espuma flotación

© All Rights Reserved

12 views

espuma flotación

© All Rights Reserved

- Flotation Circuit Optimization Using Modelling And
- Silica Sand Product
- 1-s2.0-S089268751200386X-main
- 46 Sim Minerals Processing Unit Models
- NIST Standardization
- Neutral Red Degradation
- Memo for the Particulates Section of Test on the 12th
- Coal Washeries May-10
- Crushing and Grinding Information
- Calendar Template 2014
- Aitik Mill as a Hub for a satellite mine
- Claudio Acuna
- Ion Specific Meters Category
- Chemistry 3629 A
- Flotation in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry
- EMC Lab Float Procedure Update 3 Generic Nov09
- Duomeen Tdo
- EC2
- cga_latest1
- 1309280201_hal 12

You are on page 1of 7

www.elsevier.com/locate/cep

F. Hernainz *, M. Calero

Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica, Facultad de Ciencias, Uni6ersidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain

Received 2 March 2000; received in revised form 31 July 2000; accepted 31 July 2000

Abstract

This paper studies several kinetic aspects of flotation of celestite and calcite in a mechanical cell with sodium dodecylsulphate

as the collector agent, using pure minerals ranging in average particle size between 137 and 74 mm, respectively, with a constant

pH 3 in the flotation bath in all experiments. The results obtained indicate that both minerals float rapidly and that the flotation

rate constant responds to a non-integral order equation. Likewise, a linear relationship exists between flotation rate and particle

diameter. 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Flotation kinetic; Froth flotation; Flotation rate; Particle

1. Introduction

In froth flotation, air bubbles are injected into a

moving stream of aqueous slurry containing a mixture

of particles, so that only hydrophobic ores are collected

on the bubble surface and exit the stream. Owing to its

simplicity, the process is widely used for separating a

great variety of solid particles. However, a number of

complex chemical and physical interaction aspects is

involved in the flotation process. An extensive work is

reported in the literature on the study of this process,

which has been studied from different angles. Of these,

kinetic approach has been highly instrumental in better

understanding leading to reasonably accurate

predictions.

The quantification of kinetic parameters is of increasing importance in industrial flotation to shed light on

the speed of the process. Numerous researchers have

studied the kinetic aspects of froth flotation paying

special attention to particle size, bubbles and their

complex interactions (Trahar and Warren [1]; Jameson

[2]; Radoev et al. [3]; Loewenberg and Davis [4]).

Arbiter and Harris [5] found that the flotation kinetics is the study of the variation in amount of froth

overflow product with flotation time, and the quantita-

such variables maintained constant, the algebraic relationship between the proportion of mineral floated and

flotation time is a flotation rate equation. This contains

the constant values of all the rate determining variables

implicit in one or more rate constants, which must be

evaluated from experimental data.

In a recent review of flotation kinetics (Mehrotra and

Padmanabhan [6]), the mathematical models describing

froth flotation as a rate process are classified into six

categories, kinetic models based on chemical analogy,

probabilistic and stochastic models, multiphase models,

mechanistic models, kinetic models with distributed

rate constant and continuous flotation models.

This paper aims to determine the flotation rate of

celestite and calcite with sodium dodecylsulphate

(SDS), using the kinetic models based on chemical

analogy. Likewise, this study supplements a previous

work (Hernainz and Calero [7]) in which the flotation

rate of both minerals was determined using sodium

oleate as collector agent.

2. Experimental

* Corresponding author. Tel.: + 34-58-243315; fax: + 34-58248992.

E-mail address: hernainz@goliat.ugr.es (F. Hernainz).

Celestite, SrSO4, and calcite, CaCO3, from two different mines were used for this research study.

0255-2701/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 2 5 5 - 2 7 0 1 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 1 2 5 - 2

270

The celestite was taken from the Cerro de Montevives mine, located in Las Gabias, 12 km southwest of

the city of Granada (Spain). The mineral, fragmented

and selected again by hand to collect only the purest

samples, thus guaranteeing a concentration of 97%, as

shown by acid leach analysis. The calcite was taken

from a deposit near Torredonjimeno (province of Jaen,

Spain), with a concentration in CaCO3, over 99.6%.

2.2.1. Collector agent

Sodium dodecylsulphate supplied by Merck with a

99% purity. The solutions were dissolved in water. The

solute was then weighed on a METTLER AJ150 precision balance, and the desired solution obtained by

successive dilutions as the agent concentrations used

were very small.

2.2.2. Foaming agent

Daksa M-1 pine oil was used with a constant concentration of 0.01407 g/l, sufficient to stabilise the foam.

2.2.3. Modifying agents

HCl and NaOH (Fluka, puriss. p.a.) were used as pH

modifiers in the cell, and control was effected by means

of a digital pH meter.

calculations

The mineral, previously ground to the appropriate

size, was added to stainless steel tank, fitted with an

agitator and a reducer, which provided gyration at 60

rpm. The density of the pulp was then adjusted in the

proportion ore:water=80:1250 g, and the collector, pH

modifier and foaming agent were added, almost at the

same time. This mixture was agitated for a 10-min

conditioning period before being subjected to flotation

in a mechanical cell for another 5-min period.

In the flotation experiments, a DENVER-D12 mechanical cell with a 1.25-l stainless steel tank was used.

The speed of impeller was adjusted to 1000 rpm suction

caused by the impeller provided the aeration required

for the formation of foam. The froths were manually

skimmed to the overspill with an aluminium blade and

collected by a collector in glass tanks where the mineral

was decanted. The temperature in the bath was maintained between 291 and 293 K.

The floated mineral was vacuum filtered through a

ceramic funnel lined with appropriate filter paper. The

sample was dried by a heating stone at 383 K to a

constant weight. The percentage of recovery was obtained easily since pure mineral was used.

two different particle sizes.

two different average particle sizes of celestite were

determined, namely 74 and 137 mm, which are the usual

limits in flotation operations.

Experiments were performed at pH 3, as this pH has

proved to be the most appropriate for SDS as a flotation agent on celestite and calcite according to previous

papers (Cabrerizo [8]; Navarro [9]; Hernainz and

Navarro [10]), although calcite undergoes a certain

degree of solubilisation at this pH, under 0.8% in all

cases, as revealed experimentally. The SDS concentration range selected also applies to the collectors use in

industrial flotation operations.

The recovery percentage of celestite was plotted

against SDS concentration in M (mol/l) in Fig. 1. Even

at very low concentrations of the agent, the mineral is

seen to respond well to flotation at sizes below 74 mm.

An increase in the collector concentration above

1.3310 4 M barely alters the celestite recovery percentage, which remains at around 90%.

For the mineral size 137 mm, however, recovery

gradually rises as SDS concentration is increased. At

concentrations approaching 4.4 10 5 M, the recovery

percentage is very low (10%), at 1.3310 4 M, the

271

celestite (a difference of 20%). Both above and below

these two concentrations, either the difference in response to flotation for the two concentrations is poor,

as in the case of celestite, or the recovery percentages

are relatively low, as in the case of calcite.

The two concentrations, namely 1.3310 4 and

2.22 10 4 M, were selected for the kinetic study

detailed below.

different particle sizes.

percentage rises to 48%, while at 2.66 10 4 M, recovery percentage exceeds 80%. At this latter concentration, the values found for both sizes used are very

similar, indicating that this parameter (i.e. size) ceases

to be a limiting factor when there is an excessive

collector concentration as revealed by Taggart [11], and

Pereda and Hernainz [12].

Fig. 2 shows the results obtained for calcite using the

same sizes and SDS concentrations as those used for

celestite. For calcite size of 74 mm, the recovery percentage of the mineral rises as the SDS concentration is

increased up to a value of approximately 1.3310 4

M. From this point onwards, an increase in agent

concentration does not enhance the mineral recovery

percentage, which remains constant at around 70%.

Low recovery rates, between 15 and 17%, are obtained from calcite flotation for a size of 137 mm and

throughout the SDS concentration ranges studied.

These results suggest that size is clearly one of the

factors influencing recovery of this mineral, what coincides with that indicated by Trahar [3].

From a comparative study between celestite and calcite recovery (Figs. 1 and 2), it is seen that certain agent

concentrations allow kinetic constants to be determined, given that there is a noticeable separation between both sizes as well as good results in mineral

recovery. For example, at 1.33 10 4 M, for both

minerals, the difference in separation of the smallest

and the largest sizes is of importance (a difference of

over 40%) and at 2.2210 4 M the difference is

mineral mass according to flotation time. If all operational variables are kept constant, the algebraic relationship between the parameters mentioned above is a

flotation rate equation. The ways, in which rate equations may be evaluated can be based on assumptions or

on facts established about the mechanism of the process, or, more commonly, determined empirically or by

analogy with similar rate processes (Arbiter and Harris

[5]).

By analogy with chemical kinetics, the equation representing flotation kinetics may be expressed thus,

dC

= kC n

dt

(1)

n order of the process, and k is the flotation rate

constant.

From the kinetics point of view, concentration C in

Eq. (1) comes from,

C=

M

V

(2)

during flotation (which is not strictly true as there is

always a small loss of liquid when the mineralised

froths are collected), the problem becomes considerably

simpler, as we may take C as the mineral mass, which

remains in the cell as the operation proceeds.

Therefore, if we assume that the volume is not altered during operation, the value for the flotation rate

constant may be obtained. This constant is complex

since it includes operational parameters such as inducement time, aeration, reagent concentration, particle

size, prior treatment, design of the flotation cell, etc.

Three approaches may be used to calculate this constant, namely,

1. first-order equation (n= 1);

2. second-order equation (n=2);

3. non-integral-order equation.

The integration for obtaining the constant of flotation rate in the three approaches is described in a

previous work (Hernainz and Calero [7]).

272

10 4 M SDS and five different mineral fractions.

10 4 M SDS and five different mineral fractions.

3.2.1. Celestite

Fig. 3 shows the recovery percentage plotted against

flotation time at pH 3 and 1.3310 4 M of SDS for

the following average particle sizes, 137, 115, 96.5, 81

and 74 mm.

The flotation rate is very fast for all sizes studied,

with the greatest part of the mineral having floated

within 3 min.

These experiments also reveal that a decrease in size

increases mineral recovery as pointed out by Trahar

[13] when using other minerals. An increase in flotation

rate is also seen to occur as size decreases, although for

81 and 74 mm, results are very similar as indeed occurs

for 115 and 96.5 mm.

Fig. 4 shows the results obtained using an SDS

concentration of 2.22 10 4 M. The recovery percentage is seen to increase considerably, reaching maximum

recovery within 3 min. It may also be seen that particle

size becomes less important than in the previous case

where SDS concentration was 1.33 10 4 M (Fig. 3).

The results for four of the five sizes used are very

similar in order to the recovery percentage.

The values obtained for the three assumptions under

consideration are shown in Table 1.

The correlation coefficient, r 2, obtained for kl indicates that the operation may not be assimilated in order

1 at either of the two SDS concentrations used.

For order 2, the correlation coefficients give acceptable values in some cases, mainly with the smaller sizes

used.

Table 1

Celestite

SDS (M)

1.33104

2.22104

137

115

96.5

81

74

137

115

96.5

81

74

n=1

n=2

n-non-integral

k1 (min1)

r2

k2 (g1 min1)

r2

kq (min1)

r2

0.1313

0.2954

0.3418

0.3617

0.3741

0.2880

0.4378

0.4518

0.4812

0.5006

0.76

0.82

0.88

0.82

0.79

0.76

0.85

0.89

0.85

0.89

0.00237

0.00820

0.01060

0.01463

0.01688

0.00829

0.01875

0.02204

0.02766

0.03415

0.78

0.88

0.94

0.93

0.91

0.85

0.94

0.96

0.98

0.99

47

73

79.8

87

90.1

77

88

90

94

96

0.8506

1.1542

0.8325

0.7010

0.6240

0.7794

1.0561

0.8777

0.7021

0.6589

0.92

0.98

0.97

0.94

0.93

0.91

0.99

0.96

0.93

0.98

273

10 4 M SDS and five different mineral fractions.

10 4 M SDS and five different mineral fractions.

achieved for size of 74 mm. It is also clear that as size

increases, in all cases, recovery percentage decreases.

Table 2 shows the results obtained again checking the

adjustment by first-, second- and non-integral-order

equations.

In this case, the correlation coefficients indicate that

the representative kinetics of the process also correspond to a non-integral order.

correlation coefficient gives the best results, and, therefore, kq may be taken as representative of the process.

The values for kq lessen with a decrease in the mineral

size, for the two SDS concentrations used, which

mainly agrees with results found for other minerals by

other researchers (Trahar [13]; Laplante et al. [14,15]).

However, those found by Hernainz and Calero [7] for

the same mineral with sodium oleate are different, since

kq is similar for all the particle sizes.

3.2.2. Calcite

Recovery percentages for calcite are shown in Figs. 5

and 6, plotted against flotation time at pH 3 for the five

average particle sizes of mineral selected using 1.33

10 4 and 2.22 10 4 M of SDS, respectively.

that of other sizes, primarily as a result of the decreased

probability of collision between particles and air bubbles as the particle size is reduced (Trahar [13]; Ready

Table 2

Calcite

SDS (M)

1.33104

2.22104

137

115

96.5

81

74

137

115

96.5

81

74

n= 1

n =2

n-non-integral

k1 (min1)

r2

k2 (g1 min1)

r2

kq (min1)

r2

0.0061

0.0173

0.0197

0.0354

0.1434

0.0226

0.0230

0.0544

0.0716

0.2018

0.67

0.72

0.73

0.75

0.75

0.71

0.81

0.85

0.78

0.82

8.2564105

2.4962104

2.8397104

5.3479104

0.00345

3.1278104

3.3492104

7.4449104

0.001194

0.005357

0.67

0.73

0.74

0.76

0.82

0.71

0.82

0.82

0.80

0.89

9.2

14.9

16.6

22.9

62

13.6

15.4

25.5

35

68

1.4274

1.4816

1.2141

1.0991

0.8290

1.6855

1.2361

1.0968

0.9800

0.7450

0.87

0.94

0.97

0.98

0.98

0.97

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.94

274

and Ratcliff [16]). However, the form of the relationship between flotation rate and particle size is not yet

clear. The most recent theoretical analyses suggest that,

k8d

(3)

particle diameter, and m is the number between 1.5 and

2.

Fig. 7 shows the rate constant, kq, plotted against

average particle size for the celestite and calcite at

1.33 10 4 and 2.2210 4 M of SDS. In this figure,

the kq with r 2 lower of 0.93 has not been represented.

The results shown in Fig. 7 support a roughly linear

relationship between flotation rate and particle diameter. In this sense, Table 3 shows the results obtained

checking the adjustment.

The correlation coefficient, r 2, obtained indicates that

a linear relationship exists between flotation rate and

particle diameter. Likewise, the values of m are between

1.1 and 1.35, what is lightly inferior to that found for

other minerals by other researchers (Jameson [2]; Trahar [13]).

4. Conclusions

1. The flotation rate is very fast for both minerals and

for all sizes studied, with the greater part of the

mineral having floated within 3 min.

2. The results obtained on flotation of celestite and

calcite indicate that the representative kinetics of the

process correspond to a non-integral order although

the correlation coefficient gives the best results

(r 2 \ 0.93 in the most cases), and, therefore, kq may

be taken as representative of the process. The value

for kq lessens with a decrease in the mineral size, for

the two SDS concentrations used. The values of kq

are between 1.1542 and 0.624 min 1 for celestite,

and 1.6855 and 0.745 min 1 for calcite.

3. Likewise, the correlation coefficient, r 2, obtained of

the kq plotted against average particle size indicates

that a linear relationship exists between flotation

rate and particle diameter (r 2 \ 0.98 for celestite and

r 2 \ 0.91 for calcite).

Appendix A. Nomenclature

n

R

diameter of particle (mm)

flotation rate constant

first-order flotation rate constant (min1)

second-order flotation rate constant (g1 min1)

non-integral order flotation rate constant

(min1)

order of the process

recovery of mineral at infinite time

C

d

k

k1

k2

kq

References

celestite and calcite.

Table 3

Celestite

Calcite

SDS (M)

r2

1.33104

2.22104

1.33104

2.22104

1.35

1.10

1.18

1.15

0.98

0.99

0.91

0.94

[1] W.J. Trahar, L.J. Warren, The floatability of very fine particles

a review, Int. J. Miner. Sci. 3 (1976) 103 131.

[2] G.L. Jameson, Physical factors affecting recovery rates in flotation, Miner. Sci. Eng. 9 (1977) 103 118.

[3] B.P. Radoev, L.B. Alexandrova, S.D. Tchaljovska, On the kinetics of froth flotation, Int. J. Miner. Process. 28 (1989) 127138.

[4] M. Loewenberg, R.H. Davis, Flotation rate of fine spherical

particles and droplets, Chem. Eng. Sci. 49 (1994) 39233941.

[5] N. Arbiter, C.C. Harris, in: D.W. Fuerstenau (Ed.), Froth

Flotation, AIME, Ann Arbor, MI, 1962, p. 215 Fiftieth anniversary volume.

[6] S.P. Mehrotra, N.P.H. Padmanabhan, Flotation kinetics a

review, Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 43 (1990) 9 21.

[7] F. Hernainz, M. Calero, Flotation rate of celestite and calcite,

Chem. Eng. Sci. 51 (1996) 119 125.

[8] M. Cabrerizo, Propiedades Electrocineticas y de Adsorcion de

Tensioactivos Ionicos sobre Celestina y su Aplicacion a la Flitacion, Ph.D. thesis, University of Granada, Spain, 1986.

[9] P. Navarro, Aplicacion del Lauril Sulfato Sodico en la Flotacion

de Minerales, Ph.D. thesis, University of Granada, Spain, 1994.

[10] F. Hernainz, P. Navarro, Lauril sulfato sodico como colector en

la flotacion de minerales (I). Influencia de algunas variables de

operacion, Afinidad 458 (1995) 250254.

[11] A.F. Taggart, Elementos de Preparacion de Minerales, Interciencia, Madrid, 1a ed., 1996, pp. 273289.

[12] J. Pereda, F. Hernainz, Aplicaciones del modulo de separacion a

la flotacion de minerales, Afinidad 365 (1980) 1618.

[13] W.J. Trahar, A rational interpretation of the role of particle size

in flotation, Int. J. Miner. Process. 8 (1981) 289327.

275

[14] A.R. Laplante, J.M. Toguri, H.W. Smith, The effect of air flow

rate on the kinetics of flotation. Part. I: the transfer of material

from the slurry to the froth, Int. J. Miner. Process. 11 (1983)

203 220.

[15] A.R. Laplante, J.M. Toguri, H.W. Smith, The effect of air flow

rate on the kinetics of flotation. Part. II: the transfer of material

from the froth over the cell lip, Int. J. Miner. Process. 11 (1983)

221 234.

[16] D. Ready, G.A. Ratcliff, Removal of fines particles from water

by dispersed air flotation: effects to bubble size and particle size

on flotation efficiency, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 51 (1973) 178185.

- Flotation Circuit Optimization Using Modelling AndUploaded byaghilif
- Silica Sand ProductUploaded byJeEJyZa
- 1-s2.0-S089268751200386X-mainUploaded byAndres Peña
- 46 Sim Minerals Processing Unit ModelsUploaded byalinori
- NIST StandardizationUploaded byanacrisst
- Neutral Red DegradationUploaded byGoutham R
- Memo for the Particulates Section of Test on the 12thUploaded byRicardo
- Coal Washeries May-10Uploaded byMicheal Ahmad
- Crushing and Grinding InformationUploaded byArifendi Pertambangan
- Calendar Template 2014Uploaded bygpranay4
- Aitik Mill as a Hub for a satellite mineUploaded byMelissa2305
- Claudio AcunaUploaded byrichard gutierrez
- Ion Specific Meters CategoryUploaded bysaurabh_acmas
- Chemistry 3629 AUploaded byprince saini
- Flotation in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ChemistryUploaded byZahoor Hussain Rana
- EMC Lab Float Procedure Update 3 Generic Nov09Uploaded byWilliam Thompson
- Duomeen TdoUploaded bysidneidecarvalho
- EC2Uploaded byMohamed Awad
- cga_latest1Uploaded byIbn Arqam Abdula
- 1309280201_hal 12Uploaded byBryan Kevin Toding Manginte
- AEI305Uploaded byapi-26787131
- CHM11Syllabus.pdfUploaded byArvileen Khye Valera
- Activacion de Esfalerita #1Uploaded byGilberto Hernandez
- CASE+STUDY+-+BUSINESS+IMPROVEMENT+AND+“QUICK+RESPONSE”+IN+MINING+...Uploaded bypuput utomo
- 102. phUploaded byaron
- 51866_02.pdfUploaded byRicardo Vilchez
- Studies of Contact Angles on Oxidized Copper MineralsUploaded bySepehr
- El Dovio Metallurgy Recovers Over 96% Gold and Copper for Colombian MinesUploaded bySebastian Castaño
- iet 330 - individual assignment 5Uploaded byapi-279673577
- august282013finaltechnicalpresentation-140115145602-phpapp01.pdfUploaded byJemmy Haryanto

- Visualizing Solid Shapes.pdfUploaded byAshish
- Gen Tube Und Pipes Sizes 5th Edition 18Uploaded bymorganflexer
- Annotated Games of Garry Kasparov, Volume 01Uploaded by水雲
- GavrilaUploaded byTaha
- FAAUploaded byLiki Triwijaya
- 1Uploaded bykristo
- PROSES WSA 2.pdfUploaded byLily Diana
- QAP for MS Pipes-RevisedUploaded byVijay Chander Reddy Keesara
- ReleaseNotes MacUploaded byNils Van der Plancken
- Deepwater DrillingUploaded byWaraey
- Head Loss Due to Pipe FittingUploaded bymhk001
- CASA Civil Aviation Australia AC 139c04 Commissioning of AGLUploaded byMehmet Zengin
- SD7401RCUploaded byHussein Saddam
- 01 Using LabQuestUploaded byJake
- Exp1Uploaded byadityalakshay26
- UCF - Arduino - Lesson 3Uploaded bypra_zara2637
- Micrologic 2.0A.pdfUploaded byGabriel Zoratti
- Simocode TermsUploaded byArunava Basak
- Guided Autowave Pulse Coupled Neural Network (GAPCNN) based real time path planning and an obstacle avoidance scheme for mobile robotsUploaded bySyed Usman Ahmed
- Mitsubishi Servo SystemUploaded byGanesh
- 1615303308 RelativityUploaded bymarzinus
- Low Power ALU ClusterUploaded byRenju Tj
- MAT500 Paper PhylogeneticsUploaded byScottMcRae
- RV-2A 3AJ BrochureUploaded byPHONG279
- Rockwool Building Roll ENGUploaded byAnwar Syed
- Basic Hand Lay-up Techniques for Reinforced CompositesUploaded byDonát Nagy
- Installations OMSI 2Uploaded byKapput
- [ ! ] INF1802-05-DatabaseIntroduction-MongoDBUploaded byWalison Henrique
- Checking Robust Nonsingularity is NP-hardUploaded bydarismendy
- Mech-Intro 13.0 AppA BucklingUploaded byRichard Hilson