact of numerous teeth.
This
fundamental
difference
should
obviously
provide
noise
signature
variations.
Acceleration
and drilling
channels)
tape recorder
40 kHz (+_ 1 dB).

data were
operated
in

-2-

logged on an Enertech
FM-mode with a signal

Euromag I (8
bandwidth of

SPWLA 31st Annual Logging Symposium,

June 24-27. 1990

Acoustic
signals
above 30 kHz are in general
not of practical
interest
in sonic
logging
due to
the high
frequency
dependent
attenuation
experienced
in reservoir-like
formations.
Therefore,
a 30 kHz lowpass
cut-off
(40
dB/decade)
was
applied
on
the
acceleration
signal
amplification.
Spectrum
analysis
of
the
acceleration
signals
was
performed
with a dual channel
Fast Fourier
Transform
(FFT) analyzer.
Weight
on bit
(WOB) and torque
measurements
were taken with
force
transducers
attached
to the drilling
bench. Additional
parameters
such
as rotary
speed (RPM) and rate of penetration
(ROP), were logged
on a
separate
data acquisition
system sampled at 0.5 second intervals.

RESULTS - NOISE CHARACTERISTICS


Figures
2a and 2b show time function
plots
(8 ms and 2.048
s time
windows respectively)
of the hybrid PDC bit axial
accelerations.
These
data were acquired
while drilling
at constant
WOB (85 k.N) and rotary
rate was logged to 4.9 m/h. In an 8 ms
speed (120 rpm). The penetration
emission
from the PDC bit can be described
as a
time frame, acoustical
stochastic
process.
High
frequency
noise
non-stationary
continuous
signals
are superimposed
on low frequency
vibration
signals.
Similar
roller
cone noise
data captured
between two subsequent
transients
are
shown in Figure 3.
The power spectral
density
(PSD) plots
presented
in Figure 4 show the
ensemble average based on 8 ms PSDs taken over a period of 2.048 s. The
two peaks observed
at approximately
4 kHz and 8 kHz in plot (a),
at 10
kHz and less dominant at 20 kHz in plot (b),
correspond
to h- and onewavelength
resonances
in the rock sample. The spectra
show that both bit
types
generate
broadband
noise
with
the major
fractions
of
energy
located
at frequencies
above 25 kHz, the roller
cone PSD-level
being
about 10 dB higher
than for the hybrid PDC bit.
Harmonics related
to
less prominent for the PDC bit compared to
rotary
speed are as expected,
the roller
cone bit.
Ensembles of roller
cone acceleration
measurements taken over a period
of 2.048
s are shown in Figure
5. Data have been captured
at three
different
rotary
speeds,
(a)
120 rpm, (b)
80 rpm and (c)
60 rpm.
Numerous impulsive
events
are observed
in the roller
cone data.
These
high amplitude
acceleration
peaks are characteristic
of roller
cone
No time correlation
between
successive
events
has been
signatures.
Peak amplitudes
are also
randomly distributed.
However,
the
observed.
number of events and amplitude-levels
increases
rapidly
with increasing
rotary speeds and WOBs.
A single
event captured
from the data presented
in Figure 5a is shown in
Figure 6. The interaction
of impacting
roller
cone teeth and a chalkdolomite
sample
creates
distinct
oscillating
transients.
For
the
particular
transient
shown here,
the average RMS-level
is approximately
35 dB higher
than
the
acceleration
level
measured
prior
to
the
Figure
7 illustrates
the change in power spectral
density
transient.
(PSD) due to the onset of a transient.
The PSD reveals
major spectral
components at 25-40 kHz.

-3-

SPWLA

31st Annual

Logging

Symposium,

June 24-27,

1990

Extraneous
noise and vibration
signals
due to radiation
and resonances
physical
dimensions
of the rock sample
in the drilling
bench structures,
and low-pass
filtering
with cut-off
above 30 kHz, obviously
have a
spectral
shaping effect
on the acquired
data. Nevertheless,
the observed
spectra
and the onset
of typical
transients
do reflect
the broadband
nature of bit signatures.
CONCLUSIONS
Acoustic
measurements
performed
while
drilling
sample have shown that both PDC and roller
cone
broadband sources
with major spectral
components

in a chalk-dolomite
bits can be regarded as
at sonic frequencies.

The high level


of acoustic
noise experienced
during laboratory
drilling
seems to indicate
that MWD sonic
logging
based on the use of active
transmitters
will
only be feasible
if drilling
is interrupted.
On the
transient
nature of the roller
cone signature
other
hand, the unique
makes it a suitable
downhole source in a passive
MWDsonic logging
tool.
Another feature
of importance
is the extremely
good acoustic
coupling
to
the formation,
provided
by direct
contact
between bit and formation.
The feasibility
of extracting
accurate
compressional
and shear
wave
velocity
data
from roller
cone generated
noise
has been confirmed
through recent cross-hole
acoustic
measurements performed during onshore
drilling
in mica-silt
formations.

ACKNOVLEDGNENTS
We thank Statoil
R&D for
permission
to publish
this
paper and the
Department of Petroleum Technology
and Applied Geophysics
for use of the
drilling
bench. Thanks to Geir Tandberg for giving
valuable
assistance.

[ll

expand
as
MWD applications
incorporating
The Oilman, Vol.
1990.

[2]

Drill
bit location
Katz,L.J.:
Oil and Gas Journal,
July 28,

[3]

Rector,
J.W. and Marion, B.P.:
MWDVSP and checkshot
surveys using
the drillbit
as a downhole energy source,
paper OTC 6024 presented
at the 21st Annual Offshore
Technology
Conference,
Houston, May l4, 1989.

-4-

data
quality
50, Number 2,
, guidance
1980.

improves,
page 45-46,

by seismic

seen

Offshore
February,
feasible,

SPWLA 31st Armual Logging,Symposium.

June 24-21,199O

ABOUT THE AUTHORS


Erik

Iversen

Nakken is a research
engineer
with
Technology
Group. He is manager of
the Position
Logging
Research
Project
(POSLOG)
which deals
with new borehole
radar
and sonar
technology
for
MWD applications.
He holds
a
masters
degree
in physics
from the Norwegian
Institute
of Technology
in Trondheim.

IKU's Logging

Oystein
Baltzersen
is
an electronics
engineer
with IKUs Logging Technology
Group. His work at
IKU has been associated
with data acquisition
and
various
offshore
for
processing
signal
He holds
a masters
degree
in
applications.
from
Norwegian
the
engineering
electronics
Institute
of Technology
in Trondheim.

Aage Kristensen
is currently
working as a senior
scientist
at SACLANT Undersea Research
Center in
La Spezia,
Italy.
He has a 3-year
leave
from
Statoil,
where he has been the Department Manager
R&D.
Technology
Drilling
Production
and
of
Previous
work has been within
sonar
technology,
and analog
hydroacoustic
transducers,
digital
electronics
design
and application
of acoustic
the
fisheries
research
at
the
methods
in
Underwater Acoustics
group,
Electronics
Research
Laboratory
(ELAB), Trondheim.
Since 1983, he has
the
Petroleum
Technology
working
for
been
Research
Institute
(1983-84),
SwRI (1984),
IKU
(1985-86)
and Statoil
within
borehole
seismics,
and mathematical
instrumentation
well
logging
modelling
of acoustic
and electromagnetic
wave
propagation
in boreholes.
He holds a Ph.D. degree
Norwegian
from
the
physical
electronics
in
Institute
of Technology,
Trondheim.

-5-

SPWLA 31st Annual Logging Symposium,

June 24-27. 1990

1.

3P
RPM

Tape

ROP

TORP
WOE
dccx

nccy
ACCZ

recorder

Hydraulic cylinder
Axial force transducer (WOE)
Triaxial accelerometer (Acc,_~)
Core-holder with sample
Drill bit
Force transducer (TORQ)
Displacement transducer (ROP)
Hydraulic cylinder
Tachometer
Power swivel
11 Mud pressure transducer (AP)
12 Mud inlet

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10

Signal

conditioning

Dual

-4 amplifier

channel

FFT-analyzer

Figure 1: Experimental setup

6 -

SPWLA 31st Annual Logging Symposium,

June 24-27.1990

316

-316

.
0.0

Time (0.8 ms/div)

316 1

8.0

(b)

0.0

Figure 2 :

Time (0.2 s/div)

Axial accelerations measured while drilling with 8 l/2 hybrid PDC bit
in chalk-dolomite
sample, (a) 8 ms and (b) 2.0 s time-window.
(RPM=1 20, WOB=85 kN and ROP=4.9 m/h)

- 7 -

2.0

SPWL.A 31st Annual Logging Symposium,

June 24-27.1990

316

-316
0.0

Figure 3 :

Time (0.8 ms/div)

8.0

Axial acceleration measured while drilling with 8 l/2 roller cone bit
in chalk-dolomite sample. Noise signal captured between two subsequent
transients. (RPM=1 20, WOB=45 kN and ROB=52 m/h)

-8-

SPWLA 31s.t

Annual Logging

Symposium,

June 24-27, 1990

(a)

Frequency

(5 kHz/div)

UN

Frequency (5 kHz/div)

Figure 4 :

Average power spectral density (PSD) of hybrid PDC bit (a) and roller
cone bit (b) accelerations.

9 -

SPWLA 31st Annual Logging Sympsium. June 24-27.1990

3160

-3160
0.0

Time (0.2 s/div)

2.0

1580
1

(W

0.0

Time (0.2 s/div)

2.0

Time (0.2 s/div)

2.0

200 -

-200
0.0

Figure 5 :

Axial accelerations measured while drilling with 8 l/2 roller cone bit
in chalk-dolomite
sample at rotary speeds of (a) 120 rpm, (b) 80 rpm and
(c) 60 rpm. (WOB=30-45 kN and ROP=l.2-5.2
m/h)
- 10 -

SPWLA 31st

Annual

Logging

Symposium,

June 24-27. 1990

3160

-3160
Time (0.8 ms/div)

Figure 6 :

8.0

Single transient emitted from roller cone bit.

30

Frequency

Figure 7 :

(5 kHz/div)

Power spectral density (PSD) of transient (full line) and of 16 ms


time-window prior to transient (dotted line)

11 -

50

SPWLA 31st Annual Logging Symposium,

MODELING

TRANSPORT

GRANULAR

POROUS

Lawrence

June 24-27. 1990

IN

MEDIA

M. Schwartz

Schlumberger-Doll

Research

Y
ABSTRACT

This

paper

is concerned

geometrical

models

description

of transport

variety

of interesting

quent modification
either

the grains

flow of electrical
throat

with two related

problems:

media relevant

to reservoir

of porous

processes

porous
of spherical

size, shape,
current

in these

media

model

grains.

This

or viscous fluids are controlled

can be studied efficiently

of diffusion.
dynamic

transport

processes

such as the filtration

into consolidated

granular

networks.

The modeling

be discussed

briefly, as will the interaction

developed

of steady

in

such as the

by the distribution

connection
particles

The techniques

processes

of pore

by random

here are also of interest

state

and subse-

may involve a change

walk simulations
with

and (2) the

by the packing

modification

of

We will show that

Steady state transport

sizes and, within the present framework,

the construction

sandstones

systems.

can be generated

or both.

(1)

in

of fine grained

of such processes

and dynamic

will

transport.