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Geology Section 2

Chapter 7: Sedimentary Rocks

1. Importance of Sedimentary Rocks
a. Cover 75% of earths surface- Majority in Arkansas shale, clay,
b. Outer 16 KM- 5%
c. Evidence of past environments- plant and animal remains, radio-active
d. Important resource- energy (coal, oil, and gas), groundwater (main
source of irrigation and drinking in many places), economic materials
gold, silver, uranium
i. Igneous-rare to contain energy resources
2. Origins of Sedimentary Rocks
a. Products of chemical and mechanical weathering all rocks formed by
one- sediments mechanically weathered on mountains, moved down
by gravity, deposited in valleys. Buried- compacted, cemented,
lithified- transform from loose sediments to lithified sedimentary rocks
3. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
a. Type of material
i. Detrital
1. sediments or sedimentary rocks; clastic- mechanical
weathering- sediments from older rocks; weathered;
sediments are transported; lithified; new rock
2. Know chart from lecture notes
3. By particle size
4. Mechanical and transported
5. Clay minerals (most common), quartz, feldspars, and
micas according to continents
6. Particle size- main feature
7. Breccia- angular- not a chance to transport for long
periods of time
8. Conglomerate- transported long time
a. Different sizes cemented together- both
b. Difference- angularity
c. Both are poorly sorted
9. Sandstone
a. Impurities- named- colors
b. Sand-sized particles- see them with naked eye
c. Forms in a variety of environments- different names
d. Second most abundant sedimentary rock
e. Quartz is the most abundant mineral
f. Classified- sorting or shape
i. Sorting- degree of similarity in particle size;
use of microscope
1. If grains are similar- well sorted
2. Different sizes- poorly sorted
3. Decipher dispositional environment
ii. Shape- roundness and angularity

1. Angular- not transported for long

2. Round- long distances
3. Never change the general shape or
4. Indication of dominant factors in
a. Silt and clay-sized particles
b. Fissility patter- thins layers- Shale
c. Fine particle size; fresh edges; impurities can
change color- shale
d. Not same facility as in shale- mudstone
e. Most abundant sedimentary rock- from silica group
ii. Chemical Sedimentary Rock
1. Precipitated material that was once in a solution
2. Precipitation
a. Inorganic- evaporating
b. Organic- water dwelling organisms
3. Limestone
a. Most abundant chemical sedimentary rock
b. Composed of calcite
c. Chemical and biochemical process
4. Biochemical limestone
a. Shells of marine animals
b. Corals
c. Coquina- shells cemented together
d. Chalks
i. Chalk vs limestone- touch- chalk is softer
5. Limestone
a. Inorganic- increase calcium carbonate until it
b. Ooltic limestone- mechanical weathering- go to
ocean- lithified by calcium carbonate; some are
organisms- can be subdivide
6. Dolostone
a. Similar to limestone- but contains magnesium with
some iron
b. Magnesium rich waters circulate through limestonecalcium carbonate-magnesium; can be half and
half- dolomenisation
7. Chert
a. Microcrystalline quartz
b. Forms when dissolved silica precipices
i. Flint, jasper, agate, petrified wood (replaced
with silica)
8. Evaporites

a. Restricted seaways- salt deposits from evaporation;

soluble material combine
9. Molecules; form new minerals; settle on ocean of bottom;
sediments; compacted; lithified or cemented; new rock
10.Deposited by gravity- horizontal- beds
11.Non-clastic or crystalline- combining ions and
molecules together
12.By composition
iii. Organic
1. Non-clastic- altered animal or plant remains
2. Chemical sedimentary rocks with plant or animal remains
3. Stages of coal formation- increasing pressure and
a. Accumulation of plant remains
b. Formation of peat
c. Formation of lignite and bituminous coal
d. Formation of anthracite coal
i. not have all stages- depends on environment
ii. usually stops at last stage
4. Post Depositional Processes
a. Process that occur after deposited
b. Digenesis and Lithification- change nature and can make new
sedimentary rocks
c. Digenesis
i. Chemical, physical, biological change after buried and deposited
ii. Recrystallization
d. Lithification
i. Loose sediments transformed to rocks
1. Compaction- weight of layers added compresses the
deeper sediments
2. Cementation- crystallization of minerals among the indiv.
Sediment grains
5. Paleo-Environments- Old Environments
a. Sedimentary rocks represent past environments
b. Continental environments
i. Streams (landscape alteration-erosion and deposition)- up or
down- topography
ii. glacial (unsorted mixtures of sediments)
iii. wind (eolian) (well sorted, fine sediments)
c. Marine environments
i. Shallow 200 meters- close to shorelines and coasts- coral reefs
ii. Deep deeper than 200 meters- limestones, turbidity currents
d. Transitional environments shorelines- mix of Con and Marine
i. Shoreline
ii. Lagoons, deltas
e. Sedimentary Facies
i. Adjunct environments
ii. Distinctive set of characteristics reflecting its unique qualities

iii. Gradual changes b/ environments transitions zones- shalerlimestone

6. Sedimentary Structures- construct history of planet
a. Infer paleo environments
b. Bedding plains- changes based on environments- between zones
must be horizontal not- tectonic activity, unless local topography is
tilted- only at lower plain
c. Cross bedding- like bedding plains, but cross each other; aggressive
d. Graded beds- turbidity currents; coarse on bottom and fine on top
e. Ripple marks- lithified small waves
f. Mud cracks- wet to dry environment
g. Fossils= preserved life
7. The Carbon Cycle and Sedimentary Rocks
a. Plants absorb CO2b. Die, deposited
c. Convert to fossil fuels
d. Burned, C02 goes into atmosphere
Chapter 7 Review Questions
1. Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have
been formed from sediments deposited in quiet environment like lake
or swamp?
a. Shale- for clay and particles to form layering structure
2. Deposited by fast-moving streams
a. Conglomerate- rounded; mixture of grains
3. Oolitic limestone is most likely to form in what type of environment
a. Shallow, clear marine water with vigorous current activity
i. To form shape; marine water for limestone- calcium and
4. If shale is such a common rock in sedimentary, why isnt is exposed at
surface as sandstone?
a. Shale crumbles easily, causing increased mechanical
weathering, sandstone resists weathering
5. Which is better for constructing infrastructure- shale or sandstone?
a. Sandstone- resistant to weathering
b. Shale- saturated with water- loses Limon structure- inflated over
time6. Which of the following sediments is likely to have traveled that farthest
in a stream
a. Feldspar will dissolve in water, clay mineral- chemical changing,
iron rich- change
b. Answer: Quartz sand
7. Which of the following sediments would be most likely to give direct
information about the type of rocks the particles where derived from?
(particle size)
a. Gravel
8. Sandstone is a type of sedimentary rock that is classified based on its
a. Predominant grain size

9. What critical step is needed to convert peat to lignite or bituminous

a. Buried so that the pressure and temperature increase
10.The Sediment deposited by a glacier would be characterized by
a. Poorly sorted particles of all sizes and shaped with variable
mineral composition
i. Move short distance
ii. Move suddenly- do not ground particles to sand size
Chapter 8: Metamorphic Rocks Require a Parent Rock; need a process to occur
first; new environment; different conditions; parent- igneous, sedimentary, or older
metamorphic rock; pressure and temp change- new metamorphic rock
1. What is Metamorphism?
a. Metamorphism- change form
i. Parent rock- subject to high temp or pressure or both- might
transform from current state to different rock type with
environment change
ii. New mineralogy- sometimes chemical composition
iii. Minerals- stable under certain conditions- change of
environment- change of composition- new rock type
b. Require a parent rock; environmental change
c. Must stay in the solid state- (melt- igneous rock)
d. Metamorphic grade- degree of change of parent rock
i. Low- low temp and pressure
ii. High- high temp and pressure
iii. Shale-slate-schist-gneiss (banding- pressure)
1. Increase in side pressure- horizontal to vertical
2. Does it have to go through chain?- some say yes, some
say no- no proof
3. Mostly likely- no- goes straight to rock type under its
4. Go back?- gneiss is formed, will stay in gneiss state in any
environment- minerals are more stable state than shale
2. What drives Metamorphism?
a. 1. Heat
i. Most important agent
1. Recrystallization- form new stable minerals larger than
ii. Common sources of heat
1. Geothermal gradient- increase in temp with depth
2. Contact metamorphism- rising mantle plumes
iii. Temp- in between sedimentary and igneous environmentsmetamorphic (rocks must stay in solid state)
iv. Each area would create different rocks- subduction zones,
surface, upper crust
b. 2. Confining pressure- equal in all directions
i. Analogous to water pressure
ii. Causes the spaces b/ mineral grains to close

c. 3. Differential stress
i. Forces unequal in different stress
1. Stress are greater in one direction
2. Life continental collisions
ii. Compressional stress
d. Metaconglomerate- stretched conglomerate- vertical pressure
e. 4. Chemically active fluids
i. Enhances migration of ions
ii. Aids in recrystallization
f. Importance of parent rock
i. Know origin, infer rock types must form
ii. Same overall chemical composition as parent rock
3. Metamorphic Textures (relationship of size, shape, and arrangement of
mineral grains)
a. Types
i. Foliated- rock must show foliation (arrangements of flaky
mineral grains)
1. Must have flaky minerals grains
2. Limestone- will not foliate
3. Clay- foliated minerals
4. Two mechanisms of elongation
a. Particle will slip
b. Melt in the center- migrate to low pressure areas
5. Slate texture Cleavage- brittle- breaks in certain points
6. Schistosity texture- shisty texture
7. Gneissic texture- light and dark bands
ii. Non-foliated- cant discriminate between light and dark bands,
or minerals
1. Mineral deformation environments
2. Particles are fused
iii. Porphyroblastic texture
1. Must be coarse grains or partial melt
2. Large grains- porphyroblasts surrounded by fine grained
4. Common Metamorphic Rocks
a. Two major groups- foliated vs. non-foliated rocks
i. No fol- marble, quartzite, hornfels (pressure)
ii. Fol- slate, phylite, schist, gneiss
5. Metamorphic Environments
a. Nature is more complex- not just temp and pressure- pattern not linear
b. 1.0-400 degrees- low pressure- hydrothermal
i. Need water; from ocean; circulate to chamber; then to ocean
surface; ocean floor black- smoke caused by circulation
ii. Continent- ground water circulation through shallow magma
chamber- forming geysers
c. 2.400-1000- low pressure- contact metamorphism
i. High temp / low pressure
ii. Source of heat- shallow magma chamber close to surface
iii. Happens with direct contact with old rock and source of heat

d. 3.0-400- high pressure- subduction

i. High grade- high temp and pressure
e. 4.400-100- high pressure- regional
f. 5.Burial metamorphism
i. Gulf of Mexico
g. 6.Metamorphism along fault zones
i. Fracture + displacement
ii. At depth and high temperatures
iii. Rocks flow- ductile flow form mylonite rocks hot
1. Dont break
iv. Rocks cold- breccia- sedimentary rocks- break
v. Change of mineral composition
vi. Mylonite is equivalent to breccia at surface
vii. Mylonite- never form at earths surface
h. 7. Impact Metamorphism
i. Meteorites
6. Metamorphic Zones
a. Textural variations
i. Related to parent rock
b. Index minerals and metamorphic Grade
i. Index- indicators of metamorphic environments
ii. Migmaties- rock that have been partially melted
c. Chlorite-muscovite-biotite-garnet-staurolite-sillimanite
d. Low grade-intermediate grade- high grade
7. Interpreting Metamorphic Environments
a. Metamorphic Facies
i. Same mineral assemblage and similar metaphoric environments
b. Environments can be the same, but mineralogy is different- different
c. Plate tectonics
i. Types of rocks different based on which zones
d. Facies- assemble of minerals in specific environment
e. Mineral stability and metamorphic rocks
i. Most stable- andaluste, kyanite, sllimanite
ii. Understand history of earth
Chapter 8 Review Questions
1. Main reason the mineralogy of a rock changes during
a. Some minerals are only stable under limited
conditions; change when conditions change
2. Every metamorphic rock has parent
a. All metamorphic rocks form from preexisting solid
rock, new minerals will form during metamorphism,
comp of parent predicts
3. Most important factor
a. Heat, facilitate migration of ions
4. Confining pressure different from differential stress
a. Pressure- = in all direction

b. Stress- one direction

5. Produce foliation
a. Differential stress
6. Develop foliation- metamorphic rocks
a. Minerals have distinctly different dimensions in at
least two dimensions
7. Parent rock type of foliated metamorphic rocks
a. Shale
8. Setting would regional metamorphism most likely
a. Great depths in the curst where two continents are
9. Regional metamorphism occurs in
a. Mountain building at a convergent plate boundary
10.Magmatites difficult to place into any one of the three
basic rock groups
a. Fit igneous and metamorphic
11.Contact metamorphism
a. Low pressure, shallow burial, and heat supplied by
magma body
12.If you know facies, deduce about the rock
a. Pressure and temperature of formation dont
Chapter 9
1. Creating a Time Scale
a. Importance- construct History- older/ younger
b. Numerical dates v Relative Dates
i. Numerical- number of years- accurate
ii. Relative- place rocks in order of formation- fossils
2. Relative Dating Principles
a. 1. Principle of Superposition
i. Un-deformed sequence of sedimentary, each bed is older than
the one above and younger than the one below horizontal
positon; not effected by any deformation- faulted, tilted, folded
ii. Applies to volcanic lava flows and beds of ash
b. 2. Principle of Original Horizontality
i. Layers of sediments are generally deposited horizontal
1. If inclined, folded, faulted- not following these rules for
c. 3. Principle of Lateral Continuity
i. Beds originate as continuous layers that extend in all directionsthin or grade into a different sediment type
d. Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
i. Younger feature cut across older features: Dike cutting through
surrounding rocks
e. 5. Inclusions
i. Fragments of one rock unit that are enclosed within another rock
ii. Rock containing the inclusion is younger


6. Unconformities
i. Break in the rock record produced by no deposition- subject of
ii. Layers of rock that have been deposited without interruption are
called conformable layers
1. Types of unconformity
a. 1. Angular- tilted rocks overlain flat rocks
b. 2. Disconformity- sedimentary strata on either side
of the unconformity are parallel look for fossils,
radioactive dating
i. Difficult to discover in field
c. 3. Non conformity
i. Metamorphic or igneous intrusions with
sedimentary rocks
d. Grand canyon- all three types of unconformity are
3. Fossils: Evidence of Past Life
a. Traces of remains of prehistoric life preserved in rocks- cant be fully
b. Paleontology- study of fossils
c. Determining age sedimentary, low grade metamorphic
d. Types of fossils
i. 1. Permineralization
1. Groundwater rich in silica, precipitate and replace tissues
of plants or wood- petrified
ii. 2. Molds and Casts
1. Mold- shell, buried, dissolved in underground water, brand
of shell
2. Cast hollo spaces are filled
iii. 3. Carbonization and impressions
1. Buried, compressions, squeezes out gases and liquids
leaving a thin film of carbon
a. Leaves and delicate animals
2. Impressions- remain in the rock when the carbon film is
iv. 4. Amber
1. Amber is hardened resin of ancient trees
a. Insects- common blood from ancient life nearly
v. 5. Trace Fossils rare
1. Indirect evidence of prehistoric life
a. Tracks: footprints of animals- shoreline, paleo
environment, abundancy
b. Burrows: animals tubes and holes in wood and
rocks filled with minerals and preserved
c. Coprolites: fossil dung and stomach content, size
and habits
d. Gastroliphs- food habits
vi. Conditions favoring preservation

1. Rapids burial and the possession of hard parts increases

the chance of preservation
4. Correlation of Rock Layers
a. Involved matching rocks of similar ages from different regions
b. Most comprehensive view of the rock record
c. Correlation within limited areas
i. Lithologic correlationd. Fossils and correlation
i. Principle of fossil succession
1. Fossils succeed one another in a definite and
determinable order
ii. Index fossils and fossils assemblages
1. Index-Widespread geographically and limited to short
period of geologic time
2. Assemblage- group of fossils used to determines rocks
iii. Environmental indicators
1. Fossils under specific environmental factors
5. Dating with Radioactivity
a. Decay of isotopes in rocks to calculate the age of the rock
b. Half-life
i. Amount of time required for half of the radioactive isotopes to
c. Parents are unstable- go to daughters to be more stable
d. Need smaller half life time span to use Carbon
e. Sources of error
i. System must be closed
1. No external addition of loss of parent or daughter isotopes
2. Fresh, unweather rocks are ideal
f. Dating with Carbon 14
i. Half-life- 5730 years- date as old as 70000 years
6. The Geologic Time Scale
a. No fossils remains during Precambrian- need radioactive dating
b. Classified into eons eras, period, epoch (broken down by fossils)
7. Determining Numerical Dates for Sedimentary Strata
Chapter 9 Review Questions
1. Unconformity represents a missing part of the
depositional history in an area and thus
a. Rocks may have been deposited, but were removed
later erosion, break of record
2. Significance of unconformity
a. Sedimentary rocks are indicating the record,
unconformity, break of record, there was uplift and
erosion more erosion
3. Inclusion in rock, inclusion are the rock
a. Older than
4. Rapid burial important

a. Eaten by animals, bacterial decay

5. Serious limitation of the fossil record
a. Not preserved because of the special conditions
required for preservation
6. Geologic observation would not bear directly on working
out the sequence of geologic events in an area
a. Feldspar and quartz contents of a granite
7. Essential characteritcs of an index fossils
a. Organism is wide-spread but only lived for a short
time period of geologic time
8. Fossils succession important in est. geologic time
a. Evolution is not random so we can distinguish
fossils that are closely related in time
9. Basalt dike cuts through sandsont is the sandstone unit
a. Younger than- cutter