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1.

MORFOLOGIA (THE MORPHOLOGY)


(gr. morphe = form, logos = studiu)
Morfologia este partea gramaticii care cuprinde regulile de modificare a cuvintelor n procesul comunicrii. Ea
studiaz prile de vorbire sub aspect formal, semantic i funcional.
Prile de vorbire sunt:
1. Articolul (The Article)

5. Numeralul (The Numeral)

9. Conjuncia (The Conjunction)

2. Substantivul (The Noun)

6. Verbul (The Verb)

10. Interjecia (The Interjection)

3. Adjectivul (The Adjective)

7. Adverbul (The Adverb)

4. Pronumele (The Pronoun)

8. Prepoziia (The Preposition)

1.1. ARTICOLUL (THE ARTICLE)


Este un instrument gramatical care individualizeaz sau determin un substantiv. Prezena lui dovedete c substantivul pe care-l nsoete este deja cunoscut de interlocutor.
1.1.1. ARTICOLUL HOTRT (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE)
este the
- pronunat [\] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu o consoan sau semi-consoan
the ball [ \ bO-l]
the window [\ `wind\u ]
- pronunat [I/i] - n faa cuvintelor care ncep cu o vocal
the eye [i ai]
the apple [i `Epl]
singular:
the girl [\ g|l] = fata
the boy [\ Boi] = biatul
the tree [\ trI] = copacul
the cat [\ kEt] = pisica

plural:
the girls [\ g|lz]= fetele
the boys [\ Boiz] = bieii
the trees [\ trIz] = copacii
the cats [\ kEts]= pisicile

Articolul hotrt apare ntr-un mare numr de expresii:


on the one side/hand = pe de o parte
on the other side/hand = pe de alt parte
at the same time = n acelai timp etc
Articolul hotrt plasat n faa unor adjective d acestora sensul unor substantive la numrul plural:
adj. rich = bogat-bogat, bogai-bogate
the rich = cei bogai - cele bogate
adj. poor = srac-srac, sraci-srace
the poor = cei sraci - cele srace
Articolul hotrt apare la gradul superlativ relativ al adjectivelor:
the best = cel mai bun, cea mai bun, cei mai buni, cele mai bune
the least = cel mai puin, cea mai puin, cei mai puini, cele mai puine
the biggest = cel mai mare, cea mai mare, cei mai mari, cele mai mari
the most interesting = cel mai interesant, cea mai interesant, cei mai interesani, cele mai interesante etc
Articolul hotrt apare i n structura the..., the... = cu ct..., cu att... (dou comparative juxtapuse)
The earlier you come, the better it is. = Cu ct vii/venii mai devreme cu att e mai bine.
The more we are, the easier it is.= Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att este mai uor.
The more interesting the book is, the more I like it. = Cu ct cartea este mai interesant, cu att mi place mai mult.
Articolul hotrt se intercaleaz de regul ntre un substantiv precedat de o prepoziie i prepoziia respectiv.
a house in the forest = o cas n pdure
a boat on the lake = o barc pe lac

across the road = peste drum


at the end = la sfrit
at the door = la u
in the end = n final
in the morning = dimineaa
in the village = n sat
in the shade = la umbr
Articolul hotrt poate fi ntlnit n unele denumiri geografice:
The Black Sea, The Danube, The Carpathians, The Alps, The Himalaya Mountains, The Thames, The United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The Commonwealth of Australia States and Territories, The
United States of America, The Sahara Desert, The Atlantic Ocean, The Indian Ocean, The Pacific Ocean etc.
Articolul hotrt nsoete, de obicei, substantivele cnd acestea sunt acompaniate/precedate de adjective.
in the first/second/third/etc. sentence = n prima/a doua/a treia/etc. propoziie
in the course of time = n decursul timpului, de-a lungul timpului
in the second half = n a doua jumtate
in the days/months that followed = n zilele/lunile care au urmat
Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. = Muntele Everest este cel mai nalt munte din lume.
Articolul hotrt the se mai traduce n limba romn prin articolele adjectivale cel, cea, cei, cele sau articolele posesive al, a, ai, ale.
Alfred the Great = Alfred cel Mare
Stephen the Great = tefan cel Mare
The Second World War = Cel de al doilea rzboi mondial.
1.1.2. ARTICOLUL NEHOTRT (THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE)
este :
- a [\] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu consoan sau semiconsoan:
a dog [\ `dog]= un cine a wall [\ `wOl]= un zid/perete
a flower [\ `flau\]= o floare
a year [\ `ji\] = un an
- an [\n] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu vocal:
an apple [\n `Epl]= un mr
an eye [\n `ai] = un ochi
an ear [\n `i\]= o ureche an idea [\n ai`di\]= o idee
Articolul nehotrt introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate fi ntlnit :
- n faa substantivelor nsoite/precedate de adjective :
a good teacher = un profesor bun
a big house = o cas mare
a book of proverbs = o carte de proverbe
a house on fire = o cas n flcri
a little tea = puin/destul ceai
- n unele structuri :
a tobacconist's = o tutungerie
a chemist 's = o farmacie
a baker's = o brutrie
a stationer's = o papetrie
a greengrocer's = un aprozar
once upon a time = a fost odat
a grocer' s = o bcnie
a blue - eyed girl = o fat cu ochi albatri
a confectioner's = o cofetrie
two/three at a time = cte doi/trei o dat
a jeweller's = un magazin de bijuterii
Articolul nehotrt are n unele cazuri funcie numeric:
a hundred = o sut
a thousand = o mie
two saucers and an ash-tray = dou farfurioare i o scrumier

1.1.3. ARTICOLUL ZERO (THE ZERO ARTICLE)


Articolul zero apare:
a) n nume de continente, ri, persoane, zilele sptmnii etc.
Exemple: Africa, Asia, America, Europe, England, France, Italy, Romania, Sunday, Alice, Bob, George, John,
Mary, Peter, Richard, William etc.
b) n faa subsantivelor folosite n sens general:
Children like sweets. = Copiilor le plac dulciurile.
Knowledge is power. = tiina nseamn putere.
Oil is lighter than water. = Uleiul este mai uor dect apa.
Boys like toys and lots of noise.= Bieilor le plac jucriile i mult zgomot.
c) n faa subsantivelor nenumrabile (uncountables):
Gold is yellow.= Aurul este galben.
This house is made of wood.= Aceast cas este fcut din lemn.
d) naintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie: care, death, hatred, honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea,
water etc.
Salt seasons all things. (prov.) = Sarea d gust tuturor lucrurilor.
Multe substantive abstracte apar n proverbe.
Hunger is the best sauce. = Foamea este cel mai bun buctar.
e) nume de: culori (white, black, yellow, red, green, brown, pink, violet, orange, blue, black), sporturi i jocuri
sportive (football, volleyball, basketball, hockey, tennis etc.), limbi (English, Romanian, German, French etc.), mese
(breakfast, snack, lunch, tea, dinner, supper).
f) n unele expresii / structuri fixe, care trebuie memorate pentru evitarea greelilor.
Just in time = chiar la timp/moment
after dark = dup lsarea ntunericului
after three o'clock = dup ora trei
to leave for school = a pleca la coal
after dinner = dup cin
to keep in mind = a ine minte
day by day = zi de zi
to be on duty = a fi de serviciu
to go on foot = a merge pe jos
drop by drop = strop cu strop
day after day = zi dup zi, zi de zi
to put in order = a pune n ordine
from end to end = de la cap la cap
to be in parliament = a fi n parlament
from first to last = de la primul la ultimul
to go to bed = a merge la culcare
from place to place = din loc n loc
from London = de la Londra
from time to time = din cnd n cnd
to look for help/aid = a cuta ajutor
good for food = comestibil
to pay on demand = a plti la cerere
goods on sale = mrfuri/bunuri de vnzare
from morning to night = de dimineaa pn seara
in general = n general
from beginning to end = de la nceput la sfrit
to learn by heart = a nva pe de rost
on certain conditions = cu anumite condiii
piece by piece = bucat cu bucat

1.2. SUSBTANTIVUL (THE NOUN)


Substantivul (lat.: substantivus; substans = substan; sub = sub/dedesubt, stans = aezat) este partea de vorbire care
denumete fiine, obiecte, stri, noiuni, nsuiri etc.
1.2.1. Clasificare
- comune (Common Nouns)
dog (cine), cat (pisic), bird (pasre), house (cas), apple (mr), girl (fat), boy (biat), water (ap).
- proprii (Proper Nouns)
John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe, Asia, July, Sunday, Great Britain etc.
- abstracte (Abstract Nouns)
friendship (prietenie), joy (bucurie), wisdom (nelepciune), safety ( siguran), theory (teorie), gratitude (recunotin)
etc.

- inidividuale (Individual Nouns)


man (brbat), house (cas), stone (piatr), tree (copac) etc.
- colective (Collective Nouns)
team (echip), army (armat), family (familie), fleet (flot), crowd (mulime), flock (stol), swarm (roi), group (grup)
etc.
- nume de materie (Names of Matter)
water (ap), air (aer), fire (foc), beer (bere), milk (lapte), steel (oel), silver (argint), gold (aur), snow (zpad), wine
(vin), tea (ceai), salt (sare) etc.
1.2.2. Genul substantivelor (The Gender of the Nouns)
masculin (masculine)
(he = el)
actor = actor
bachelor = celibatar
barman = barman
boy = biat
bridegroom = ginere
brother = frate
dad/daddy = tati/tticu
earl = conte
father = tat
gentleman = domn
god = zeu
grandfather = grandpa =
bunic
hero = erou
husband = so
king = rege
lad = flcu
landlord = proprietar
man = brbat
master = stpn
monk = clugr
nephew = nepot
papa/daddy = tata
policeman = poliist
prince = prin
salesman = vnztor
sir = domn
son = fiu
tutor = tutore
uncle = unchi
neutru (neuter)
(it = el/ea)
air = aer
ball = minge
book = carte
box = cutie
bread = pine
building = cldire
bus = autobuz
crocodile = crocodil
error = greeal
fish = pete
flag = drapel
flute = flaut

feminin (feminine)
(she = ea)
actress = actri
spinster = celibatar
barmaid = barmani
girl = fat
bride = mireas
sister = sor
mam/mammy = mami
countess = contes
mother = mam
gentlewoman = doamn
goddess = zei
grandmother = grandma = bunic
heroine = eroin
wife = soie
queen = regin
lass = fat
landlady = proprietreas
woman = femeie
mistress = stpn
nun = clugri
niece = nepoat
mamma/mammy = mama
policewoman = poliist
princess = prines
saleswoman = vnztoare
madam = doamn
daughter = fiic
governess = guvernant
aunt = mtu
comun (common)
(he/she = el/ea)
associate = asociat/asociat
architect = arhitect/arhitect
artist = artist/artist
beginner = nceptor/nceptoare
author = autor/autoare
child = copil/copil
buyer = cumprtor/cumprtoare
client = client/client
companion = nsoitor/nsoitoare
cook = buctar/buctreas
cousin = verior/verioar
customer = client/client

fork = furculi
glory = glorie
helicopter = elicopter
honour = onoare
house = cas
impression = impresie
indifference = indiferen
kangaroo = cangur
land = pmnt
legend = legend
light = lumin
march = mar
medal = medalie
microbe = microb
minaret = minaret
monkey = maimu
mouse = oarece
mushroom = ciuperc
masculin (masculine)
(he = el)
boy friend = prieten
brother - in - law = cumnat
bull = taur
cock = coco
dog = cine
drake = roi
father - in - law = socru
fisherman = pescar
fox = vulpoi
gipsy/gypsy = igan
grandson = nepot
horse = cal
host = gazd
lion = leu
lord = domn
man-servant = servitor
Mr. = domnul
negro = negru
ox = bou
peasant = ran
pirate = pirat
postman = pota
schoolboy = colar
soldier = soldat
son - in - law = ginere
steward = stevard
tom cat = pisoi
turkey cock = curcan
usher = plasator
waiter = chelner
neutru (neuter)
(it = el/ea)
net = plas
novel = roman
number = numr

customs officer = vame/vame


dancer = dansator/dansatoare
doctor = doctor/doctori
dreamer = vistor/vistoare
driver = ofer/oferi
dyer = vopsitor/vopsitoare
economist = economist/economist
engineer = inginer/inginer
examiner=examinator/examinatoare
fighter = lupttor/lupttoare
friend = prieten/prieten
guest = musafir/musafir
interpreter = interpret/interpret
journalist = jurnalist/jurnalist
owner = posesor/posesoare
painter = pictor/pictori
parent = printe

feminin (feminine)
(she = ea)
girl friend = prieten
sister - in - law = cumnat
cow = vac
hen = gin
bitch = cea
duck = ra
mother - in - law = soacr
vixen = vulpe
gipsy/gypsy woman = iganc
granddaughter = nepoat
mare = iap
hostess = gazd
lioness = leoaic
lady = doamn
maid - servant = servitoare
Miss/Mrs. = domnioara/doamna
negress = negres
cow = vac
peasant woman = ranc
-

schoolgirl = colri
-

daughter - in - law = nor


stewardess = stevardes
pussy cat = pisic
turkey hen = curc
usherette = plasatoare
waitress = chelneri
comun (common)
(he/she = el/ea)
photographer = fotograf/fotograf
physician = doctor/doctori
physicist = fizician/fizician

occupation = ocupaie
ocean = ocean
oil = ulei
page = pagin
panic = panic
part = parte
pear = par
petal = petal
piano = pian
pig = porc
pot = oal
root = rdcin
scorpion = scorpion
shark = rechin
sparrow = vrabie
sphere = sfer
stage = scen
stick = b
sun = soare
tea = ceai
telephone = telefon
etc.

passenger = pasager/pasager
manager = manager/manager, director/directoare
philosopher = filozof
physiologist = fiziolog
pilot = pilot
player = juctor/juctoare
playwright = dramaturg
printer = tipograf/tipograf
prisoner = prizonier/prizonier
purchaser = cumprtor/ cumprtoare
supporter = suporter/suporter
reader = cititor/cititoare
reporter = reporter/reporter
rival = rival/rival
scholar = nvat/nvat
scientist = savant/savant
smoker = fumtor/fumtoare
spectator = spectator/spectatoare
spouse = so/soie
successor = succesor/succesoare
superintendent = supraveghetor/ supraveghetoare
theorist = teoretician/teoretician
weaver = estor/estoare
welder = sudor/sudori
worker = muncitor/muncitoare
writer = scriitor/scriitoare

1.2.3. Pluralul substantivelor


1.2.3.1. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor
Se formeaz prin adugarea literei s.
book - books = carte - cri
Litera s semn al pluralului substantivelor , al persoanei a III-a singular a verbelor i al genitivului saxon/sintetic al
substantivelor, se citete:
[ s ] - cnd este precedat de consoane nesonore/surde
book - books = carte - cri
to speak - he speaks = a vorbi - el vorbete
the economist's pen] = stiloul economistului
[ z ] - cnd este precedat de o consoan sonor
chair - chairs = scaun - scaune
to receive - he receives = a primi - el primete
the girl's flowers =florile fetei ;
[ iz ] - cnd este precedat de s, z, ch, sh sau consoane uiertoare/sibilante;
bench - benches = banc - bnci
bus - buses = autobuz - autobuze
fox - foxes = vulpoi - vulpoi
George' s books = crile lui George
to teach - he teaches = a preda/explica - el pred/explic
to wash - he washes = a (se) spla - el se spal
Unele substantive terminate n y, precedat de consoan primesc s la plural, dar pe y l transform n ie.
baby - babies = copila - copilai
beauty - beauties = frumusee - frumusei
city - cities = ora - orae etc.

Substantivele terminate n y formeaz pluralul prin simpla adugare la sfritul lor a literei s dac n faa lui y se afl
o vocal :
boy - boys = biat biei
play - plays = pies - piese
day - days = zi - zile
toy - toys = jucrie - jucrii etc
Substantivele care se termin n f sau ff formeaz pluralul prin adugarea lui s :
chief - chiefs = ef - efi
cliff - cliffs = stnc - stnci
grief - griefs = suprare/mhnire - suprri/mhniri
Dar iat i excepii:
calf - calves = viel - viei
half - halves = jumtate - jumti
knife - knives = cuit - cuite
leaf - leaves = frunz - frunze
life - lives = via - viei
Substantivele terminate n o formeaz pluralul astfel:
a) - unele adaug terminaia es :
hero - heroes = erou - eroi
mosquito - mosquitoes = nar - nari
negro - negroes = negru - negri
b) - altele adaug doar litera s :
casino - casinos = cazino - cazinouri
cuckoo - cuckoos = cuc - cuci
embryo - embryos = embrion- embrioni
kangaroo - kangaroos = cangur - canguri

loaf - loaves = franzel - franzele


shelf - shelves = raft - rafturi
thief - thieves = ho - hoi
wife - wives = soie - soii
wolf - wolves = lup - lupi
potato - potatoes = cartof - cartofi
tomato - tomatoes = tomat - tomate
volcano - volcanoes = vulcan - vulcani
piano - pianos = pian - piane
radio - radios = radio - radiouri
photo - photos = fotografie - fotografii
studio - studios = studio - studiouri

1.2.3.2. Pluralul neregulat al substantivelor


businessman - businessmen = om / oameni de afaceri
child - children = copil - copii
die - dice = zar - zaruri
Englishman - Englishmen = englez - englezi
fireman - firemen = pompier - pompieri
fisherman - fishermen = pescar - pescari
foot - feet = lab - labe
gentleman - gentlemen = domn - domni
gentlewoman - gentlewomen = doamn - doamne

goose - geese = gsc - gte


louse - lice = pduche - pduchi
man - men = brbat - brbai
mouse - mice = oarece - oareci
postman - postmen = posta - postai
sportsman - sportsmen = sportiv - sportivi
tooth - teeth = dinte/msea - dini/msele
woman - women = femeie - femei

1.2.3.3. Plurale strine


Greceti:
analysis - analyses = analiz - analize
diagnosis - diagnoses = diagnostic - diagnostice
axis - axes = ax - axe
metropolis - metropolises = metropol - metropole
basis - bases = baz - baze
sphinx - sphinxes = sfinx - sfinci
crisis - crises = criz - crize
octopus - octopuses/octopi = caracati - caracatie
Latineti:
agendum - agenda = agend - agende
erratum - errata = erat - erate
alga - algae = alg - alge
gymnasium - gymnasiums = gimnaziu- gimnazii
aquarium / aquariums = acvariu - acvarii
mausoleum - mausoleums = mausoleu - mausolee
bacillus - bacilli = bacil - bacili
stimulus - stimuli = stimul - stimuli
candelabrum - candelabra = candelabru - candelabre stratum - strata = strat - straturi
1.2.3.4. Plurale asimilate n limba englez
arena - arenas = aren - arene
circus - circuses = circ - circuri
dilemma - dilemmas = dilem - dileme

diploma - diplomas = diplom - diplome


drama - dramas = dram - drame
genius - geniuses = geniu - genii

idea - ideas = idee - idei


minus - minuses = minus - minusuri

opera - operas = oper - opere


umbrella - umbrellas = umbrel - umbrele
1.2.3.5. Pluralul substantivelor compuse

blackboard - blackboards = tabl - table


motel - motels = motel - moteluri
mother - in - law - mothers - in - law = soacr - soacre

passer - by - passers - by = pieton - pietoni


son - in - law - sons - in - law = ginere - gineri

1.2.3.6. Pluralul fraciilor zecimale


one quarter - three quarters = un sfert - trei sferturi
one third - two thirds = o treime - dou treimi
one fifth - two fifths = o cincime - dou cincimi
one seventh - two sevenths = o eptime - dou eptimi
1.2.3.7. Pluralul unor abrevieri
Member of Parliament (M.P.) - Members of Parliament (M.P.s) = membru al parlamentului, membri ai parlamentului
Mountain (Mt. ) - Mountains (Mts) = munte - muni
Post - Office (P.O.) - Post - Offices (P.O.s) = oficiu potal - oficii potale.
1.2.3.8. Substantive numai cu form de plural
spectacles = glasses = ochelari, trousers = pantaloni, clothes = haine, scissors = foarfeci
1.2.3.9. Substantive numai cu form de singular
advice = sfat, equipment = echipament/utilaj, furniture = mobil, information = informaie/informaii, knowledge =
cunotine, news = tiri, money = bani
1.2.3.10. Substantive cu aceeai form pentru singular i plural
sheep = oaie - oi, fish = pete - peti, deer = cprioar - cprioare,
Portughese = portughez - portughezi, Chinese = chinez - chinezi
1.2.4. Cazurile substantivelor (The Cases of the Nouns)
Cazul este categoria gramatical prin care se exprim raporturi sintactice ntre cuvinte prin modificarea formelor
acestora.
1.2.4.1. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case)
Este cazul subiectului i rspunde la ntrebrile: who ? = cine ? , what ? = = ce?
The boy is playing in the garden. = Biatul se joac n grdin.
Who is playing in the garden? = Cine se joac n grdin ?
I saw John. - Who saw John? - I did. = Eu l-am vzut pe John. - Cine l-a vzut pe John? - Eu.
The book is on the table. - What is on the table? - The book is. = Cartea este pe mas. - Ce este pe mas ? - Cartea.
Alice and Gabi are in the street. - Who is/are in the street ? - Alice and Gabi are. = Alice i Gabi sunt pe strad. Cine este pe strad? - Alice i Gabi.
1.2.4.2. Cazul vocativ (The Vocative Case)
Este cazul adresrii sau al chemrii.
George, will you help me ? = George, vrei s m ajui ?
Come here, my boy ! = Vino aici, fiule !
1.2.4.3. Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case)
Este cazul atributului i rspunde la ntrebrile: whose ? = al cui ?, a cui ?, ai cui?, ale cui ?, which ?= care ?,
which of ?= care dintre ?, what ?= ce/care ?
Cazul genitiv este de patru feluri:
a) saxon/sintetic
b) prepoziional/analitic
c) dublu
d) implicit/aglutinant
1.2.4.3.1. Genitivul saxon/sintetic (The Saxon Genitive or the Possesive Case)
Se formeaz la singular cu ' (apostrof) plus litera s i se ntrebuineaz cu substantive masculine i feminine.
all Shakespeare's plays = toate piesele lui Shakespeare

John Major's diplomacy = diplomaia lui John Major


the boy's friend = prietenul biatului
this man's gift = talentul acestui om
La plural sau dac posesorul se termin n s se adaug doar apostroful.
the boys' friend = prietenul bieilor
the children's ball = mingea copiilor
the boys' ball = mingea bieilor
Dickens' novels = romanele lui Dickens
Genitivul saxon se mai folosete i n unele structuri cum ar fi:
A Midsummer Night's Dream = Visul unei nopi de var
at a stone's throw = la o distan de o aruncare de piatr
at Shakespeare's = la Shakespeare acas
the night's coolness = rcoarea nopii
the house of my sister's husband = casa soului sorei mele
the sun's heat = cldura soarelui
the sea's roar = vuietul mrii
to go to the barber's = a merge la frizerie
to his heart's content = pe pofta inimii lui
today's news = tirile de azi
without a moment's rest = fr o clip de odihn
a talk of ten minutes = a ten minutes' talk = o discuie de zece minute
a two miles' walk = a walk of two miles = o plimbare de dou mile
England's football team = echipa de fotbal a Angliei
I must go to Mr. Brown's house. = Trebuie s merg la domnul Brown acas
to be at one's wit's/ wits' end = a fi n ncurctur, a fi la captul puterilor
1.2.4.3.2. Genitivul prepoziional/analitic (The Prepositional/Analitical Genitive)
Se formeaz cu prepoziia of i se folosete cu substantive de toate genurile.
the smell of the flower/flowers = mirosul florii/florilor
the friend of the boy = the boy's friend = prietenul biatului
the friends of the boys = the boys' friends = prietenii bieilor
the friend of the boys = the boys' friend = prietenul bieilor
the friends of the boy = the boy's friends = prietenii biatului
some books of my friend = nite cri ale prietenului meu
a friend of mine/yours/his/hers = un prieten al meu/tu/lui/ei
a friend of ours/yours/theirs = un prieten al nostru/vostru/lor
a brother of my friend = un frate al prietenului meu
a book of my sister = o carte a sorei mele
one of my good friends = unul din bunii mei prieteni
one of my best friends = unul din cei mai buni prieteni ai mei
this interesting book of Helen's = aceast carte interesant a Elenei
a dancing couple = a couple that/which is dancing = un cuplu care danseaz
a burning house = a house that is burning = o cas care arde
a sleeping dog = a dog that/which is sleeping = un cine care doarme
the boy between John and Nick = the boy who is between John and Nick = = biatul dintre John i Nick = biatul
care este ntre John i Nick.
the man in the street = omul de pe strad, omul de rnd, omul obinuit
a boy of eleven (years) = un biat de unsprezece ani
a man with grey hair = un om cu pr crunt
the girl with glasses = fata cu ochelari
the girl wearing glasses = fata care poart ochelari
my friend's friend = prietenul prietenului meu
my friends' friend = prietenul prietenilor mei
my friend's friends = prietenii prietenului meu
my friends' friends = prietenii prietenilor mei
a walk of ten minutes = a ten minute walk = o plimbare de zece minute
our walk of ten minutes = our ten minute walk = plimbarea noastr de zece minute
a drive of ten miles = a ten mile drive = o plimbare de zece mile cu maina

a journey of two days = a two day journey = o cltorie de dou zile


my holiday of two weeks = my two week holiday = vacana mea de dou sptmni
1.2.4.3.3. Genitivul dublu (Group Possesive)
my friend's birthday/ the birthday of my friend = ziua de natere a prietenului meu
her sister, Alice's blue eyes = ochii albatri ai sorei sale, Alice
his son-in-law's birthday = ziua de natere a ginerelui su/lui
my friend, Tom's birthday = ziua de natere a prietenului meu, Tom
someone else's birthday = ziua de natere a altcuiva
that boy's friend's book = cartea prietenului biatului aceluia = cartea prietenului acelui biat.
1.2.4.3.4. Genitivul implicit/aglutinant (The Implicit Genitive)
The United Nations Organisation = Organizaia Naiunilor Unite
Students Organisation = Organizaia studenilor
ignition timing = reglarea aprinderii
a heart disease = o boal de inim
1.2.4.4. Cazul dativ (The Dative Case)
Cazul dativ este cazul complementului indirect i rspunde la ntrebrile: to whom ? = who(m)... to? = cui? for
whom ? = who(m)... for ? = pentru cine ?, to what ...? = what ... to ? = la ce ? etc.
I give Alice two books. = I give two books to Alice. = Eu i dau lui Alice dou cri. = Eu i dau dou cri lui Alice.
To whom do I give two books ? = Who(m) do I give two books to ? = Cui dau eu dou cri ?
Everybody is working for him. = Toi lucreaz pentru el.
For whom is everybody working ? = Pentru cine lucreaz toi ?
Who(m) is everybody working for ? = Pentru cine lucreaz toi ?
I am referring to John. = Eu m refer la John.
Who(m) am I referring to ? = To whom am I referring ? = La cine m refer eu?
dativ acuzativ
acuzativ dativ
I have brought John a book. = I have brought a book to John.
I-am adus lui John o carte. = I-am adus o carte lui John.
Din exemplul de mai sus se observ c, atunci cnd n propoziie acuzativul (compl. direct) st naintea dativului
(compl. indirect), se folosete obligatoriu particula to .
Alte exemple:
I offered my wife some flowers. = I offered some flowers to my wife = I-am oferit soiei mele nite flori. = I-am oferit
nite flori soiei mele.
The book belongs to me. = Cartea mi aparine mie.
The book does not belong to me .= Cartea nu-mi aparine mie.
Does the book belong to me ? = mi aparine mie cartea ?
To whom does the book belong ? = Who(m) does the book belong to ? = Cui i aparine cartea ?
He forgives us our mistake. = El ne iart nou greeala noastr.
His coming is a mystery to me. = Venirea lui este un mister pentru mine.
The advantage is obvious to them. = Avantajul le este evident.
What relation are you to this boy ? = Ce rud eti tu cu acest biat ?
This computer is superior to other computers. = Acest calculator este superior altor calculatoare.
The matter is open to discussion.= Chestiunea este deschis discuiei.
Give my friend that book, please ! = Give that book to my friend, please ! = D-i prietenului meu cartea aceea, te rog !
I am going to write to my friend. = Am de gnd s-i scriu prietenului meu.
Do not be cruel to animals ! = Nu fi crud fa de animale !
You must not be blind to his mistakes. = Nu trebuie s fii orb fa de greelile lui.
His uncle gave him a present. = Unchiul su / lui i-a dat un cadou.
1.2.4.5. Cazul acuzativ (The Accusative Case)
Este cazul complementului direct i rspunde la ntrebrile whom ? = pe cine ?, what ? = ce ?
I see the boy every day. = l vd pe biat n fiecare zi.
Whom do I see every day ? = Pe cine vd eu n fiecare zi ?
You see the book on the table. = Tu vezi cartea pe mas.
What do you see on the table ? = Ce vezi tu pe mas ?
My sister is looking for a book. = Sora mea caut o carte.

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What is my sister looking for ? = Ce caut sora mea ?


1.2.5. Declinarea substantivelor (The Declension of the Nouns)
Trecerea unui substantiv (sau pronume) prin toate cazurile la numrul singular i la numrul plural poart numele de
declinare.
1.2.5.1. Declinarea cu articol nehotrt a unui substantiv masculin i a unui substantiv feminin
N.
G.
D.
A.
V.

N.
G.

D.
A.
V.

singular
a boy = un biat
a girl = o fat
of a boy = a boy's = al, a , ai, ale unui biat
of a girl = a girl's = al, a, ai, ale unei fete
(to) a boy = unui biat
(to) a girl = unei fete
a boy = un biat
a girl = o fat
boy ! = biete !, biatule !
girl ! = fat !

plural
boys = biei
girls = fete

of boys = boys' = al, a, ai, ale, unor biei, de biei


of girls = girls' = al, a , ai, ale, unor fete, de fete
(to) boys = unor biei
(to) girls = unor fete
boys = biei
girls = fete
boys ! = biei!
girls ! = fetelor !

1.2.5.2. Declinarea substantivelor cu articol hotrt


singular
plural
the boy = biatul
the boys = bieii
the girl = fata
the girls = fetele
of the boy = the boy's = al, a, ai, ale biatului of the boys = the boys' = al, a, ai, ale bieilor
of the girl = the girl's = al, a, ai, ale fetei
of the girls = the girls' = al, a, ai, ale fetelor
(to) the boy = biatului
(to) the boys = bieilor
(to) the girl = fetei
(to) the girls = fetelor
the boy = biatul
the boys = bieii
the girl = fata
the girls = fetele
-

N.
G.
D.
A.
V.

1.2.5.3. Declinarea substantivelor neutre


singular
plural
a table = o mas
tables = mese
the table = masa
the tables = mesele
of a table = al, a, ai, ale unei mese
of tables = de mese
of the table = al, a, ai, ale mesei
of the tables = al, a, ai, ale meselor
to a table = unei mese
to tables = la/unor mese
to the table = mesei
to the tables = meselor
a table = o mas
tables = mese
the table = masa
the tables = mesele
-

1.3. ADJECTIVUL (THE ADJECTIVE)


Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care calific/determin un substantiv sau un echivalent al unui substantiv.
n limba englez adjectivele stau naintea substantivelor sau dup verbul to be i nu se acord n gen, numr
i caz cu substantivele pe care le determin.
The interesting book is on the table. = Cartea interesant este pe mas.
1.3.1. Clasificarea adjectivelor
1. calitative (of Quality / Descriptive)
2. posesive (Possessive)
3. interogativ - relative (Interrogative-Relative)

4. demonstrative (Demonstrative)
5. cantitativ/nehotrte (Quantitative-Indefinite)

1.3.1.1. Adjective calitative (Adjectives of Quality)


clever = detept, deteapt, detepi, detepte

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a clever boy = un biat detept


a clever girl = o fat deteapt
clever boys = biei detepi
clever girls = fete detepte
interesting = interesant, interesant, interesani, interesante
good = bun, bun, buni, bune etc.
1.3.1.2. Adjective posesive (Possessive Adjectives)
my = meu, mea, mei, mele
its = lui/ei, su/sa, si/sale
your = tu, ta, ti, tale
our = nostru, noastr, notri, noastre
his = lui, su, sa, si, sale, dnsului
your = vostru, voastr, votri, voastre, dumneavoastr
her = ei, su, sa, si, sale, dnsei
their = lor, dnilor, dnselor, dumnealor
my friend = prietenul meu
my friends = prietenii mei
your friend = prietenul tu
your friends = prietenii ti
his friend = prietenul lui/dnsului
his friends = prietenii lui/dnsului
her friend = prietenul ei/dnsei
her friends = prietenii ei/dnsei
its friend = prietenul lui/ei
its friends = prietenii lui/ei
our friend = prietenul nostru
our friends = prietenii notri
your friend = prietenul vostru/dv.
your friends = prietenii votri/dv.
their friend = prietenul lor/dnilor
their friends = prietenii lor/dnilor

1.3.1.3. Adjective interogativ-relative (Interrogative-Relative Adjectives)


1.3.1.3.1. Interogative
which = care ?, pe care ?
which boy ? = care (al ctelea) biat ? (which boys ? = care (ai ctelea) biei?)
which girl ? = care (a cta) fat? (which girls ? = care (ale ctelea) fete ?)
which house ? = care (a cta) cas ? (which houses ? = care (ale ctelea) case?)
which tree ?= care (al ctelea) copac? (which trees? = care (ai ctelea) copaci ?)
which of ? = care dintre ? (selectiv)
which of the boys?= care dintre biei?
which of the girls ? = care dintre fete ?
which of the houses ? = care dintre case ?
which of the trees ? = care dintre copaci ?
what ? = ce ?, care ?
what boy ? = ce/care biat ?
what boys ? = ce/care biei ?
what girl ? = ce/care fat ?
what girls ? = ce/care fete ?
what house ? = ce/care cas ?
what houses ? = ce/care case ?
what tree ? = ce/care copac ?
what trees ? = ce/care copaci ?
what kind/sort of ? = ce fel de ?
what kind of boy ? = ce fel de biat ? (what kind of boys ? = ce fel de biei?)
what kind of girl ? = ce fel de fat ? (what kind of girls ? = ce fel de fete ?)
what kind of house? = ce fel de cas? (what kind of houses? = ce fel de case ?)
what kind of tree? = ce fel de copac? (what kind of trees ? = ce fel de copaci ?
whose ? = al, a, ai, ale cui ?
whose boy ? = al cui biat ?
whose boys ? = ai cui biei ?
whose girl ? = a cui fat ?
whose girls ? = ale cui fete ?
whose house ? = a cui cas ?
whose houses ? = ale cui case ?
whose tree ? = al cui copac ?
whose trees ? = ai cui copaci ?
1.3.1.3.2. Relative
who = care ; the boy who knows you = biatul care te cunoate
whose = al , a, ai, ale crui/crei/cror
the boy whose father ... = biatul al crui tat ...
the boy whose mother ... = biatul a crui mam ...
the boy whose parents ... = biatul ai crui prini ... the girl whose parents ... = fata ai crei prini
the boys whose father ... = bieii al cror tat ...
the boys whose mother ... = bieii a cror mam ...
the boys whose fathers ... = bieii ai cror tai
the boys whose parents ... = bieii ai cror prini
the girl whose mother ... = fata a crei mam ...
the girl whose father ... = fata al crei tat ...

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the girls whose mother ... = fetele a cror mam


the girls whose father ... = fetele al cror tat
the girls whose parents ... = fetele ai cror prini
the girls whose mothers ... = fetele ale cror mame the girls whose fathers ... = fetele ai cror tai
the house whose colour ... = casa a crei culoare
the house whose roof ... = casa al crei acoperi
the houses whose colour ... = casele a cror culoare
the houses whose roof ... = casele al cror acoperi
the houses whose colours ... = casele ale cror culori
the houses whose roofs ... = casele ale cror acoperiuri
the tree whose leaf ... = copacul a crui frunz
the tree whose leaves ... = copacul ale crui frunze
the trees whose leaves ... = copacii ale cror frunze
The boy, whose book is on the table, is my brother. = Biatul, a crui carte este pe mas, este fratele meu.
The playwright, whose play is Hamlet, is Shakespeare. = Dramaturgul, a crui pies este Hamlet, este Shakespeare.
to whom = cruia, creia, crora
the boy to whom you recommend the book = biatul cruia i recomanzi cartea
the girl to whom you recommend a book = fata creia i recomanzi o carte
the boys to whom you recommend a book = bieii crora le recomanzi o carte
the girls to whom you recommend a book = fetele crora le recomanzi o carte
whom = pe care
the boy whom you see = biatul pe care l vezi
the girl whom you see = fata pe care o vezi
the boys whom you see = bieii pe care i vezi
the girls whom you see = fetele pe care le vezi
that/which = care, pe care
the colour that/which you like = culoarea care i place
which of [wit~ ov] = care dintre , cui dintre
He knows which of us lives here. = El tie care dintre noi locuiete aici.
what [wot] = ce/ct/care
Tell him what answer to give. = Spune-i ce rspuns s dea.
Tell me what time it is. = Spune-mi ct e ceasul .
I know what book you like. = tiu ce/care carte i place.
what kind/sort of = ce fel de
I know what kind/sort of man he is. = tiu ce fel de om este el.
1.3.1.4. Adjective demonstrative (Demonstrative Adjectives)

this = acest, acesta ; aceast, aceasta


this boy = acest biat, biatul acesta
this girl = aceast fat, fata aceasta
this tree = acest copac, copacul acesta
this book = aceast carte, cartea aceasta

these = aceti, acetia ; aceste, acestea


these boys = aceti biei, bieii acetia
these girls = aceste fete, fetele acestea
these trees = aceti copaci, copacii acetia
these books = aceste cri, crile acestea

that = acel, acela ; acea, aceea


that boy = acel biat, biatul acela
that girl = acea fat, fata aceea
that tree = acel copac, copacul acela
that book = acea carte, cartea aceea

those = acei, aceia; acele, acelea


those boys = acei biei, bieii aceia
those girls = acele fete, fetele acelea
those books = acele cri, crile acelea
those trees = acei copaci, copacii aceia

13

the one = acel/acela care, cel ce/care; cea/aceea care


The one, who knows us, is here. = Cel/cea care ne cunoate este aici.
it = acela, aceea
Was it you ? = Tu ai fost acela/aceea ?
the former = primul (din doi), cel dinti (din doi), prima (din dou), cea dinti (din dou)
the latter = (cel de-) al doilea, ultimul (din doi), (cea de-) a doua, ultima (din dou)
John and William are friends. The former is a farmer, the latter is an engineer. = John i William sunt prieteni. Primul este
fermier, al doilea este inginer.
the first = cel, cea, cei, cele dinti, primul, prima, primii, primele
He is my first friend. = El este primul meu prieten. = El este cel dinti prieten al meu.
the first boy = primul biat
the first boys = primii biei
the first girl = prima fat
the first girls = primele fete
the first book = prima carte
the first books = primele cri
the first tree = primul copac
the first trees = primii copaci
the last = cel, cea, cei, cele din urm, ultimul, ultima, ultimii,ultimele
Is this your last decision ? = Este aceasta ultima ta hotrre ?
the last boy = ultimul biat
the last boys = ultimii biei
the last girl = ultima fat
the last girls = ultimele fete
the last book = ultima carte
the last books = ultimele cri
the last tree = ultimul copac
the last trees = ultimii copaci
the other = cellalt, cealalt, ceilali, celelalte
the other boy = cellalt biat
the other girl = cealalt fat
the other house = cealalt cas
the other boys = ceilali biei
the other girls = celelalte fete
the other houses = celelalte case
another = alt, alt, o alt, alte
another boy = alt biat
another girl = alt fat
another tree = alt copac
another house = alt cas
another news = alte tiri
another good news = alte tiri bune
He will be staying in England for another year . = El va sta n Anglia nc un an.
such = astfel de, asemenea, aa
such a boy = un astfel de biat, un asemenea biat
such a girl = o astfel de fat, o asemenea fat
such boys = aa biei, astfel de biei, asemenea biei
such girls = aa fete, astfel de fete, asemenea fete
such people = aa oameni, astfel de oameni
people such as = oameni cum ar fi, oameni ca de exemplu
We hope never to have another such experience. = Sperm s nu mai avem niciodat o astfel de experien.
the same = acelai, aceeai, aceiai, aceleai
the same boy = acelai biat
the same girl = aceeai fat
the same book = aceeai carte
the same tree = acelai copac
the same boys = aceiai biei
the same girls = aceleai fete
the same books = aceleai cri
the same trees = aceiai copaci
one and the same = unul i acelai; una i aceeai.
one and the same boy = unul i acelai biat;
one and the same girl = una i aceeai fat
one and the same book = una i aceeai carte;
one and the same tree = unul i acelai copac
the very = chiar, tocmai , nsui , nsi
the very boy who/that = chiar/ nsui / tocmai biatul care;
the very book which/that = chiar /tocmai cartea care;
the very girls who/that = chiar/tocmai fetele care

he very girl who/that = chiar/nsi/tocmai fata care


the very boys who/that = chiar/tocmai bieii care
the very books which/that = chiar/tocmai crile care

14

This is the very book I needed. = Aceasta este chiar cartea de care aveam nevoie.
1.3.1.5. Adjective cantitative/NEHOTRTE (The Quantitative/INDEFINITE Adjectives)
some = unii, unele, nite, vreun, vreo
Se folosete n propoziiile afirmative. Cnd apare n propoziiile interogative se sper s se obin un rspuns afirmativ.
I see some people in the street. = Vd nite oameni pe strad.
Come to see us some Sunday ! = Vino/venii pe la noi ntr-o (zi de) duminic !
Do you see some people in the street ? = Vezi nite oameni pe strad ?
I should drink some water, not some wine. = A bea nite ap, nu nite vin.
I know him to some degree. = l cunosc ntr-o oarecare msur.
Some agree with me and some don't. = Unii sunt de acord cu mine, iar alii nu.
They will find out the truth some day. = Ei vor afla adevrul ntr-o bun zi.
This matter has some importance. = Chestiunea aceasta are oarecare importan.
You will meet some person or other. = Vei ntlni o persoan sau alta.
any- n propoziiile afirmative = orice, fiece
He can come at any hour of the day. = El poate veni la orice or din zi.
You may like any book. = i poate plcea orice carte.
You can/may come any time. = Poi veni oricnd.
any ? - n propoziiile interogative = orice ?, fiece ?, vreun ?, vreo ?
Do you like any book ? = i place orice carte ?
Have you got any friends ? = Ai vreun prieten ?, Ai ceva prieteni ?
Can you lend me any of those books ? = mi poi mprumuta vreuna dintre crile acelea?
any - n propoziiile negative = nici un, nici o
I cannot find any excuse. = Nu pot gsi nici o scuz.
We do not see any house. = Noi nu vedem nici o cas.
He does not see any boy. = El nu vede nici un biat.
no - numai n propoziiile negative = nici un, nici o
n limba englez se folosete o singur negaie n propoziie.
I see no boy, no girl and no house. = Nu vd nici un biat, nici o fat i nici o cas.
No man could do it. = Nici un om n-o putea face.
He will spare no pains. = El nu va crua nici un efort.
no admittance = intrarea interzis
no smoking = fumatul interzis
I can find no other solution. = Nu pot gsi nici o alt soluie.
few = puini, puine
I see few boys, few girls and few houses. = Eu vd puini biei, puine fete i puine case.
few of us/you/them = puini/puine dintre noi/voi/ei/ele
a few = puini/destui, puine/destule
I have a few books. = Am puine/suficiente cri.
He has a few friends. = Are puini/destui/ceva prieteni.
quite a few = a good few = some few = many, a large number = muli/multe
He has got quite a few friends. = Are destui/muli prieteni.
little = puin, puin; mic, mic, mici
I drink little tea and little coffee. = Eu beau puin ceai i puin cafea.
He has little time for reading. = El are puin timp pentru citit.
The little boy drinks little lemonade. = Bieelul bea puin limonad.
the little ones = cei mici

15

a little = puin/destul, puin/destul, (cte) ceva


A little is better than none. (prov.) = Mai bine puin dect deloc. = Mai bine ceva dect nimic.
We have a little beer and a little wine. = Avem ceva bere i ceva vin.
to know a little of everything = a ti cte ceva din toate
The little girl is a little better now. = Fetia face ceva mai bine acum.
much = mult, mult
There is much tea in the teapot. = Este mult ceai n ceainic.
many = muli, multe
There are many people in the park. = Sunt muli oameni n parc.
many of us/you/them = muli/multe dintre noi/voi/ei/ele .
plenty of = mult, mult, muli, multe.
We have plenty of time . = Avem timp din belug. = Avem timp berechet.
a lot of = o mulime de.
We have a lot of books. = Noi avem o mulime de cri.
each = fiecare (luat n parte)
Each man knows their story. = Fiecare om tie povestea lor.
each of us/you/them = fiecare dintre noi/voi/ei/ele
every = fiecare, toi/ toate
Every man knows their story. = Fiecare om tie povestea lor.
We can go to the library every day. = Putem merge la bibliotec n fiecare zi.
several = civa, cteva, mai muli/multe
We shall spend several days and nights in the mountains. = Vom petrece cteva zile i nopi la munte.
He has several friends. = El are civa prieteni.
several of us/you/them = civa dintre noi/voi/ei/ele
Several of us went home on foot. = Mai muli dintre noi au mers acas pe jos.
enough = destul, destul, suficient, suficient
There is enough bread on the table. = Este suficient pine pe mas.
certain = anumii, anumite, unii, unele
certain boys = unii/anumii biei
certain girls = unele/anumite fete
certain books = unele/anumite cri
a certain = un anumit, o anumit, un anume/oarecare, o anume/oare- care
a certain boy = un anume/anumit/oarecare biat
a certain girl = o anume/anumit/oarecare fat
a certain Mr. Jones = un anumit/oarecare domn Jones
a certain Mrs. Jones = o anumit/oarecare doamn Jones
a certain Miss. Jones = o anumit/oarecare domnioar Jones
1.3.2. Comparaia adjectivelor i adverbelor (The Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs)
Comparaia adjectivelor i adverbelor este:
a) regulat/sintetic (cele scurte)
b) analitic (cele lungi)
c) mixt (sintetic i analitic)
d) neregulat
Comparaia adjectivelor se realizeaz la urmtoarele grade:
1) pozitiv, cnd nsuirea unui obiect/substantiv nu se raporteaz la nici un alt termen. Pozitivul este asemuit cu nominativul

16

substantivelor i cu infinitivul verbelor.


2) comparativ, prin care se exprim superioritatea (comparativ de superioritate), egalitatea (comparativ de egalitate) sau
inferioritatea (comparativ de inferioritate) unui obiect/substantiv fa de altul.
3) superlativ (lat.: superlativus; super = deasupra, latus = dus/ridicat) prin care se arat c nsuirea obiectului / substantivului se afl fie n cea mai mare msur/ intensitate (superlativul relativ), fie n foarte mare msur/ intensitate (superlativul absolut). Adjectivele monosilabice dubleaz consoana final cnd aceasta este precedat de vocal scurt.
1.3.2.1. Comparaia sintetic/regulat
gradul pozitiv
big
mare
dry
uscat
easy
uor
fat
gras
great
mare, mre
happy
fericit
hard
tare, dur
hot
fierbinte
kind
amabil
long
lung
nice
plcut/drgu
short
scurt/scund
small
mic/modest
strong
tare
tall
nalt
thick
gros
thin
subire/slab

pozitiv
abject
abject/josnic
abrupt
abrupt
active
activ

comparativ de
superioritate
bigger
mai mare
drier
mai uscat
easier
mai uor
fatter
mai gras
greater
mai mare
happier
mai fericit
harder
mai tare
hotter
mai fierbinte
kinder
mai amabil
longer
mai lung
nicer
mai plcut
shorter
mai scurt
smaller
mai mic
stronger
mai tare
taller
mai nalt
thicker
mai gros
thinner
mai subire

superlativ relativ

superlativ absolut

the biggest
cel mai mare
the driest
cel mai uscat
the easiest
cel mai uor
the fattest
cel mai gras
the greatest
cel mai mare
the happiest
cel mai fericit
the hardest
cel mai tare
the hottest
cel mai fierbinte
the kindest
cel mai amabil
the longest
cel mai lung
the nicest
cel mai plcut
the shortest
cel mai scurt
the smallest
cel mai mic
the strongest
cel mai tare
the tallest
cel mai nalt
the thickest
cel mai gros
the thinnest
cel mai subire

very big
foarte mare
very dry
foarte uscat
very easy
foarte uor
very fat
foarte gras
very great
foarte mare
very happy
foarte fericit
very hard
foarte tare
very hot
foarte fierbinte
very kind
foarte amabil
very long
foarte lung
very nice
foarte plcut
very short
foarte scurt
very small
foarte mic
very strong
foarte tare
very tall
foarte nalt
very thick
foarte gros
very thin
foarte subire, etc.

1.3.2.2. Comparaia analitic a adjectivelor i adverbelor


comparativ de
superlativ relativ
superlativ absolut
superioritate
more abject
the most abject
very abject
Mai josnic
cel mai josnic
foarte josnic
more abrupt
the most abrupt
very abrupt
Mai abrupt
cel mai abrupt
foarte abrupt
more active
the most active
very active
mai activ
cel mai activ
foarte activ

17

amiable
prietenos
attractive
atrgtor
beautiful
frumoas
curious
curios
foolish
prost(esc)
huge
uria/imens
severe
sever/aspru
sincere
sincer
skilled
priceput
sociable
sociabil
unfit
nepotrivit
unjust
injust/nejust
urbane
manierat
untidy
dezordonat

More amiable
mai prietenos
more attractive
mai atrgtor
more beautiful
mai frumoas
More curious
Mai curios
more foolish
mai prost(esc)
more huge
mai imens
more severe
mai sever
More sincere
Mai sincer
More skilled
mai priceput
More sociable
mai sociabil
more unfit
mai nepotrivit
more unjust
mai injust
More urbane
mai manierat
more untidy
mai dezordonat

the most amiable


cel mai prietenos
the most attractive
cel mai atrgtor
the most beautiful
cea mai frumoas
the most curious
cel mai curios
the most foolish
cel mai prost(esc)
the most huge
cel mai imens
the most severe
cel mai sever
the most sincere
cel mai sincer
the most skilled
cel mai priceput
the most sociable
cel mai sociabil
the most unfit
cel mai nepotrivit
the most unjust
cel mai injust
the most urbane
cel mai manierat
the most untidy
cel mai dezordonat

very amiable
foarte prietenos
very attractive
foarte atrgtor
very beautiful
foarte frumoas
very curious
foarte curios
very foolish
foarte prost(esc)
very huge
foarte imens
very severe
foarte sever
very sincere
foarte sincer
very skilled
foarte priceput
very sociable
foarte sociabil
very unfit
foarte nepotrivit
very unjust
foarte injust
very urbane
foarte manierat
very untidy
foarte dezordonat

Din analiza exemplelor de mai sus rezult c la gradul comparativ de superioritate adjectivele cu comparaie analitic se
ajut de adverbul more, la superlativul relativ de adverbul most, iar la superlativul absolut de adverbele very, extremely, awfully, quite etc.
1.3.2.3. Adjective cu comparaie mixt (sintetic i analitic)
pozitiv
able
capabil
ample
amplu
empty
gol
strange
ciudat
stupid
stupid
etc.

comparativ de
superioritate
more able
abler
mai capabil
more ample
ampler
Mai amplu
more empty
emptier
mai gol
More strange
stranger
Mai ciudat
more stupid
stupider
Mai stupid

superlativ
relativ
the most able
the ablest
cel mai capabil
the most ample
the amplest
cel mai amplu
the most empty
the emptiest
cel mai gol
the most strange
the strangest
cel mai ciudat
the most stupid
the stupidest
cel mai stupid

superlativ
absolut
very able
foarte capabil
very ample
foarte amplu
very empty
foarte gol
very strange
foarte ciudat
very stupid
foarte stupid

1.3.2.4. Comparaia neregulat a adjectivelor i adverbelor

18

good/well
bun/bine
bad/ill
ru
little
puin/mic
much/many
mult/muli
old
btrn/vechi
near
aproape
late
trziu

comparativ de
superioritate
better
mai bun/bine
worse
mai ru
less
mai puin/mic
more
mai mult/muli

far

older/elder
mai btrn/ vechi
nearer
mai aproape
later
Mai trziu
latter = ultimul
din doi
farther/further

departe
in
n interior

mai departe
inner
mai n interior

out
n exterior

outer/utter
mai n exterior

up
sus

upper
mai sus

beneath
dedesubt
hind
din spate

nether
mai dedesubt
hinder
mai din spate

fore
n fa

former
Mai n fa

superlativ relativ

superlativ absolut

the best
cel mai bun/bine
the worst
cel mai ru
the least
cel mai puin/mic
the most
cel mai mult/cei mai
muli
the oldest/eldest
cel mai btrn/ vechi
the nearest
cel mai aproape
the latest
cel mai trziu
the last = ultimul

very good/well
foarte bun/bine
very bad/ill
foarte ru
very little
foarte puin/mic
very much/many
foarte mult/muli

the farthest/ furthest


cel mai departe
the inmost
cel mai n interior/
luntric
the innermost = luntric la maximum
the outermost
cel mai n exterior
the utmost, uttermost = n exterior la
maximum
the upmost
cel mai (de) sus
the uppermost = sus
la maximum
the nethermost
cel mai de dedesubt
the hindmost
cel mai din spate
the hindermost =
ultimul din spate
the foremost
cel mai din
fa/dinainte
the first = primul

very old
foarte btrn/vechi
very near
foarte aproape
very late
foarte trziu

very far
foarte departe

1.3.2.5. Comparativul de egalitate


Se realizeaz cu ajutorul conjunciilor corelative: as... as... = tot aa de .... ca ..../la fel de... ca ....
as interesting as ... = la fel de interesant ca ...
as old as ... = la fel de btrn/vechi ca
as beautiful as ... = la fel de frumos ca
as strange as ... = la fel de ciudat/straniu ca ...
as beautifully as ... = la fel de frumos ca
as near as ... = la fel de aproape ca ...
Unele astfel de comparative de egalitate au devenit idiomuri:
as quick as thought = iute ca gndul
as swift as an arrow = iute ca sgeata
as sweet as honey = dulce ca mierea
as white as snow = alb ca zpada etc.

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1.3.2.6. Comparativul de inferioritate


Se realizeaz cu ajutorul conjunciilor corelative:
not so ... as ... = nu aa de ... ca ... sau
less ... than ... = mai puin ... dect/ca
This film is not so interesting as that one. = Filmul acesta nu este aa de interesant ca acela.
This man is not so old as that man. = Omul acesta nu este aa de vrstnic/btrn ca omul acela.
That house is not so big as this house. = Casa aceea nu este aa (de) mare cum este casa aceasta.
Mary is less beautiful than Alice. = Mary este mai puin frumoas ca Alice.
1.3.2.7. Comparativul de intensitate
Const din dou comparative de superioritate legate ntre ele prin conjuncia and i se traduc prin structura din ce n ce mai .
better and better = din ce n ce mai bine
less and less = din ce n ce mai puin()/mic()
worse and worse = din ce n ce mai ru
fewer and fewer = din ce n ce mai puini/puine
more and more = din ce n ce mai mult
bigger and bigger = din ce n ce mai mare/mari etc.
more and more interesting = din ce n ce mai interesant/interesant/ interesani/ interesante
more and more important = din ce n ce mai important/ important/ importani/ importante
more and more beautifully = din ce n ce mai frumos
more and more carefully = din ce n ce mai atent/grijuliu etc.
1.3.2.8. Pozitivul cu comparativul de superioritate
much better (than) ...= mult mai bine/bun (ca/dect)...
much less (than) ...= mult mai puin (ca/dect) ...
much worse (than)...= mult mai ru (ca/dect)...
much older (than)...= mult mai n vrst (ca/dect)...
much more (than)...= mult mai mult (ca/dect) ...
much easier (than) ...= mult mai uor (ca/dect) ...
much more difficult (than) ...= mult mai dificil/greu (ca/dect) ...
much more beautiful (than) ...= mult mai frumoas (ca/dect) ...
much more interesting (than) ...= mult mai interesant (ca/dect) ...
much more important (than) ...= mult mai important (ca/dect) ...
much more beutifully (than) ...= mult mai frumos (ca/dect) ...
much more carefully (than) ...= mult mai atent (ca/dect) ...
a little older (than) ...= puin mai btrn/vechi (ca/dect)...
a little better (than) ...= puin mai bine/bun (ca/dect) ...
a little worse (than) ...= puin mai ru (ca/dect) ...
a little earlier (than) ... = puin mai devreme (ca/dect)...
a little more (than) ...= puin mai mult (ca/dect) ...
a little later (than) ...= puin mai trziu (ca/dect) ...
a little less (than) ...= puin mai puin (ca/dect) ...
a little easier (than) ...= puin mai uor (ca/dect) ...
a little more difficult (than) ...= puin mai dificil/greu (ca/dect) ...
a little more beautiful (than) ...= puin mai frumoas (ca/dect) ....
a little more interesting (than) ...= puin mai interesant (ca/dect) ....
a little more important (than) ...= puin mai important (ca/dect) ...
a little more beautifully (than) ...= puin mai frumos (ca/dect) ...
a little more carefully (than) ...= puin mai atent/grijuliu (ca/dect)...
1.3.2.9. By far + comparativul de superioritate = cu mult mai ...
(ca/dect)...
by far better (than) ...= cu mult mai bun/bine (ca/dect)...
by far worse (than) ...= cu mult mai ru (ca/dect)...
by far earlier (than) ...= cu mult mai devreme (ca/dect)
...
by far more (than) ...= cu mult mai mult (ca/dect)...
by far less (than) ...= cu mult mai puin (ca/dect)...
by far later (than) ...= cu mult mai trziu (ca/dect)...
by far older (than) ...= cu mult mai btrn/vechi
by far easier (than) ...= cu mult mai uor (ca/dect)...
by far more difficult (than) ...= cu mult mai dificil (ca/dect)...
by far more beautiful (than) ...= cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect)...
by far more interesting (than) ...= cu mult mai interesant (ca/dect)...
by far more important (than) ...= cu mult mai important (ca/dect) ...
by far more beautifully (than) ...= cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect) ...
by far more carefully (than) ...= cu mult mai atent/prudent (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal better (than) ...= cu mult mai bine (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal worse (than) ...= cu mult mai ru (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal more (than) ...= cu mult mai mult (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal less (than) ...= cu mult mai puin (ca/dect)...

20

a good/great deal older (than) ...= cu mult mai btrn/vechi (ca/dect) ...
a good/great deal earlier (than) ...= cu mult mai devreme (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal later (than) ...= cu mult mai trziu (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal easier (than) ...= cu mult mai uor (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal more difficult (than) ... = cu mult mai dificil (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal more beautiful (than) ...= cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal more interesting (than) ...= cu mult mai interesant (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal more important (than) ...= cu mult mai important (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal more beautifully (than) ...= cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect)...
a good/great deal more carefully (than) ...= cu mult mai atent/prudent (ca/dect)...
1.3.2.10 Structuri constnd din dou comparative de superioritate (cu ct... cu att...)
the earlier, the better = cu ct mai devreme, cu att mai bine
The earlier you come, the better it is. = Cu ct vii/venii mai devreme, cu att mai bine.
The more you learn, the more you forget. = Cu ct nvei mai mult, cu att uii mai mult.
the later, the worse = cu ct mai trziu, cu att mai ru
The later you arrive, the worse it is. = Cu ct ajungi mai trziu, cu att este mai ru.
The more beautifully Alice will sing, the more money she will get. = Cu ct Alice va cnta mai frumos, cu att mai muli
bani va ctiga.
His flat is a little cheaper than yours. = Apartamentul lui este puin mai ieftin dect al tu.
Your flat is a lot cheaper than mine. = Apartamentul tu este mult mai ieftin dect al meu.
Our flat is somewhat cheaper than theirs. = Apartamentul nostru este ntructva/puin mai ieftin dect al lor.
1.3.2.11. Superlativul absolut
Se formeaz cu adverbele: very (foarte), extremely (extrem de), quite (total, complet, cu totul), perfectly (perfect), extraordinary (extraordinar de), inconceivably (incredibil de), exceedingly (excesiv/nemaipomenit de), fantastically (fantastic
de), enormously/ immensely (enorm/imens de), tremendously/ awfully (ngrozitor/teribil de), infinitely (infinit de), terribly
(teribil de), terrifically (nfiortor de) etc.
awfully hot = ngrozitor/cumplit de cald
We are awfully sorry. = Ne pare nespus de ru
They have changed enormously. = Ei s-au schimbat enorm.
quite well = foarte bine
extremely well = extrem de bine
very well = foarte bine
exceedingly good = excesiv de bun
infinitely small = infinit/nemsurat de mic
exceedingly difficult = excesiv de greu, din cale afar de dificil
perfectly well = perfect de bine
a matchless playwright = un dramaturg fr pereche
terribly boring = teribil/nfiortor de plictisitor
quite right = perfect adevrat/just
enough - adjectiv
enough food = food enough = hran suficient/destul
to have money enough = to have enough money = a avea destui bani
enough - adverb de comparaie
I am warm enough. = mi este destul de cald.
The exercise is difficult enough. = Exerciiul este destul de greu.
What is good for you is good enough for me. = Ce este valabil pentru tine este perfect valabil i pentru mine.
Enough este singurul adverb de comparaie care st dup adjectivul pe care l determin.
This beer is good enough. = Berea aceasta este destul de bun.
1.3.2.12. Comparaia adjectivelor compuse
POZITIV

well-paid
bine pltit
good-looking
artos

COMPARATIV DE
SUPERIORITATE

SUPERLATIV RELATIV

better-paid
mai bine pltit
better-looking
mai artos

the best-paid
cel mai bine pltit
the best-looking
cel mai artos

21

SUPERLATIV
ABSOLUT

very well-paid
foarte bine pltit
very good-looking
foarte artos

sweet-natured

More sweet - natured

the most sweet -natured

bun la suflet
short-sighted
miop

mai bun la suflet


more short - sighted
mai miop

cel mai bun la suflet


the most short -sighted
cel mai miop

very sweet- natured


foarte bun la suflet
very short-sighted
foarte miop

John is a good/great deal more careful than Bill. = John este mult mai atent/prudent dect Bill.
Bill is a good/great deal less careful than John. = Bill este mult mai puin prudent dect John.
He is a little less careful than his brother. = El este puin mai puin prudent dect fratele lui.
He loves her more than I (do). = El o iubete pe ea mai mult dect o iubesc eu.
He loves her more than me. = El o iubete pe ea mai mult dect pe mine.
They know her better than I (do). = Ei o cunosc pe ea mai bine dect/ca mine.
They know her better than me. = Ei o cunosc pe ea mai bine dect pe mine.

1.4. PRONUMELE (THE PRONOUN)


Pronumele este partea de vorbire care nlocuiete un substantiv (o fiin, un obiect etc.).
1.4.1. Clasificare
1. Personale (the Personal Pronouns)
7. Reflexive (the Reflexive Pronouns)
2. Interogative (the Interrogative Pronouns)
8. Emfatice (the Emphatic Pronouns)
3. Relative (the Relative Pronouns)
9. Nehotrte (the Indefinite Pronouns)
4. Posesive (the Possessive Pronouns)
10. Reciproce (the Reciprocal Pronouns)
5. Demonstrative (the Demonstrative Pronouns)
6. Impersonale/Generale (the Impersonal/General Pronouns)
I = eu
you = tu
he = el, dnsul, dumnealui
she = ea, dnsa, dumneaei
it = el, ea

1.4.1.1. Pronumele personale (The Personal Pronouns)


we = noi
you = voi, dumneavoastr (dv.)
they = ei, ele, dnii, dnsele, dumnealor

1.4.1.2. Pronumele interogative (The Interrogative Pronouns)


N . who ? = cine ?
( N. = nominativ )
Who knows him ? = Cine l cunoate pe el ?
G . whose ? = al, a, ai, ale cui ? ( G. = genitiv )
Whose is this house, his or hers ? = A cui este aceast cas, a lui sau a ei ?
Whose is this little boy ? = Al cui este acest bieel ?
Whose is this little girl ? = A cui este acest feti ?
Whose are these books ? = Ale cui sunt aceste cri ?
Whose are these children ? = Ai cui sunt aceti copii ?
D . to whom ? = who (m)... to ? = cui ?, la cine ? ( D. = dativ)
To whom do you give this book ? = Who(m) do you give this book to? = Cui i dai aceast carte?
To whom are you referring ? = Who(m) are you referring to ? = La cine te referi?
To whom does the book belong ? = Who(m) does the book belong to ? = Cui i aparine cartea?
(to) me = mie
(to) us = nou
(to) you = ie
(to) you = vou
(to) him = lui
(to) them = lor, dnilor, dnilor/dnselor
(to) her = ei
(to) it = lui/ei
(to) my friend = prietenului meu (to) our friend = prietenului nostru
(to) your friend = prietenului tu (to) your friend = prietenului vostru
(to) his friend = prietenului lui
(to) their friend = prietenului lor
(to) her friend = prietenului ei
(to) my friends = prietenilor mei
I write my friends a letter=I write a letter to my friends=Eu scriu prietenilor mei o scrisoare=Scriu o scrisoare prietenilor
mei.
for whom ? = who(m) ... for ? = pentru cine ?
For whom must you buy the book? = Who(m) must you buy the book for? = Pentru cine trebuie s cumperi cartea ?

22

about whom ? = who(m) ... about ? = despre cine ?


They are talking about Jim. = Ei vorbesc/discut despre Jim.
Who(m) are they talking about ? = About whom are they talking ? = Despre cine vorbesc ei?
about me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = despre mine/tine/el/ea/noi/voi/ei/ele)
after whom ? = who(m) ... after ? = dup cine ?
Jim is running after them. = Jim alearg dup ei.
After whom is Jim running ? = Who(m) is Jim running after ? = Dup cine alearg Jim ?
(after me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = dup mine/tine/el/ea/noi/voi/ei/ele)
before whom? = who(m) ... before ? = n faa cui ? = naintea cui ?
He was sitting before us. = El edea n faa noastr.
Before whom was he sitting ? = n faa cui edea el ?
(before me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = naintea mea/ta/lui/ei/noastr/voastr/ lor
before my/your/his/her/our/your/their eyes = naintea ochilor mei/ ti/ lui/ ei/ notri/ votri/ lor)
behind whom? = who(m) ... behind ? = n spatele cui ?
He was sitting behind me. = El edea n spatele meu.
Behind whom was he sitting ? =Who(m) was he sitting behind ? = n spatele cui sttea el ?
beside whom? = who(m) ... beside ? = alturi de cine ?
Beside whom was he sitting? = Alturi de cine edea el ?
He was sitting beside me. = El edea alturi de mine.
(beside whose friend ? = alturi de prietenul cui ?
beside my friend = alturi de prietenul meu)
between whom? = who(m) ... between ? = ntre cine ?
between his (two) friends = ntre cei (doi) prieteni ai lui
between John and Nick = ntre John i Nick
beyond whom? = who(m) ... beyond ? = dincolo de cine ?
(beyond me = dincolo de mine
beyond us = dincolo de noi
beyond you = dincolo de tine
beyond you = dincolo de voi
beyond him/her/it = dincolo de el/ea
beyond them = dincolo de ei/ele)
by whom ? = who(m) ... by ? = de (ctre) cine ?
(by me = de mine
by us = de noi
by you = de tine
by you = de voi/dv.
by him/her/it = de el/ea
by them = de ei/ele)
by whose friend ? = de prietenul cui ?
(by my friend =de prietenul meu
by our friend = de prietenul nostru
by your friend = de prietenul tu
by your friend = de prietenul vostru
by his friend = de prietenul lui/su
by their friend = de prietenul lor
by her friend = de prietenul ei/su
by this boy's friend/by the friend of this boy = de prietenul acestui biat
by this girl's friend/by the friend of this girl = de prietenul acestei fete
by these boys' friend/by the friend of these boys = de prietenul acestor biei
by these girls' friend/by the friend of these girls = de prietenul acestor fete
by this boy's friends/by the friends of this boy = de prietenii acestui biat
by this girl's friends/by the friends of this girl = de prietenii acestei fete
by this boys' friends/by the friends of these boys = de prietenii acestor biei
by this girls' friends/by the friends of these girls = de prietenii acestor fete)
for whom? = who(m) for ? = pentru cine ?
For whom are you buying the book ? = Who(m) are you buying the book for? = Pentru cine cumperi (tu) cartea ?
(for me = pentru mine
for us = pentru noi
for you = pentru tine
for you = pentru voi
for him/her/it = pentru el/ea
for them = pentru ei/ele
for whose friend ? = pentru prietenul cui ?
For whose friend is John working ? = Pentru prietenul cui lucreaz John?
for my friend = pentru prietenul meu )
from whom ? = who(m) from ? = de la cine ?
from me = de la mine
from us = de la noi
from you = de la tine
from you = de la voi
from him/her/it = de la el/ea
from them = de la ei/ele
from whose friend ? = de la prietenul cui ? = de la al cui prieten?
(from my friend = de la prietenul meu)
near whom? = who(m) ...near ? = lng cine?

23

(near me = lng mine


near us = lng noi
near you = lng tine
near you = lng voi
near him/her/it = lng el/ea
near them = lng ei/ele)
John was sitting near this man's friend. = John edea lng prietenul acestui om.
Near whom was John sitting? = Who(m) was John sitting near ? = Lng cine edea John?
of whom ? = who(m) ...of ? = de cine ?; despre cine?
to get rid of somebody = a se descotorosi/scpa de cineva
I must get rid of that drunk man. = Trebuie s m descotorosesc de omul acela but/beat.
Who(m) must I get rid of ? = Of whom must I get rid ? = De cine trebuie s scap eu ?
on/upon whom? = who(m) ... on/upon ? = de cine ?
to depend on/upon = a depinde de
Our going on the trip depends on John. = Plecarea noastr n excursie depinde de John.
On/upon whom does our going on the trip depend ? = Who(m) does our going on the trip depend on/upon ? = De cine
depinde plecarea noastr n excursie ?
(on/upon me = de mine)
On/upon whose friend does our going on the trip depend ? = Whose friend does our going on the trip depend on/upon ?
= De prietenul cui depinde plecarea noastr n excursie ?
with whom? = who(m) ...with ? = cu cine ?
I am playing tennis with John. = Eu joc tenis cu John.
Who(m) am I playing tennis with ? = With whom am I playing tennis? = Cu cine joc eu tenis?
(with me = cu mine
with us = cu noi
with you = cu tine
with you = cu voi
with him/her/it = cu el/ea
with them = cu ei/ele)
with whose friend ? = cu prietenul cui ?
They are going on the trip with my friend. = Ei merg n excursie cu prietenul meu.
With whom are they going on the trip ? = Who(m) are they going on the trip with ? = Cu cine merg ei n excursie ?
with my friend = cu prietenul meu
without whom ? = fr cine ?
(without me = fr mine
without us = fr noi
without you = fr tine
without you = fr voi
without them = fr ei/ele)
without him/her/it = fr el/ea
without whose friend ? = fr prietenul cui ?
without my friend = fr prietenul meu
Whose friend were you there without ? = Fr prietenul cui ai fost acolo ?)
A . whom? = pe cine ? ( A. = acuzativ )
This is the boy whom I saw. = Acesta este biatul pe care l-am vzut eu.
I see John in the street. = l vd pe John pe strad.
Whom do I see in the street? = Pe cine vd eu pe strad ?
John sees me in the street. = John m vede pe mine pe strad.
Whom does John see in the street ? = Pe cine vede John pe strad ?
(me = pe mine
her = pe ea/dnsa
us = pe noi
you = pe tine
it = pe el/ea
you = pe voi
him = pe el/dnsul
them = pe ei/ele/)
John sees my friend in the street. = John l vede pe prietenul meu pe strad.
John sees my friend's brother in the street. = John l vede pe fratele prietenului meu pe strad.
what? = ce ?
What is this ? = Ce este acesta/aceasta ?
What are these ? = Ce sunt acetia/acestea ?
What is there on the table ? = Ce este pe mas ? = Ce se afl/gsete pe mas ?
What is your name ? = Cum te cheam ?
What time is it ? = Ct este ceasul ?
what kind/sort of ? = ce fel de ?
What kind/sort of man is he ? = Ce fel de om este el ?
What kind/sort of films do you like? = Ce fel de filme i plac?
1.4.1.3. Pronumele relative (The Relative Pronouns)

24

who = cine, care.


He does not know who must come to see us.= El nu tie cine trebuie s vin pe la noi.
I know the boy who can play tennis well. = Eu l tiu/cunosc pe biatul care tie s joace tenis bine.
whose = al cui, a cui, ai cui, ale cui.
We are playing with John's ball but we don't know whose they are playing with. = Noi ne jucm cu mingea lui John dar nu
tim cu a cui se joac ei.
to whom = who(m) ...to = cui
I don't know who(m) I shall give this book to. = Nu tiu cui s-i dau cartea aceasta.
Do you know who(m) he is referring to ? = tii la cine se refer el ?
whom = pe cine, pe care
I know whom you appreciate very much. = Eu tiu pe cine apreciezi tu foarte mult.
He could not guess whom he might see there. = Nu putea bnui pe cine va putea vedea acolo.
which = care, pe care
She has many books, but she doesn't know which she must read for the examination. = Ea are multe cri, dar nu tie pe
care trebuie s-o citeasc pentru examen.
Her house, of which roof is of tiles, was built five years ago. = Casa, al crei acoperi este de igl, a fost construit acum
cinci ani.
1.4.1.4. Pronumele posesive (The Possessive Pronouns)
mine = al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele.
John's friend is in Bucharest and mine is in Berlin. = Prietenul lui John este n Bucureti, iar al meu este n Berlin.
John's sister is in Bucharest and mine is in Berlin. = Sora lui John este n Bucureti, iar a mea este n Berlin.
John's friends are in Bucharest and mine are in Berlin. = Prietenii lui John sunt n Bucureti, iar ai mei sunt n Berlin.
John's sisters are in Bucharest and mine are in Berlin. = Surorile lui John sunt n Bucureti, iar ale mele sunt n Berlin.
yours = al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale.
My car is white and yours is blue. = Automobilul meu este alb, iar al tu este albastru.
My house is in the country and yours is in the town. = Casa mea este la ar, iar a ta este la ora.
My children are in the mountains and yours are at the seaside. = Copiii mei sunt la munte, iar ai ti sunt la mare.
Our daugthers are at school and yours are at the university. = Fiicele noastre sunt la coal, iar ale voastre sunt la universitate.
his = al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui
My friend is an engineer and his is an economist. = Prietenul meu este inginer, iar al lui este economist.
Our daughter is a school-girl and his is a student. = Fiica noastr este elev, iar a lui este student.
Her books are in English and his are in Romanian.= Crile ei sunt n englez, iar ale lui sunt n romn.
hers = al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei
My friend speaks French but hers doesn't. = Prietenul meu vorbete franuzete, dar al ei nu.
My sister works on a farm but hers doesn't. = Sora mea lucreaz la o ferm, dar a ei nu.
Our children are noisy but hers aren't. = Copiii notri sunt glgioi, iar ai ei nu (sunt).
Our books are old but hers aren't. = Crile noastre sunt vechi, dar ale ei nu (sunt).
ours = al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale noastre.
Your sister is Mary and ours is Beverly. = Sora voastr este Mary iar a noastr este Beverly.
Your boys play tennis but ours don't. = Bieii votri joac tenis, dar ai notri nu joac.
Your daughters read many books but ours don't. = Fiicele voastre citesc multe cri, ns/ dar ale noastre nu (citesc).
yours [yOz] = al tu, a ta , ai ti , ale tale
My friends live here , yours don't. = Prietenii mei locuiesc aici , ai ti nu.
theirs = al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor.
Our son is here but theirs isn't . = Fiul nostru este aici, dar al lor nu (este).
Our daughter is not here but theirs is. = Fiica noastr nu este aici, dar a lor este.
Our sons don't study German but theirs do. = Fiii notri nu studiaz germana, dar ai lor studiaz.
1.4.1.5. Pronumele demonstrative (The Demonstrative Pronouns)

25

this = acesta, aceasta


That book is yours and this (one) is mine. = Cartea aceea este a ta, iar aceasta este a mea.
that = acela, aceea
This book is mine and that (one) is yours. = Cartea aceasta este a mea, iar aceea este a ta.
these = acetia, acestea
Those books are mine and these (ones) are yours. = Crile acelea sunt ale mele, iar acestea sunt ale tale .
Those players are good but these (ones) are better. = Juctorii aceia sunt buni, dar acetia sunt mai buni.
those = aceia, acelea
These players are very good but those (ones) aren't. = Juctorii acetia sunt foarte buni, dar aceia nu sunt.
1.4.1.6. Pronumele impersonale (The Impersonal Pronouns)
one, you
One could work there. = S-ar putea lucra acolo. = Se putea lucra acolo.
You should always be careful when crossing the road. = S fii totdeauna atent la traversarea drumului.
One can learn a lot of things here. = Se pot nva o mulime de lucruri aici.
You should always behave decently. = Trebuie s te pori totdeauna decent.
1.4.1.7. Pronumele reflexive (The Reflexive Pronouns)
myself = m
ourselves = ne
yourself = te
yourselves = v
himself = se
themselves = se
herself =se
oneself = se
itself = se
Cu ajutorul pronumelorreflexive se formeaz diateza reflexiv a verbelor.
to enjoy oneself = a se distra
I enjoy myself = eu m distrez
De reinut c verbelor reflexive din limba romn nu le corespund totdeauna verbe reflexive n limba englez.
eu m mir/ntreb = I wonder ; verbul to wonder n limba englez nu este reflexiv.
1.4.1.8. Pronumele emfatice/ de ntrire (The Emphatic Pronouns)
myself = eu nsumi, personal, chiar eu
ourselves = noi nine, nsene, chiar noi
yourself = tu nsui, personal, chiar tu
yourselves = voi niv, nsev, chiar voi
himself = el nsui, personal, chiar el
themselves = ei nii, ele nsele, chiar ei/ele
herself = ea nsi, personal, chiar ea
I must do it myself = trebuie s-o fac eu nsumi
itself = el nsui, ea nsi, personal, chiar el/ea
1.4.1.9. Pronumele nehotrte (The Indefinite Pronouns)
another = alt, alt;
One man says yes, another says no. = Un om zice da, altul zice nu.
each = fiecare
We received two books each. = Am primit cte dou cri fiecare.
each of us/you/them = fiecare dintre noi/voi/ei/ele
the other = cellalt, cealalt, ceilali, celelalte
John likes this book but I like the other (one). = Lui John i place cartea aceasta, ns mie mi place cealalt.
John likes this book but I prefer the other (one). = Lui John i place cartea aceasta, dar eu o prefer pe cealalt.
others = alii, altele
Others know better than you. = Alii tiu mai bine ca/dect tine.
the others = ceilali, celelalte
The others did not come by bus. = Ceilali n-au venit cu autobuzul.
I do not see the others. = Eu nu-i vd pe ceilali. = Eu nu le vd pe celelalte.
one = unul, una, un, o; se
You do not have any book but I have one. = Tu nu ai nici o carte, dar eu am una.
Can you tell one from the other ? = l poi deosebi pe unul de cellalt ?
My neighbours have two sons whom everybody admires ; I admire one's common sense and the other's diligence. =
Vecinii mei au doi fii pe care i admir toat lumea; eu admir bunul sim al unuia i hrnicia celuilalt.
He is considered as one of the family. = El este considerat drept unul de-al familiei/casei.
one of us/you/them = unul/una dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.
all = tot, toat, toi, toate; totul
He must tell you all or nothing. = El trebuie s-i spun tot sau nimic.
I cannot buy it all. = Nu pot s-l/s-o cumpr tot/toat.

26

All he wants is money. = Tot ce vrea el sunt banii.


all of us/you/them = we/you/they all = noi/voi/ei toi/ele toate .
either = oricare din doi/dou
You may buy either. = l /O poi cumpra pe oricare.
either of us = oricare din /dintre noi doi/dou
either of you = oricare din /dintre voi doi/dou
either of them = oricare din /dintre ei/ele doi/dou).
Neither = nici unul, nici una, nici un, nici o (din doi/dou)
One can see neither. = Nu se poate vedea nici unul/una.
neither of us/you/them = nici unul/una din(tre) noi/voi/ei/ele.
both = ambii, ambele, amndoi, amndou
You may read either of them - both are interesting. = Le poi citi pe oricare din ele - ambele sunt interesante.
both of us/you/them = noi/voi/ei doi/amndoi, noi/voi/ele dou/amndou.
several = mai muli/multe, civa, cteva
You can see many books on the table, but several are mine. = Poi vedea multe cri pe mas, dar cteva sunt ale mele.
several of us/you/them = civa/cteva dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.
few = puini, puine
I only found few. = Am gsit doar puini/puine .
few of us/you/them = puini/puine dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.
a few = puini/destui, puine/destule
I have found a few. = Am gsit destui/destule.
quite a few = a good few = foarte muli/multe
I have found quite a few. = Am gsit un mare numr. = Am gsit foarte muli/multe.
little = puin, puin, mic, mic.
I have done little for them. = Am fcut puin pentru ei/ele.
The little of what I've done, matters a lot. = Puinul din ct/ce am fcut eu, conteaz mult.
Your house is big, but mine is a little one. = Casa ta este mare, ns a mea este mic.
How are your little ones? = Ce fac cei mici ai ti?
a little [\ `litl] = puin /destul/ceva, puin/destul/ceva
You only have little tea but I have a little. = Tu ai doar/numai puin ceai, ns eu am ceva/ctva.
much [m{t~] = mult, mult
You have got little tea but I have got much. = Tu ai puin ceai, ns eu am mult.
many [meni] = muli, multe
many of us/you/them = muli dintre noi/voi/ei, multe dintre ele
You have only got few books but I've got many. = Tu ai doar puine cri, ns eu am multe.
some = nite, unii, unele, ceva, puin, puin, civa, cteva.
Some are good and some are bad. = Unele sunt bune, iar altele sunt rele. Unii sunt buni, iar alii sunt ri.
any = orice, fiece, oricare, ; nici unul, nici una.
He doesn't like any. = Lui nu-i place oricare. = Lui nu-i place nici unul/una.
You've got much money, but I haven't got any. = Tu ai bani muli, dar eu n-am nici sfan. = Tu ai bani muli, dar eu nu am
deloc.
somebody = cineva ; cineva ?
I can see somebody at the gate. = Pot s vd pe cineva la poart .
Do you see somebody ? = Vezi pe cineva ?
anybody
A. = oricine - I can ask anybody. = Pot ntreba pe oricine.
I. = cineva - Do you see anybody ? = Vezi pe cineva ?
N. = nimeni - I cannot ask anybody. = Nu pot ntreba pe nimeni.
nobody = nimeni
I see nobody. = Nu vd pe nimeni.
something = ceva ; ceva?
I see something. = Vd ceva.
Do you see something ? = Vezi ceva ? (Cnd rspunsul este afirmativ).
anything
= orice - I buy anything.= Cumpr orice.
= orice?; ceva? - Are you going to buy anything? = Ai de gnd s cumperi ceva/orice?
= orice ; nimic - I'm not going to buy anything. = N-am de gnd s cumpr nimic.
nothing = nimic
I bought nothing. = Nu am cumprat nimic.
someone [`s{mw{n] = careva, cineva
You must ask someone. = Trebuie s ntrebi pe careva.

27

anyone
= oricare - You may/can ask anyone. = Poi ntreba pe careva/ oricine.
= oricare? - Can I ask anyone? = Pot ntreba pe oricare/careva?
= oricare - I cannot ask anyone. = Nu pot ntreba pe oricare/ nimeni.
no one = nobody = nimeni;
none= not one/any = nici unul/una
You can ask no one. = Nu poi ntreba pe nimeni.
everybody = toi, toat lumea, fiecare
I saw everybody laughing. = I-am vzut pe toi rznd.
everything = totul, tot
He can understand everything. = Poate nelege tot.
somebody else = altcineva
I see somebody else. = Vd pe altcineva.
anybody else
= oricine altcineva - Give it to anybody else! = D-i-o oricui altcuiva !
= oricine altcineva ? - Could you play with anybody else? = Puteai juca cu oricine altcineva ?
= nimeni altcineva - I was not seen by anybody else. = N-am fost vzut de nimeni altcineva.
nobody else = nimeni altcineva
Nobody else can do it. = Nimeni altcineva n-o poate face.
something else = altceva
We must buy something else. = Trebuie s cumprm altceva.
anything else = orice altceva:
They may do anything else. = Ei pot face orice altceva.
nothing else = nimic altceva
I saw nothing else. = N-am vzut nimic altceva.
1.4.1.10. Pronumele reciproce (Reciprocal Pronoun)
each other = unul pe cellalt (dou persoane)
The two neighbours help each other. = Cei doi vecini se ajut unul pe cellalt.
one another = unul pe cellalt (minimum trei persoane)
The three brothers help one another. = Cei trei frai se ajut unul pe cellalt.
1.4.2. Declinarea pronumelui personal
n schema care urmeaz este inclus i cazul genitiv dei pronumele personal n cazul genitiv este pronume posesiv, nu personal.

N.
G.
D.
A.

N.
G.
D.
A.

I = eu
my = meu
mine = al meu
(to) me = mie
me = pe mine

you = tu
your = tu
yours = al tu
(to) you = tie
you = pe tine

we = noi
our = nostru
ours = al nostru
(to) us = nou
us = pe noi

he = el
his = lui
his = al lui
(to) him = lui
him = pe el

numrul singular
she = ea
it = el/ea
her = ei
its = lui/ei
hers = al ei its = al lui/ei
(to) her = ei (to) it = lui/ei
her = pe ea it = pe el/ea

numrul plural
you = voi/dv.
they = ei/ele, dnii/dnsele
your = vostru/dv.
their = lor, dnilor/dnselor
yours = al vostru/dv.
theirs = al lor, al dnilor/dnselor
(to) you = vou/dv.
(to) them = lor, dnilor/dnselor
you = pe voi/dv.
them = pe ei/ele, pe dnii/ dnsele

1.5. NUMERALUL (THE NUMERAL)


Este partea de vorbire prin care se exprim un numr de obiecte/fiine etc. sau ordinea acestora.
1. cardinale (Cardinal Numerals)
2. colective (Collective Numerals)
3. ordinale (Ordinal Numerals)
4. distributive (Distributive Numerals)

1.5.1. Clasificare
5. fracionare (Fractional Numerals)
6. adverbiale (Adverbial Numerals)
7. multiplicative (Multiplicative Numerals)
8. nehotrte (Indefinite Numerals)

28

1.5.1.1. Numeralul cardinal (The Cardinal Numeral)


Exprim un numr exact/ntreg de obiecte sau fiine ncepnd de la zero ctre plus sau minus infinit.
La telefon zero/0 se pronun ca litera O [\u], la tenis se spune love (all), n tiine se folosete cuvntul zero.
Cnd ne referim la ani exprimm: 1907 = nineteen oh seven.
Exprimarea temperaturii se realizeaz astfel: 0 se pronun zero
-10 = ten degrees below zero.
Cnd se exprim scorul la jocurile de fotbal 0 se pronun nil [nil] sau nothing.
La tenis: Nstase leads by two sets to love. (2 - 0) = Nstase conduce cu dou seturi la zero.
Numerele de telefon (Telephone Numbers) se scriu cu spaii ntre grupele de cifre.
e.g. 04 662 5142
0 n numerele telefonice se pronun [\u]. Numerele se rostesc separat, iar cifrele duble se rostesc folosindu-se cuvntul double
01 223 456 = oh one double two three four five six . = zero unu doi doi trei patru cinci ase.
Cifre triple (Triple/Treble Figures) : 7 555 = seven five double five = apte cinci cinci cinci.
Un numr ca 5555 se rostete : double five double five
1 one [w{n] = unu, una
11 eleven [i`levn] = unsprezece
12 twelve [twelv] = doisprezece
2 two [tU] = doi, dou
3 three [SrI] = trei
13 thirteen [`S|`tIn] = treisprezece
4 four [fO] = patru
14 fourteen [`fO`tIn]= paisprezece
5 five [faiv] = cinci
15 fifteen[`fif`tIn] = cincisprezece
6 six [siks] = ase
16 sixteen [`siks`tIn] = aisprezece
7 seven [`sevn] = apte
17seventeen [`sevn`tIn] = aptesprezece
8 eight [eit] = opt
18 eighteen [`ei`tIn] = optsprezece
9 nine [nain] = nou
19 nineteen [`nain`tIn] = nousprezece
10 ten [ten] = zece
20 twenty [`twenti] = douzeci
21 twenty-one = douzeci i unu/una 40 forty [`fOti] = patruzeci
22 twenty-two = douzeci i doi/dou 50 fifty [`fifti] = cincizeci
23 twenty-three=douzeci i trei
60 sixty [`siksti] = aizeci
24 twenty-four = douzeci i patru
70 seventy [`sevnti] = aptezeci
25 twenty-five = douzeci i cinci
80 eighty[`eiti] = optzeci
90 ninety [`nainti] = nouzeci
26 twenty-six = douzeci i ase
27 twenty-seven = douzeci i apte 100 one hundred [h{ndr\d] = o sut
28 twenty-eight = douzeci i opt
101 one hundred and one = o sut unu
102 one hundred and two = o sut doi
29 twenty-nine = douzeci i nou
30 thirty [`S|ti] = treizeci
125 one hundred and twenty five = o sut douzeci i cinci
200 two hundred = dou sute
257 two hundred and fifty seven = dou sute cincizeci i apte
1,000 one thousand = o mie
1,066 ten sixty six = one thousand and sixty six = o mie aizeci i ase
2,567 two thousand five hundred and sixty seven =dou mii cinci sute aizeci i apte
10,000 ten thousand = zece mii
100,000 one hundred thousand = o sut de mii
123,547 one hundred and twenty three thousand five hundred and forty seven = o sut douzeci i trei de mii cinci sute
patruzeci i apte
1,000,000 one million = un milion = 1.000.000
2,000,000 two million = dou milioane = 2.000.000
1,000,000,000 one milliard/billion = un miliard = 1.000.000.000
3,000,000,000 three milliard/billion = trei miliarde = 3.000.000.000
1,000,000,000,000 one trillion = un trilion = 1.000.000.000.000
1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion = un catralion
1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion = un chintilion
1.5.1.2. Numeralul ordinal ( The Ordinal Numeral)
1st the first [f|st] = primul, prima
2nd the second [`sek\nd] = al doilea, a doua
3rd the third [S|d] = al treilea, a treia
4th the fourth [fOS] = al patrulea, a patra
5th the fifth [fifS] = al cincilea, a cincea

29

6th the sixth [siksS] = al aselea, a asea


7th the seventh [`sevnS] = al aptelea, a aptea
8th the eighth [eitS] = al optulea, a opta
9th the ninth [nainS] = al noulea, a noua
10th the tenth [tenS] = al zecelea, a zecea
11th the eleventh [i`levnS] = al unsprezecelea, a unsprezecea
12th the twelfth [`twelfS] = al doisprezecelea, a dousprezecea
13th the thirteenth [`S|`tInS]= al treisprezecelea, a treisprezecea
14th the fourteenth [`fO`tInS]= al paisprezecelea, a paisprezecea
15th the fifteenth [`fif`tInS] = al cincisprezecelea, a cincisprezecea
16th the sixteenth [`siks`tInS] = al aisprezecelea, a aisprezecea
17th the seventeenth [`sevn`tInS] = al aptesprezecelea, a aptesprezecea
18th the eighteenth [`ei`tInS] = al optsprezecelea, a optsprezecea
19th the nineteenth [`nain`tInS] = al nousprezecelea, a nousprezecea
20th the twentieth [`twenti\S]= al douzecilea, a douzecea
21st the twenty first = al douzeci i unulea, a douzeci i una
22nd the twenty second = al douzeci i doilea, a douzeci i doua
23rd the twenty third = al douzeci i treilea, a douzeci i treia
24th the twenty fourth = al douzeci i patrulea, a douzeci i patra
25th the twenty fifth = al douzeci i cincilea, a douzeci i cincea
26th the twenty sixth = al douzeci i aselea, a douzeci i asea
27th the twenty seventh = al douzeci i aptelea, a douzeci i aptea
28th the twenty eighth = al douzeci i optulea, a douzeci i opta
29th the twenty ninth = al douzeci i noulea, a douzeci i noua
30th the thirtieth [`S|tiiS/`S|ti\S] = al treizecilea, a treizecea
40th the fortieth [`fOtiiS `fOti\S] = al patruzecilea, a patruzecea
50th the fiftieth [`fiftiiS `fifti\S] = al cincizecilea, a cincizecea
60th the sixtieth [`sikstiiS `siksti\S] = al aizecilea, a aizecea
70th the seventieth [`sevntiiS `sevnti\S] = al aptezecilea, a aptezecea
80th the eightieth [`eitiiS `eiti\S] = al optzecilea, a optzecea
90th the ninetieth [`naintiiS `nainti\S]= al nouzecilea, a nouzecea
100th the one hundredth [`h{ndr\dS `h{ndridS] = al o sutlea, a o suta
101st the one hundred and first = al o sut unulea , a o sut una
102nd the one hundred and second = al o sut doilea, a o sut doua
which? = al ctelea, a cta, ai ctelea, ale ctelea?
Which boy is John ? = Al ctelea biat este John ?
Which girl is Jane ? = A cta fat este Jane ?
Which boat is theirs ? = A cta barc este a lor ?
I know which he is. = Eu tiu al ctelea este el.
Do you know which she is ? = tii tu a cta este ea ?
quarter = a fourth (and twenty three = nou supra cinci sute douzeci i trei; 4.53 = four point five three = 4,53 = patru
virgul cincizeci i trei
1.5.1.3. Numeralul fracionar (The Fractional Numeral)
1.5.1.3.1. Fracia (The Fraction) - ordinar (Vulgar)- zecimal (Decimal)
= a/one half (o doime); = a/one third (o treime); = a/one quarter = a fourth (un sfert); = three fourths = three quarters
(trei ptrimi, apte; = nine over five hundred and twenty three = nou supra cinci sute douzeci i trei; 4.53 = four point
five three = 4,53 = patru virgul cincizeci i trei
1.5.1.3.2. Semnele matematice
+ plus = and = plus; empty set= mulime vid; minus = minus; pi [ pai ] = 3,14; multiplied = nmulit; angle = unghi
: divided by = mprit la; ' = minute = minut; " = second = secund; = equal to = egal cu; = not equal to = neegal cu,
diferit de; log = logarithm = logaritm; < less than = mai mic dect/ca; integral (of) = integral; > more than = mai mare
dect/ca;
triangle = triunghi; less than or equal to = mai mic sau egal cu; infinity = infinit; more than or equal to = mai mare sau egal
cu; square root = rdcin ptrat; ll = parallel to = paralel cu; perpendicular to = perpendicular pe; % = Percentage Sign =
la sut (procent); 5 % = five per cent = cinci la sut = 5 la sut; 5.5 % = five point five per cent = cinci virgul cinci la sut.
% = five and a half per cent = cinci i jumtate la sut

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1.5.1.3.3. Operaiunile aritmetice (Arithmetical operations)


2 + 2 = 4 two plus/and two makes/equals/is/are four = doi plus doi fac patru
10 - 2 = 8 ten minus two makes/equals eight = zece minus/fr doi fac opt
5 x 5 = 25 Five times five makes/is twenty-five. = Five multiplied by five equals (25) twenty-five. = Five fives is twentyfive. = Cinci ori cinci fac dou- zeci i cinci.
4 x 3 = 12 se citete: Four threes are twelve . = Three fours are twelve. = Patru ori trei fac doisprezece.
25 : 5 = 5 Five into twenty five makes/equals five. = Twenty-five divided by five is five. = Douzeci i cinci mprit la cinci
fac cinci.
1.5.1.3.4. Exprimarea datei (Dates)
Se realizeaz cu ajutorul numeralelor ordinale i cardinale.
February 14th, 1989 = 14th February 1989 = the fourteenth of February 1989 =14.2.1989 = 14 februarie 1989 =14-II1989
In limba englez american data apare astfel: February 14, 1989, deci numele lunii se scrie naintea numrului zilei.
What date is it today? = n ct este astzi?
What day is it today? = Ce zi este astzi?
Today is Sunday. = Astzi este duminic.
On Monday I'll go to Cetate. = Luni voi merge la Cetate.
44 B.C. (Before Christ) = 44 nainte de Cristos, 44 naintea erei noastre
A.D. 105 = A.D. one hundred oh five . (A.D. = Anno Domini = in the year of Lord) = 105 era noastr = 105 dup Cristos.
1.5.1.3.5. Lunile anului (The Months of the Year)
January (Jan.) = ianuarie; February (Feb.) = februarie; March (Mar.) = martie; April (Apr.) = aprilie; May = mai; June =
iunie; July = iulie; August = august; September (Sept.) = septembrie; October (Oct.) = octombrie; November (Nov.) =
noiembrie; December (Dec.) = decembrie
1.5.1.3.6. Zilele sptmnii (The days of the Week)
Sunday (Sun.) = duminic; Monday (Mon.) = luni; Tuesday (Tue.) = mari; Wednesday (Wed.) = miercuri; Thursday
(Thurs.) = joi; Friday (Fri.) = vineri; Saturday (Sat.) = smbt
n limba englez, zilele i lunile anului se scriu numai cu majuscul.
1.5.1.4. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral)
Conine o mulime exprimat printr-un singular.
couple = cuplu ; team = echip; pair = pereche; dozen = duzin; score = douzeci; polgross = 12 duzini; a couple of cherries = dou ciree; to walk in pairs = a se plimba perechi; a pair of shoes = o pereche de pantofi; half a score = zece; a pair
of trousers = o pereche de pantaloni; two score years = patruzeci de ani; I've met many happy pairs. = Am ntlnit multe
perechi fericite.
1.5.1.5. Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numerals)
double = twofold = dublu = ndoit
tenfold = nzecit
triple = threefold = triplu
a hundredfold = nsutit
fourfold = mptrit
a thousandfold = nmiit
once = o dat
ten times = de zece ori
twice = de dou ori
fifty times = de cincizeci de ori
thrice = de trei ori
a hundred times = de o sut de ori
four times = de patru ori
a thousand times = de o mie de ori
five times = de cinci ori
He has a suitcase with a double bottom. = El are un geamantan cu fund dublu.
1.5.1.6. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral)
one at a time = cte unul o dat
one by one = unul cte unul
two at a time = cte doi o dat
two by two, by twos = doi cte doi
three at a time = cte trei o dat
three by three, by threes = trei cte trei
four at a time = cte patru o dat
four by four, by fours = patru cte patru
five at a time = cte cinci o dat
five by five, by fives = cinci cte cinci
by the dozen = la duzin
one hundred at a time = o sut o dat, cte o sut
ten at a time = zece o dat, cte zece
every other minute = din dou n dou minute

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every other hour = hourly = din dou n dou ore = la fiecare dou ore
every three hours = din trei n trei ore = la trei ore o dat
every five hours = din cinci n cinci ore, la interval de cinci ore
I see groups of five children. = Vd grupuri de cte cinci copii.
1.5.1.7. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral)
once = o dat
firstly = n primul rnd
twice = de dou ori
ten times = de zece ori
secondly = n al doilea rnd
four times = de patru ori
three times = de trei ori
thirdly = n al treilea rnd
They would go swimming three times a week. = Mergeau s noate de trei ori pe sptmn.
1.5.1.8. Numeralul nehotrt (The Indefinite Numeral)
a number of = un numr de
tens of = zeci de
a lot of = o mulime/grmad de
hundreds of = sute de
lots of = many = muli, multe
thousands of = mii de
Lots of people are walking in the park. = Muli oameni se plimb prin parc.
Tens of people are swimming in the lake. = Zeci de oameni noat n lac.
1.5.1.9. Exprimarea orei
Ct este ceasul/ora? (What time is it?, What's the time?)
minute = minut
quarter = sfert
half = jumtate
watch = ceas de mn
past = i
clock = ceas de perete
to = fr
face = cadran
long hand = orar
alarm clock = ceas detepttor
short hand = minutar
second hand = secundar
It is five (minutes) past twelve. = Este doisprezece i cinci (minute).
It is ten (minutes) past twelve. = Este doisprezece i zece (minute).
It is a quarter past twelve. = Este doisprezece i un sfert.
It is half past twelve. = Este doisprezece i jumtate.
It is a quarter to one. = Este unu fr un sfert.
It is ten (minutes) to one. = Este unu fr zece (min.).
It is two o'clock. = Este ora dou.
it is fast = grbete, o ia nainte, merge nainte
it is slow = ntrzie, rmne/merge n urm
My watch is five minutes slow. = Ceasul meu merge/rmne cu cinci minute n urm.
Your watch is five minutes fast. =Ceasul tu o ia nainte cu cinci minute.
My watch keeps a good time. = Ceasul meu merge bine.
His watch goes wrong. = Ceasul lui merge greit/prost.
1.5.1.10. Uniti de msur (Measures)
1 inch (in.) = 2,54 cm = 1/36 yard = 1/12 foot
1 furlong= 10 chains = 200,11 m
12 inches = 1 foot = 30,48 cm = 0,3048 m
1 rod = 5,029 m
3 feet (ft.) = 1 yard = 91 cm = 0,91 m = 1 yd
1 league = 3 miles
1 mile = 1,760 yards = 1609,35 m
1 fanthom= 6 feet = 1,82 m
1 mile = 80 chains
1 cable = 608 feet = 185,31 m
1 link = 7.92 inches = 20,1168 cm
1 sea mile = 6,080 feet = 1851,85 m
1 chain = 100 links = 20,1168 m
1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts = 8 pints - England = 4,544 litres ; United States = 3,784 litres

1.6. VERBUL (THE VERB)


Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprim o aciune, o activitate sau un proces i are urmtoarele categorii gramaticale:

32

timp, aspect, numr, persoan, diatez i mod. Timpul verbului este categoria gramatical prin care se precizeaz momentul
desfurrii aciunii. Exist trei timpuri de baz: prezent, trecut i viitor. Aspectul exprim gradul de ndeplinire a aciunii. n
limba englez exist dou aspecte:
a) - aspectul comun, prin care se exprim o aciune general, o aciune terminat sau o aciune de scurt durat.
I play tennis. = Eu joc tenis (n general sau de obicei).
b) - aspectul continuu, care exprim o aciune n desfurare - deci o aciune neterminat.
I am playing tennis. = Joc tenis (acum).
Diateza realizeaz relaia dintre subiect i complementul direct. Exist trei diateze: activ, pasiv i reflexiv.
n cazul diatezei active aciunea subiectului se ndreapt asupra complementului direct.;
The boy is reading the lesson. = Biatul citete lecia.
n cadrul diatezei pasive aciunea svrit de subiectul logic se rsfrnge asupra subiectului gramatical.
The lesson is read by the boy. = Lecia este citit de biat.
Din exemplul de mai sus se observ c n limba englez diateza pasiv se formeaz cu verbul auxiliar to be plus participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat (adic a III-a form de baz a verbului de conjugat). Verbul to be se conjug, iar verbul
de conjugat la participiul trecut nu-i modific forma.
La diateza reflexiv aciunea se rsfrnge asupra autorului ei, adic asupra subiectului.
The cat washes itself. = Pisica se spal.
Modul este categoria gramatical a verbului prin care se precizeaz felul aciunii i anume dac aciunea este real, sigur,
ireal, probabil, posibil, imposibil.
n limba englez exist patru moduri personale (Finite Forms) i trei moduri nepersonale (Non - Finite Forms).

Indicative - are toate timpurile


PERSONALE
Subjunctive - prezent, past i past perfect
Conditional - prezent i perfect
Imperative - prezent
Infinitive - prezent i perfect

MODURI
NEPERSONALE

Participle - prezent, past i perfect


Gerund - prezent i perfect

1.6.1. Clasificarea verbelor


INFINITIV PREZENT
1. auxiliare

2.

modale

to be
to have
to do
shall
will
to let
can (to be able to)
may (to be permitted / allowed to)

TRECUT
SIMPLU
was / were
had
did
should
would
let
could
might

PARTICIPIU
TRECUT
been
had
done
let
-

must (to have to) (to be obliged to)

(must)

shall

should

will

would

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= a fi
= a avea
= a face
= trebuie s
= a vrea
= a lsa
= a putea, a ti
= a avea voie s =
(a-i fi permis s)
= trebuie,
(a trebui s) =
(a fi obligat s)
= a trebui s,
a se cuveni s
= a dori, a vrea

3. principale

regulate

ought to
dare
need
to be to
to ask
to like
to answer
to use
etc.
to go

(ought to)
need
was, were to
used to
asked
liked
answered
used

been to
asked
liked
answered
used

- went

- gone

= a merge

to see
etc.
shall
will
can

- saw

- seen

= a vedea

= ar trebui s
= a ndrzni
= obinuia s
= a urma s
= obinuia s
= a ntreba
= a-i plcea
= a rspunde
= a ntrebuina

neregulate

4. auxiliar
- modale

should
would
could etc.

Verbele auxiliare ajut celelalte verbe s-i formeze aspectul continuu, diateza pasiv, timpurile compuse, unele moduri.
Ele devin instrumente gramaticale pierzndu-i sensul lexical.
Eu am o carte = Eu posed o carte.
n exemplul de mai sus verbul am (a avea) n limba romn este verb principal, dar n exemplul: Eu am citit o carte, verbul am este auxiliar, cci ajut verbul citit s-i formeze timpul perfect compus. Este clar c nu putem spune: Eu posed citit o
carte, n care verbul a poseda s fie sinonim cu verbul a avea.
Verbele modale dau verbelor principale mpreun cu care se folosesc nuane lexicale speciale. n exemplul I must go.
= Eu trebuie s merg, verbul must exprim obligaia efecturii aciunii. Verbul can implic nuana capabilitii i permisiunii,
iar verbul may ideea de permisiune i posibilitate.
He may come. = El poate veni. = Lui i este permis s vin.
He can speak English. = El tie/poate vorbi englezete;
Verbele modale se mai numesc defective cci nu au forme proprii fie pentru infinitiv prezent, fie pentru trecut, fie
pentru participiul trecut, situaie n care se nlocuiesc cu sinonimele lor. Ele nu au particula infinitival to i nu folosesc
aceast particul dup ele (excepii: used to, ought to). Ca i verbele auxiliare ele formeaz interogativul schimbndu-i locul
cu subiectul propoziiei. Verbele auxiliare i modale din limba englez au i forme prescurtate/contrase. Unii gramaticieni includ
verbele auxiliare i modale ntr-o singur categorie - aceea de verbe speciale. Ele formeaz negativul prin simpla adugare a
negaiei not dup ele i interogativul schimbndu-i locul cu subiectul n propoziie.
Verbele can, may, must, ought to, dare, need i used to sunt auxiliare n ntrebrile disjunctive.
I cannot go. = Eu nu pot merge.
I am not at home. = Eu nu sunt acas.
Verbele auxiliare i modale contribuie la formarea ntrebrilor disjunctive (Tag/Tail Questions), cele care se traduc n
limba romn prin nu-i aa ?, aa-i ?
You are at home, aren't you ? = Eti acas, nu-i aa ?
You are not at home, are you ? = Nu eti acas, nu-i aa ?
He learns English, doesn't he ? = nva englezete, nu-i aa ?
Tot ele particip la formularea rspunsurilor scurte ale ntrebrilor generale. ntrebrile generale sunt cele care pot primi
rspunsuri scurte: da, nu.
"Are they at home " ? "Yes"; "Yes, they are". = Sunt ei acas ? Da. ; Da, sunt.
Particip la completarea structurii and so...
"They are in the park"."And so are we". = Ei sunt n parc. i noi.
"Paul can speak English"."And so can Alice". "And so can we". = Paul tie s vorbeasc englezete. i Alice (tie). i noi
(tim).
"Paul cannot ski". "Neither can we". = "We can't either". = Paul nu tie s schieze. Nici noi (nu tim).
"They saw the house". "But I didn't". = Ei au vzut casa. Dar/ns eu nu. Dar eu n-am vzut-o.
Verbele auxiliare i cele modale, mult folosite n vorbire, se ntlnesc i n limbajul care exprim o surpriz (mai ales neplcut).
"He won't come with us". = El nu va veni cu noi.
"Oh, he won't, won't he" ? = Zu (dom'le) ? = Chiar aa ?
"John can't give you the money today". "Oh, he can't, can't he" ?= John nu-i poate da banii astzi.- Nu mai spune !; Cum
aa ?; Zu dom'le ?
Verbele modale, ca i verbele auxiliare, nu primesc terminaia s la persoana a III-a singular i nu au aspectul continuu.
1.6.2. Modurile personale ale verbelor

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1.6.2.1. Modul indicativ


Este modul aciunilor reale i cuprinde toate timpurile.
1.6.2.1.1. TIMPUL PREZENT (THE PRESENT TENSE)
Este forma I de baz a verbelor. Exprim aciuni generale repetate, stri, un obicei prezent etc. Se folosete i n propoziiile condiionale de tipul I. Normal timpul prezent coincide cu momentul vorbirii.
Uneori, prezentul simplu se poate referi la viitor: Tommorow is Ann's birthday. = Mine este ziua de natere a Anei.
A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA INDICATIV PREZENT
TO BE = a fi
( A = afirmativ, N = negativ, I = interogativ )
A || I am = I'm= eu sunt = eu s
you are = you're = tu eti
he/she/it is = he's/she's/it's = el/ea este = el/ea e
we are = we're = noi suntem
you are= you're = voi suntei
they are = they're = ei/ele sunt
I ||
am I ? = eu sunt ?
are we? = noi suntem ?
are you? =voi suntei ?
are you ? = tu eti ?
is he/she/it? = el/ea este ?
are they? =ei/ele sunt
?

N ||

I am not = I aren't = eu nu sunt


you are not = you aren't = tu nu eti
he/she/it is not= he/she/it isn't = el/ea nu este
we are not = we aren't = noi nu suntem
you are not = you aren't = voi nu suntei
they are not = they aren't = ei /ele nu sunt

I-N
am I not ? = aren't I ? = nu sunt eu ?= eu nu-s ?
are you not ? = aren't you ? = nu eti tu ?
is he/she/it not ? = isn't he/she/it ? = nu este el/ea ?
are we not ? = aren't we ? = nu suntem noi ?
are you not ? = aren't you ? = nu suntei voi ?
are they not ? = aren't they ? = nu sunt ei/ele ?

Funciile verbului TO BE
1. a) verb auxiliar pentru formarea aspectului continuu : I am reading. = Eu citesc (acum).
b) verb auxiliar pentru formarea diatezei pasive
I am seen. = Eu sunt vzut.
2. verb modal: to be to = a urma/trebui s = a fi s;
I am to read. = Trebuie/urmeaz s citesc.
3. verb principal - atunci cnd este urmat de un adverb de loc; We are at home. = Noi suntem acas.
They are in the park. = Ei/Ele sunt n parc.
TO HAVE = a avea
I have = I've = I have got [got] = I've got = eu am
you have = you've = you have got = you've got = tu ai
he/she/it has = he's/she's/it's = he/she/it has got = he's/she's/it's got = el/ea are
we have = we've = we have got = we've got = noi avem
you have = you've = you have got = you've got = voi avei
they have = they've = they have got = they've got = ei/ele au
N ||
I have not (I haven't) = I have not (haven't) got = eu nu am
you have not (you haven't) = you have not (haven't) got = tu nu ai
he/she/it has not (he/she/it hasn't) = he/she/it has not (hasn't) got = el/ea nu are
we have not (we haven't) = we have not (haven't) got = noi nu avem
you have not (you haven't) = you have not (haven't) got = voi nu avei
they have not (they haven't) = they have not (haven't) got = ei/ele nu au
sau
I do not have = I don't have = eu nu am
you do not have = you don't have = tu nu ai
he/she/it does not have = he/she/it doesn't have = el/ea nu are
we do not have = we don't have = noi nu avem
you do not have = you don't have = voi nu avei
they do not have = they don't have = ei/ele nu au
I ||
have I? = have I got? = do I have? = eu am ? = am e ?
have you? = have you got? = do you have ? = tu ai ? = ai tu?
has he/she/it? = has he/she/it got? = does he/she/it have? = el/ea are?
have we? = have we got? = do we have? = noi avem? = avem noi?
have you? = have you got? = do you have? = voi avei? = avei voi?
A ||

35

have they? = have they got? = do they have? = ei/ele au? = au ei/ele?
I - N ||
have I not? = haven't I? = have I not (haven't I) got? = do I not (don't I) have? = eu nu am? = eu n-am ? = nu am eu ?
have you not? =haven't you? =have you not (haven't you) got? =do you not (don't you) have? = tu nu ai= tu n-ai? =nu ai tu
?
has he/she/it not ? = hasn't he/she/it? = has he/she/it not (hasn't he/she/it) got? = does he/she/it not (doesn't he/she/it)
have ? = el/ea nu are ? = nu are el/ea ?
have we not? =haven't we? = have we not (haven't we) got? = do we not (don't we) have ? = noi nu avem ? = noi n-avem ?
= nu avem noi ?
have you not ? = haven't you ? = have you not (haven't you) got ? = do you not (don't you) have ?= voi nu avei ?= voi navei ?= nu avei voi ?
have they not ? = haven't they ? = have they not (haven't they) got ? = do they not (don't they) have ? = ei/ele nu au ? =
nu au ei/ele ?
Funciile verbului TO HAVE
1. verb auxiliar pentru formarea timpurilor The Present Perfect i The Past Perfect
I have come for two hours. = Am venit de dou ore.
I had come for two hours. =Venisem de dou ore.
2. verb modal: to have to = must = trebuie
I must sing. = I have to sing. = Eu trebuie s cnt. = Eu am de cntat.
He had to learn every day. = El trebuia s nvee n fiecare zi.
3. verb principal: a) to have = to possess = a avea/poseda
We have a house. = We possess a house. = Avem o cas. = Posedm o cas.
They have had that house for ten years. = Ei au casa aceea de zece ani.
b) to have = a mnca, a bea, a servi, a se distra etc.
We have breakfast at eight o'clock. = Servim micul dejun la ora opt.
TO DO = a face
A ||
I do= eu fac
we do = noi facem
you do = tu faci
you do = voi facei
he/she/it does = el/ea face
they do = ei/ele fac
N ||
I do not do (I don't do) = eu nu fac
we do not do (we don't do) = noi nu facem
you do not do (you don't do) = tu nu faci
you do not do (you don't do) = voi nu facei
he/she/it does not do (doesn't do) = el/ea nu face
they do not do (they don't do) = ei/ele nu fac
I ||

do I do ? = eu fac ?
do we do? = noi facem ?
do you do ? = tu faci ?
do you do ? = voi facei ?
does he/she/it do? =el/ea face ?
do they do? = ei/ele
I N ||
do I not do ? = don't I do ? = eu nu fac ? = nu fac eu ?
do you not do ? = don't you do ? = tu nu faci ? = nu faci tu ?
does he/she/it not do? = doesn't he/she/it do? = ea/el nu face? = nu face el/ea?
Ca verb auxiliar, verbul to do nu se traduce. Traducerea lui ns, ca i traducerea verbelor to be i to have s-a fcut totui
pentru motive practice.
Funciile verbului TO DO
1. verb auxiliar
Do you understand ? = nelegi ?
He does not understand. = El nu nelege.
2. verb de ntrire (emfatic)
I do like grammar. = mi place gramatica foarte mult.
3. verb principal
We did an exercise. = Noi am fcut un exerciiu.
Well begun is half done. (prov.) = Lucrul bine nceput jumtate e fcut.
B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA TIMPUL PREZENT
La prezent, verbele modale au aceeai form pentru toate persoanele.
A||

CAN = to be able to= a putea, a ti, a fi n stare s


I can (swim) = I am able to (swim) = eu pot/tiu/sunt n stare s (not) etc.

36

N ||

I cannot (swim) = I can't (swim) = I am not able to (swim) = I aren't able to (swim) = eu nu pot/tiu/sunt n stare s
(not) etc.
I || Can I (swim) ? = Am I able to (swim) ? = pot/tiu eu s (not) ? = sunt eu n stare s (not) ? etc.
I - N || Can I not (swim) ? = Can't I (swim) ? = Am I not able to (swim) ? = Aren't I able to (swim) ? = eu nu tiu/pot s
(not) ? = eu nu sunt n stare s (not) ? etc.
Verbul CAN exprim:
a) abilitatea sau capacitatea:
can = to be able to = to know how to = to have the ability/power/skill to = a putea/ti = a fi n stare s = a ti cum s
I can speak five languages. = tiu s vorbesc cinci limbi.
He cannot speak French. = El nu tie s vorbeasc franuzete.
b) - posibilitatea - la afirmativ i interogativ
They can be in the park. = Ei pot fi n parc.
They can have been in the park. = Se poate/Este posibil ca ei s fi fost n parc.
- imposibilitatea - la negativ:
They can't be in the park. = Ei nu pot fi n parc.
This story cannot be true. = Povestea aceasta nu poate fi adevrat.
She can't be under thirty. = Nu poate avea sub treizeci de ani.
He can't have said that. = El nu poate s fi spus asta. = Nu se poate ca el s fi spus asta.
c) o invitaie sau o rugminte:
Can you shut the window, please? = Poi, te rog, s nchizi fereastra ?
Can you possibly come to my birthday party ? = Poi cumva veni la petrecerea de ziua mea de natere ?
How can you possibly ask such a thing ? = Cum poi ntreba aa ceva ?
d) permisiunea (n limbajul colocvial) i devine sinonim cu may, dar pentru politee se prefer may.
can = may = to be free to = to have permission to = to be allowed/permitted to = a putea, a fi liber s, a avea permisiunea s
You can/may use my umbrella. = Poi folosi umbrela mea.
I can swim in that lake. = I am free to swim in that lake. = Pot nota n lacul acela. = Sunt liber s not n lacul acela.
- la negativ can exprim interdicia sau imposibilitatea - (can't = be forbidden/ prohibited to)
cannot = to be incapable/unable to = a fi incapabil s
You can't go on the trip. = Nu poi merge n excursie.
It can't be six o'clock. = Nu poate fi ora ase.
MAY = to be permitted/allowed to= a avea voie s, a-i fi permis/ ngduit s
A || I may (go) = I am permitted/allowed to (go) = eu am voie/pot s (merg) = mie mi este permis/ngduit s (merg) etc
N|| I may not (go) = I am not permitted/allowed to (go) = eu nu am voie s (merg) = mie nu-mi este permis/ngduit s
(merg) etc.
Forma mayn't este considerat desuet i, n consecin, practic nefolosit.
I || May I (go)? = am I permitted/allowed to (go)?=eu am voie/pot s (merg)? = mie mi este permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.
I-N || May I not (go) ? = am I not permitted/allowed to (go) ? = eu nu am voie/nu pot s (merg) ? = mie nu-mi este permis/
ngduit s (merg)? etc.
Verbul MAY exprim:
a) - permisiunea n prezent "May I come in" ? = Pot intra , Pot s intru ?; "Yes, you may." = Da, poi; "Yes, of course" =Da, desigur =Da,
bineneles.
"You may leave if you like," John said. = Poi pleca dac doreti, zise el.
devine n vorbire indirect:
John said that I might leave if I liked. = John said that I was allowed to leave if I liked. = John a zis c pot pleca dac
doresc. = John a zis c-mi este ngduit s plec dac doresc.
- interdicia se exprim prin may not:
You may not use my umbrella. = Nu poi folosi umbrela mea.
b) posibilitatea:
He may come late if the traffic's heavy. = El poate veni trziu dac circulaia este intens.
He may have come yesterday. = Este posibil ca el s fi venit ieri.
She may be learning her lessons. = Ea poate i nva leciile.
He may not be able to pay his rent. = Poate c el nu este n stare s-i plteasc chiria.
c) probabilitatea / incertitudinea sau curiozitatea:
What may he be ? = Ce poate fi el ?
I may have left my umbrella on the train. = Probabil/Poate mi-am uitat umbrela n tren.
He may come . = Probably he comes. = El poate veni. = Probabil el vine.

37

ntrebrile referitoare la posibilitate se formuleaz cu ajutorul verbului can nu al lui may.


Can he have lost his way ? = Se poate ca el s se fi ratcit ?= Este posibil ca el s se fi rtcit ?
d) o urare:
May you live long ! = S trieti !
May your dreams come true ! = S i se mplineasc visurile/dorinele !
MUST= to have to = trebuie
A ||
I must (speak) = eu trebuie s (vorbesc) etc
N ||
I must not (speak) = I mustn't (speak) = eu nu trebuie s (vorbesc) etc.
I ||
Must I (speak) ? = trebuie eu s (vorbesc) ? etc.
I - N ||
Must I not (speak) ? = mustn't I (speak) ? = eu nu trebuie s (vorbesc) ? etc.
Verbul MUST exprim:
a) obligaia / necesitatea:
You must learn permanently. = Tu trebuie s nvei permanent.
You must learn. = You have to learn. = You have (you've) got to learn.
ntre must i have to exist ns urmtoarea deosebire: must exprim o obligaie/necesitate pornit din partea subiectului (I
must go to bed because I am very sleepy. = Trebuie s merg la culcare pentru c mi este foarte somn.) Have to exprim o
obligaie impus subiectului din afar, deci o obligaie extern (You have to be there at eight o'clock. = Tu trebuie s fii acolo
la ora opt.)
You must not cross now. = You are not allowed / permitted to cross now .= Tu nu trebuie s traversezi acum = N-ai voie s
traversezi acum.
Must he go now? = Has he to go now?= Does he have to go now? = Trebuie el s plece / mearg acum ?
- must not exprim interdicia:
"You must not interrupt me", he said. = Nu trebuie s m ntrerupi, a zis el.
devine n vorbirea indirect:
He said that I mustn't interrupt him. = El a zis c nu trebuie s-l ntrerup. sau :
He said that I didn't have to interrupt him. = El a zis c nu trebuie s-l ntrerup.
b) probabilitatea:
He must know me. = Probabil / poate (c ) m cunoate. = Trebuie s m tie.
Being late they must be at home. = Fiind trziu probabil c sunt acas.
You must have paid a lot of money for this car.= Probabil c ai pltit muli bani pentru maina aceasta. = Trebuie s fi pltit
muli bani pentru maina aceasta.
SHALL = se cade/cuvine/merit s, trebuie s
I shall (intervene) = eu se cade/cuvine s (intervin)
You shall (intervene) = tu se cade/cuvine s (intervii)
He/she shall (intervene) = el/ea se cade/cuvine s (intervin)
We shall (intervene) = noi se cade/cuvine s (intervenim)
You shall (intervene) = voi se cade/cuvine s (intervenii)
They shall (intervene) = ei/ele se cade/cuvine s (intervin)
N ||
I shall not (intervene) = I shan't (intervene) = eu nu se cade s (intervin) = eu nu trebuie s (intervin) etc.
I ||
Shall I (intervene) ? = se cade/trebuie s (intervin) eu ? = s (intervin) eu ? etc.
I - N ||
Shall I not (intervene) ? = Shan't I (intervene) ? = eu s nu (intervin) ? = eu nu trebuie s (intervin)? etc.
A ||

Prin SHALL se exprim:


a) permisiunea/invitaia:
You shall stay here as long as you like. = S stai aici ct i place. = Poi s stai aici ct i place.
b) promisiunea:
You shall have a holiday in the mountains if you work hard. = O s ai o vacan la munte dac o s munceti cum trebuie.
c) obligaia:
You shall do as he tells you. = S faci cum i spune el.
You shall always be punctual. = S fii totdeauna punctual.
He shall never break his promise ! = S nu-i calce niciodat promisiunea !
What shall I do now ? = Ce s fac acum ?
A ||
N ||

WILL = a vrea, a dori


I will (learn) = eu vreau s (nv); You will (learn) = tu vrei s (nvei)
He/she will (learn) = el/ea vrea s (nvee), etc.
I will not (learn) = I won't (learn) = eu nu vreau s (nv) etc.

38

I ||
Will I (learn) ? = eu vreau s (nv) ? = vreau eu s (nv) ? etc.
I - N ||
Will I not (learn) ? = Won't I (learn) ? = eu nu vreau s (nv) ? etc.
Prin verbul modal will se adreseaz o invitaie sau o dorin.
Will you have a cup of tea ? = Doreti/Vrei o ceac de ceai ?
You may come to see us if you will. = Poi veni pe la noi dac vrei.
OUGHT TO = ar trebui s, s-ar cuveni s (obligaie moral)
I ought to go = eu trebuie s merg = eu se cuvine s merg; You ought to go = tu ar trebui s mergi = tu s-ar cuveni s mergi; He/she ought to go = el/ea ar trebui s mearg = el/ea se cuvine s mearg etc.
N ||
I ought not to go = I oughtn't to go = eu nu ar trebui s merg = eu n-ar trebui s merg etc.
I ||
Ought I to go ? = ar trebui eu s merg ? = s-ar cuveni eu s merg ? etc.
I - N||
Ought I not (oughtn't I) to go ? = eu nu ar trebui s merg ? = n-ar trebui eu s merg ? etc.
A ||

You ought to tell her the truth. = Se cuvine s-i spui adevrul.
You ought to have told her the truth. = S-ar fi cuvenit s-i spui adevrul.
- ought to este sinonim cu should i exprim recomandarea, necesitatea sau obligaia moral.
You ought to help your parents if they are very old. = Se cuvine s-i ajui prinii dac sunt foarte btrni.
You oughtn't to take his umbrella without asking for permission. = Tu nu trebuie s-i iei umbrela fr s ceri voie.
He knew he ought to help us. = tia c trebuie s ne ajute.
DARE = a ndrzni, a se ncumeta
(exist ns i verbul principal to dare - dared/durst - dared = a ndrzni)
A || La afirmativ verbul dare se conjug n maniera verbelor principale: I dare = eu ndrznesc; you dare = tu ndrzneti
he/she/it dares = el/ea ndrznete etc.
N || I dare not go = I daren't go = I don't dare (to) go = eu nu ndrznesc s merg etc.
I || Dare I go ? = do I dare (to) go? = ndrznesc eu s merg ? = eu ndrznesc s merg ? etc
I-N || Dare I not go ? = don't I dare (to) go? = nu ndrznesc eu s merg ? = eu nu ndrznesc s merg? etc .
- dare (to) = to be brave enough to = a ndrzni = a fi suficient de curajos pentru a
I dare go there alone. = ndrznesc s merg acolo singur.
- dare = to take the risk of = a ndrzni, a risca s, a nfrunta
They dare all the dangers. = Ei nfrunt toate pericolele.
- dare = to provoke somebody into a demonstration of courage
Dare you jump over that fence ? = ndrzneti s sari peste gardul acela ?
- dare + say = ndrznesc s spun
I dare say you can't swim across that lake. = ndrznesc s spun c nu poi traversa lacul acela not.
NEED = a fi nevoie/necesar s, a trebui s
N || I need not go = I needn't go = eu nu este nevoie s merg etc.
I || Need I go ? = este nevoie s merg eu? etc.
I-N || Need I not (needn't I) go ? = nu este nevoie s merg eu ?= eu nu este nevoie s merg ? etc.
- necesitate/nevoie
La afirmativ need se folosete cu adverbele hardly, scarcely, only:
I need hardly tell you something. = Simt o mare nevoie s-i spun ceva.
You need only be present. = Este nevoie s fii doar prezent.
Verbul need la negativ presupune lipsa obligaiei sau necesitii.
I needn't tell you everything. = Nu este nevoie s-i povestesc totul.
I needn't go yet. = nc nu este nevoie s plec.
- NEEDN'T - n vorbirea indirect:
"You needn't come until I tell you", he said. = - Nu este nevoie s vii pn nu-i spun eu, a zis el. devine n vorbire indirect:
He said that I needn't come until he told me. = El a zis c nu este nevoie s vin pn nu-mi spune el.
TO BE TO = a fi/trebui/urma s
You are to be there at six o'clock. = S fii acolo la ora ase. = Trebuie/Urmeaz s fii acolo la ora ase.
What am I to do now ? = Ce urmeaz/trebuie s fac eu acum ?
What is to be done now ? = Ce este de fcut acum ?
I should have told you if we had been to go there. = i-a fi spus dac noi ar fi fost s mergem acolo.
TO HAVE GOT TO = trebuie (folosit mult n limbajul colocvial american)

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I have got to go now. = Acum trebuie s plec.


n exemplul I will learn the lesson (Vreau s nv lecia) verbul will se pronun accentuat, punndu-se astfel n eviden valoarea sa semantic.
n exemplul You will learn the lesson (Tu vei nva lecia) verbul will este auxiliar i se pronun fr accent. n schimb
verbul learn care urmeaz dup el se pronun accentuat.
n exemplul He may never come (El poate s nu vin niciodat) verbul may exprim o nuan de posibilitate/ndoial: El
poate veni, dar suntem lsai s credem c mai degrab nu va veni.
He may never come. = It is possible that he will never come.
Concluzie:Verbele can, may, must, shall, will, need, ought to se ntlnesc urmate fie de infinitiv scurt prezent, fie de
infinitiv scurt perfect.
He may have come. = E posibil ca el s fi venit.
He must have been rich. = El trebuie s fi fost bogat.
She can have gone on the trip. = Ea poate s fi mers n excursie.

C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA PREZENT, ASPECTUL COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV


TO SEE = a vedea (dup acest model se conjug toate verbele principale)
A ||
I see = eu vd
we see = noi vedem
you see = tu vezi
you see = voi vedei
he /she/it sees = el/ea vede
they see = ei/ele vd
N ||
I do not see = I don't see = eu nu vd
you do not see = you don't see = tu nu vezi
he/she/it does not see = he/she/it doesn't see = el/ea nu vede
we do not see = we don't see = noi nu vedem
you do not see = you don't see = voi nu vedei
they do not see = they don't see =ei/ele nu vd, dnii/dnsele nu vd
I ||
do I see? = eu vd ?
do we see? = noi vedem ?
do you see? = tu vezi ?
do you see? = voi vedei ?
does he/she/it see? = el/ea vede ?
do they see? = ei/ele vd ?
I - N ||
do I not see ? = don't I see ? = eu nu vd ? = nu vd eu ?
do you not see ? = don't you see ? = tu nu vezi ? = nu vezi tu ?
does he/she/it not see ? = doesn't he/she/it see ? = el/ea nu vede ? etc.
TO DARE = a ndrzni, a provoca
A ||
I dare = eu ndrznesc etc.
N ||
I do not (don't) dare = eu nu ndrznesc etc.
I ||
Do I dare? = ndrznesc eu? etc.
I - N ||
Do I not (don't I) dare ? = eu nu ndrznesc ? = nu ndrznesc eu ? etc.
He dares many perils. = El nfrunt multe pericole.
They dare me to do it but I don't dare = Ei m provoac s-o fac, dar eu nu ndrznesc.
I do not dare to break my promise = Eu nu ndrznesc s-mi calc promisiunea.
John does not dare to go there, does he ? = John nu ndrznete s mearg/plece acolo, nu-i aa? = John nu are curaj s
mearg acolo, aa-i?
TO NEED = a fi necesar/nevoie s, a necesita/cere/presupune, a avea nevoie de etc.
This work needs much skill. = Aceast treab cere/presupune mult ndemnare/ pricepere.
A ||
I need = eu am nevoie
we need = noi avem nevoie
you need = tu ai nevoie
you need = voi avei nevoie
he/she/it needs = el/ea are nevoie
they need = ei/ele au nevoie
N ||
I do not (I don't) need = eu nu am nevoie = mie nu mi trebuie etc.
I ||
Do I need ? = eu am nevoie ? = am eu nevoie ? = mie mi trebuie ? = mi trebuie mie ? etc.
I - N ||
Do I not need ? = don't I need ? = eu nu am nevoie ? = nu am eu nevoie ? = mie nu mi trebuie ? = nu mi trebuie
mie ? etc.
They don't need our help, do they ? = Ei nu au nevoie de ajutorul nostru, nu-i aa?
Do they need any help ? = Au ei nevoie de vreun ajutor ?
Plants need rain. = Plantele au nevoie de ploaie.
I need much time. = Am nevoie de mult timp. = mi trebuie mult vreme.
You needed such a book. = Tu ai avut nevoie de o astfel de carte.
I need to do something. = Trebuie s fac ceva. = Simt nevoia s fac ceva.

40

He does not need to work. = El nu este nevoit s lucreze/munceasc.


Did they need anything ? = Le trebuia lor ceva ? = Aveau ei nevoie de ceva ?
D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR LA PREZENT - ASPECTUL CONTINUU - DIATEZA ACTIV
Aspectul continuu al verbului exprim aciuni de durat sau n desfurare, deci aciuni neterminate. Se formeaz cu auxiliarul to be plus participiul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Aspect continuu au numai verbele principale iar la prezent aceste
aci-uni neterminate se efectueaz de regul n momentul vorbirii. Uneori momentul desfurrii lor este imaginat coinciznd cu
prezentul.
I am writing a letter. = Scriu o scrisoare (acum).
I am leaving tomorrow. = Plec mine.
TO SPEAK = a vorbi
I am speaking = eu vorbesc
we are speaking = noi vorbim
you are speaking = tu vorbeti
you are speaking = voi vorbii
he/she is speaking = el/ea vorbete
they are speaking = ei/ele vorbesc
N ||
I am not speaking = I aren't speaking = eu nu vorbesc
you are not speaking = you aren't speaking = tu nu vorbeti
he /she is not speaking = he/she/it isn't speaking = el/ea nu vorbete
we are not speaking = we aren't speaking = noi nu vorbim
you are not speaking = you aren't speaking = voi nu vorbii
they are not speaking = they aren't speaking = ei/ele nu vorbesc
I ||
am I speaking ? = eu vorbesc ?
are we speaking ? = noi vorbim ?
are you speaking ? = tu vorbeti?
are you speaking ? = voi vorbii ?
is he/she/it speaking ? = el/ea vorbete?
are they speaking? = ei/ele vorbesc?
I - N ||
am I not speaking ? = aren't I speaking ? = eu nu vorbesc ?
are you not speaking ? = aren't you speaking ? = tu nu vorbeti ?
is he/she not speaking ? = isn't he/she speaking ? = el/ea nu vorbete ?
are we not speaking ? = aren't we speaking ? = noi nu vorbim ?
are you not speaking ? = aren't you speaking ? = voi nu vorbii ?
are they not speaking ? = aren't they speaking ? = ei/ele nu vorbesc ?
A ||

TO WILL
A ||
I am willing to (read) = eu vreau s (citesc) etc.
N ||
I am not (I aren't) willing to (read) = eu nu vreau s (citesc) etc.
I ||
Am I willing to (read)? = eu vreau s (citesc)? = vreau eu s (citesc) ? etc.
I - N ||
Am I not willing to (read)? = aren't I willing to (read)? = eu nu vreau s (citesc)? = nu vreau eu s (citesc) ?
etc.
E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR LA PREZENT - DIATEZA PASIV - ASPECTUL COMUN
TO BE SEEN = a fi vzut
A ||
I am seen = eu sunt vzut()
you are seen = tu eti vzut()
he/she/it is seen = el/ea este vzut()
N ||

I ||

I - N ||

we are seen = noi suntem vzui/vzute


you are seen = voi suntei vzui/vzute
they are seen = ei/ele sunt vzui/vzute

I am not seen = I aren't seen = eu nu sunt vzut()


You are not seen = you aren't seen = tu nu eti vzut()
He/she/it is not seen = he/she/it isn't seen = el/ea nu este vzut()
We are not seen = we aren't seen = noi nu suntem vzui/vzute
You are not seen = you aren't seen = voi nu suntei vzui/vzute
They are not seen = they aren't seen = ei/ele nu sunt vzui/vzute
Am I seen ? = eu sunt vzut() ? = sunt eu vzut() ?
Are you seen ? = tu eti vzut() ? = eti tu vzut() ?
Is he/she/it seen ? = el/ea este vzut() ? = este el/ea vzut() ?
Are we seen ? = noi suntem vzui/vzute ? = suntem noi vzui/vzute ?
Are you seen ? = voi suntei vzui/vzute ? = suntei voi vzui/vzute ?
Are they seen ? = ei/ele sunt vzui/vzute ? = sunt ei/ele vzui/vzute ?
Am I not seen ? = aren't I seen ? = eu nu sunt vzut/() ? = nu-s eu vzut/() ?

41

Are you not seen ? = aren't you seen ? = tu nu eti vzut/() ? = nu eti tu vzut/()?
Is he/she/it not seen ? = isn't he/she/it seen ? = el /ea nu este vzut() ? = nu-i el/ea vzut() ?
Are we not seen ? = aren't we seen ? = noi nu suntem vzui/vzute ? = nu suntem noi vzui/vzute?
Are you not seen ? = aren't you seen ? = voi nu suntei vzui/ ? = nu suntei voi vzui/vzute?
Are they not seen ? = aren't they seen ? = ei/ele nu sunt vzui/vzute ? = nu-s ei/ele vzui/vzute?
F. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR LA PREZENT - DIATEZA PASIV - ASPECTUL CONTINUU
TO BE BEING LOOKED AT = a fi privit()
A ||
I am being looked at = eu sunt privit()
You are being looked at = tu eti privit()
He/she/it is being looked at = el/ea este privit()
We are being looked at = noi suntem privii/privite
You are being looked at = voi suntei privii/privite
They are being looked at = ei/ele sunt privii/privite
N ||
I am not being looked at = I aren't being looked at = eu nu sunt privit()
You are not being looked at = you aren't being looked at = tu nu eti privit()
He/she/it is not being looked at = he/she/it isn't being looked at = el/ea nu este privit() etc.
I ||
Am I being looked at ? = sunt eu privit() ? etc
I-N ||
Am I not being looked at ?= aren't I being looked at ? = eu nu sunt privit() ? etc.
Today he is being a good boy. = Astzi/azi el este biat cuminte.
G. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE LA TIMPUL PREZENT - ASPECTUL COMUN
TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra/amuza
A ||
I enjoy myself = eu m distrez
we enjoy ourselves = noi ne distrm
You enjoy yourself = tu te distrezi
you enjoy yourselves = voi v distrai
He enjoys himself = el se distreaz
they enjoy themselves = ei/ele se distreaz
She enjoys herself = ea se distreaz
It enjoys itself = el/ea se distreaz
N ||
I do not enjoy myself = I don't enjoy myself = eu nu m distrez etc.
I ||
Do I enjoy myself ? = eu m distrez ? = m distrez eu ? etc.
I - N ||
Do I not enjoy myself ? = don't I enjoy myself ? = eu nu m distrez ? etc.
H. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE LA TIMPUL PREZENT - ASPECTUL CONTINUU
TO BE ENJOYING ONESELF = a se distra/amuza
A ||
I am enjoying myself = eu m distrez/amuz (n acest moment, acum) etc.
N ||
I am not enjoying myself = eu nu m distrez/amuz etc.
I ||
Am I enjoying myself ? = eu m distrez/amuz ? = m distrez/amuz eu ? etc.
I - N || Am I not enjoying myself ? = aren't I enjoying myself ? = eu nu m distrez/amuz ? = nu m distrez/amuz eu ? etc.
RECAPITULARE: SCHEMA CONJUGRII VERBELOR LA MODUL INDICATIV, TIMPUL PREZENT, ASPECTUL COMUN.
AFIRMATIV
(A)
VERBE AUXILIARE
VERBE MODALE
VERBE PRINCIPALE

NEGATIV
(N)

I am = eu sunt etc.
I am not = eu nu sunt
I can (go) = eu pot s I cannot (go) = I can't
(merg) etc.
(go) = eu nu pot s (merg)
etc.
I go = eu merg etc
I do not go = I don't go =
eu nu merg etc.

INTEROGATIV
(I)

INTEROGATIVNEGATIV (I-N)

Am I ? = eu sunt ?
Can I (go) ? = pot eu
s (merg) ?etc.

Am I not ? = eu nu sunt ?
Can I not (go)? = Can't I
(go)? = eu nu pot s (merg)?
etc.
Do I go ? = eu merg ? Do I not go ? = Don't I go ?
= eu nu merg ? etc.
= etc.

VERBELE PRINCIPALE/NOIONALE SE CONJUG LA NEGATIV, INTEROGATIV, RESPECTIV INTEROGATIV-NEGATIV, CU


AJUTORUL VERBULUI TO DO.
1.6.2.1.2. THE PRESENT PERFECT
Se traduce n limba romn prin prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus.
The Present Perfect se formeaz cu auxiliarul TO HAVE, care se conjug la prezent plus participiul trecut al verbului
de conjugat.
The Present Perfect exprim o aciune:
1. trecut terminat:
I have seen them today. = I-am vzut astzi.

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2. trecut terminat n momentul vorbirii: Where have you been ? = Unde ai fost (pn acum) ?
3. trecut neterminat:
He has learned English for three years. = nva englezete de trei ani.
How long have you learned English? = De ct timp nvei tu englezete?
Since when have you learned English ? = De cnd nvei tu englezete?
A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA TIMPUL THE PRESENT PERFECT
Verbele auxiliare nu se conjug la Present Perfect . Verbele to be, to have i to do se pot conjuga la acest timp atunci
cnd ele sunt verbe principale, aa cum se vede mai jos:
TO BE = a fi
A ||
I have been = I've been = eu sunt = eu s
you have been = you've been = tu eti
he/she/it has been= he's/she's/it's been = el/ea este = el/ea i/e
we have been = we've been = noi suntem
you have been = you've been = voi suntei
they have been = they've been = ei/ele sunt
N ||
I have not been = I haven't been = eu nu sunt = eu nu-s
you have not been = you haven't been = tu nu eti
he /she/it has not been = he/she/it hasn't been = el/ea nu este = el/ea nu-i = el/ea nu e
we have not been = we haven't been = noi nu suntem
you have not been = you haven't been = voi nu suntei
they have not been = they haven't been = ei/ele nu sunt = ei/ele nu-s
I ||
have we been?= noi suntem? = suntem noi?
have I been? = eu sunt? = sunt eu?
have you been? = tu eti? = eti tu ?
have you been? = voi suntei? = suntei voi?
has he/she/it been? = el/ea este/e/i?
have they been? = ei/ele sunt? = sunt ei/ele?
I - N ||

have I not been? = haven't I been? = eu nu sunt? = nu sunt eu? = eu nu-s?


have you not been? = haven't you been? = tu nu eti? = nu eti tu?
has he/she/it not been? = hasn't he/she/it been? = el/ea nu este? = nu este el/ea?
have we not been ? = haven't we been? = noi nu suntem? = nu suntem noi?
have you not been ? = haven't you been? = voi nu suntei? = nu suntei voi?
have they not been? = haven't they been? = ei/ele nu sunt? = nu sunt ei/ele?
I have had = eu am ; eu am avut etc.
I have done = am fcut etc.

B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA TIMPUL THE PRESENT PERFECT


CAN - COULD - O - O = to be able to
A ||
I have been able to ...... = pot s ...... = sunt n stare s ....etc.
N ||
I have not been able to .... = nu pot s .... = nu sunt n stare s ..... etc.
I ||
Have I been able to ....? = pot eu s ....? = sunt eu n stare s ...? etc.
I - N ||
Have I not been able to ... ? = nu pot eu s ... ? = nu sunt eu n stare s ...? etc.
How long have you been able to speak English? = De cnd tii/poi tu s vorbeti englezete ?
How long have you been allowed to drive a car? = De ct timp po / ai voie tu s conduci maina ?
C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL COMUN
TO COME = A VENI
A ||
I have come = eu am venit
you have come = tu ai venit
he/she/it has come = el/ea a venit etc.
N ||
I have not come = I haven't come = eu nu am venit etc.
I ||
have I come ? = am venit eu ? = eu am venit ? etc.
I-N ||
have I not come ? = haven't I come ? = eu nu am venit ? etc.
I have come for two hours. = Am venit de dou ore.
How long have I come ? = De ct timp am venit eu ?
I have come since one o'clock. = Am venit de la ora unu.
Since when have I come ? = De cnd am venit eu ?
He has known her since 1970. = El o cunoate din 1970.
Since when has he known her ? = De cnd o cunoate el?

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D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV, ASPECTUL COMUN


I have been seen. = Eu sunt vzut. etc.
E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECT CONTINUU
I have been enjoying myself = eu m distrez, etc.
Where have you been ? = Unde ai fost tu (pn acum) ?
I have just come. = Eu tocmai am venit.
I haven't had dinner yet. = nc n-am servit cina.
I have seen them today. = Azi i-am vzut. = Eu i-am vzut azi.
He has been busy lately. = El a fost ocupat n ultimul timp.
We have learned English for one year. = Noi nvm englezete de un an.
He has known her for a long time. = El o cunoate de mult timp.
He has been avaricious all his life. = El a fost zgrcit toat viaa lui.
We have been living in this city for twenty years. = Locuim/trim n acest ora de douzeci de ani.
We have been living here ever since then. =Locuim/trim aici chiar de atunci.
Have you bought a car yet ? = Ai cumprat deja o main ?
How long have you been waiting for me ? = De ct timp m atepi ?
I have been waiting for you for five minutes. = Te atept de cinci minute.
I have been waited for for five minutes. = Sunt ateptat de cinci minute.
Since when have you been waiting for me ?= De cnd m atepi ?
I have been waiting for you since ten o'clock. = Te atept de la ora zece.
I have never seen a live dinosaur, have you ? = N-am vzut niciodat un dinozaur viu, dar tu ?
Acest timp, The Present Perfect se folosete mult n conversaii, scrisori, ziare i la radio deoarece faptele relatate au o
legtur important cu prezentul. El apare n propoziiile n care se ntlnesc adverbe de timp ca: just = tocmai/doar/ abia, yet =
deja/nc, recently = de curnd/recent, today = azi/astzi, lately = n ultimul timp, this week/month = sptmna/ luna aceasta,
this year = anul acesta, since/from that hour = de la ora aceea, since /from that day = din ziua aceea, since/from that moment = din momentul acela, for a long time = de mult timp, de mult vreme, for long = de mult, for a few moments = de cteva clipe, for a few minutes = de cteva minute, since/from Sunday = de duminic, since/from 1989 = din 1989 etc.
They have been friends since recently. = Ei sunt prieteni de curnd.
I have lived in this town till now/today. = Am locuit n acest ora pn acum/azi.
F. THE PRESENT PERFECT - ASPECTUL CONTINUU
Exprim o aciune trecut neterminat care se poate termina sau nu n prezent.
We have been playing tennis for ten minutes. = Jucm tenis de zece minute.
How long have we been playing tennis ? = De ct timp jucm noi tenis ?
I have been living in Craiova since 1970. = Eu locuiesc/triesc n Craiova din 1970.
We have been playing tennis since five o'clock. =Jucm tenis de la ora cinci.
Since when have we been playing tennis ? = De cnd jucm noi tenis ?
The book has been being read for two hours. = Cartea este citit de dou ore.
The match has been being watched for thirty minutes. = Meciul este privit de treizeci de minute.
The matter has been being discussed for fifteen minutes. = Problema se discut de cincisprezece minute.
TO PLAY = a se juca
A ||

I have been playing [pleiiN] = eu (m) joc


You have been playing = tu (te) joci
He/she/it has been playing = el/ea (se) joac etc.
N ||
I have not been playing = I haven't been playing = eu nu (m) joc etc.
I ||
Have I been playing? = eu (m) joc? etc.
I - N ||
Have I not been playing ? = haven't I been playing ? = eu nu (m) joc ? etc.
How long have you been reading the letter ? = De ct timp citeti scrisoarea ?
I know what he has been doing today. = Eu tiu ce a fcut el azi/astzi.
1.6.2.1.3. THE PAST TENSE
Se traduce prin imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus i exprim o aciune trecut terminat.
I saw her yesterday. = Am vzut-o ieri.
Este a doua form de baz a verbului (vezi lista de baz a verbelor!).
Verbele principale sunt 1) regulate i 2) neregulate.
1. regulate - la forma a II-a i a III-a de baz primesc terminaia -ed.

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Terminaia -ed se citete:


- [ t ] cnd este precedat de o consoan nesonor/surd; asked [`Askt], looked [lukt]
- [ d ] cnd este precedat de o consoan sonor; received [ri`sIvd] , proved [`prUvd]
- [ id ] cnd este precedat de literele t sau d ; added [`Edid], wanted [`wontid]
2. neregulate (vezi lista la sfritul crii)
A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA PAST TENSE
TO BE - WAS/WERE - BEEN
A ||
I was = eu am fost, eu eram
we were = noi am fost, noi eram
you were = tu ai fost, tu erai
you were = voi/dv. ai fost, voi/dv. erai
he/she/it was = el/ea era/a fost
they were = ei/ele au fost, ei/ele erau
N ||
I was not = I wasn't = eu nu am fost = eu nu eram
you were not = you weren't = tu nu ai fost = tu nu erai
he/she/it was not = he/she/it wasn't = el/ea nu a fost = el/ea nu era etc.
I ||
was I ? = eu am fost? = eu eram ?
were you ? = tu ai fost? = tu erai ?
was he/she/it ? = el/ea a fost ? = el/ea era ? etc.
I N ||
was I not ? = wasn't I ? = eu nu am fost ? = eu nu eram ?
were you not ? = weren't you ? = tu nu ai fost ? = tu nu erai ?
was he/she/it not ? = wasn't he/she/it ? = el/ea nu a fost ? = el/ea nu era? etc.
TO HAVE - HAD - HAD
I had = eu am avut, eu aveam
we had = noi am avut, noi aveam
you had = tu ai avut, tu aveai
you had = voi/dv. ai avut, voi/dv. aveai
he /she/it had = el/ea a avut, el/ea avea
they had = ei/ele au avut, ei/ele aveau
N ||
I had not = I hadn't = eu nu am avut = eu n-am avut = eu nu aveam etc
I ||
had I? = eu am avut?, eu aveam? etc.
I N ||
had I not ? = hadn't I ? = eu nu am avut ? = eu nu aveam ? etc.
A ||

TO DO - DID - DONE
I did = eu am fcut, eu fceam
we did = noi am fcut, noi fceam
you did = tu ai fcut, tu fceai
you did = voi/dv. ai fcut, voi / dv. fceai
they did = ei/ele au fcut, ei / ele fceau
he/she/it did = el / ea a fcut, el/ea fcea
N ||
I did not do = I didn't do = eu nu am fcut, eu nu fceam etc.
I ||
Did I do? = eu am fcut ?, eu fceam ? etc.
I N ||
Did I not do? = didn't I do? = eu nu am fcut ?, eu nu fceam ? etc.
A ||

SHOULD este auxiliar pentru The Future in the Past, persoana I singular i plural, precum i pentru formarea modului
condiional (prezent i perfect)
WOULD este auxiliar pentru The Future in the Past pers. II - III i condiional. El l poate nlocui pe should la pers. I
sg. i pl. att la timpul The Future in the Past ct i la modul condiional.
B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA PAST TENSE
COULD
A ||
N ||
I ||
I N ||

I could (go) = I was able to (go) = eu puteam/eram n stare s (merg)


You could (go) = you were able to (go) = tu puteai/erai n stare s (mergi)
He/she/it could (go) = he/she/it was able to (go) = el/ea putea/era n stare s (mearg) etc.
I could not (go) = I couldn't (go) = I was not able to (go) = I wasn't able to (go) = eu nu puteam (merge) =
eu nu eram n stare s (merg) etc.
could I (go) ? = was I able to (go) ? = eu puteam s (merg)? = puteam eu s (merg)? = eu eram n stare s
(merg)? = eram eu n stare s (merg)? etc.
could I not (go)? = couldn't I (go)? = was I not able to (go)? = wasn't I able to (go)? = eu nu puteam
(merge)? = eu nu eram n stare s (merg)? etc.

Verbul COULD exprim:


1. abilitatea n trecut;
I could speak German last year = I was able to speak German last year = tiam s vorbesc germana anul trecut.
b) o invitaie sau o rugminte (condiional prezent)
Could you (possibly) come to my birthday party? = Ai putea ( puteai ) veni la petrecerea de ziua mea de natere?
Could you lend me your umbrella? = Ai putea s-mi mprumui umbrela ta ?

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c) permisiunea / posibilitatea n trecut


They could go on a trip. = Ei puteau merge n excursie.
MIGHT
Verbul might, adic a II a form de baz a verbului may care la timpul prezent printre altele exprim i permisiunea,
poate exprima permisiunea la trecut atunci cnd may devine might transformat din vorbire direct n vorbire indirect.
"May I go on the trip", asked Mary. = - Pot merge n excursie, ntreb Mary.
devine n vorbirea indirect:
Mary asked if she might go on the trip. = Mary asked if she was allowed to go on the trip. = Mary a ntrebat dac poate s
mearg n excursie. = Mary a ntrebat dac i este ngduit s mearg n excursie.
Verbul MIGHT exprim:
a) posibilitatea n prezent (might fiind auxiliar modal la condiional prezent): He might be there. = Ar putea fi acolo.
Might he still be there ? = Ar putea fi acolo nc ? = Ar putea fi tot acolo ?
b) posibilitatea n trecut : You might have succeeded if you had tried. = Tu ai fi putut reui dac ai fi ncercat. = S-ar
fi putut s reueti dac ai fi ncercat. I knew he might be late. = tiam c este posibil s ntrzie.
c) interdicia n trecut: She said that we might not go on that trip. = She said that we were not allowed to go on
that trip. = Ea a zis c noi nu putem merge n excursia aceea. = Ea a zis c nou nu ne este ngduit / permis s mergem n excursia aceea.
d) o manier politicoas de a cere permisiunea : (folosit la condiional prezent)
Might I ask you something ? = A putea s te/v ntreb ceva ? Might I use your phone ? = A putea folosi telefonul tu ?
HAD TO = A TREBUI SA
I had to (go) = eu trebuia s (merg)
you had to (go) = tu trebuia s (mergi)
he/she/it had to (go) = el/ea trebuia s (mearg) etc
N ||
I had not to (go) = I hadn't to (go) = I did not (didn't) have to (go) = eu nu trebuia s (merg) = eu nu a (na)
trebuit s (merg) etc.
I ||
had I to (go) ? = did I have to (go) ? = eu trebuia s (merg) ? etc
I-N ||
had I not to (go) ? = did I not have to (go) ? = eu nu trebuia s (merg) ? etc.
A ||

SHOULD = trebuia, se cuvenea s


Should este a doua form de baz (adic Past Tense) a verbului shall i exprim o obligaie, sau o recomandare n trecut.
We should learn. = Trebuia s nvm. = Se cuvenea s nvm.
n aceast situaie should este sinonim cu ought to.
A ||
I should (go) = eu trebuia s (merg) (se cuvenea s merg)
you should (go) = tu trebuia s (mergi)
he /she/it should (go) = el/ea trebuia s (mearg) etc
N ||
I should not (go) = I shouldn't (go) = eu nu trebuia s (merg) etc.
I ||
should I (go) ? = trebuia eu s (merg) ? etc.
I-N ||
should I not (go) ? = shouldn't I (go) ? = nu trebuia eu s (merg) ? etc.
Should + infinitiv perfect = obligaie n trecut
You should have told us the truth. = You ought to have told us the truth. = Ar fi trebuit s ne spui adevrul.
You shouldn't have refused their help. = N-ar fi trebuit s le fi refuzat ajutorul.
WOULD = a voi
I would (see) = eu voiam s (vd) ; eu vedeam, obinuiam s (vd)
you would (see) = tu voiai s (vezi) ; tu vedeai, obinuiai s (vezi)
he/she/it would (see) = el/ea voia s (vad) ; el/ea vedea, obinuia s (vad) etc
N ||
I would not (see) = I wouldn't (see) = eu nu voiam s (vd); eu nu vedeam etc.
I ||
would I (see) ? = voiam eu s (vd) ? ; obinuiam eu s (vd) ?, vedeam eu ? eu vedeam? etc.
I - N ||
would I not (see) ? = wouldn't I (see) ? = eu nu voiam s (vd) ? = nu voiam eu s (vd)?; eu nu obinuiam
s (vd)? etc.
Would este a II-a form de baz a verbului will.
I understood he would not see them. = Am neles c nu voia s-i vad .
A ||

Verbul WOULD exprim:


a) - aciune repetat n trecut (would = used to)
He would go swimming with other boys. = He used to go swimming with other boys . = El obinuia s noate cu ali biei.
b) - dorin n trecut He would go on the trip. = El dorea s mearg n excursie.

46

NEED
Se folosete la negativ i interogativ urmat de infinitiv fr particula to. Needn't urmat de infinitiv perfect exprim c s-a
petrecut ceva nenecesar.
You needn't have gone there. = Nu era necesar/nevoie s fi mers acolo.
I knew I need not repeat the question. = tiam c nu e nevoie s repet ntrebarea.
You needn't have cooked our dinner because we are going to dine out with friends tonight. = Nu era necesar s fi pregtit
cina pentru c vom cina cu prietenii n ora disear.
He didn't need to get up so early. = It was not necessary for him to get up so early. = Nu era necesar/nevoie ca el s se
scoale aa devreme.
N ||
I need not (go) = I needn't (go) = eu nu era nevoie s (merg) etc.
I ||
Need I (go) ? = eu era nevoie/necesar s merg ? = era necesar s (merg)? etc.
I - N ||
Need I not (go)? =needn't I (go)? = eu nu era necesar/nevoie s (merg)? = n-aveam eu nevoie s (merg)
?
USED TO = WOULD
A nu se confunda acest verb cu verbul principal regulat to use - used - used = a ntrebuina, a folosi. Se traduce n limba
romn prin timpul imperfect, iar sensul i este dat de verbul principal pe lng care funcioneaz n propoziie.
A ||
I used to (play) = I would (play) = eu jucam = eu obinuiam s (joc)
You used to (play) = you would (play) = tu jucai = tu obinuiai s (joci)
He/she used to (play) = he/she would (play) = el/ea juca = el/ea obinuia s (joace) etc
N ||
I use(d)n't to (play) = I wouldn't (play) = eu nu obinuiam s (joc) etc
I ||
Use(d) I to (play) ? = would I (play) ? = obinuiam eu s (joc) ? etc
I-N ||
Use(d)n't I to (play) ? = wouldn't I (play) ? = eu nu obinuiam s (joc) ? etc
- to be used to = a fi obinuit/nvat cu/s
He was used to their dogs. = El era obinuit/nvat cu cinii lor.
He was used to catch fish. = El era nvat/obinuit s prind pete.
- to get used to = a se nva/obinui cu
We got used to these working conditions. = Trebuia s ne obinuim cu aceste condiii de munc.
There used to be some tents on this ground last summer, use(d)n't there ? = Erau nite corturi pe terenul acesta vara trecut,
nu-i aa ?
- didn't use to - este form colocvial; use(d)n't to este forma literar
Alte structuri modale:
had better = mai bine s
We had better arrived there earlier than later. = Mai bine s ajungem acolo mai devreme dect mai trziu.
would rather ... than...= a prefera s ... dect s ...
I would rather walk than take a taxi. = A prefera s merg pe jos dect s iau un taxi.
C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - ASPECTUL COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV
TO SEE - SAW - SEEN (verb principal neregulat)
A ||

N ||
I ||
I - N ||

I saw= eu am vzut, eu vedeam


you saw = tu ai vzut, tu vedeai
he/she/it saw = el/ea a vzut, el/ea vedea
I did not see = I didn't see = eu nu am vzut
you did not see = you didn't see = tu nu ai vzut
he/she/it did not see = he/she/it didn't see = el/ea nu a vzut etc.
did I see ? = eu am vzut ? = am vzut eu ? etc.
did I not see ? = didn't I see ? = eu nu am (n-am) vzut ? etc.

we saw = noi am vzut, noi vedeam


you saw = voi ai vzut, voi vedeai
they saw = ei/ele au vzut, ei/ele vedeau

TO ANSWER - ANSWERED - ANSWERED = a rspunde (verb regulat)


A ||
I answered = eu am rspuns
we answered = noi am rspuns
you answered = tu ai rspuns
you answered = voi ai rspuns
he/she/it answered = el/ea a rspuns
they answered = ei/ele au rspuns
N ||
I did not answer = I didn't answer = eu nu am rspuns
you did not answer = you didn't answer = tu nu ai rspuns
he/she/it did not answer = he/she/it didn't answer = el/ea nu a rspuns etc.
I ||
did I answer ? = eu am rspuns ? = am rspuns eu ? etc.

47

I - N ||

did I not answer ? = didn't I answer ? = eu nu am rspuns ? etc.

TO DARE - DARED - DARED = a indrazni,a provoca


I dared = eu am ndrznit
we dared = noi am ndrznit
you dared = voi ai ndrznit
you dared = tu ai ndrznit
he/she/it dared = el/ea a ndrznit
they dared = ei/ele au ndrznit
N ||
I did not dare = I didn't dare = eu nu am (n-am) ndrznit etc.
I ||
did I dare ? = eu am ndrznit ? = am ndrznit eu ? etc.
I - N ||
did I not dare ? = didn't I dare ? = eu nu am ndrznit ? = n-am ndrznit eu ? etc.
They dared me to do it but I didn't dare. = Ei m-au provocat s-o fac, dar eu n-am avut curajul.
I did not dare to break my promise/word. = Nu am ndrznit s-mi calc promisiunea/cuvntul.
John did not dare to go there, did he ? = John n-a ndrznit s mearg/plece acolo, nu-i aa ? = John nu a avut curaj s plece
acolo, aa-i ?
A ||

TO NEED - NEEDED - NEEDED= a necesita, a solicita


This work needed much skill. = Treaba aceasta a necesitat/ solicitat/ presupus mult ndemnare/ pricepere.
A ||
I needed = eu am avut nevoie = mie mi-a trebuit
you needed = tu ai avut nevoie = ie i-a trebuit
he/she/it needed = el/ea a avut nevoie = lui/ei i-a trebuit
we needed = noi am avut nevoie = nou ne-a trebuit
you needed = voi ai avut nevoie = vou v-a trebuit
they needed = ei/ele au avut nevoie = lor le-a trebuit
N ||
I did not need = I didn't need = eu nu am avut nevoie = mie nu mi-a trebuit etc.
I ||
did I need ? = eu am avut nevoie ? = am avut eu nevoie ? = mi-a trebuit mie ? = mie mi-a trebuit? etc.
I - N ||
did I not need ? = didn't I need ? = eu nu am avut nevoie ? = n-am avut eu nevoie? = mie nu mi-a trebuit ? =
nu mi-a trebuit mie ? etc.
They didnt need our help, did they?=Ei nu au avut nevoie de ajutorul nostru, nu-i aa?=Lor nu le-a trebuit ajutorul nostru,
aa-i ?
Did they need any help ? = Au avut ei nevoie de vreun ajutor ? = Le-a trebuit lor vreun ajutor ?
Plants and animals needed rain. = Plantele i animalele aveau nevoie de ploaie.
We neded a lot of time = Am avut nevoie de mult timp. = Ne-a trebuit mult vreme.
D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU
TO SPEAK - SPOKE - SPOKEN = a vorbi
A ||
I was speaking = eu vorbeam
you were speaking = tu vorbeai
he/she was speaking = el/ea vorbea
N ||
I ||
I-N ||

we were speaking = noi vorbeam


you were speaking = voi vorbeai
they were speaking = ei/ele vorbeau

I was not (wasn't) speaking = eu nu vorbeam etc.


was I speaking ? = vorbeam/am vorbit eu ? etc.
was I not (wasn't I ) speaking ? = nu vorbeam eu ? etc.
E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV, ASPECTUL COMUN
TO SEE - SAW- SEEN

A ||
I was seen = eu am fost vzut()
you were seen = tu ai fost vzut()
he/she/it was seen = el/ea a fost vzut()
N ||
I ||
I - N ||

we were seen = noi am fost vzui/vzute


you were seen = voi ai fost vzui/vzute
they were seen = ei/ele au fost vzui/vzute

I was not seen = I wasn't seen = eu nu am fost vzut() etc.


was I seen? = eu am fost vzut? = am fost eu vzut()? etc.
was I not seen? = wasn't I seen? = eu nu am fost vzut()? etc.

F. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU


TO BE BEING LOOKED AT (by smb.) = a fi privit (de cineva)
A ||
I was being looked at = eu eram privit()

you were being looked at = tu erai

48

rivit()

we were being looked at = noi eram privii/privite


you were being looked at = voi erai privii/privite
they were being looked at = ei erau privii/privite
I was not being looked at = I wasn't being looked at = eu nu eram privit() etc.
was I being looked at ? = eram eu privit()? etc.
was I not being looked at ? = wasn't I being looked at ? = eu nu eram privit()? etc.

he/she/it was being looked at = el/ea era privit()


N ||
I ||
I-N ||

G. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECTUL COMUN


TO ENJOY - ENJOYED - ENJOYED ONESELF = a se distra
A ||
I enjoyed myself = eu m-am distrat/amuzat
you enjoyed yourself = tu te-ai distrat/amuzat
he/she/it enjoyed himself/herself/itself = el/ea s-a distrat/amuzat
we enjoyed ourselves = noi ne-am distrat/amuzat
you enjoyed yourselves = voi v-ai distrat/amuzat
they enjoyed themselves = ei/ele s-au distrat/amuzat
N ||
I did not enjoy myself = I didn't enjoy myself = eu nu m-am distrat etc.
I ||
did I enjoy myself ? = eu m-am distrat ? = m-am distrat eu ? etc.
I - N ||
did I not enjoy myself ? = didn't I enjoy myself ? = eu nu m-am distrat ? etc.
H. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECTUL CONTINUU
TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra
A ||
I was enjoying myself = eu m distram/amuzam
you were enjoying yourself = tu te distrai/amuzai
he was enjoying himself = el se distra/amuza
she was enjoying herself = ea se distra/amuza
it was enjoying itself = el/ea se distra/amuza
we were enjoying ourselves = noi ne distram/amuzam
you were enjoying yourselves = voi v distrai/amuzai
they were enjoying themselves = ei/ele se distrau/amuzau
N ||
I was not (wasn't) enjoying myself = eu nu m distram etc.
I ||
was I enjoying myself ? = eu m distram? = m distram eu ? etc.
I - N ||
was I not (wasn't I) enjoying myself ? = eu nu m distram ? etc.
I saw him a moment ago. = L-am vzut acum o clip. = L-am vzut mai nainte.
The boys always played tennis in the afternoon. = Bieii jucau totdeauna tenis dup amiaza/masa.
I met them on Sunday afternoon. = I-am ntlnit duminic dup amiaz/mas.
I entered the house as soon as it began to rain. = Am intrat n cas de ndat ce a nceput s plou.
They ate lunch together every day. = Ei au servit prnzul mpreun n fiecare zi.
The Past Tense apare n propoziiile n care se ntlnesc adverbe de timp ca: yesterday = ieri, the day before yesterday =
alaltieri, two days/weeks/months/ ago = acum dou zile/ sptmni/ luni, last time = ultima dat/oar, last week/ month =
sptmna/luna trecut, last year = anul trecut etc.
Did you see John earlier this week? = L-ai vzut pe John mai pe la nceputul sptmnii acesteia?
De reinut urmtoarele perechi de exemple corecte :
I saw John today. = I have seen John today. = L-am vzut pe John azi.
I saw John this week/month. = I have seen John this week/month. = L-am vzut pe John sptmna/luna aceasta.
I saw John recently. = I have seen John recently. = L-am vzut pe John recent.
1.6.2.1.4. MAI MULT CA PERFECT (THE PAST PERFECT)
Exprim o aciune trecut terminat anterioar altei aciuni trecute terminate. Se formeaz cu had plus participiul trecut al
verbului de conjugat.
It had begun to rain (1)/when I entered the house (2). = ncepuse s plou cnd am intrat n cas.
A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA THE PAST PERFECT
TO BE - WAS/WERE - BEEN
A ||
I had been = eu fusesem
we had been = noi fusesem
you had been = tu fusesei
you had been = voi fusesei
he/she/it had been = el/ea fusese
they had been = ei/ele fuseser
N ||
I had not been = I hadn't been = eu nu fusesem etc.
I ||
had I been? = eu fusesem? = fusesem eu? etc.
I - N ||
had I not been? = hadn't I been? = eu nu fusesem? = nu fusesem eu? etc.

49

TO HAVE - HAD - HAD


I had had = eu avusesem
we had had = noi avusesem
you had had = tu avusesei
you had had = voi avusesei
he/she/it had had = el/ea avusese
they had had = ei/ele avuseser
N ||
I had not had = I hadn't had = eu nu avusesem etc.
I ||
had I had ? = eu avusesem ? = avusesem eu ? etc.
I - N ||
had I not had ? = hadn't I had ? = eu nu avusesem ? = nu avusesem eu ? etc.
A ||

TO DO - DID - DONE
I had done = eu fcusem
we had done = noi fcusem
you had done = tu fcusei
you had done = voi fcusei
he/she/it had done = el/ea fcuse
they had done = ei/ele fcuser
N ||
I had not done = I hadn't done = eu nu fcusem etc.
I ||
had I done ? = eu fcusem ? = fcusem eu ? etc.
I - N ||
had I not done ? = hadn't I done ? = eu nu fcusem ? = nu fcusem eu ? etc.
A ||

B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA TIMPUL THE PAST PERFECT


CAN - COULD - 0 = TO BE ABLE TO
A ||
I had been able to (play) = eu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s (joc)
you had been able to (play) = tu putusei/tiusei/fusesei n stare s (joci)
he/she/it had been able to (play) = el/ea putuse/tiuse/fusese n stare s (joace)
we had been able to (play) = noi putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s (jucm)
you had been able to (play) = voi putusei/tiusei/fusesei n stare s (jucai)
they had been able to (play) = ei/ele putuser/tiuser/fuseser n stare s (joace)
N ||
I hadn't been able to (play) = eu nu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s (joc) etc.
I ||
had I been able to (play) ? = eu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s (joc) ? etc.
I - N ||
had I not been able to (play) ? = hadn't I been able to (play) ? = eu nu putusem/ tiusem s (joc) ? = eu nu
fusesem n stare s (joc) ? etc.
MAY - MIGHT - 0 = TO BE PERMITED/ALLOWED TO
I had been permitted/allowed to (play) = eu avusesem voie/ putusem s (joc) = mie mi fusese permis
ngduit s (joc)
you had been permitted/allowed to (play) = tu avusesei voie/ putusei s (joci) = ie i fusese pers (joci)
mis/ngduit
he/she/it had been permitted/allowed to (play) = el/ea avusese voie s (joace) = el/ea putuse s (joace) =
lui/ei i fusese permis/ngduit s (joace)
we had been permitted/allowed to (play) = noi avusesem voie s (jucm) = noi putusem s (jucm) = nou
ne fusese permis/ngduit s (jucm)
you had been permitted/allowed to (play) = voi avusesei voie s (jucai) = voi putusei s (jucai) = vou v
fusese permis/ngduit s (jucai)
they had been permitted/allowed to (play) = ei/ele avuseser voie s (joace) = ei/ele putuser s (joace) =
lor
le fusese permis/ngduit s (joace)
N ||
I had not been permitted/allowed to (play) = I hadn't been permitted/allowed to (play) = eu nu avusesem
voie s (joc) = nu putusem s (joc) = mie nu-mi fusese permis/ngduit s (joc) etc.
I ||
Had I been permitted/allowed to (play) ? = avusesem eu voie s (joc) ? = putusem eu s (joc)? = mi fusese
mie permis/ngduit s (joc) ? etc.
I - N ||
had I not been permitted/allowed to (play) ? = hadn't I been permitted/ allowed to (play) ? = eu nu
avusesem voie s (joc) ? = eu nu putusem s (joc) ? = nu-mi fusese mie permis/ngduit s (joc) ? etc.
A ||

MUST - 0 - 0 = TO HAVE TO
I had had to (play) = eu trebuise s (joc)
you had had to (play) = tu trebuise s (joci)
he/she/it had had to (play) = el/ea trebuise s (joace)
we had had to (play) = noi trebuise s (jucm)
you had had to (play) = voi trebuise s (jucai)
they had had to (play) = ei/ele trebuise s (joace)
N ||
I had not had to (play) = I hadn't had to (play) = eu nu trebuise s (joc) etc.
I ||
had I had to (play) ? = trebuise eu s (joc) ? etc.
I - N ||
had I not had to (play) ? = hadn't I had to (play) ? = eu nu trebuise s (joc) ? = nu trebuise eu s (joc) ? etc.
A ||

50

C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - ASPECTUL COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV


TO SPEAK - SPOKE - SPOKEN
A ||
I had spoken = eu vorbisem
we had spoken = noi vorbisem
you had spoken = tu vorbisei
you had spoken = voi vorbisei
he/she had spoken = el/ea vorbise
they had spoken = ei/ele vorbiser
N ||
I had not spoken = I hadn't spoken = eu nu vorbisem etc.
I ||
had I spoken ? = eu vorbisem ? = vorbisem eu ? etc.
I - N ||
had I not spoken? = hadn't I spoken? = eu nu vorbisem? = nu vorbisem eu? etc.
D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - ASPECTUL CONTINUU, DIATEZA ACTIV
TO SPEAK - SPOKE-SPOKEN
A ||

N ||
I ||
I - N ||

I had been speaking = eu vorbisem


we had been speaking = noi vorbisem
you had been speaking = tu vorbisei
you had been speaking = voi vorbisei
he/she had been speaking = el/ea vorbise
they had been speaking = ei/ele vorbiser
I had not been speaking = I hadn't been speaking = eu nu vorbisem etc.
had I been speaking ? = eu vorbisem ? = vorbisem eu ? etc.
had I not been speaking ? = hadn't I been speaking ? = eu nu vorbisem ? = nu vorbisem eu ? etc.
E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV, ASPECTUL COMUN

TO BE ASKED = a fi ntrebat
I had been asked = eu fusesem ntrebat
you had been asked = tu fusesei ntrebat
he/she had been asked = el/ea fusese ntrebat()
we had been asked = noi fusesem ntrebai
you had been asked = voi fusesei ntrebai
they had been asked = ei/ele fuseser ntrebai/ntrebate
N ||
I had not been asked = I hadn't been asked = eu nu fusesem ntrebat etc.
I ||
had I been asked ? = eu fusesem ntrebat ? = fusesem eu ntrebat ? etc.
I - N ||
had I not been asked ? = hadn't I been asked ? = eu nu fusesem ntrebat ? = nu fusesem eu ntrebat ? etc.
Exist cazuri cnd The Past Perfect se traduce prin The Past Tense.
I was at home when he had come to see me. = Eram acas cnd a venit el pe la mine.
n exemplul : El a zis c ne ateapt de cinci minute. - verbul ateapt din limba romn, care este la prezent se traduce n
limba englez prin Past Perfect: He said that he had been waiting for us for five minutes.
A ||

1.6.2.1.5. VIITORUL SIMPLU (THE SIMPLE FUTURE)


Exprim o aciune posterioar timpului prezent (adic momentului vorbirii).
Se formeaz cu auxiliarele shall /will la persoana I singular i plural, i will la celelalte persoane, plus infinitivul scurt
prezent al verbului de conjugat.
A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA VIITOR SIMPLU
TO BE = a fi
A ||
I shall/will be = I'll be = eu voi fi = eu o s fiu
you will be = you'll be = tu vei fi = tu o s fii
he/she/it will be = he'll/she'll/it'll be = el/ea o s fie
we shall/will be = we'll be = noi vom fi = o s fim
you will be = you'll be = voi vei fi = voi o s fii
they will be = they'll be = ei/ele vor fi = ei/ele o s fie
N ||
I shall/will not be = I shan't be = eu nu voi fi = eu n-o s fiu
you will not be = you won't be = tu nu vei fi = tu n-o s fii
he/she/it will not be = he/she/it won't be = el/ea nu va fi = el/ea n-o s fie etc.
I ||
shall/will I be ? = eu voi fi ? = eu o s fiu ? = voi fi eu ? = o s fiu eu ? etc.
I - N ||
shall/will I not be ? = shan't/won't I be ? = eu nu voi fi ? = nu voi fi eu ? = eu n-o s fiu ? etc.
A ||

TO HAVE
I shall/will have = I'll have = eu voi avea = eu o s am
you will have = you'll have = tu vei avea = tu o s ai
he/she/it will have = he'll/she'll/it'll have = el/ea va avea = el/ea o s aib

51

N ||
I ||
I - N ||

we shall/will have = we'll have = noi vom avea = noi o s avem


you will have = you'll have = voi vei avea = voi o s avei
they will have = they'll have = ei/ele vor avea = ei/ele o s aib
I shall/will not have = I shan't/won't have = eu nu voi avea = n-o s am
you will not have = you won't have = tu nu vei avea = tu n-o s ai
he/she/it will not have = he/she/it won't have = el/ea nu va avea = n-o s aib etc.
shall/will I have ? = eu voi avea ? = voi avea eu ? = eu o s am ? etc.
shall/will I not have ? = shan't/won't I have ? = eu nu voi avea ? = nu voi avea eu ? = eu n-o s am ? = n-o
s am eu ? etc.

TO DO
A ||

N ||

I ||
I - N ||

I shall/will do = I'll do = eu voi face = eu o s fac


you will do= you'll do = tu vei face = tu o s faci
he/she/it will do = he'll/she'll/it'll do = el/ea o s fac
we shall/will do= we'll do]=noi vom face=o s facem
they will do = they'll do = ei/ele vor face=ei/ele o s fac
I shall/will not do = I shan't/won't do = eu nu voi face = eu n-o s fac
you will not do = you won't do = tu nu vei face = tu n-o s faci
he/she/it will not do = he/she/it won't do = el/ea nu va face = el/ea n-o s fac etc.
shall/will I do ? = eu voi face ? = voi face eu ? = eu o s fac ? = o s fac eu ? etc.
shall/will I not do ? = shan't/ won't I do ? = eu nu voi face ? = nu voi face eu ? = eu n-o s fac ? = n-o s fac
eu ? etc.

B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA TIMPUL VIITOR SIMPLU


CAN - COULD - 0 = TO BE ABLE TO
A ||
I shall/will be able to (swim) = I'll be able to (swim) = eu voi putea/ti s (not) = eu fi voi n stare s (not)
you will be able to (swim) = you'll be able to (swim) = tu vei putea/ti s (noi) = tu vei fi n stare s (noi)
he/she/it will be able to (swim) = he'll/she'll/it'll be able to (swim) = el/ea va putea/ti s (noate) = el/ea va fi n stare s
(noate)
we shall/will be able to (swim) = we'll be able to (swim) = noi vom putea/ti s (notm) = noi vom fi n stare s (notm)
you will be able to (swim) = you'll be able to (swim) = voi vei putea/ti s (notai) = voi vei fi n stare s (notai)
they will be able to (swim) = they'll be able to (swim) = ei/ele vor putea/ti s (noate) = ei/ele vor fi n stare s (noate)
N ||
I shall/will not be able to (swim) = I shan't/won't be able to (swim) = eu nu voi putea/ti s (not) = eu nu voi fi n stare s
(not)
you will not be able to (swim) = you won't be able to (swim) = tu nu vei putea/ti s (noi) = tu nu vei fi n stare s (noi)
he/she/it will not be able to (swim) = he/she/it won't be able to (swim) = el/ea nu va putea/ti s (noate) = el/ea nu va fi n
stare s (noate) etc.
I ||
shall/will I be able to (swim) ? = eu voi putea/ti s (not) ? = eu voi fi n stare s (not) ? etc.
I-N ||
shall/will I not be able to (swim) ? = shan't/won't I be able to (swim) ? = eu nu voi putea/ti s (not) ? = eu nu voi fi n stare
s (not) ? = eu n-o s fiu n stare s (not) ? etc.
MAY-MIGHT - 0 = TO BE PERMITTED/ALLOWED TO
A ||
I shall/will be permitted/allowed to (go) = eu voi avea voie s (merg) = eu voi putea s (merg) = mie mi va fi permis/ngduit
s (merg) = eu o s pot s (merg)
you will be permitted/allowed to (go) = tu vei avea voie s (mergi) = tu vei putea s (mergi) = ie i va fi permis/ngduit s
(mergi) = tu o s poi s (mergi)
he/she/it will be permitted/allowed to (go) = el/ea va avea voie s (mearg) = el/ea va putea s (mearg) = lui/ei i va fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) = el/ea o s poat s (mearg)
we shall/will be permitted/allowed to (go) = noi vom avea voie s (mergem) = noi vom putea s (mergem) = nou ne va fi
permis/ngdui s (mergem) = noi o s putem s (mergem)
you will be permitted/allowed to (go) = voi vei avea voie s (mergei) = voi vei putea s (mergei) = vou v va fi permis/ngduit s (mergei) = voi o s putei s (mergei)
they will be permitted/allowed to (go) = ei/ele vor avea voie s (mearg) = ei/ele vor putea s (mearg) = lor le va fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) = ei/ele o s poat s (mearg)

52

N ||
I shall/will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = I shan't/won't be permitted/ allowed to (go) = eu nu voi avea voie s (merg)
= eu nu voi putea s (merg) = mie nu-mi va fi permis/ngduit s (merg) = eu n-o s am voie s (merg)
you will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = you won't be permitted/allowed to (go) = tu nu vei avea voie s (mergi) = tu nu
vei putea s (mergi) = ie nu-i va fi permis/ngduit s (mergi) = tu n-o s ai voie s (mergi)
he/she/it will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = he/she/it won't be permitted/ allowed to (go) = el/ea nu va avea voie s
(mearg) = el/ea nu va putea s (mearg) = lui/ei nu-i va fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) = el/ea n-o s aib voie s (mearg) etc.
I ||
shall/will I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? = eu voi avea voie s (merg) ? = voi avea eu voie s (merg) ? = mi va fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg) ? =eu o s pot (merge) ? etc.
I-N ||
shall/will I not be permitted/allowed to (go) ? = shan't/won't I be permitted/ allowed to (go) ? = eu nu voi avea voie s
(merg) ? = eu nu voi putea s (merg) ? = eu nu voi putea (merge) ? = mie nu-mi va fi permis/ngduit s (merg) ? etc.
MUST - MUST - 0 = TO HAVE TO
A ||
I shall/will have to (go) = I'll have to (go) = eu va trebui s (merg) = eu o s trebuiasc s (merg)
you will have to (go) = you'll have to (go) = tu va trebui s (mergi) = tu o s trebuiasc s (mergi)
he/she/it will have to (go) = he'll/she'll/it'll have to (go) = el/ea va trebui s (mearg) = el/ea o s trebuiasc s (mearg)
we shall/will have to (go) = we'll have to (go) = noi va trebui s (mergem) = noi o s trebuiasc s (mergem)
you will have to (go) = you'll have to (go) = voi va trebui s (mergei) = voi o s trebuiasc s (mergei)
they will have to (go) = they'll have to (go) = ei/ele va trebui s (mearg) = ei/ele o s trebuiasc s (mearg)
N ||
I shall/will not have to (go) = I shan't/won't have to (go) = eu nu va trebui s (merg) = eu n-o s trebuiasc s (merg)
you will not have to (go) = you won't have to (go) = tu nu va trebui s (mergi) = tu n-o s trebuiasc s (mergi)
he/she/it will not have to (go) = he/she/it won't have to (go) = el/ea nu va trebui s (mearg) = el/ea n-o s trebuiasc s
(mearg) etc.
I ||
shall/will I have to (go) ? = eu va trebui s (merg) ? = va trebui eu s (merg) ? etc.
I - N ||
shall/will I not have to (go) ? = shan't/won't I have to (go) ? = eu nu va trebui s (merg) ? = nu va trebui eu s (merg) ? = eu
n-o s trebuiasc s (merg) ? etc.
C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL COMUN
TO SPEAK
A ||
I shall/will speak = I'll speak = eu voi vorbi = eu o s vorbesc
you will speak = you'll speak = tu vei vorbi = tu o s vorbeti
he/she will speak = he'll/she'll speak = el/ea va vorbi = el/ea o s vorbeasc
we shall/will speak = we'll speak = noi vom vorbi = noi o s vorbim
you will speak = you'll speak = voi vei vorbi = voi o s vorbii
they will speak = they'll speak = ei/ele vor vorbi = ei/ele o s vorbeasc
N ||
I shall/will not speak = I shan't/won't speak = eu nu voi vorbi = eu n-o s vorbesc
you will not speak = you won't speak = tu nu vei vorbi = tu n-o s vorbeti
he/she will not speak = he/she won't speak = el/ea nu va vorbi = el/ea n-o s vorbeasc etc.
I ||
shall/will I speak ? = eu voi vorbi ? = voi vorbi eu ? = eu o s vorbesc ? etc.
I-N ||
shall/will I not speak ? = shan't/won't I speak ? = eu nu voi vorbi ? = nu voi vorbi eu ? = eu n-o s vorbesc
? = n-o s vorbesc eu ? etc.
TO DARE - DARED - DARED
I shall/will dare = I'll dare = eu voi ndrzni = eu o s ndrznesc
you will dare = you'll dare = tu vei ndrzni = tu o s ndrzneti
he/she/it will dare = he'll/she'll/it'll dare= el/ea va ndrzni = el/ea o s ndrz- neasc
we shall/will dare = we'll dare = noi vom ndrzni = noi o s ndrznim
you will dare = you'll dare = voi vei ndrzni = voi o s ndrznii
they will dare = they'll dare = ei/ele vor ndrzni = ei/ele o s ndrzneasc
N ||
I shall/will not dare = I shan't/won't dare = eu nu voi ndrzni = eu n-o s ndrznesc etc.
I ||
shall/will I dare ? = eu voi ndrzni ? = voi ndrzni eu? = o s ndrznesc eu? etc.
I-N ||
shall/will/will I not dare ? = shan't/won't I dare ? = eu nu voi ndrzni ? = nu voi ndrzni eu ? = eu n-o s
A ||

53

ndrznesc ? = n-o s ndrznesc eu ? etc.


They will not dare to break their word. = Ei nu vor ndrzni s-i calce cuvntul.
I shall/will not dare to go there alone. = Eu nu voi ndrzni s merg acolo singur(). = Eu nu voi avea curaj s plec/merg acolo
singur().
TO NEED - NEEDED - NEEDED
A ||
I shall/will need = I'll need = eu voi avea nevoie = mie mi va trebui = eu o s am nevoie = mie o s-mi trebuiasc
you will need = you'll need = tu vei avea nevoie = ie i va trebui = tu o s ai nevoie = ie o s-i trebuiasc
he/she/it will need = he'll/she'll/it'll need = el/ea va avea nevoie = lui/ei i va trebui = el/ea o s aib nevoie = lui/ei o s-i trebuiasc
we shall/will need = we'll need = noi vom avea nevoie = nou ne va trebui = noi o s avem nevoie = nou o s ne trebuiasc
you will need = you'll need = voi vei avea nevoie = vou v va trebui = voi o s avei nevoie = vou o s v trebuiasc
they will need = they'll need = ei/ele vor avea nevoie = lor le va trebui = ei/ele o s aib nevoie = lor o s le trebuiasc
N ||
I shall/will not need = I shan't/won't need = eu nu voi avea nevoie = mie nu-mi va trebui = eu n-o s am nevoie = mie n-o smi trebuiasc etc.
I ||
shall/will I need ? = eu voi avea nevoie ? = voi avea eu nevoie ? = eu o s am nevoie ? = o s am eu nevoie ? = mie mi va trebui ? = mi va trebui mie ? = mie o s-mi trebuiasc ? = o s-mi trebuiasc mie ? etc.
I-N ||
shall/will I not need ? = shan't/won't I need ? = eu nu voi avea nevoie ? = nu voi avea eu nevoie ? = eu n-o s am nevoie ? =
n-o s am eu nevoie ? = mie nu-mi va trebui ? = nu-mi va trebui mie ? = mie n-o s-mi trebuiasc ? = n-o s-mi trebu-iasc mie ?
etc.
Plants and animals will always need rain. = Plantele i animalele vor avea totdeauna nevoie de ploaie.
Will you need any help ? = Vei avea tu nevoie de vreun ajutor ?
What will you need ? = De ce vei avea nevoie ? = Ce v va trebui ?
D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU
TO SPEAK
A ||
I shall/will be speaking = I'll be speaking = eu voi vorbi = eu o s vorbesc
you will be speaking = you'll be speaking = tu vei vorbi = tu o s vorbeti
he/she will be speaking = he'll/she'll be speaking = el/ea va vorbi = el/ea o s vorbeasc
we shall/will be speaking = we'll be speaking = noi vom vorbi = noi o s vorbim
you will be speaking = you'll be speaking = voi vei vorbi = voi o s vorbii
they will be speaking = they'll be speaking = ei/ele vor vorbi = ei/ele o s vorbeasc
N ||
I shall/will not be speaking = I shan't/won't be speaking = eu nu voi vorbi = eu n-o s vorbesc etc.
I ||
shall/will I be speaking ? = eu voi vorbi ? = voi vorbi eu ? = eu o s vorbesc? etc.
I-N ||
shall/will I not be speaking ? = shan't/won't I be speaking ? = eu nu voi vorbi ? etc.
E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV
TO BE ADMIRED
A ||
I shall/will be admired = I'll be admired = eu voi fi admirat = eu o s fiu admirat
you will be admired = you'll be admired = tu vei fi admirat = tu o s fii admirat
he/she/it will be admired = he'll/she'll/it'll be admired = el/ea va fi admirat() = el/ea o s fie admirat()
we shall/will be admired = we'll be admired = noi vom fi admirai = noi o s fim admirai
you will be admired = you'll be admired = voi vei fi admirai = voi o s fii admirai
they will be admired = they'll be admired = ei/ele vor fi admirai/admirate = ei/ele o s fie admirai/admirate
N ||
I shall/will not be admired = I shan't/won't be admired = eu nu voi fi admirat = eu n-o s fiu admirat etc.
I ||
shall/will I be admired? = eu voi fi admirat? = voi fi eu admirat? = eu o s fiu admirat? = o s fiu eu admirat?
I-N ||
shall/will I not be admired ? = shan't/won't I be admired ? = eu nu voi fi admirat ? = nu voi fi eu admirat ?
= eu n-o s fiu admirat ? = n-o s fiu eu admirat ? etc.
1.6.2.1.6. VIITORUL ANTERIOR (THE FUTURE PERFECT)
Exprim o aciune viitoare care se petrece naintea altei aciuni viitoare. Se formeaz cu auxiliarele shall/will plus infinitivul scurt perfect al verbului de conjugat.
By five o'clock, when you come, I shall have written the letter. = Pn la (cel trziu) ora cinci, cnd vei veni tu, eu voi fi

54

scris scrisoarea.
I shall/will have been = eu voi fi fost
I shall/will not have been = eu nu voi fi fost
Shall/Will I have been ? = voi fi fost eu ? = eu voi fi fost ?
Shall/Will I not have been ? = eu nu voi fi fost ? = nu voi fi fost eu ?
I shall/will have had to = eu va fi trebuit s etc.
CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA VIITOR ANTERIOR
TO COME = a veni
A ||

N ||
I ||
I-N ||

I shall/will have come = eu voi fi venit


we shall/will have come = noi vom fi venit
you will have come = tu vei fi venit
you will have come = voi vei fi venit
they will have come = ei/ele vor fi venit
he/she/it will have come = el/ea va fi venit
I shall/will not have come = I shan't/won't have come = eu nu voi fi venit etc.
shall/will I have come ? = eu voi fi venit ? = voi fi venit eu ? etc.
shall/will I not have come ? = shan't/won't I have come ? = eu nu voi fi venit ? etc.

1.6.2.1.7. VIITOR N TRECUT (THE FUTURE IN THE PAST)


Exprim o aciune viitoare comunicat ntr-un moment trecut i se folosete n fraze. Se traduce n limba romn prin timpul viitor simplu.
Se formeaz cu auxiliarele should/would la persoana I singular i plural i would la celelalte persoane plus infinitivul
scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat.
You told me (1) that you would come (2). = Mi-ai spus c vei veni.
Did I tell you that I should/would come ? = i-am spus eu c voi veni ?
TO COME = a veni
I should/would come = eu voi veni
we should/would come = noi vom veni
you would come = tu vei veni
you would come = voi vei veni
he/she/it would come = el/ea va veni
they would come = ei/ele vor veni
N ||
I should/would not come = I shouldn't/wouldn't come = eu nu voi veni
you would not come = you wouldn't come = tu nu vei veni = tu n-o s vii
he/she/it would not come = he/she/it wouldn't come = el/ea nu va veni = el/ea n-o s vin etc.
I ||
should/would I come ? = eu voi veni ? etc.
I-N ||
should/would I not come ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I come ? = eu nu voi veni ? etc.
A ||

1.6.2.1.8. VIITORUL APROPIAT (THE NEAR FUTURE = THE FUTURE OF INTENTION)


Se formeaz cu construcia to be going to (a avea de gnd s = a inteniona s) din care verbul to be se conjug la
pre-zent, Past Tense i Past Perfect, mpreun cu infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat. Aceast construcie exprim o aciune ce urmeaz s aib loc la scurt timp dup ce a fost anunat. Se traduce i prin viitor.
1) I am going to play tennis. = Am de gnd s joc tenis.= voi juca tenis.
2) I was going to play tennis. = Aveam de gnd s joc tenis.
3) I had been going to play tennis. = Avusesem de gnd s joc tenis.
Alte modaliti de exprimare a viitorului:
a) prin intermediul adverbelor de timp care conin ideea de viitor
They are coming tomorrow, not tonight. = Ei vin (vor veni) mine, nu disear.
b) cu ajutorul verbului to be to = a urma s
When are they to be married ? = Cnd urmeaz ei s se cstoreasc ?
They are to be married in August. = Ei urmeaz s se cstoreasc n august.
What are you to do after that ? = Ce vei face dup aceea ?
What was I to do ? = Ce era s fac ? = Ce aveam de fcut ? = Ce trebuia s fac ?
I did not know what they were to do. = Eu nu am tiut ce urma s fac ei.
We are to pay the cost of the ticket. = Urmeaz s pltim costul biletului.
c) cu construcia/structura to be about to = a fi pe punctul de a, a fi gata s
They are about to leave. = Ei sunt gata s plece. = Sunt gata de plecare. = Sunt pe punctul de plecare. = Ei stau s plece.
d) cu ajutorul structurii to be going to = a avea de gnd s, a inteniona s :
He is going to be 25 years old next year. = El va avea 25 de ani anul urmtor.
Do you think it is going to rain ? = Crezi c va ploua ?
I suppose this house is going to be expensive. = Presupun c aceast cas va fi scump.

55

1.6.2.2. MODUL SUBJONCTIV (THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)


Se folosete n propoziii cu sensuri negative. Exprim :
a) o condiie ireal, care se poate realiza sau nu
If I were there, I should help you. = Dac a fi acolo, te-a ajuta.
b) o concesie probabil:
He wouldn't find me even if he came earlier. = Nu m-ar gsi chiar dac ar veni mai devreme.
c) o dorin:
He wished he had more friends .= Ar dori s aib mai muli prieteni.
I wish I were there. = A dori s fiu acolo.
Se ntrebuineaz:
- Dup conjuncii ca : if = dac, if only = numai dac, even if = chiar dac, as if = ca i cnd/cum, de parc, as though = ca i
cum, lest = ca s nu, however = orict de, however (little) = orict de (puin), however (much) = orict de (mult), however
(few) = orict de (puini), however (many) = orict de (muli), however (late) = orict de (trziu), whatever = orice, indiferent
care, oricare, if need be = dac e nevoie/necesar etc.
Dup verbul wish sau expresiile it's time (or it's high time) = este timpul s, it is necessary = este necesar, it is probable/likely = este probabil, it is possible = este posibil, it is right = este drept/corect, it is wrong = este greit/nedrept etc.
It was ordered that computers be used. = S-a ordonat s se foloseasc /ntrebuineze calculatoarele.
"Come what may", he said. = S se ntmple ce s-o ntmpla, a zis el. Fie ce-o fi, a zis el.
"So be it", Mary repeated. = Aa s fie, a repetat Mary.
"If need be, we send you a coach", he said.= Dac este necesar, v trimitem un autocar, a zis el.
Iat o subdiviziune a subjonctivului din punct de vedere formal:
1) Subjonctiv prezent (The Present Subjunctive or Subjunctive I) Se traduce prin conjunctiv prezent sau condiional-optativ
prezent. Ca form coincide cu infinitiv scurt prezent - toate persoanele avnd aceeai form. Exemplu:
It is vital that you go there now. = Este vital ca tu s mergi acolo acum.
So be it. = Aa s fie.
if need be = dac este nevoie
2) Subjonctiv trecut (The Simple Past Subjunctive or Subjunctive II)
It's time we went home. = E timpul s mergem acas.
I wish I were there .= A vrea s fiu acolo.
3) Subjonctiv perfect ( The Past Perfect Subjunctive or Subjunctive III)
If I had bought the book I should have read it. = Dac a fi cumprat cartea a fi citit-o.
Comparai cele dou moduri :
subjonctiv
indicativ
if I were here = dac a fi aici
if I was here = dac eu eram aici
f you were here = dac tu ai fi aici
if you were here = dac tu erai aici
if he/she/it was here = dac el/ea era aici
if he/she/it were here=dac el/ea ar fi aici
if we were here = dac noi eram aici
if we were here = dac noi am fi aici
if you were here = dac voi ai fi aici
if you were here = dac voi erai aici
if they were here = dac ei/ele erau aici
if they were here = dac ei/ele ar fi aici
He does not remember if/whether I was there. = El nu-i amintete dac eu eram acolo.
If I were there I should/would play tennis. = Dac a fi acolo a juca tenis.
If need be I would come earlier. = If it were necesary I would come earlier. = Dac ar fi necesar a veni mai devreme.
1.6.2.2.1. SUBJONCTIVUL II (THE SUBJUNCTIVE II)
n limba romn se traduce prin condiional optativ prezent i exprim un fapt ireal. (ex. If I had money I would buy a
car. = Dac a avea bani a cumpra o main. Se nelege din acest exemplu c nu pot cumpra main pentru c nu am bani.)
A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA SUBJUNCTIVE II
TO BE = a fi
A ||
if I were = dac eu a fi
if we were = dac noi am fi
if you were = dac tu ai fi
if you were = dac voi ai fi
if he/she/it were = dac el/ea ar fi
if they were = dac ei/ele ar fi
I ||
were I ... = s fiu eu, de-a fi eu ...
were we ... = s fim noi, de-am fi noi ...
were you ... = s fii voi, de-ai fi voi ...
were you ... = s fii tu, de-ai fi tu ...
were they ... = s fie ei/ele, de-ar fi ei/ele ... were he/she/it ... = s fie el/ea, de-ar fi el/ea ...
N ||
if I were not = if I weren't = dac eu nu a fi = dac eu n-a fi etc.
I-N ||
were I not = weren't I = s nu fiu eu = de n-a fi eu etc.
TO HAVE = a avea

56

A ||

if I had = dac eu a avea


if you had = dac tu ai avea
if he/she/it had = dac el/ea ar avea

if we had = dac noi am avea


if you had = dac voi ai avea
if they had = dac ei/ele ar avea

I ||

N ||
I-N ||

had I = s am eu = de-a avea eu


had we = s avem noi = de-am avea noi
had you = s ai tu = de-ai avea tu
had you = s avei voi = de-ai avea voi
had he/she/it = s aib el/ea, de-ar avea el/ea
had they = s aib ei/ele = de-ar avea ei/ele
if I had not = if I hadn't = dac eu nu a avea = dac eu n-a avea etc.
had I not = hadn't I = s n-am eu = de n-a avea eu etc.

TO DO = A FACE
if I did = dac eu a face
if we did = dac noi am face
if you did = dac voi ai face
if you did = dac tu ai face
if he/she/it did = dac el/ea ar face
if they did = dac ei/ele ar face
I ||
did I do = s fac eu = de-a face eu etc.
N ||
if I did not do = if I didn't do = dac eu nu a face = dac eu n-a face etc.
I-N ||
did I not do = didn't I do = s nu fac eu = de n-a face eu etc.
A ||

B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE II


CAN - COULD - 0 = TO BE ABLE TO
A ||
if I could (go) = if I were able to (go) = dac eu a putea (merge) = dac eu a fi n stare s (merg)
you could (go) = if you were able to (go) = dac tu ai putea (merge) = dac tu ai fi n stare s (mergi)
he/she/it could (go) = if he/she/it were able to (go) = dac el/ea ar putea (merge) = dac el/ea ar fi n stare s
if we could (go) = if we were able to (go) = dac noi am putea (merge) = dac noi am fi n stare s (mergem)
if you could (go) = if you were able to (go) = dac voi ai putea (merge) = dac voi ai fi n stare s (mergei)
if they could (go) = if they were able to (go) = dac ei/ele ar putea (merge) = dac ei/ele ar fi n stare s
I ||
could I (go) = were I able to (go) = s pot eu (merge) = s pot eu s (merg) = de-a putea eu (merge)
could you (go) = were you able to (go) = s poi tu (merge)
could he/she/it (go) = were he/she/it able to (go) = s poat el/ea (merge)
could we (go) = were we able to (go) = s putem noi (merge)
could you (go) = were you able to (go) = s putei voi (merge)
could they (go) = were they able to (go) = s poat ei/ele (merge)
N ||
if I could not (go) = if I couldn't (go) = if I were not able to go = if I weren't able to (go) = dac eu n-a
putea s (merg) = dac n-a fi n stare s (merg) etc.
I-N ||
could I not (go) = couldn't I (go) = were I not able to (go) = weren't I able to (go) = s nu pot eu s (merg)
= de n-a putea eu s (merg) etc.
A ||

vI ||

MAY - MIGHT - 0 = TO BE PERMITTED/ALLOWED TO


if I might (go) = if I were permitted/allowed to (go) = dac eu a avea voie s (merg) = dac mie mi-ar fi
permis/ngduit s
if you might (go) = if you were permitted/allowed to (go) = dac tu ai avea voie s (mergi) = dac ie i-ar fi
permis/ngduit s
if he/she/it might (go) = if he/she/it were permitted/allowed to (go) = dac el/ea ar avea voie s (mearg) =
dac lui/ei i-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mearg)
if we might (go) = if we were permitted/allowed to (go) = dac noi am avea voie s (mergem) = dac nou
ne-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergem)
if you might (go) = if you were permitted/allowed to (go) = dac voi ai avea voie s (mergei) = dac vou
ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergei)
if they might (go) = if they were permitted/allowed to (go) = dac ei/ele ar avea voie s (mearg) = dac lor
le-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mearg)
might I (go) = were I permitted/allowed to (go) = s am eu voie s (merg) = de mi-ar fi mie permis/ngduit
s (merg)
might you (go) = were you permitted/allowed to (go) = s ai tu voie s (mergi) = de i-ar fi ie
permis/ngduit s (mergi)
might he/she/it (go) = were he/she/it permitted/allowed to (go)=s aib el/ea voie s (mearg)=de i-ar fi
lui/ei permis / ngduit s (mearg)
might we (go) = were we permitted/allowed to (go) = s avem noi voie s (mergem) = de ne-ar fi nou
ngduit s
might you (go) = were you permitted/allowed to (go) = s avei voi voie s (mergei) = de v-ar fi vou

57

is/ngduit s
might they (go) = were they permitted/allowed to (go) = s aib ei/ele voie s (mearg) = de le-ar fi lor
permis/ngduit s
if I might not (go) = if I mightn't (go) = if I were not permitted/allowed to (go) = if I weren't
permitted/allowed to (go) = dac eu n-a avea voie s (merg) = dac mie nu mi-ar fi permis/ngduit s

N ||
(merg)
I-N ||
to
voie s

might I not (go) = mightn't I (go) = were I not permitted/allowed to (go) = weren't I permitted/allowed
(go) = s nu am eu voie s (merg) = s nu-mi fie mie permis/ngduit s (merg) = de n-a avea eu
(merg) = de nu mi-ar fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg ) etc.

MUST - 0 - 0 = TO HAVE TO
if I had to (go) = dac eu ar trebui s (merg)
if you had to (go) = dac tu ar trebui s (mergi)
if he/she/it had to (go) = dac el/ea ar trebui s (mearg)
if we had to (go) = dac noi ar trebui s (mergem)
if you had to (go) = dac voi ar trebui s (mergei)
if they had to (go) = dac ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg)
I ||
had I to (go) = s trebuiasc eu s (merg) = de-ar trebui eu s (merg)
had you to (go) = s trebuiasc tu s (mergi) = de-ar trebui tu s (mergi)
had he/she/it to (go) = s trebuiasc el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar trebui el/ea s (mearg)
had we to (go) = s trebuiasc noi s (mergem) = de-ar trebui noi s (mergem)
had you to (go) = s trebuiasc voi s (mergei) = de-ar trebui voi s (mergei)
had they to (go) = s trebuiasc ei/ele s (mearg) = de-ar trebui ei/ele s (mearg)
N ||
if I had not to (go) = if I hadn't to (go) = dac eu nu ar trebui s (merg) = dac eu n-ar trebui s (merg) etc.
I-N ||
had I not to (go) = hadn't I to (go) = s nu trebuiasc eu s (merg) = de n-ar trebui eu s (merg) etc.
A ||

SHALL - SHOULD - 0
if I should (go) = dac eu ar trebui s (merg) ; dac s-ar ntmpla s (merg) eu
if you should (go) = dac tu ar trebui s (mergi) ; dac s-ar ntmpla s (mergi) tu
if he/she/it should (go) = dac el/ea ar trebui s (mearg) ; dac s-ar ntmpla s (mearg) el/ea etc.
I ||
should I (go) = s trebuiasc eu s (merg) = de-ar trebui eu s (merg)
should you (go) = s trebuiasc tu s (mergi) = de-ar trebui tu s (mergi)
should he/she/it (go) = s trebuiasc el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar trebui el/ea s (mearg) etc.
N ||
if I should not (go) = if I shouldn't (go) = dac eu n-ar trebui s (merg) etc.
I-N ||
should I not (go) = shouldn't I (go) = s nu trebuiasc eu s (merg) = de n-ar trebui eu s (merg) etc.
A ||

WILL - WOULD - 0
A ||
if I would (go) = dac eu a vrea s (merg)
if you would (go) = dac tu ai vrea s (mergi)
if he/she/it would (go) = dac el/ea ar vrea s

if we would (go) = dac noi am vrea s (mergem)


if you would (go) = dac voi ai vrea s (mergei)
if they would (go) = dac ei/ele ar vrea s (mearg)

I ||

N ||
I-N ||

would I (go) = s vreau eu s (merg) = de-a vrea eu s (merg)


would you (go) = s vrei tu s (mergi) = de-ai vrea tu s (mergi)
would he/she/it (go) = s vrea el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar vrea el/ea s (mearg)
would we (go) = s vrem noi s (mergem) = de-am vrea noi s (mergem)
would you (go) = s vrei voi s (mergei) = de-ai vrea voi s (mergei)
would they (go) = s vrea ei/ele s (mearg) = de-ar vrea ei/ele s (mearg)
if I would not (go) = if I wouldn't (go) = dac eu nu a vrea s (merg) = dac eu n-a vrea s (merg) etc.
would I not (go) = wouldn't I (go) = s nu vreau eu s (merg) etc.

TO BE - WAS /WERE - BEEN TO


A ||
if I were to (go) = dac eu ar fi/urma s (merg)
if you were to (go) = dac tu ar fi/urma s (mergi)
if he/she/it were to (go) = dac el/ea ar fi/urma s (mearg)
if we were to (go) = dac noi ar fi/urma s (mergem)
if you were to (go) = dac voi ar fi/urma s (mergei)
if they were to (go) = dac ei/ele ar fi/urma s (mearg)
I ||
were I to (go) = s fie eu s (merg) = de-ar fi s (merg) eu

58

N ||
I-N ||

A ||
N ||

were you to (go) = s fie tu s (mergi) = de-ar fi s (mergi) tu


were he/she/it to (go) = s fie el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar fi s (mearg) el/ea
were we to (go) = s fie noi s (mergem) = de-ar fi s (mergem) noi
were you to (go) = s fie voi s (mergei) = de-ar fi s (mergei) voi
were they to (go) = s fie ei/ele s (mearg) = de-ar fi s (mearg) ei/ele
if I were not to (go) = if I weren't to (go) = dac eu nu ar fi s (merg) = dac eu n-ar fi s (merg) etc.
were I not to (go) = weren't I to (go) = s nu fie eu s (merg/plec) = de n-ar fi s (merg/plec) eu etc.
C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE II - ASPECTUL COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV
TO SEE - SAW - SEEN
if I saw = dac eu a vedea
if we saw = dac noi am vedea
if you saw = dac voi ai vedea
if you saw = dac tu ai vedea
if he/she/it saw = dac el/ea ar vedea
if they saw = dac ei/ele ar vedea
if I did not see = if I didn't see = dac eu nu a vedea = dac eu n-a vedea etc.
D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE II- ASPECTUL CONTINUU, DIATEZA ACTIV
TO SING

A ||

I ||

N ||
I-N ||

if I were singing = dac eu a cnta


if we were singing = dac noi am cnta
if you were singing = dac tu ai cnta
if you were singing = dac voi ai cnta
if he/she/it were singing = dac el/ea ar cnta
if they were singing = dac ei/ele ar cnta
were I singing = de-a cnta eu = s cnt eu
were you singing = de-ai cnta tu = s cni tu
were he/she/it singing = de-ar cnta el/ea = s cnte el/ea
were we singing = de-am cnta noi = s cntm noi
were you singing = de-ai cnta voi = s cntai voi
were they singing = de-ar cnta ei/ele = s cnte ei/ele
if I were not singing = if I weren't singing = dac eu nu a cnta = dac eu n-a cnta etc.
were I not singing = weren't I singing = de n-a cnta eu = s nu cnt eu etc.

1.6.2.2.2. SUBJONCTIVUL PERFECT (THE PAST PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE OR SUBJUNCTIVE III)


Se traduce prin conjunctiv /condiional perfect.
If I had gone home. = Dac eu a fi mers acas.
Had I gone home. = S fi mers eu acas. = De-a fi mers eu acas.
Subjonctivul perfect exprim o presupunere sau un fapt care nu concord cu realitatea. Se folosete n subordonata
condiional de tipul III.

A ||
I ||

A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA SUBJUNCTIVE III


TO BE - WAS/WERE - BEEN
if I had been = dac eu a fi fost
if we had been = dac noi am fi fost
if you had been = dac tu ai fi fost
if you had been = dac voi ai fi fost
if he/she/it had been= dac el/ea ar fi fost
if they had been = dac ei/ele ar fi fost
had I been = s fi fost eu = de-a fi fost eu
had we been = s fi fost noi = de-am fi fost noi
had you been = s fi fost tu = de-ai fi fost tu
had you been = s fi fost voi = de-ai fi fost

voi
had he/she/it been = s fi fost el/ea = de-ar fi fost el/ea
e
N ||
I-N ||
A ||

I ||

N ||
I-N ||

had they been = s fi fost ei/ele = de-ar fi fost

if I had not been = if I hadn't been = dac eu nu a fi fost = dac eu n-a fi fost etc.
had I not been = hadn't I been = s nu fi fost eu = de n-a fi fost eu etc.
TO HAVE - HAD - HAD
if I had had = dac eu a fi avut
if you had had = dac tu ai fi avut
if he/she/it had had = dac el/ea ar fi avut

if we had had = dac noi am fi avut


if you had had = dac voi ai fi avut
if they had had = dac ei/ele ar fi avut

had I had = s fi avut eu = de-a fi avut eu


had we had = s fi avut noi = de-am fi avut noi
had you had = s fi avut tu = de-ai fi avut tu
had you had = s fi avut voi = de-ai fi avut voi
had he/she/ had = s fi avut el/ea = de-ar fi avut el/ea had they had = s fi avut ei/ele = de-ar fi avut ei/ele
if I had not had = if I hadn't had = dac eu nu a fi avut = dac eu n-a fi avut etc.
had I not had = hadn't I had = s nu fi avut eu = de n-a fi avut eu etc.

59

TO DO - DID - DONE
if I had done = dac eu a fi fcut
if we had done = dac noi am fi fcut
if you had done = dac tu ai fi fcut
if you had done = dac voi ai fi fcut
if he/she/it had done = dac el/ea ar fi fcut
if they had done = dac ei/ele ar fi fcut
I ||
had I done = s fi fcut eu = de-a fi fcut eu
had we done = s fi fcut noi = de-am fi fcut noi
had you done = s fi fcut voi = de-ai fi fcut voi
had you done = s fi fcut tu = de-ai fi fcut tu
had he done = s fi fcut el/ea = de-ar fi fcut el/ea had they done = s fi fcut ei/ele = de-ar fi fcut ei/ele
N ||
if I had not done = if I hadn't done = dac eu nu a fi fcut = dac eu n-a fi fcut etc.
I-N ||
had I not done = hadn't I done = s nu fi fcut eu = de n-a fi fcut eu etc.
A ||

B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE III


CAN - COULD - 0 = TO BE ABLE TO
A ||
if I had been able to (go) = dac eu a fi putut s (merg) = dac eu a fi fost n stare s (merg)
if you had been able to (go) = dac tu ai fi putut s (mergi) = dac tu ai fi fost n stare s (mergi)
if he/she/it had been able to (go) = dac el/ea ar fi putut s (mearg) = dac el/ea ar fi fost n stare s
(mearg)
if we had been able to (go) = dac noi am fi putut s (mergem) = dac noi am fi fost n stare s (mergem)
if you had been able to (go) = dac voi ai fi putut s (mergei) = dac voi ai fi fost n stare s (mergei)
if they had been able to (go) = dac ei/ele ar fi putut s (mearg) = dac ei/ele ar fi fost n stare s (mearg)
I ||
had I been able to (go) = s fi fost eu n stare s (merg) = de-a fi putut eu s (merg) = s fi putut eu s
(merg)
= de-a fi fost eu n stare s (merg)
had you been able to (go) = s fi fost tu n stare s (mergi) = de-ai fi putut tu s (mergi) = s fi putut tu s
(mergi) = de-ai fi fost tu n stare s (mergi)
had he/she/it been able to (go) = s fi fost el/ea n stare s (mearg) = de-ar fi putut el/ea s (mearg) = s fi
putut el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar fi fost el/ea n stare s (mearg)
had we been able to (go) = s fi fost noi n stare s (mergem) = de-am fi putut noi s (mergem) = s fi putut
noi s (mergem) = de-am fi fost noi n stare s (mergem)
had you been able to (go) = s fi fost voi n stare s (mergei) = de-ai fi putut voi s (mergei) = s fi putut
voi
s (mergei) = de-ai fi fost voi n stare s (mergei)
had they been able to (go) = s fi fost ei/ele n stare s (mearg) = de-ar fi putut ei/ele s (mearg) = s fi
putut
ei/ele s (mearg) = de-ar fi fost ei/ele n stare s (mearg)
N ||
if I had not been able to (go) = if I hadn't been able to (go) = dac eu nu a (n-a) fi putut s (merg) =
dac
eu nu a (n-a) fi fost n stare s (merg) etc.
I-N ||
had I not been able to (go) = hadn't I been able to (go) = s nu fi fost eu n stare s (merg) = de n-a fi putut
eu s (merg) = s nu fi putut eu s (merg) = de n-a fi fost eu n stare s (merg) etc.
MAY - MIGHT = TO BE PERMITTED/ALLOWED TO
if I had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac eu a fi avut voie s (merg) = dac eu a fi putut s (merg) =
dac mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg)
if you had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac tu ai fi avut voie s (mergi) = dac tu ai fi putut s (mergi)
=
dac ie i-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergi)
if he/she/it had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac el/ea ar fi avut voie s (mearg ) = dac el/ea ar fi
putut s (mearg) = dac lui/ei i-ar fi fost permis/ ngduit s (mearg)
if we had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac noi am fi avut voie s (mergem) = dac noi am fi putut s
(mergem) = dac nou ne-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergem)
if you had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac voi ai fi avut voie s (mergei) = dac voi ai fi putut s
(mergei) = dac vou v-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergei)
if they had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac ei/ele ar fi avut voie s (mearg) = dac ei/ele ar fi putut
s
(mearg) = dac lor le-ar fi fost permis/ng- duit s (mearg)
I ||
had I been permitted/allowed to (go) = s fi avut eu voie s (merg) = s fi putut eu s (merg) = s-mi fi fost
mie permis/ngduit s (merg) = de-a fi avut eu voie s (merg) = de-a fi putut eu s merg = de mi-ar fi fost
mie permis/ngduit s (merg)
had you been permitted/allowed to (go) = s fi avut tu voie s (mergi) = s fi putut tu s (mergi) = s-i fi
fost
ie permis/ngduit s (mergi) = de-ai fi avut tu voie s (mergi) = de-ai fi putut tu s (mergi) = de i-ar
fi fost ie
permis/ngduit s (mergi)
had he/she/it been permitted/allowed to (go) = s fi avut el/ea voie s (mearg) = s fi putut el/ea s
A ||

60

v
mergei=

N ||
mis/ngduit
I-N ||

(mearg) = s-i fi fost lui/ei permis/ngduit s (mearg) = de-ar fi avut el/ea voie s (mearg) = de-ar fi putut
el/ea s (mearg) = de i-ar fi fost lui/ei permis/ngduit s (mearg)
had we been permitted/allowed to (go) = s fi avut noi voie s (mergem) = s fi putut noi s (mergem) = s
ne fi fost nou permis/ngduit s (mergem) = de-am fi avut noi voie s (mergem) = de-am fi putut noi s
(mergem) = de ne-ar fi fost nou permis/ngduit s (mergem)
had you been permitted/allowed to (go) = s fi avut voi voie s (mergei) = s fi putut voi s (mergei) = s
fi fost vou permis/ngduit s (mergei) = de-ai fi avut voi voie s (mergei) = de-ai fi putut voi s
de v-ar fi fost vou permis/ngduit s (mergei)
had they been permitted/allowed to (go) = s fi avut ei/ele voie s (mearg) = s fi putut ei/ele s (mearg) =
s le fi fost lor permis/ngduit s (mearg) = de-ar fi avut ei/ele voie s (mearg) = de-ar fi putut ei/ele s
mearg = de le-ar fi fost lor permis/ngduit s (mearg)
if I had not been permitted/allowed to (go) = if I hadn't been permitted/ allowed to (go) = dac eu nu a
(n-a) fi avut voie s merg = dac eu nu a (n-a) fi putut s (merg) = dac mie nu mi-ar fi fost pers (merg) etc.
had I not been permitted/allowed to (go) = hadn't I been permitted/allowed to (go) = s nu fi avut eu voie
s (merg) = s nu fi putut eu s (merg) = s nu-mi fi fost mie permis/ngduit s (merg) = de n-a fi avut eu
voie s (merg) = de n-a fi putut eu s (merg) = de nu mi-ar fi fost mie permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.

MUST - 0 - 0 = TO HAVE TO
if I had had to (go) = dac eu ar fi trebuit s (merg)
if you had had to (go) = dac tu ar fi trebuit s (mergi)
if he/she/it had had to (go) = dac el/ea ar fi trebuit s (mearg)
if we had had to (go) = dac noi ar fi trebuit s (mergem)
if you had had to (go) = dac voi ar fi trebuit s (mergei)
if they had had to (go) = dac ei/ele ar fi trebuit s (mearg)
I ||
had I had to (go) = s fi trebuit eu s (merg) = de-ar fi trebuit eu s (merg)
had you had to (go) = s fi trebuit tu s (mergi) = de-ar fi trebuit tu s (mergi)
had he/she/it had to (go) = s fi trebuit el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar fi trebuit el/ea s (mearg)
had we had to (go) = s fi trebuit noi s (mergem) = de-ar fi trebuit noi s (mergem)
had you had to (go) = s fi trebuit voi s (mergei) = de-ar fi trebuit voi s (mergei)
had they had to (go) = s fi trebuit ei/ele s (mearg) = de-ar fi trebuit ei/ele s (mearg)
N ||
if I had not had to (go) = if I hadn't had to (go) = dac eu nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit s (merg) etc.
I-N ||
had I not had to (go) = hadn't I had to (go) = s nu fi trebuit eu s (merg) = de n-ar fi trebuit eu s (merg)
etc.
A ||

C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE III - ASPECTUL COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV


TO SEE - SAW - SEEN
A ||
if I had seen = dac eu a fi vzut
if we had seen = dac noi am fi vzut
if you had seen = dac tu ai fi vzut
if you had seen = dac voi ai fi vzut
if he/she/it had seen = dac el/ea ar fi vzut
if they had seen = dac ei/ele ar fi vzut
I ||
had I seen = s fi vzut eu = de-a fi vzut eu
had you seen = s fi vzut tu = de-ai fi vzut tu
had he/she/it seen = s fi vzut el/ea = de-ar fi vzut el/ea
had we seen = s fi vzut noi = de-am fi vzut noi
had you seen = s fi vzut voi = de-ai fi vzut voi
had they seen = s fi vzut ei/ele = de-ar fi vzut ei/ele
N ||
if I had not seen = if I hadn't seen = dac eu nu a (n-a) fi vzut etc.
I-N ||
had I not seen = hadn't I seen = s nu fi vzut eu = de n-a fi vzut eu etc.

A ||

I ||

D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE III - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU


TO SING = a cnta
if I had been singing = dac eu a fi cntat
if you had been singing = dac tu ai fi cntat
if he/she/it had been singing = dac el/ea ar fi cntat
if we had been singing = dac noi am fi cntat
if you had been singing = dac voi ai fi cntat
if they had been singing = dac ei/ele ar fi cntat
had I been singing = s fi cntat eu = de-a fi cntat eu

61

had you been singing = s fi cntat tu = de-ai fi cntat tu


had he/she/it been singing = s fi cntat el/ea = de-ar fi cntat el/ea
had we been singing = s fi cntat noi = de-am fi cntat noi
had you been singing = s fi cntat voi = de-ai fi cntat voi
had they been singing = s fi cntat ei/ele = de-ar fi cntat ei/ele
N ||
if I had not been singing = if I hadn't been singing = dac eu nu a (n-a) fi cntat etc.
I-N ||
had I not been singing = hadn't I been singing = s nu fi cntat eu = de n-a fi cntat eu etc.
You would have found us at home if you had come to see us. = Ne-ai/ai fi gsit acas dac ai/ai fi venit pe la noi.
Modul subjonctiv apare dup verbe care exprim sugestii, propuneri, comenzi sau ordine:
I suggest that he begin(s) to learn his lessons. = Sugerez ca el s-i nvee leciile.
I suggest(ed) that he should (ought to) go tomorrow. = Sugerez (Am sugerat) ca el s plece mine.
I suggested that they come/came/should come at six o'clock. = Am sugerat ca ei s vin la ora ase.
It was necessary (that) he be/was/should be there. = Era necesar ca el s fie acolo.
Subjunctive II i Subjunctive III se folosesc dup verbul wish i dup if only.
I wish you had much money. = A vrea ca tu s ai bani muli.
I wish you had had much money. = A vrea ca tu s fi avut bani muli.
If only you had much money. = Mcar dac ai avea bani muli.
If only you were with us here now. = Mcar dac ai fi cu noi aici.
1.6.2.3. MODUL CONDIIONAL (THE CONDITIONAL MOOD)
1.6.2.3.1. CONDIIONALUL PREZENT (THE PRESENT CONDITIONAL)
Se formeaz cu auxiliarele should (pentru persoana I singular i plural) i would (pentru celelalte persoane) plus infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat. Se traduce n limba romn prin optativ prezent.
n zilele noastre auxiliarul would se folosete la toate persoanele nlocuindu-l astfel pe should i exprim o opiune, o
dorin sau o invitaie la timpul prezent.
A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA CONDIIONAL PREZENT
TO BE = a fi
A ||
I should/would be = I'd be = eu a fi
we should/would be = we'd be = noi am fi
you would be = you'd be = tu ai fi
you would be = you'd be = voi ai fi
he/she/it would be = he'd/she'd/it'd be = el/ea ar fi
they would be = they'd be = ei/ele ar fi
N ||
I should/would not be = I shouldn't/wouldn't be = eu nu a fi = eu n-a fi etc.
I ||
should/would I be ? = eu a fi ? = a fi eu ? etc.
I-N ||
should/would I not be ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be ? = eu nu a (n-a) fi ? = nu a (n-a) fi eu ? etc.

A ||

N ||
I ||
I-N ||

TO HAVE = a avea
I should/would have = I'd have = eu a avea
you would have = you'd have = tu ai avea
he/she/it would have = he'd/she'd/it'd have = el/ea ar avea
we should/would have = we'd have = noi am avea
you would have = you'd have = voi ai avea
they would have = they'd have = ei/ele ar avea
I should/would not have = I shouldn't/wouldn't have = eu nu a (n-a) avea etc.
should/would I have ? = eu a avea ? = a avea eu ? etc.
should/would I not have ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have ? = eu nu a (n-a) avea? etc.

TO DO = a face
I should/would do = I'd do = eu a face
we should/would do = we'd do = noi am face
you would do = you'd do = tu ai face
you would do = you'd do = voi ai face
he/she/it would do = he'd/she'd/it'd do = el/ea ar face
they would do = they'd do = ei/ele ar face
N ||
I should/would not do = I shouldn't/wouldn't do = eu nu a (n-a) face etc.
I ||
should/would I do ? = eu a face ? = a face eu ? etc.
I-N ||
should/would I not do ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I do ? = eu nu a (n-a) face ? = nu a (n-a) face eu ? etc.
A ||

62

B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA CONDIIONAL PREZENT


CAN - COULD - 0 = TO BE ABLE TO
A ||
I could (go)=I should/would be able to (go)=eu a putea s (merg)=eu a putea (merge)=eu a fi n stare s
you could (go) = you would be able to (go) = tu ai putea s (mergi) = tu ai putea (merge) = tu ai fi n stare s
he/she/it could (go) = he/she/it would be able to (go) = el/ea ar putea s (mearg) = el/ea ar putea (merge) =
el/ea ar fi n stare s (mearg)
we could (go) = we should/would be able to (go) = noi am putea s (mergem) = noi am putea (merge) = noi
am fi n stare s (mergem)
you could (go) = you would be able to (go) = voi ai putea s (mergei) = voi ai putea (merge) = voi ai fi n
stare s (mergei)
they could (go) = they would be able to (go) = ei/ele ar putea s (mearg) = ei/ele ar putea (merge) = ei/ele
ar
fi n stare s (mearg)
N ||
I could not (go) = I couldn't (go) = I should/would not be able to (go) = I shouldn't/wouldn't be able to
(go) = eu nu a (n-a) putea s (merg) = eu nu a fi n stare s (merg) etc.
I ||
could I (go) ? = should/would I be able to (go) ? = a putea eu s (merg) ? = a putea eu (merge) ? = a fi eu
n stare s (merg) ? etc.
I-N ||
could I not (go) ? = couldn't I (go) ? = should/would I not be able to (go) ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be
able
to (go) ? = eu nu a putea s (merg) ? = n-a putea s (merg) eu ? = eu nu a fi n stare s (merg) ? =
n-a fi eu
n stare s (merg) ? etc.
n exemplul : I could go verbul could exprim i permisiunea, nu numai capabilitatea. n acest caz could = might. n limbajul colocvial can l nlocuiete des pe may.
MAY - MIGHT - 0 = TO BE PERMITTED/ALLOWED TO
I might (go) = I should/would be permitted/allowed to (go) = eu a avea voie s (merg) = eu a putea s
(merg) = mie mi-ar fi permis/ngduit s (merg)
you might (go) = you would be permitted/allowed to (go) = tu ai avea voie s (mergi) = tu ai putea s
(mergi)
= ie i-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergi)
he/she/it might (go) = he/she/it would be permitted/allowed to (go) = el/ea ar avea voie s (mearg) = el/ea
ar putea s (mearg) = lui/ei i-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mearg)
we might (go) = we should/would be permitted/allowed to (go) = noi am avea voie s (mergem) = noi am
putea s (mergem) = nou ne-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergem)
you might (go) = you would be permitted/allowed to (go) = voi ai avea voie s (mergei) = voi ai putea s
(mergei) = vou v-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergei)
they might (go) = they would be permitted/allowed to (go) = ei/ele ar avea voie s (mearg) = ei/ele ar
putea
s (mearg) = lor le-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mearg)
N ||
I might not (go) = I mightn't (go) = I should/would not be permitted/allowed to (go) = I shouldn't /
wouldn't be permitted/allowed to (go) = eu nu a avea voie s (merg) = eu nu a putea s (merg) = mie nu
mi-ar fi permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.
I ||
might I (go) ? = should/would I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? = a avea eu voie s (merg) ? = a putea eu
s (merg) ? = a putea eu (merge) ? = mi-ar fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg) ? etc.
I-N ||
might I not (go) ? = mightn't I (go) ? = should/would I not be permitted/ allowed to (go) ? = shouldn't/
wouldn't I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? = nu a (n-a) avea eu voie s (merg) ? = nu a (n-a) putea eu s
(merg) ? = nu mi-ar fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg) ? = mie nu mi-ar fi permis/ngduit s (merg) ? etc.
A ||

MUST - 0 - 0 = TO HAVE TO
A ||
I should/would have to (go) = I'd have to (go) = eu ar trebui s (merg)
you would have to (go) = you'd have to (go) = tu ar trebui s (mergi)
he/she/it would have to (go) = he'd/she'd/it'd have to (go) = el/ea ar trebui s (mearg)
we should/would have to (go) = we'd have to (go) = noi ar trebui s (mergem)
you would have to (go) = you'd have to (go) = voi ar trebui s (mergei)
they would have to (go) = they'd have to (go) = ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg)
N ||
I should/would not have to (go) = I shouldn't/wouldn't have to (go) = eu nu ar trebui s (merg) etc.
I ||
should/would I have to (go) ? = eu ar trebui s (merg) ? = ar trebui eu s (merg) ? etc.
I-N ||
should/would I not have to (go) ? = eu nu ar trebui s (merg) ? = n-ar trebui eu s (merg) ? etc.

A ||

SHALL - SHOULD = a trebui s, a se cuveni/cdea s . . .


I should (go) = eu ar trebui s (merg)
you should (go) = tu ar trebui s (mergi)
he/she/it should (go) = el/ea ar trebui s (mearg)
we should go = noi ar trebui s (mergem)

63

you should (go) = voi ar trebui s (mergei)


they should (go) = ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg)
N ||
I should not (go) = I shouldn't (go) = eu nu ar trebui s (merg) = eu n-ar trebui s (merg), etc.
I ||
should I (go) ? = ar trebui eu s (merg) ?, etc.
I-N ||
should I not (go) ? = shouldn't I (go) ? = eu nu ar trebui s (merg) ? = n-ar trebui eu s (merg) ? etc.
Verbul should se foloseste dup how , why i when.
How should they know ? = De unde s tie ei ?
Verbul SHOULD exprim:
a) - probabilitatea:
They should be in the mountains. = Ar trebui s fie la munte. = Probabil sunt la munte.
If he should come tell him I've bought the tickets. = Dac cumva vine spune-i c am cumprat
biletele.= Dac se ntmpl s vin spune-i c am cumprat biletele.
b) - necesitatea sau sfatul:
You should go to the dentist now. = Ar trebui s te duci la dentist acum.
You shouldn't waste your time. = N-ar trebui s-i iroseti timpul.
WILL - WOULD - 0 = a vrea
I would (go) = eu a vrea s (merg)
we would (go) = noi am vrea s (mergem)
you would (go) = tu ai vrea s (mergi)
you would (go) = voi ai vrea s (mergei)
he/she/it would (go) = el/ea ar vrea s (mearg)
they would (go) = ei/ele ar vrea s (mearg)
N ||
I would not (go) = I wouldn't (go) = eu nu a vrea s (merg) = eu n-a vrea s (merg) etc.
I ||
would I (go) ? = a vrea eu s (merg) ? = eu a vrea s (merg) ? etc.
I-N ||
would I not (go) ? = wouldn't I (go) ? = eu nu a vrea s (merg) ? = n-a vrea eu s (merg) ? etc.

A ||

Verbul WOULD exprim:


a) - dorin n prezent: He would go on the trip. = El ar vrea s mearg n excursie.
b) - comenzi politicoase: Would you open that door, please ? = Ai vrea s deschidei ua aceea, v rog ?
- Would + mind:
Would you mind opening that door, please ? = V-ar deranja/supra dac ai deschide ua aceea, v rog ?
Would you mind my smoking ? = V deranjeaz dac fumez ?
I should/would go home = a merge acas = condiional prezent; aici should/ would este auxiliar
I should/would go home = ar trebui s merg acas; aici should/would este auxiliar modal, modul condiional
I should/would go home = trebuia s merg acas; aici should/would este modal, modul indicativ
if I should/would go home = dac ar trebui s merg acas; aici should/would este auxiliar modal, modul subjonctiv prezent
if I should/would go home = dac trebuia s merg acas; should/would este modal, modul indicativ
if I should/would go home = dac s-ar ntmpla s merg; should/would este auxiliar modal, condiional prezent
I would go home = a vrea s merg acas; would aici este auxiliar modal, modul condiional
I would go home = obinuiam s merg acas = mergeam acas; would este aici modal, modul indicativ
I would go home = voiam s merg acas; la fel would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense
if I would go home = dac a vrea s merg acas; would este auxiliar modal
if I would go home = dac voiam s merg acas; would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense
if I would go home = dac obinuiam s merg acas = dac mergeam acas = la fel would este modal, modul indicativ, Past
Tense
I might go home = a avea voie s merg acas; aici might este auxiliar modal, modul condiional
I might go home = aveam voie s merg acas; might este modal, Past Tense
OUGHT TO - 0 - 0
I ought to (go) = eu ar trebui s (merg/plec) = eu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (merg/plec)
you ought to (go) = tu ar trebui s (mergi/pleci) = tu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mergi/ pleci)
he/she/it ought to (go) = el/ea ar trebui s (mearg/plece) = el/ea s-ar cuveni/ cdea s (mearg/plece)
we ought to (go) = noi ar trebui s (mergem/plecm) = noi s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mergem/plecm)
you ought to (go) = voi ar trebui s (mergei/plecai) = voi s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mergei/plecai)
they ought to (go) = ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg/plece) = ei/ele s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mearg/plece)
N ||
I ought not to (go) = I oughtn't to (go) = eu nu ar trebui s (merg/plec) = eu nu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (merg)
I ||
ought I to (go) ? = eu ar trebui s (merg/plec) ? = eu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (merg/plec) ? = s-ar cuveni eu s
I-N ||
ought I not to (go) ? = oughtn't I to (go) ? = eu nu ar trebui s (merg/plec) ? = eu nu s-ar cuveni s (merg ) ?
A ||

C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL COMUN


TO SEE = a vedea
La condiional i la viitorul n trecut, la persoana I-a singular i plural se folosete att auxiliarul should [~ud] ct i
would [wud], iar la persoanele a II-a i a III-a se folosete doar would.

64

A ||

N ||
I ||
I - N ||

I should /would see = I'd see = eu a vedea


he/she/it would see = he'd/she'd/it'd see = el/ea ar vedea
you would see = you'd see = tu ai vedea
we should/would see = we'd see = noi am vedea
you would see = you'd see = voi ai vedea
they would see = they'd see = ei/ele ar vedea
I should/would not see = I shouldn't/wouldn't see = eu nu a vedea etc.
should/would I see ? = eu a vedea ? = a vedea eu ? etc.
should/would I not see ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I see ? = eu nu a (n-a) vedea ? etc.

D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU


TO PLAY = a (se) juca
A ||
I should/would be playing = eu a juca
we should/would be playing = noi am juca
you would be playing = tu ai juca
you would be playing = voi ai juca
he/she/it would be playing = el/ea ar juca
they would be playing = ei/ele ar juca
N ||
I should/would not be playing = I shouldn't/wouldn't be playing = eu nu a (n-a) juca etc.
I ||
should/would I be playing ? = a juca eu ? = eu a juca ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not be playing ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be playing ? = eu nu a (n-a) juca ? etc.
TO DARE = a ndrzni
I should/would dare = I'd dare = eu a ndrzni = eu m-a ncumeta
you would dare = you'd dare = tu ai ndrzni = tu te-ai ncumeta
he/she would dare = he'd/she'd dare = el/ea ar ndrzni = el/ea s-ar ncumeta
we should/would dare = we'd dare = noi am ndrzni = noi ne-am ncumeta
you would dare = you'd dare = voi ai ndrzni = voi v-ai ncumeta
they would dare = they'd dare = ei/ele ar ndrzni = ei/ele s-ar ncumeta
N ||
I should/would not dare = I shouldn't/wouldn't dare = eu nu a (n-a) ndrzni = eu nu m-a ncumeta etc.
I ||
should/would I dare ? = a ndrzni eu ? = eu a ndrzni ? = eu m-a ncumeta ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not dare ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I dare ? = eu nu a (n-a) ndrzni ? = eu nu m-a ncumeta
A ||

TO NEED = a avea nevoie


I should/would need = I'd need = eu a avea nevoie = mie mi-ar trebui
you would need = you'd need = tu ai avea nevoie = ie i-ar trebui
he/she/it would need = he'd/she'd/it'd need = el/ea ar avea nevoie = lui/ei i-ar trebui
we should/would need = we'd need = noi am avea nevoie = nou ne-ar trebui
you would need = you'd need = voi ai avea nevoie = vou v-ar trebui
they would need = they'd need = ei/ele ar avea nevoie = lor le-ar trebui
N ||
I should/would not need = I shouldn't/wouldn't need = eu nu a avea nevoie = mie nu mi-ar trebui = mie nu
mi-ar fi necesar etc.
I ||
should/would I need ? = eu a avea nevoie ? = a avea eu nevoie ? = mie mi-ar trebui ? = mi-ar trebui mie ? =
mie mi-ar fi necesar ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not need ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I need ? = eu nu a (n-a) avea nevoie ? = nu a (n-a) avea
eu nevoie ? = mie nu mi-ar trebui ? etc.
A ||

E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV


TO BE SEEN = a fi vzut; (to be invited = a fi invitat etc.)
A ||
I should/would be seen = I'd be seen = eu a fi vzut()
you would be seen = you'd be seen = tu ai fi vzut()
he/she/it would be seen = he'd/she'd/it'd be seen = el/ea ar fi vzut()
we should/would be seen = we'd be seen = noi am fi vzui/vzute
you would be seen = you'd be seen = voi ai fi vzui/vzute
they would be seen = they'd be seen = ei/ele ar fi vzui/vzute
N ||
I should/would not be seen = I shouldn't/wouldn't be seen = eu nu a (n-a) fi vzut() etc.
I ||
should/would I be seen ? = eu a fi vzut() ? = a fi eu vzut() ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not be seen ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be seen ? = eu nu a (n-a) fi vzut() ? etc.

A ||

F. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECTUL COMUN


TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra
I should/would enjoy myself = I'd enjoy myself = eu m-a distra
you would enjoy yourself = you'd enjoy yourself = tu te-ai distra

65

N ||
I ||
I - N ||

he would enjoy himself = he'd enjoy himself = el s-ar distra


she would enjoy herself = she'd enjoy herself = ea s-ar distra
it would enjoy itself = it'd enjoy itself = el/ea s-ar distra
we should/would enjoy ourselves = we'd enjoy ourselves = noi ne-am distra
you would enjoy yourselves = you'd enjoy yourselves = voi v-ai distra
they would enjoy themselves = they'd enjoy themselves = ei/ele s-ar distra
I should/would not enjoy myself = I shouldn't/wouldn't enjoy myself = eu nu m-a distra etc.
should/would I enjoy myself ? = eu m-a distra ? = m-a distra eu ? etc.
should/would I not enjoy myself ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I enjoy myself ? = eu nu m-a distra ? etc.

G. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECTUL CONTINUU


TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra
A ||
I should/would be enjoying myself = I'd be enjoying myself = eu m-a distra
you would be enjoying yourself = you'd be enjoying yourself = tu te-ai distra
he would be enjoying himself = he'd be enjoying himself = el s-ar distra
she would be enjoying herself = she'd be enjoying herself = ea s-ar distra
we should/would be enjoying ourselves = we'd be enjoying ourselves = noi ne-am distra
you would be enjoying yourselves = you'd be enjoying yourselves = voi v-ai distra
they would be enjoying themselves = they'd be enjoying themselves =ei/ele s-ar distra
N ||
I should/would not be enjoying myself = I shouldn't/wouldn't be enjoying myself = eu nu m-a distra etc.
I ||
should/would I be enjoying myself ? = eu m-a distra ? = m-a distra eu ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not be enjoying myself ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be enjoying myself ? = eu nu m-a distra
?
1.6.2.3.2. CONDIIONALUL PERFECT (THE PERFECT CONDITIONAL)
Se formeaz cu auxiliarele should/would (pers. I singular i plural) i would (pers. a II-a i a III-a singular si plural) plus
infinitivul perfect al verbului de conjugat i se traduce prin optativ perfect n limba romn.
A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT
TO BE - WAS - BEEN = a fi
A ||
I should/would have been = eu a fi fost
we should/would have been = noi am fi fost
you would have been = tu ai fi fost
you would have been = voi ai fi fost
he/she/it would have been = el/ea ar fi fost
they would have been = ei/ele ar fi fost
N ||
I should/would not have been = I shouldn't/wouldn't have been = eu nu a (n-a) fi fost etc.
I ||
should/would I have been ? = eu a fi fost ? = a fi fost eu ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not have been ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have been ? = eu nu a (n-a) fi fost ? = nu a (n-a)
fi fost eu ? etc.
TO HAVE - HAD - HAD = a avea
I should/would have had = eu a fi avut
we should/would have had = noi am fi avut
you would have had = tu ai fi avut
you would have had = voi ai fi avut
he/she/it would have had = el/ea ar fi avut
they would have had = ei/ele ar fi avut
N ||
I should/would not have had = I shouldn't/wouldn't have had = eu nu a (n-a) fi avut etc.
I ||
should/would I have had ? = eu a fi avut ? = a fi avut eu ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not have had ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have had ? = eu nu a (n-a) fi avut ? = nu a (n-a)
fi avut eu ? etc.
A ||

TO DO - DID - DONE = a face


I should/would have done = eu a fi fcut
we should/would have done = noi am fi fcut
you would have done = tu ai fi fcut
you would have done = voi ai fi fcut
he/she/it would have done = el/ea ar fi fcut
they would have done = ei/ele ar fi fcut
N ||
I should/would not have done = I shouldn't/wouldn't have done = eu nu a (n-a) fi fcut etc.
I ||
should/would I have done ? = eu a fi fcut ? = a fi fcut eu ?
I-N ||
should/would I not have done ? = shoulnd't/wouldn't I have done ? = eu n-a fi fcut ? = nu a fi fcut eu
?
A ||

A ||

B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT


CAN - COULD - O = TO BE ABLE TO
I should/would have been able to (go) = eu a fi fost n stare s (merg)

66

you would have been able to (go) = tu ai fi fost n stare s (mergi)


he/she/it would have been able to (go) = el/ea ar fi fost n stare s (mearg)
we should/would have been able to (go) = noi am fi fost n stare s (mergem)
you would have been able to (go) = voi ai fi fost n stare s (mergei)
they would have been able to (go) = ei/ele ar fi fost n stare s (mearg)

N ||

I ||
I - N ||

we could have gone = noi puteam s fi mers


I could have gone = eu puteam s fi mers
you could have gone = tu puteai s fi mers
you could have gone = voi puteai s fi mers
he/she/it could have gone = el/ea putea s fi mers they could have gone = ei/ele puteau s fi mers
I should/would not have been able to (go) = I shouldn't/wouldn't have been able to (go) = eu nu a (n-a)
fi fost n stare s (merg) = eu nu a fi putut s (merg) etc.
I could not have gone = I couldn't have gone = eu nu puteam s fi mers etc.
should/would I have been able to (go) ? = a fi fost eu n stare s (merg) ? etc.
could I have gone ? = puteam eu s fi mers ? etc.
should/would I not have been able to (go) ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have been able to (go) ?= nu a (n-a)
fi fost eu n stare s (merg) ? = n-a fi putut eu s (merg) ? etc.
could I not have gone ? = couldn't I have gone? = nu puteam eu s fi mers ? etc.

MAY - MIGHT - O = TO BE PERMITTED / ALLOWED TO


I should/would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = eu a fi avut voie s (merg) = a fi putut s (merg) =
mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg)
you would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = tu ai fi avut voie s (mergi) = tu ai fi putut s (mergi) =
ie
i-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergi)
he/she/it would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = el/ea ar fi avut voie s (mearg) = el/ea ar fi putut s
(mearg) = lui i-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mearg)
we should/would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = noi am fi avut voie s (mergem) = noi am fi putut
s (mergem) = nou ne-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergem)
you would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = voi ai fi avut voie s (mergei) = voi ai fi putut s
(mergei) = vou v-ar fi fost permis /ngduit s (mergei)
they would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = ei/ele ar fi avut voie s (mearg) = ei/ele ar fi putut s
(mearg) = lor le-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mearg)
I might have gone = eu puteam s fi mers
you might have gone = tu puteai s fi mers
he/she/it might have gone = el/ea putea s fi mers we might have gone = noi puteam s fi mers
you might have gone = voi puteai s fi mers
they might have gone = ei/ele puteau s fi mers
N ||
I should/would not (shouldn't) have been permited/allowed to (go) = eu nu a fi avut voie s (merg) = eu
nu a fi putut s (merg) = mie nu mi-ar fi fost permis/ ngduit s (merg) etc.
I might not (I mightn't) have gone = eu nu puteam s fi mers etc.
I ||
should/would I have been permitted/allowed to (go) ? = eu a fi avut voie s (merg) ? = eu a fi putut s
(merg) ? = eu a fi putut (merge) ? = mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg) ? etc.
might I have gone ? = puteam eu s fi mers ? = eu puteam s fi mers ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not (shouldn't/wouldn't I) have been permitted/allowed to (go)? = eu nu a fi avut voie s
(merg) ? = nu a (n-a) fi avut eu voie s (merg) ? = eu nu a (n-a) fi putut s (merg) ? = eu nu a (n-a) fi
putut (merge) ? = mie nu mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg) ? = nu mi-ar fi fost mie permis/ngduit s ?
might I not have gone ? = mightn't I have gone ? = nu puteam eu s fi mers ? = eu nu puteam s fi mers ?
A ||

MUST - O - O = TO HAVE TO
I should/would have had to (go) = eu ar fi trebuit s (merg)
you would have had to (go) = tu ar fi trebuit s (mergi)
he/she/it would have had to (go) = el/ea ar fi trebuit s (mearg)
we should/would have had to (go) = noi ar fi trebuit s (mergem)
you would have had to (go) = voi ar fi trebuit s (mergei)
they would have had to (go) = ei/ele ar fi trebuit s (mearg)
N ||
I should/would not have had to (go) = eu nu ar fi trebuit s (merg) etc.
I ||
should/would I have had to (go) ? = eu ar fi trebuit s (merg) ? = ar fi trebuit eu s (merg) ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not have had to (go)? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have had to (go)? = eu nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit
s (merg) ? = nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit eu s (merg) ? etc.
A ||

SHALL - SHOULD - O
A ||
I should have (come) = eu se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit)
you should have (come) = tu se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit)

67

N ||
I ||
I - N ||

he/she/it should have (come) = el/ea se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit)


we should have (come) = noi se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit)
you should have (come) = voi se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit)
they should have (come) = ei/ele se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit)
I should not (shouldn't) have (come) = eu nu se cuvenea (nu trebuia) s fi (venit) etc.
should I have (come) ? = eu se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) ? = se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) eu ? etc.
should I not (shouldn't I) have (come) ? = eu nu se cuvenea (nu trebuia) s fi (venit) ? = nu trebuia (nu se
cuvenea) s fi (venit) eu ? etc.

WILL - WOULD - O
I would have (come) = eu voiam s fi (venit)
you would have (come) = tu voiai s fi (venit)
he/she/it would have (come) = el/ea voia s fi (venit)
we would have (come) = noi voiam s fi (venit)
you would have (come) = voi voiai s fi (venit)
they would have (come) = ei/ele voiau s fi (venit)
N ||
I would not (wouldn't) have (come) = eu nu voiam s fi (venit) etc.
I ||
would I have (come) ? = voiam eu s fi (venit) ? etc.
I - N ||
would I not (wouldn't I) have (come) ? = eu nu voiam s fi (venit) ? etc.
A ||

OUGHT TO
I ought to have come = eu s-ar fi cuvenit s vin = eu se cuvenea s fi venit
you ought to have come = tu s-ar fi cuvenit s vii = tu se cuvenea s fi venit
he/she/it ought to have come = el/ea s-ar fi cuvenit s vin = el/ea se cuvenea s fi venit
we ought to have come = noi s-ar fi cuvenit s venim = noi se cuvenea s fi venit
you ought to have come = voi s-ar fi cuvenit s venii = voi se cuvenea s fi venit
they ought to have come = ei/ele s-ar fi cuvenit s vin = ei/ele se cuvenea s fi venit
N ||
I ought not (oughtn't) to have come = eu nu s-ar fi cuvenit s vin = eu nu se cuvenea s fi venit etc.
I ||
ought I to have come ? = eu s-ar fi cuvenit s vin ? = eu se cuvenea s fi venit ? etc.
I - N ||
ought I not (oughtn't I) to have come ? = eu nu s-ar fi cuvenit s vin ? = eu nu se cuvenea s fi venit ? etc.
A ||

Did he/she tell you why you ought to do it ? = i-a spus el/ea ie de ce trebuie (se cuvine/cade) s-o faci ? = i-a spus
el/ea ie de ce trebuia (se cuvenea/cdea) s-o faci ?
Did he/she tell you that you ought to have done it ? = i-a spus el/ea ie c se cuvine/cuvenea s-o fi fcut ?
Ought your friend to have been an engineer ? = Se cuvenea prietenul tu s fie inginer? = Se cuvenea prietenul tu s fi
fost inginer ?
If I were you I should/would learn more. = Dac a fi n locul tu a nva mai mult.
If I had seen you I might have helped you. = Dac te-a fi vzut a fi putut s te ajut.
Had I known him I should/would have helped him. = S-l fi cunoscut, l-a fi ajutat.
Even if they had been there, they couldn't have helped us. = Chiar dac ei ar fi fost acolo nu ar fi putut s ne ajute.
C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT - DIATEZA ACTIV
TO READ = a citi
A ||
I should/would have read = eu a fi citit
we should/would have read = noi am fi citit
you would have read = tu ai fi citit
you would have read = voi ai fi citit
he/she would have read = el/ea ar fi citit
they would have read = ei/ele ar fi citit
N ||
I should/would not have read = I shouldn't/wouldn't have read = eu nu a fi citit = eu n-a fi citit etc.
I ||
should/would I have read ? = eu a fi citit ? = a fi citit eu ? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not have read ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have read ? = eu nu a (eu n-a) fi citit ? = nu a (na) fi citit eu ? etc.
D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT- DIATEZA PASIV
TO BE SEEN = a fi vzut
A ||
I should/would have been seen = eu a fi fost vzut()
you would have been seen = tu ai fi fost vzut()
he/she/it would have been seen = el/ea ar fi fost vzut()
we should/would have been seen = noi am fi fost vzui/vzute
you would have been seen = voi ai fi fost vzui/vzute
they would have been seen = ei/ele ar fi fost vzui/vzute
N ||
I should/would not have been seen = I shouldn't/wouldn't have been seen = eu nu a (eu n-a) fi fost

68

I ||
I - N ||

vzut() etc.
should/would I have been seen ? = eu a fi fost vzut() ? = a fi fost eu v- zut() ? etc.
should/would I not have been seen ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have been seen ? = eu nu a (eu n-a) fi fost
vzut() ? = nu a (n-a) fi fost eu vzut() ? etc.

E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT


TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra
A ||
I should/would have enjoyed myself = eu m-a fi distrat
you would have enjoyed yourself = tu te-ai fi distrat
he would have enjoyed himself = el s-ar fi distrat
she would have enjoyed herself = ea s-ar fi distrat
we should/would have enjoyed ourselves = noi ne-am fi distrat
you would have enjoyed yourselves = voi v-ai fi distrat
they would have enjoyed themselves = ei/ele s-ar fi distrat
N ||
I should/would not (I shouldn't/wouldn't) have enjoyed myself = eu nu m-a fi distrat etc.
I ||
should/would I have enjoyed myself? = eu m-a fi distrat? = m-a fi distrat eu? etc.
I - N ||
should/would I not have enjoyed myself ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have enjoyed myself ? = eu nu m-a fi
distrat ?= nu m-a fi distrat eu ? etc.
Exemple care conin verbe la subjonctiv i condiional:
I should/would come if I could come. = A veni dac a putea s vin.
We should/would come if we should/would come. = Am veni dac ar trebui s venim.
They would come if they might come. = Ei ar veni dac le-ar fi permis s vin.
I should/would have come if I had had time. = Eu a fi venit dac a fi avut timp.
We should/would have come if we had had to come. = Noi am fi venit dac ar fi trebuit s venim.
He would have come if it had not been so late. = El ar fi venit dac n-ar fi fost aa trziu.
We should/would have given you the books if we have found you at home. = V-am fi dat crile dac v-am fi gsit acas.
If he hadn't told me the truth, I shouldn't/wouldn't have given him anything. = Dac nu mi-ar fi spus adevrul, nu i-a fi
dat nimic.
He wishes he were rich. = El ar vrea s fie bogat. (dar nu este)
1.6.2.4. MODUL IMPERATIV (THE IMPERATIVE MOOD)
Exprim un sfat, un ndemn, un ordin, o sugestie, o recomandare, o rugminte, o dorin, o urare etc.
Come here ! = Vino/Venii aici !
Wait a moment ! = Ateapt/Ateptai o clip !
Speak louder ! = Vorbete/Vorbii mai tare !
Rugmini, ordine, recomandri, urri sau comenzi pot fi adresate i persoanelor I i III. n acest caz se apeleaz la auxiliarul let care este urmat de un pronume sau substantiv n acuzativ i apoi de un verb la infinitiv scurt prezent.
A ||
let me go! = s merg/plec eu! = s m duc eu!
go! = mergi/pleac! = du-te!
let him go! = s mearg/plece el! = s se duc el!
let her go! = s mearg/plece ea! = s se duc ea!
let it go! = s mearg/plece el/ea! = s se duc el/ea!
let us go! = let's go! = s mergem/plecm noi! = s ne ducem noi!
go! = mergei/plecai! = ducei-v!
let them go! = s mearg/plece ei/ele! = s se duc ei/ele!
N ||
do not (don't) let me go! = let me not go! = s nu merg/plec eu!
do not (don't) go! = nu te duce! = nu pleca!
do not (don't) let him go! = let him not go! = s nu mearg/plece el! = el s nu se duc!
do not (don't) let her go! = let her not go! = s nu mearg/plece ea!= ea s nu se duc!
do not (don't) let it go! = let it not go! = s nu mearg/plece el/ea! = el/ea s nu se duc!
do not (don't) let us go! = s nu plecm/mergem! = s nu ne ducem!
do not (don't) go! = nu plecai/mergei! = (s) nu v ducei!
do not (don't) let them go! = let them not go! = s nu plece/mearg ei/ele! = s nu se duc!
Modul imperativ are doar timpul prezent.
Do come to see us! = Insist s vii pe la noi! este o form accentuat de imperativ.
Do be careful what you are doing! = Fii foarte atent ce faci!
Trust in God and He will watch over you! = Crede n Dumnezeu, iar El va veghea asupra ta!
1.6.3. MODURILE IMPERSONALE ALE VERBULUI (THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB = THE VERBALS)

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Modurile impersonale ale verbului sunt: infinitiv, gerund i participiu.


1.6.3.1. M ODUL INFINITIV (THE INFINITIVE MOOD)
Se traduce prin infinitiv, conjunctiv, gerunziu, supin, iar n limba englez substituie subjonctivul.
They asked me to do it (Mi-au cerut s-o fac), n loc de They asked me that I (should) do it.
Infinitivul exprim scopul i se traduce prin conjunctivul romnesc.
He has come to give me a book. = El a venit s-mi dea mie o carte.
We have come to school to learn. = Am venit la coal s nvm.
We go to church to pray. = Mergem la biseric s ne rugm.
They have a lot of books to read.= Ei/Ele au o mulime de cri de citit (n acest exemplu se traduce prin supin).
To be or not to be, this is the question (Shakespeare : Hamlet). = A fi sau a nu fi, aceasta-i ntrebarea.
n aceste ultime dou exemple infinitivul din limba englez s-a tradus n limba romn tot prin infinitiv.
Exist posibilitatea de a intercala ntre particula infinitival to i verb un adverb.
to greatly influence = a influena mult
to humbly thank = a mulumi umil
to again express = a exprima din nou
to rightly intervene = a interveni corect.
Aceast form se numete n limba englez The Split Infinitive.
Unele verbe la infinitiv pot fi ntlnite, ca i n limba romn, la nceputul unor proverbe.
To go through fire and water. = A trece prin foc i ap.
To be in the ninth heaven. = A fi n al noulea cer.
To kill two birds with one stone. = A nimeri doi iepuri dintr-o lovitur.
To go to the dogs. = A se duce de rp, a se ruina.
To hang by a hair. = A atrna de un fir de pr.
1.6.3.1.1.
INFINITIV

Prezent

Scurt

diateza activ
diateza pasiv

Lung

diateza activ
diateza pasiv

Perfect

Scurt

diateza activ
diateza pasiv

Lung

diateza activ
diateza pasiv

CLASIFICAREA INFINITIVULUI
aspectul comun

look (privi)

aspectul continuu
aspectul comun
aspectul continuu
aspectul comun
aspectul continuu
aspectul comun
aspectul continuu
aspectul comun
aspectul continuu
aspectul comun
aspectul continuu
aspectul comun
aspectul continuu
aspectul comun
aspectul continuu

be looking (privi)
be looked at (fi privit)
be being looked at (fi privit)
to look (a privi)
to be looking (a privi)
to be looked at (a fi privit)
to be being looked at (a fi privit)
have looked at (fi privit)
have been looking at (fi privit)
have been looked at (fi fost privit)
have been being looked at (fi fost privit)
to have looked at ( a fi privit)
to have been looking at (a fi privit)
to have been looked at (a fi fost privit)
to have been being looked at (a fi fost privit)

1.6.3.1.2. CONSTRUCII INFINITIVALE


A. ACUZATIV CU INFINITIV
I want him to come earlier. = Vreau ca el s vin mai devreme.
I want the boy to come earlier. = Vreau ca biatul s vin mai devreme.
n exemplele de mai sus pronumele him i substantivul the boy sunt n cazul acuzativ i sunt urmate de verbul to come la
modul infinitiv. Aceast structur este posibil numai dup verbe care exprim :
1. percepii ale simurilor: to feel (a simi), to hear (a auzi), to notice (a observa), to see (a vedea), to watch (a urmari) etc.
I saw him enter the house. = L-am vzut c intr n cas.
He heard her play the piano. = El a auzit-o cntnd la pian.
You will watch us play tennis. = Ne vei privi pe noi jucnd tenis.
2. ordin, permisiune, intenie, obligaie etc. : to allow (a ngdui/admite, a da voie), to command (a comanda), to compel (a
obliga/fora/sili), to let (a lsa), to make (a face), to order (a ordona/porunci), to permit (a permite), to persuade (a con-

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vinge/determina), to request (a pretinde/ cere) etc.


I permit them to play in the garden. = Le permit s se joace n grdin.
I want him to learn, not to play. = Vreau ca el s nvee, nu s se joace.
Will you allow us to visit the museum ? = Ne permitei s vizitm muzeul ?
John didn't allow them to make any noise. = John nu le-a permis s fac nici un zgomot.
He let them walk in the park. = El i-a lsat s se plimbe n parc.
Don't make us laugh! = Nu ne face/facei s rdem!
3. dorin, plcere, antipatie etc. : to bear (a suporta /ndura /suferi), to desire (a dori/ pofti), to detest (a detesta), to hate (a
ur), to like (a-i plcea), to love (a iubi, a-i fi drag), to notice (a observa, a bga de seam), to perceive (a observa, a nelege),
to smell (a mirosi), to taste (a avea gust de), to want (a vrea), to wish (a dori, a tnji dup).
I'd love you to come and see us. = Mi-ar fi drag s vii pe la noi .
A ||
John wants me to go. = John vrea ca eu s merg.
John wants you to go. = John vrea ca tu s mergi.
John wants him to go. = John vrea ca el s mearg.
John wants her to go. = John vrea ca ea s mearg.
John wants us to go. = John vrea ca noi s mergem.
John wants you to go. = John vrea ca voi s mergei.
John wants them to go. = John vrea ca ei/ele/dnii/dnsele s mearg.
N || John does not (doesn't) want me to go. = John nu vrea ca eu s merg etc.
I ||
Does John want me to go ? = Vrea John ca eu s merg ? etc.
I - N ||Does John not (Doesn't John) want me to go ? = John nu vrea ca eu s merg ? etc.
He asked them to be quiet and listen to him. = El le-a cerut s tac i s asculte la el.
I saw him not only play the guitar but also dance. = L-am vzut nu numai cntnd la chitar ci i dansnd.
He wanted him to do it, not me. = El a vrut ca el s-o fac, nu eu.
Do you wish them to stay or to leave ? = Vrei ca ei s stea sau s plece ?
He taught me to swim. = El m-a nvat s not.
They warned me not to come late. = M-au avertizat s nu vin trziu.
I cannot allow/permit her to do that. = Nu-i pot ngdui/permite ei s fac asta.
All the neighbours thought her to be a communist. = Toi vecinii o presupuneau/ bnuiau pe ea a fi comunist.
I declared myself to be against war. = M-am declarat a fi contra/mpotriva rzboiului.
Did you teach him to drive the car ? = L-ai nvat s conduc maina ?
I did not deny her to be beautiful and to sing beautifully. = N-am negat c ea este frumoas i cnt frumos.
Do you know him to be honest ? = l tii pe el a fi (ca fiind, c este) cinstit ?
B. ACUZATIV CU INFINITIV SCURT
Dup verbe ca: to feel (a simi), to hear (a auzi), to let (a lsa), to make (a face), to notice (a observa), to see (a vedea),
to watch (a privi/viziona), se folosete infinitiv scurt cnd sunt folosite la diateza activ, i infinitiv lung dac sunt la diateza
pasiv.
I felt the wind blow. = Am simind vntul suflnd.
Did you hear him say that ? = L-ai auzit spunnd-o ?
Why don't you let me solve the problem by myself ? = De ce nu m lai s rezolv problema singur ?
Who makes you laugh ? = Cine te face s rzi ?
I noticed him enter (into) the bookshop. = L-am zrit intrnd n librrie.
They saw us buy some books. = Ne-au vzut cumprnd nite cri.
You can watch us swim. = Poi s ne priveti notnd.
He was heard to say something. = El a fost auzit zicnd ceva.
Someone was heard to sing a song. = Cineva a fost auzit cntnd un cntec.
He was allowed to do what he wanted. = A fost lsat s fac ce vrea.
C. CONSTRUCIA/STRUCTURA "FOR" + PRONUME / SUBSTANTIV N ACUZATIV + INFINITIV
It is easy for him to understand. = Pentru el este uor de neles. = Lui i este uor s neleag.
Este de fapt tot acuzativ cu infinitiv, dar este precedat de prepoziia for.
Se folosete dup structurile impersonale there is (este, se afl/gsete), there are (sunt, se afl/gsesc), here is (iat),
here are (iat), it is early (este devreme), it is easy (este uor), it is difficult (este greu), it is important (este important), it is
late (este trziu), it is necessary (este necesar), it is right (este drept/just), it is wrong (este nedrept/nejust/greit) etc.
Here are some books for me to read. = Iat nite cri pentru mine s citesc.
It is too early for us to go to the station. = Este prea devreme pentru noi s mergem la gar.

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Was it too late for you to learn that language ? = Era prea trziu ca tu s nvei limba aceea ?
There was nothing for me to do there. = Nu era nimic pentru mine de fcut acolo.
It is better for you to leave now. = Este mai bine ca tu s pleci acum. = Este mai bine pentru tine s pleci acum.
CONJUGAREA STRUCTURII IT IS EASY FOR ME TO LEARN
It is easy for me to learn. = Mie mi este uor s nv.
It is easy for you to learn. = ie i este uor s nvei.
It is easy for him to learn. = Lui i este uor s nvee.
It is easy for her to learn. = Ei i este uor s nvee.
It is easy for it to learn. = Lui/Ei i este uor s nvee.
It is easy for us to learn. = Nou ne este uor s nvm.
It is easy for you to learn. = Vou v este uor s nvai.
It is easy for them to learn. = Lor le este uor s nvee.
N ||
It is not (isn't) easy for me to learn. = Mie nu-mi este uor s nv. etc.
I ||
Is it easy for me to learn ? = mi este mie uor s nv ? etc.
I - N || Is it not (isn't it) easy for me to learn ? = Nu-mi este mie uor s nv ? etc.
A ||

It was easy for me to learn. = Mie mi-a fost uor s nv.. It had been easy for me to learn. = Mie mi fusese uor s nv.
It would be easy for me to learn. = Mie mi-ar fi uor s nv.
D. NOMINATIV CU INFINITIV
Este varianta pasiv a acuzativului cu infinitiv, i se folosete dup aceleai grupe de verbe.
1 : I want him to play the piano. = Vreau ca el s cnte la pian. - este acuzativ cu infinitiv. Iat cum se transform el n
nominativ cu infinitiv :
2 : He is wanted to play the piano by me. = Se dorete ca el s cnte la pian de ctre mine.
Subiectul din exemplul 1adic I devine n exemplul 2 complement de agent (deci subiect logic).
Verbul want din exemplul 1 i schimb diateza din activ n pasiv.
Pronumele him din exemplul 1, care era la acuzativ trece n exemplul 2 la cazul nominativ i devine subiectul propoziiei.
by me = de (ctre) mine
by us = de (ctre) noi
by you = de (ctre) voi/dv.
by you = de (ctre) tine
by him/her/it = de (ctre) el/ea
by them = de (ctre) ei/ele
by whom? = de (ctre) cine ?
By whom was he wanted to play the piano ? = Who(m) was he wanted to play the piano by ? = De (ctre) cine s-a dorit s
cnte el la pian ?
They were expected to come much earlier. = Erau ateptai s soseasc mult mai devreme.
Dup verbele to prove (a dovedi, a se dovedi), to turn out (a se dovedi), to happen (a se ntmpla) i to seem (a se
prea) nominativul cu infinitiv este o construcie activ, nu pasiv.
She proves to be a good tennis player. = Ea se dovedete a fi o bun juctoare de tenis.
They do not seem to be too friendly. = Ei nu par a fi prea prietenoi.
We happened to be watching the match when he came. = S-a ntmplat ca noi s privim meciul cnd a venit el.
He turned out to be a reliable man. = El s-a dovedit un om de ndejde.
If she were considered to be a good tennis player... = Dac ea ar fi considerat o bun juctoare de tenis...
If she can be considered to be a good tennis player... = Dac ea poate fi considerat a fi bun juctoare de tenis...
If she could be considered to be a good tennis player... = Dac ea ar putea fi considerat o bun juctoare de tenis...
If she should be considered to be a good tennis player... = Dac ea ar trebui s fie considerat o bun juctoare de tenis...
CONJUGAREA STRUCTURII I AM KNOWN TO BE LA PREZENT
A ||
I am known to be... = se tie/cunoate c eu sunt... = eu sunt cunoscut a fi... = eu sunt cunoscut ca fiind...
you are known to be... = se tie/cunoate c tu eti... = tu eti cunoscut a fi... = tu eti cunoscut ca fiind..
he is known to be... = se tie/cunoate c el este... = el este cunoscut a fi... = el este cunoscut ca fiind...
she is known to be... = se tie/cunoate c ea este... = ea este cunoscut a fi... = ea este cunoscut ca fiind...
it is known to be... = se tie/cunoate c el/ea este... = el/ea este cunoscut() a fi.. = el/ea este cunoscut() ca fiind...
we are known to be... = se tie/cunoate c noi suntem cunoscui ca fiind...
you are known to be... = se tie/cunoate c voi suntei cunoscui ca fiind...
they are known to be... = se tie/cunoate c ei/ele sunt cunoscui ca fiind...
N || I am not known to be... = eu nu se tie/cunoate c sunt cunoscut ca fiind... etc.
I || am I known to be...? = eu se tie/cunoate c sunt...? = se cunoate/tie c eu sunt...? = sunt eu cunoscut ca fiind...? etc.

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I - N || am I not known to be...? = eu nu se tie/cunoate c sunt... ? = nu sunt eu cu-noscut a fi...? = eu nu sunt cunoscut ca
fiind...? etc.
I was known to be... = se tia/cunotea c eu sunt... = eu eram cunoscut a fi... = eu eram cunoscut ca fiind...
I had been known to be... = se tiuse/cunoscuse c eu sunt... = eu fusesem cu-noscut a fi...
if I were known to be... = dac s-ar ti/cunoate c eu sunt....
if I had been known to be... = dac s-ar fi tiut/cunoscut c eu sunt... = dac eu a fi fost cunoscut ca fiind...
1.6.3.2. MODUL PARTICIPIU (THE PARTICIPLE MOOD)
diateza activ
diateza pasiv
prezent seeing = vznd
beeing seen = fiind vzut
speaking = vorbind
Participiu
trecut seen = vzut
seen = vzut
spoken = vorbit
perfect having seen = vznd
having been seen = fiind vzut
having spoken = vorbind
Din schema i exemplificarea de mai sus se vede c participiul are trei timpuri, iar pentru unele verbe are forme pentru
diatezele activ i pasiv.
1. PARTICIPIUL PREZENT mpreun cu verbul to be, care se conjug, formeaz, aa cum s-a artat, aspectul continuu
al verbelor.
I am speaking. = Eu vorbesc (acum).
Participiul prezent se mai traduce n limba romn i prin modul gerunziu.
We watched them playing football. = I-am privit jucnd fotbal.
The boy running is John = The boy, who is running, is John. = Biatul, care alearg, este John.
We came to know each other playing tennis. = Am ajuns s ne cunoatem jucnd tenis.
Participiul prezent este un adjectiv verbal.
a singing bird = o pasre cnttoare
in the coming years = n anii care vin
running water = ap curgtoare
the coming days = zilele care vin
the rising generation = generaia care se ridic
the winning horse = calul ctigtor
the rising/setting sun = soarele care rsare/apune
I did not keep him waiting. = Nu l-am fcut s atepte.
to keep somebody waiting = a face pe cineva s atepte
to find somebody doing something = a gsi pe cineva fcnd ceva
I found her writing a letter. = Am gsit-o scriind o scrisoare.
to leave somebody doing something = a lsa pe cineva fcnd ceva
I left them playing in the garden. = I-am lsat jucndu-se n grdin.
I felt the earth shaking. = Am simit pmntul cltinndu-se.
to see somebody doing something = a vedea pe cineva fcnd ceva
She is watching her baby sleeping. = Ea i supravegheaz copilul care doarme.
Did you catch him stealing anything ? = L-ai prins furnd ceva ?
Keep on singing! = Cntai mai departe!
I can feel the wind blowing. = Pot simi vntul suflnd.
I like to listen to the birds singing. = mi place s ascult la psri cntnd.
We left her learning her lessons. = Am lsat-o nvndu-i leciile.
He wrote the exercise while singing a song. = A scris exerciiul cntnd un cntec.
I noticed him smiling happily at them. = L-am zrit/observat zmbind fericit ctre ei.
Did you see us swimming in the lake ? = Ne-ai/ne-ai vzut (pe noi) notnd n lac ?
Searching in the library I came across an interesting book. = Cutnd prin bibliotec, am dat peste o carte interesant.
We were watching the setting sun and the waves receding from the shore. = Priveam soarele care apunea i valurile ce se
retrgeau de la rm.
A man learning to swim should be very cautious. = Un om care nva s noate ar trebui s fie foarte precaut.
2. PARTICIPIUL TRECUT (The Past Participle) este a III-a form de baz a verbelor, form care intr n alctuirea timpurilor The Present Perfect i The Past Perfect.
3. PARTICIPIUL PERFECT (The Perfect Participle)
Having given him the book, I went home. = Dup ce i-am dat (lui) cartea, (eu) am plecat acas.
Structura aceasta const din participiul prezent al verbului to have urmat de un verb la participiul trecut.
Having been read the book was returned to the library. = After the book had been read it was returned to the library. =
Dup ce a fost citit cartea a fost napoiat la bibliotec.

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1.6.3.2.1. CONSTRUCII PARTICIPIALE


A. ACUZATIV CU PARTICIPIU
Everybody admired him driving his car. = Toat lumea l-a admirat conducn-du-i maina.
Nobody heard her playing the piano or singing any song. = Nimeni n-a auzit-o cntnd la pian sau cntnd vreun cntec.
I did not hear the bell ringing. = N-am auzit clopoelul (soneria) sunnd.
B. NOMINATIV CU PARTICIPIU
Were you heard singing a song? = Ai fost (tu) auzit cntnd un cntec?
Was the bell heard ringing? = A fost clopoelul (soneria) auzit() sunnd?
C. NOMINATIVUL ABSOLUT
The door being locked, we went to bed. = Ua fiind ncuiat, ne-am dus la culcare.
We may go swimming while the sun is shining. = Putem merge s notm n timp ce soarele strlucete.
D. PARTICIPIUL ABSOLUT
Judging by appearances is not the best method. = A judeca dup aparene nu este cea mai bun metod.
Exemple cu structuri care conin verbe la participiul trecut :
We saw a deserted village. = Am vzut un sat prsit
He found the window shut. = El a gsit fereastra nchis.
Can you make your presence felt ? = i poi face prezena simit ?
You should make yourself respected. = Ar trebui s te faci respectat.
She felt herself admired. = S-a simit admirat.
You must have your hair cut. = Trebuie s-i scurtezi/tunzi prul.
1.6.3.3. MODUL GERUNZIU (THE GERUND MOOD)
Este un substantiv verbal, i seamn ca form cu participiul.
His coming was expected. = Venirea lui era ateptat.
Seeing is believing. = Faptul de a vedea (vzutul) nseamn a crede.
Gerund

prezent
perfect

diateza activ
seeing = vznd
having seen = dup ce a vzut

diateza pasiv
being seen = fiind vzut
having been seen = dup ce a fost vzut

Acest substantiv verbal apare de obicei dup verbe cu prepoziii ca :


to accuse of = a acuza de
He was accused of being late. = A fost acuzat de ntrziere.
We accuse him of having committed a crime. = l acuzm pentru comiterea unei crime.
to be afraid of = a se teme de
They were afraid of coming across a tiger. = Se temeau s nu dea peste un tigru.
to be astonished at = a fi uimit/uluit de
Were you astonished at seeing the shark ? = Erai uimii la vederea rechinului ?
to be aware of = a-i da seama de, a fi contient de
We were aware of John's being cleverer than Nick. = Eram contieni de faptul c John era mai detept dect Nick.
to be fond of = a fi amator de
He is fond of swimming and fishing. = Este amator de not i pescuit.
to be good at = a fi bun/priceput la
Tom is good at driving cars. = Tom este bun/priceput la conducerea mainilor.
to be impressed by = a fi impresionat de
Everybody was impressed by his scoring the goal. = Toi erau impresionai de nscrierea golului de ctre el.
to be interested in = a-l interesa
He is interested in learning English. = l intereseaz nvarea limbii engleze.
to be proud of = a fi mndru de
Are you proud of your son's winning the prize ? = Eti mndru de ctigarea premiului de ctre fiul tu ?
to be satisfied with = a fi mulumit de
We are satisfied with winning the prize. = Suntem mulumii de ctigarea premiului.
to appologize for = a-i cere iertarea pentru
You must appologize to him for not replying to his letter. = Trebuie s-i ceri iertarea de la el pentru a nu-i fi rspuns la
scrisoare.
to begin by = a ncepe prin a
I ought to begin by thanking you for... = Se cuvine s ncep prin a-i mulumi pentru...

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to complain of = a se plnge de
We are complaining of having such bad weather. = Ne plngem (de faptul) c avem o vreme aa de proast.
to contribute to = a contribui la
He contributed to our winning the prize. = El a contribuit la ctigarea premiului de ctre noi.
to be crazy about = a fi nebun/mort/topit dup
John is crazy about fishing. = John este nebun dup pescuit.
to count (up) on = to rely on = a se baza / bizui pe = a conta pe
You can count/rely on our helping you. = Poi s te bazezi/bizuieti pe faptul c noi te ajutm.
to depend on/upon = a depinde de
Does everything depend on his winning a scholarship ? = Depinde totul de ctigarea unei burse de ctre el ?
to forgive for = a ierta pentru
We forgive you for your being late. =Te iertm pentru ntrzierea ta.
to insist on = a insista asupra
Need you insist on her writing her homework ? = Este nevoie s insiti asupra scrierii temei sale de ctre ea ?
to long for = a tnji dup
We are longing for a short holiday. = Tnjim dup o scurt vacan.
to prevent from = a mpiedica / preveni s
You must prevent your son from making mistakes. = Trebuie s-l previi pe fiul tu s nu fac greeli.
to refer to = a se referi la
Did he refer to his coming to see us ? = S-a referit el la venirea lui pe la noi ?
to resort to = a recurge la
He mustn't resort to stealing however poor he were. = El nu trebuie s recurg la furat orict de srac ar fi.
to be sated with = a fi stul / dezgustat de
We aren't sated with fishing and swimming, are we ? = Noi nu suntem plictisii / stui de pescuit i not, nu-i aa ?
to see to = a avea grij de, a se ocupa de
See to making some tea, will you ? = Vezi / ocup-te s faci nite ceai, te rog.
to succeed in = a reui s
He succeeded in learning the poem by heart. = El a reuit s nvee poezia pe de rost.
to thank for = a mulumi pentru
Thank you for comming. = Mulumesc c ai venit.
to think of = a se gndi la
We are thinking of going on a trip. = Ne gndim s mergem ntr-o excursie.
1.6.3.3.1. GERUND PREZENT (THE PRESENT GERUND)
Gerund prezent (sau indefinit) este, cum s-a putut observa i n exemplele de mai sus, precedat :
a) fie de adjective posesive, ca n structurile :
my coming = venirea mea
my being late = ntrzierea mea etc.
b) fie de unele substantive cu prepoziii :
He is known for his art of writing. = El este cunoscut pentru arta lui de a scrie.
Let me tell you about their surprise at seeing us! = S-i povestesc despre surpriza lor la vederea noastr.
I know his interest in learning. = i cunosc interesul pentru nvtur.
I like the idea of building a house here. = mi place ideea de a construi o cas aici.
Alte astfel de substantive cu prepoziii dup care se poate folosi gerund-ul sunt:
the art of (living) = arta de a (tri)
astonishment at = uimire fa de
confidence in = ncredere n
dependence on = dependen fa de
disappointment at = dezamgire la
experience in = experien n
fear of = team de
idea of = idee de a
interest in = interes fa de
risk of = riscul de a
mode of (living) = modul de a (tri)
surprise at = surpriz la
Gerund-ul prezent se traduce fie prin gerunziu, fie printr-un substantiv, fie prin infinitiv sau conjunctiv.
I prefer watching football matches. = Eu prefer vizionarea meciurilor de fotbal.
He went on smoking and drinking coffee. = El a continuat s fumeze i s bea cafea.
Please excuse my saying so. = Te rog s m scuzi c zic/spun aa.
Do you mind opening the window ? = Te/V deranjeaz dac deschid fereastra ?
Did you mind my opening the window ? = Te-a/V-a deranjat c am deschis fereastra ?
Do you enjoy dancing ? = i place mult s dansezi ?
Willing and wishing are two different things, aren't they ? = A vrea/voi i a dori sunt dou lucruri diferite, nu-i aa ?
Any work needs correcting. = Oricare lucrare are nevoie s fie corectat.
I like swimming not mountain climbing. = mi place notul nu alpinismul.

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Some women hate fishing. = Unele femei detest pescuitul.

1.6.3.3.2. GERUND PERFECT (THE PERFECT GERUND)


He does not remember having said such a thing. = El nu-i amintete s fi spus/zis aa ceva.
Do you remember having invited them there ? = i aminteti s-i fi invitat pe ei acolo ?
Iat n continuare o list de verbe dup care se folosete gerund-ul :
to admit = a admite, to allow/permit = a ngdui/permite, to anticipate = a anticipa, to attempt = a ncerca, to advice = a sftui, to avoid = a evita, can't bear = a nu putea suferi, to consider = a considera, to continue = a continua, to deny = a nega, to
enjoy = a savura, to excuse = a scuza, to finish = a termina, to forgive = a ierta, to hate = a ur, to imagine = a imagina, to
intend = a inteniona, to like = a-i plcea, to love = a iubi, a-i fi drag, to mean = a nsemna; a vrea s spun, to mind = a supra, to miss = a pierde; a-i fi dor de, to postpone = a amna, to prefer = a prefera, to propose = a propune, to regret = a regreta, to remember = a-i aminti, to risk =a risca, to start = a porni, to stop = a opri, to suggest = a sugera, to try = a ncerca,
used to = obinuia s.
Tot gerund se mai folosete dup expresii ca :
it's no use = it's no good = n-are rost/sens s
It's no use going now. = N-are rost s mergem acum.
can't stand = a nu suferi/nghii/suporta
I can't stand wasting time. = Nu pot suferi irosirea timpului.
can't help = a nu putea s nu, a nu avea ncotro
I can't help laughing when I see you making faces. = Nu pot s nu rd cnd te vd strmbndu-te.
1.6.4. CONJUGAREA EXPRESIILOR THERE IS, THERE ARE
there is = este, se afl, exist, se gsete.
there are = sunt, se afl, exist, se gsesc.
Timpul prezent (The Present Tense)
There is a book on the table. = Este (Se afl/gsete) o carte pe mas.
There are two books on the table. = Sunt (Se afl/gsesc) dou cri pe mas.
N || There is not (there isn't) a book on the table. = Nu este (Nu se afl) o carte pe mas.
There are not (there aren't) two books on the table. = Nu sunt (nu se afl) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Is there a book on the table ? = Este (se afl) o carte pe mas ?
Are there two books on the table ? = Sunt (se afl) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Is there not (isn't there) a book on the table ? = Nu este (nu se afl) o carte pe mas ?
Are there not (aren't there) two books on the table ? =Nu sunt (nu se afl) dou cri pe mas ?
A ||

Timpul prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus (The Present Perfect)


There has been a book on the table. = Este o carte pe mas.
There have been two books on the table. = Sunt dou cri pe mas.
N || There has not (hasn't) been a book on the table. = Nu este (nu se afl) o carte pe mas.
There have not (haven't) been two books on the table. = Nu sunt (nu se afl) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Has there been a book on the table ? = Este (se afl) o carte pe mas ?
Have there been two books on the table ? = Sunt (se afl) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Has there not (hasn't there) been a book on the table ? = Nu este (nu se afl) o carte pe mas ?
Have there not (haven't there) been two books on the table ? = Nu sunt (nu se afl) dou cri pe mas ?

A ||

Timpul imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus (The Past Tense)


There was a book on the table. = A fost (s-a aflat) o carte pe mas.
There were two books on the table. = Au fost (s-au aflat) dou cri pe mas. Erau dou cri pe mas.
N || There was not (there wasn't) a book on the table. = Nu a fost (nu s-a aflat) o carte pe mas.
There were not (there weren't) two books on the table. = Nu au fost (nu s-au aflat) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Was there a book on the table ? = A fost (s-a aflat) o carte pe mas ?
Were there two books on the table ? = Au fost (s-au aflat) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Was there not (wasn't there) a book on the table ? = Nu a (n-a) fost (nu s-a aflat) o carte pe mas ?
Were there not (weren't there) two books on the table ? = Nu au (n-au) fost (nu s-au aflat) dou cri pe mas ?

A ||

A ||

Timpul mai mult ca perfect (The Past Perfect)


There had been a book on the table. = Fusese (se aflase) o carte pe mas.
There had been two books on the table. = Fuseser (se aflaser) dou cri pe mas.

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N ||

There had not (there hadn't) been a book on the table. = Nu fusese (nu se aflase) o carte pe mas.
There had not (there hadn't) been two books on the table. = Nu fuseser (nu se aflaser) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Had there been a book on the table ? = Fusese (se aflase) o carte pe mas ?
Had there been two books on the table ? = Fuseser (se aflaser) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Had there not (hadn't there) been a book on the table ? = Nu fusese (nu se aflase) o carte pe mas ?
Had there not (hadn't there) been two books on the table ? = Nu fuseser (nu se aflaser) dou cri pe mas ?
Timpul viitor simplu (The Simple Future)
There will (there'll) be a book on the table. = Va fi (o s fie) o carte pe mas = Se va afla o carte pe mas.
There will (there'll) be two books on the table. = Vor fi (o s fie) dou cri pe mas = Se vor afla dou cri pe mas.
N || There will not be (there won't be) a book on the table. = Nu va fi (n-o s fie) o carte pe mas. = Nu se va afla (n-o s
se
afle) o carte pe mas.
There will not be (there won't be) two books on the table. = Nu vor fi (n-o s fie) dou cri pe mas. = Nu se vor afla
(n-o s se afle) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Will there be a book on the table ? = Va fi (o s fie) o carte pe mas ? = Se va afla (o s se afle) o carte pe mas ?
Will there be two books on the table ? = Vor fi (o s fie) dou cri pe mas ? = Se vor afla dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Will there not (won't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu va fi o carte pe mas ? = Nu se va afla o carte pe mas ?
Will there not (won't there) be two books on the table ? = Nu vor fi (n-o s fie) dou cri pe mas ? = Nu se vor afla
(n-o s se afle) dou cri pe mas ?
A ||

A ||
N ||
pe

Timpul viitor anterior (The Future Perfect)


There will (there'll) have been a book on the table. = Va fi fost o carte pe mas. = Se va fi aflat o carte pe mas.
There will (there'll) have been two books on the table. = Vor fi fost dou cri pe mas.
There will not (there won't) have been a book on the table. = Nu va fi fost o carte pe mas. = Nu se va fi aflat o carte

There will not (there won't) have been two books on the table. = Nu vor fi fost dou cri pe mas.
Will there have been a book on the table ? = Va fi fost (se va fi aflat) o carte pe mas ?
Will there have been two books on the table ? =Vor fi fost (se vor fi aflat) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Will there not (won't there) have been a book on the table ? = Nu va fi fost (nu se va fi aflat) o carte pe mas ?
Will there not (won't there) have been two books on the table ? = Nu vor fi fost (nu se vor fi aflat) dou cri pe mas
?
I ||

A ||

Timpul viitor n trecut (The Future in the Past)


There would be a book on the table. = Va fi (se va afla) o carte pe mas.
There would not (wouldn't) be a book on the table. = Nu va fi (nu se va afla) o carte pe mas.
There would not (wouldn't) be two books on the table. = Nu vor fi (nu se vor afla) dou cri pe mas.

Timpul viitor apropiat/inteniei (The Near Future)


There is going to be a book on the table. = Va fi (o s fie) o carte pe mas.
There are going to be two books on the table. = Vor fi (o s fie) dou cri pe mas.
N || There is not going to be a book on the table. = Nu va fi (n-o s fie) o carte pe mas.
There are not going to be two books on the table. = Nu vor fi (n-o s fie) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Is there going to be a book on the table ? = Va fi (o s fie) o carte pe mas ?
Are there going to be two books on the table ? = Vor fi (o s fie) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Is there not (isn't there) going to be a book on the table? = Nu va fi (n-o s fie) o carte pe mas?
Are there not (aren't there) going to be two books on the table ? = Nu vor fi (n-o s fie) dou cri pe mas ?

A ||

Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE combinate cu verbele modale la Present Tense


- cu verbul can-could = a putea/ti, a fi posibil
A || There can be a book on the table. = Poate fi (se poate afla) o carte pe mas.
There can be two books on the table. = Pot fi (se pot afla) dou cri pe mas.
N || There cannot (there can't) be a book on the table. = Nu poate fi (nu se poate afla) o carte pe mas.
There cannot (there can't) be two books on the table. = Nu pot fi (nu se pot afla) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Can there be a book on the table ? = Poate fi (se poate afla) o carte pe mas ?
Can there be two books on the table ? = Pot fi (se pot afla) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Can there not (can't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu poate fi (nu se poate afla) o carte pe mas ?
Can there not (can't there) be two books on the table ? = Nu pot fi (nu se pot afla) dou cri pe mas ?
- cu verbul may - might = a putea, a fi voie/permis
A || There may be a book on the table. = Poate fi (este voie s fie) o carte pe mas.

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There may be two books on the table. = Pot fi (este voie s fie) dou cri pe mas.
N ||

There may not (there mayn't) be a book on the table. = Nu poate fi (nu este voie s fie) o carte pe mas.
There may not be two books on the table. = Nu pot fi (nu este voie s fie) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
May there be a book on the table ? = Poate fi (este voie s fie) o carte pe mas ?
May there be two books on the table ? = Pot fi (este voie s fie) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || May there not be a book on the table ? = Nu poate fi (nu este voie s fie) o carte pe mas ?
May there not be two books on the table ? = Nu pot fi (nu este voie s fie) dou cri pe mas ?
- cu verbul must = to have to = trebuie s = a trebui s
A || There must be a book on the table. = Trebuie s fie o carte pe mas.
There must be two books on the table. = Trebuie s fie dou cri pe mas.
N || There must not (there mustn't) be a book on the table. = Nu trebuie s fie (nu trebuie s se afle) o carte pe mas.
There must not (there mustn't) be two books on the table. = Nu trebuie s fie dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Must there be a book on the table ? = Trebuie s fie (trebuie s se afle) o carte pe mas ?
Must there be two books on the table ? = Trebuie s fie dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Must there not (musn't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu trebuie s fie (nu trebuie s se afle) o carte pe mas ?
Must there not (musn't there) be two books on the table ? = Nu trebuie s fie dou cri pe mas ?
Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE combinate cu verbele modale la Past Tense
There could be a book on the table. = Putea fi o carte pe mas. = Putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas.
There could be two books on the table. = Puteau fi dou cri pe mas. = Puteau s se afle dou cri pe mas.
N || There could not (there couldn't) be a book on the table. = Nu putea fi o carte pe mas. = Nu putea s se gseasc o
carte pe mas.
There could not (there couldn't) be two books on the table. = Nu puteau fi dou cri pe mas. = Nu puteau s se afle
dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Could there be a book on the table ? = Putea fi o carte pe mas ?= Putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas ?
Could there be two books on the table ? = Puteau fi dou cri pe mas? = Puteau s se afle dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Could there not (couldn't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu putea fi o carte pe mas? = Nu putea s se gseasc o
carte pe mas ?
Could there not (couldn't there) be two books on the table ? = Nu puteau fi dou cri pe mas ? = Nu puteau s se
afle dou cri pe mas ?
A || There might be a book on the table. = Putea fi (era voie s fie) o carte pe mas.
There might be two books on the table. = Puteau fi (era voie/permis s fie) dou cri pe mas.
N || There might not (there mighn't) be a book on the table. = Nu putea fi (nu era voie s fie) o carte pe mas.
There might not (there mightn't) be two books on the table. = Nu puteau fi (nu era voie s fie) dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Might there be a book on the table ? = Putea fi (era voie s fie) o carte pe mas?
Might there be two books on the table ? = Puteau fi (era voie s fie) dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Might there not (mighn't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu putea fi (nu era voie s fie) o carte pe mas ?
Might there not be two books on the table ? = Nu puteau fi (nu era voie s fie) dou cri pe mas ?
A || There had to be a book on the table. = Trebuia s fie (trebuia s se afle) o carte pe mas.
There had to be two books on the table. = Trebuia s fie dou cri pe mas.
A ||

Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE combinate cu verbele modale la Future Tense


There will possibly be a book on the table. = Va putea fi o carte pe mas.
There will possibly be two books on the table. = Vor putea fi dou cri pe mas.
N || There will not (there won't) possibly be a book on the table. = Nu va putea fi o carte pe mas.
There will not (there won't) possibly be two books on the table. = Nu vor putea fi dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Will there possibly be a book on the table ? = Va putea fi o carte pe mas ?
Will there possibly be two books on the table ? = Vor putea fi dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Will there not (won't there) possibly be a book on the table ? = Nu va putea fi (s se afle) o carte pe mas ?
Will there not (won't there) possibly be two books on the table ? = Nu vor putea fi (s se afle) dou cri pe mas ?
A ||

Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE combinate cu verbele modale la Future in the Past
There could be a book on the table. = Va putea fi o carte pe mas.
There could be two books on the table. = Vor putea fi dou cri pe mas.
N || There could not be (there couldn't be) a book on the table. = Nu va putea fi o carte pe mas.
There could not be (there couldn't be) two books on the table. = Nu vor putea fi dou cri pe mas.
Exemplu: He told me that there could be a book on the table. = El mi-a spus c va putea fi o carte pe mas.
A ||

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A ||
N ||

There might be a book on the table. = Va putea fi o carte pe mas.


There might be two books on the table. = Vor putea fi dou cri pe mas.
There might not (there mightn't) be a book on the table. = Nu va putea fi o carte pe mas. = Nu va fi permis s fie o
carte pe mas.
There might not (there mightn't) be two books on the table. = Nu vor putea fi dou cri pe mas. = Nu va fi permis s
fie dou cri pe mas.

A ||

There had to be a book on the table. = Va trebui s fie o carte pe mas.


There had to be two books on the table. = Va trebui s fie dou cri pe mas.
N || There had not (there hadn't) to be a book on the table. = Nu va trebui s fie o carte pe mas.
There had not (there hadn't) to be two books on the table. = Nu va trebui s fie dou cri pe mas.
I-N || I didn't find out whether there might be a book on the table. = N-am aflat dac va putea fi o carte pe mas.
I didn't find out whether there would be a book on the table. = Nu am aflat dac va fi o carte pe mas.
Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE la Condiionalul prezent
There would be a book on the table. = Ar fi (s-ar afla) o carte pe mas.
There would be two books on the table. = Ar fi (s-ar afla) dou cri pe mas.
N || There would not be a book on the table. = Nu ar fi o carte pe mas. = Nu s-ar afla o carte pe mas.
There would not be two books on the table. = Nu ar fi dou cri pe mas. = Nu s-ar afla dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Would there be a book on the table ? = Ar fi o carte pe mas ?
Would there be two books on the table ? = Ar fi dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Would there not be a book on the table ? = Nu ar fi o carte pe mas ? = Nu s-ar afla o carte pe mas ?
A ||

Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE la Condiionalul perfect


There would have been a book on the table. = Ar fi fost o carte pe mas.
There would have been two books on the table. = Ar fi fost dou cri pe mas.
N || There would not have been a book on the table. = Nu ar fi fost o carte pe mas. = Nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas.
There would not have been two books on the table. = Nu ar fi fost dou cri pe mas.
I ||
Would there have been a book on the table ? = Ar fi fost o carte pe mas ? = S-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas ?
Would there have been two books on the table ? = Ar fi fost dou cri pe mas? = S-ar fi aflat dou cri pe mas ?
I - N || Would there not have been a book on the table ? = Nu ar fi fost o carte pe mas? = Nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas ?
Would there not have been two books on the table ? = Nu ar fi fost dou cri pe mas ?
A ||

A ||
N ||

A ||
N ||

Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE la Subjunctive II


If there were a book on the table. = Dac ar fi o carte pe mas. = Dac s-ar afla o carte pe mas
If there were two books on the table. = Dac ar fi dou cri pe mas. = Dac s-ar afla dou cri pe mas.
If there were not a book on the table. = Dac nu ar fi o carte pe mas. = Dac nu s-ar afla o carte pe mas.
If there were not two books on the table. = Dac nu ar fi dou cri pe mas. = Dac nu s-ar afla dou cri pe mas.
Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE la Subjunctive III
If there had been a book on the table. = Dac ar fi fost o carte pe mas. = Dac s-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas.
If there had been two books on the table. = Dac ar fi fost dou cri pe mas = Dac s-ar fi aflat dou cri pe mas.
If there had not been a book on the table. = Dac n-ar fi fost o carte pe mas. = Dac nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas.
If there had not been two books on the table. = Dac n-ar fi fost dou cri pe mas. = Dac nu s-ar fi aflat dou cri

pe
Alte exemple cu there is i there are:
We should not want there to be new wars. = Nu am vrea s fie noi rzboaie.
Do you want there to be another festival ? = Vrei s fie un alt festival ?
There can be no doubt about it. = Nu poate fi nici o ndoial n aceast privin.
He doesn't want there to be any misunderstanding. = El nu vrea s fie nici o nenelegere.
1.6.5. SCHEMA RECAPITULATIV A VERBULUI
Formele de baz ale verbului sunt:
I
II
III
IV
Present Infinitive
Past Tense
Past Participle
Present Participle/Gerund
to see
saw
seen
seeing
MODUL INDICATIV (THE INDICATIVE MOOD)
1) The Present Simple (prezent) = subiect + I (fr particula to)
I see. = Eu vd.

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2) The Present Perfect (prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus) = subiect + have + III
I have seen. = Am vzut.
3) The Past Tense (imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus) = subiect + II
I saw. = Am vzut/vedeam/vzui.
4) The Past Perfect Tense (mai mult ca perfect, perfect compus) = subiect + had + III
I had seen. = Vzusem.
5) The Future Tense (viitor) = subiect + shall/will + I
I shall/will see. = Voi vedea; I'll see. = O s vd.
6) The Future in the Past (viitor) = subiect + should/would + I
I should/would see = Voi vedea.
7) The Future Perfect (viitor anterior) = subiect + shall/will + have + III
I shall/will have seen (something). = Voi fi vzut (ceva).
8) Near Future (prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus, imperfect, mai mult ca perfect) = subiect + to be going to + I
I am going to see. = Am de gnd s vd. = Voi vedea. (deci viitor)
I was going to see. = Aveam de gnd s vd.
I had been going to see. = Avusesem de gnd s vd.
MODUL CONDIIONAL (THE CONDITIONAL MOOD)
1) Present Conditional (Optativ prezent) = subiect + should/would + I
I should/would come. = Eu a veni.
2) The Perfect Conditional (optativ trecut) = subiect + should/would + have + III
I should/would have seen. = A fi vzut.
MODUL SUBJONCTIV (THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)
1) The Subjunctive II (condiional optativ prezent) = if + subiect + II
If I saw. = Dac a vedea. etc.
2) The Subjunctive III (condiional optativ trecut) = if + subiect + had + III
If I had had time.... = Dac a fi avut timp ... etc.
DIATEZA PASIV
The Passive Voice (diateza pasiv) = if + to be + III
I am seen. = Sunt vzut.
ASPECTUL CONTINUU
The Continuous/Definite Progressive Aspect (aspectul continuu) = subiect + to be + IV
I am speaking. = Vorbesc (acum).
1.6.6. TIMPUL I TIMPUL GRAMATICAL (TIME AND TENSE)
Se tie c timpul trece i este ireversibil. El se scurge/trece dinspre viitor spre trecut, aa cum se vede n schema de mai
jos:
Viitorul devine prezent, iar prezentul devine trecut.
Aciunile prezente ale verbelor coincid n principal cu momentul vorbirii; aciunile trecute sunt anterioare prezentului, iar
cele viitoare sunt posterioare prezentului.

1.6.ADVERBUL (THE ADVERB)


Adverbul (lat : ad = lng, verbum = verb = cuvnt) determin un verb, un alt adverb sau un adjectiv.
1.7.1. CLASIFICARE
1.7.1.1. ADVERBE DE MOD (ADVERBS OF MANNER)
Adverbele de mod rspund la ntrebarea how ? = cum ?
upside-down = cu faa n jos, somehow = cumva, willingly = bucuros, fluently = fluent/curgtor, by chance = din ntmplare,
accidentally = accidental, beautifully = frumos, deliberately = deliberat, completely = complet, extremely = extrem, fast =
iute, hardly = greu/abia, how = ct/cum, little = puin, much = mult, rather = cam, scarcely = abia, very = foarte, well = bine,
badly = ru, unawares = deodat/pe neateptate, quickly = repede, fast = iute, slowly = lent/rar/ncet, aloud = tare/cu voce tare
1.7.1.2. ADVERBE DE TIMP (ADVERVBS OF TIME)
Adverbele de timp rspund la ntrebarea when ? = cnd ?
afterwards = dup aceea, daily = zilnic, early = devreme, formerly = odinioar, immediately = imediat, meanwhile = ntre
timp, never = niciodat, now = acum, presently = imediat, yearly = anual, recently = recent, sometimes = uneori, soon =
curnd, yesterday = ieri, often = adesea, late = trziu, then = atunci, always = totdeauna, last month = luna trecut, before =

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nainte, after = dup, today = azi/astzi, just = tocmai/abia, at present = n prezent, at last = n cele din urm/n fine, by now
= pn acum, already = deja, still = nc, once = odinioar/cndva, when = cnd, just now = chiar acum, so far = pn
aici/acum, sooner or later = mai curnd sau mai trziu etc.
1.7.1.3. ADVERBE DE LOC (ADVERBS OF PLACE)
Adverbele de loc rspund la ntrebarea where ? = unde ?
behind = n spate, far = departe, here = aici, near = aproape, there = acolo, inside = n interior, upstairs = la etaj, along = dea lungul, up and down = n sus i n jos, here and there = ici i colo, abroad = n strintate, under = dedesubt, somewhere =
undeva, nowhere = nicieri, niciunde, anywhere = oriunde, everywhere = pretutindeni, southwards = ctre sud, homeward =
spre/ctre cas, where = unde etc.
1.7.1.4. ADVERBE DE CAUZ (ADVERBS OF CAUSE/REASON)
Adverbele de cauz rspund la ntrebarea why ? = de ce ?
that is why = iat de ce, therefore = pentru acest motiv, de aceea, for the reason that = pentru motivul c etc.
1.7.1.5. ADVERBE DE SCOP (ADVERBS OF PURPOSE)
Adverbele de scop rspund la ntrebarea for what purpose? = cu ce scop?
for this purpose = cu acest scop, for the mere purpose of = pentru simplul motiv de a, etc.
1.7.1.6. ADVERBE DE CANTITATE /GRAD (ADVERBS OF QUANTITY)
Adverbele de cantitate /grad rspund la ntrebrile how much ? = ct ?, how little ? = ct de puin ? etc.
almost = aproape/aproximativ, enormously = enorm, entirely = n ntregime, little = puin, much = mult, quite = chiar/total,
really = ntr-adevr/cu adevrat, so = astfel/aa, sufficiently = suficient, enough = destul/suficient, too = prea/suficient, very =
foarte etc.
ALTE ADVERBE :
especially = mai ales, n special
at most = cel mult
precisely = precis
exactly = exact
at latest = cel mai trziu
also = de asemenea
even = chiar
at earliest = cel mai devreme
at least = cel puin
only = numai, doar
however = totui, cu toate acestea
consequently = ca urmare
surely = sigur
of course = desigur
at any rate = n orice caz
at worst = n cel mai ru caz

1.7.2. REVERSIBILITATEA PRILOR DE VORBIRE - FAMILII DE CUVINTE


VERB
to amuse = a amuza

SUBSTANTIV
amusement = amuzare

ADJECTIV

ADVERB

amusing = amuzant, care amuz

amusingly = amuzant
-

amuser = care amuz, nveselete

amusive = hazliu

amusingness = amuzare

attraction = atracie

attractable = care se poate atrage

attractingly = atrgtor

attractive = atrgtor

attractively = n mod atrgtor

to attract = a atrage
-

attractibility = atracie

to brighten =

brightness = strlucire, agerime

brightly = luminos

brightly = strlucitor,

a lumina, a nviora

to care = a-i plcea,

brightened = nviorat, luminat

brilliance = strlucire

brilliant = eminent, splendid, strlucitor

brilliantly = splendid, eminent

brilliantness = splendoare

care = grij

careful = atent, grijuliu

carefully = cu atenie

carefulness = atenie

careless = neglijent

carelessly = neglijent

carelessness = nepsare, neglijen

to change = a schimba

changeableness = nestatornicie

changeable = schimbtor

changeably = schimbtor

changeless = neschimbat

changed = schimbat

to cloud = a innora

cloudiness = nnourare

cloudy = noros

cloudless = fr nori, senin

cloudlessly = clar

cloudlessness = senintate

clouded = noros

to compare = a compara

compare/comparison = comparaie

comparative = comparativ

comparably = comparativ

a dori; a-i psa

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cloudily = nebulos

VERB

SUBSTANTIV

ADJECTIV

ADVERB

comparative = comparativ (grad)

comparable = comparabil

comparatively = comparativ

comparation = comparaie

compared = comparat

comparability = comparabilitate

to continue = a continua

continuity = continuitate

continuous = continuu

continuously = continuu

continued = continuat

to deepen = a adnci,

deepness = adncime, profunzime

deep = adnc

deeply = profund, adnc

deepened = adncit, cufundat

to disagree = a displace

disagreement = antipatic, neplcut

disagreeably = neplcut

disagreeableness = aspect neplcut

to hope = a spera

hope = speran

hopeful = plin de speran; promitor

hopefully = promitor

hopefulness = speran, ncredere


hopeless = disperat
livable = cu care se poate tri

lively = vioi

hopelessness = disperare

to live = a tri, a vieui

liveliness = vioiciune, animaie

hopelessly = fr speran,

life = via

livelong = trainic

to open = a deschide

openness = deschidere, sinceritate

open = deschis

openly = deschis

opener = deschiztor

to pain = a durea

pain = durere

painful = dureros

painfully = dureros

painfulness = durere

to taste = a gusta

taste = gust

tasty = gustos

tastily = gustos

tastefulness = bun gust

tasteful = gustos

tastefully = cu gust

tastelessness = lips de gust

tasteless = fr gust

tastelessly = fr gust

to tidy = a ordona

tidiness = ordine

tidy = curat, ngrijit

tidily = ordonat

to use = a folosi
-

use = uz, folosin


usage = ntrebuinare
usefulness = utilitate
uselessness = inutilitate

used = folosit, ntrebuinat


useful = util
-

usefully = util
uselessly = inutil

1.7.3. COMPARAIA ADVERBELOR


1.7.3.1. COMPARAIA NEREGULAT A ADVERBELOR
Comparaia neregulat a adverbelor este explicat la capitolul comparaia adjectivelor
POZITIV

COMPARATIV DE
SUPERIORITATE

SUPERLATIV RELATIV

well - bine
badly -ru
far - departe

better - mai bine


worse - mai ru
farther - mai departe
further - mai departe
more - mai mult
nearer - mai aproape
less - mai puin
later - mai trziu
upper - mai sus

the best - cel mai bine


the worst - cel mai ru
the farthest - cel mai departe
the furthest - cel mai departe
the most - cel mai mult
the nearest - cel mai aproape
the least - cel mai puin
the latest - cel mai trziu
upmost - cel mai sus

much - mult
near - aproape
little - mult
late - trziu
up -sus

1.7.3.2. COMPARAIA ANALITIC A ADVERBELOR


POZITIV

attractively - atrgtor
beautifully - frumos
bestially-bestial
carefully-atent
fortunately - norocos
quickly - rapid
charmingly - fermector
fluently - fluent
gratefully - recunosctor

COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE

more attractively - mai atrgtor


more beautifully - mai frumos
more bestially - mai bestial
more carefully - mai atent
more fortunately - mai norocos
more quickly - mai rapid
more charmingly - mai fermector
more fluently - mai fluent
more gratefully - mai recunosctor

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SUPERLATIV RELATIV

the most attractively - cel mai atrgtor


the most beautifully - cel mai frumos
the most bestially - cel mai bestial
the most carefully - cel mai atent
the most fortunately - cel mai norocos
the most quickly - cel mai rapid
the most charmingly - cel mai fermector
the most fluently - cel mai fluent
the most gratefully - cel mai recunosctor

willingly - bucuros

more willingly - mai bucuros

the most willingly - cel mai bucuros

1.7.3.3. COMPARAIA SINTETIC A ADEVERBELOR


POZITIV

COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE

SUPERLATIV RELATIV

cleanly - curat
early devreme
hard - greu
low - deprimat

cleanlier - mai curat


earlier - mai devreme

the cleanliest - cel mai curat


the earliest - cel mai devreme

harder - mai greu


lower - mai deprimat

the hardest - cel mai greu


the lowest - cel mai deprimat

Multe adverbe i adjective se folosesc dup verbul to be, i dup verbele modale, fiind nume predicative. Se tie c verbul to be poate fi predicat n propoziie doar cnd este urmat de un adverb de loc :
to be black = a fi negru
to be cold = a fi frig
to be bloody = a fi afurisit
to be concise = a fi concis
to be careful = a fi grijuliu/atent
to be hard = a fi greu
Toate aceste cuvinte black, bloody, careful, cold, concise etc. pot fi fie adjective, fie adverbe, faptul depinznd de cuvntul pe lng care stau i l determin, iar de comparat se compar aa cum se arat n tabelele prezentate n capitolul comparaia adjectivelor, respectiv comparaia adverbelor.
Mary has put on her very best dress. = Mary i-a mbrcat chiar cea mai bun rochie a ei.
Alice sees quite well, but John sees far better. = Alice vede foarte bine, ns John vede i mai bine.
John speaks French the best. = John vorbete franuzete cel mai bine.
Jane does not sing so beautifully. = Jane nu cnt aa de frumos.
We haven't seen him lately. = Nu l-am vzut n ultimul timp.
This book is a lot more interesting than that. = Aceast carte este mult mai interesant dect aceea.
That book is very very interesting. = Cartea aceea este foarte foarte interesant.
1.7.4. LOCUL ADVERBELOR
Adverbele cu ajutorul crora se formeaz gradul superlativ absolut stau totdeauna naintea adjectivelor sau adverbelor.
very well = foarte bine
quite right = perfect adevrat
Adverbul enough este singurul adverb care st dup adjective sau adverbe
She sings beautifully enough. = Ea cnt destul / suficient de frumos.
1.7.4.1. LOCUL ADVERBELOR DE TIMP
afterward(s) = dup aceea
I saw them afterwards. = I-am vzut dup aceea.
again = din nou, iar, iari ; once more = nc o dat
I saw him again. = L-am vzut din nou.
again / time and again = very often = mereu = foarte adesea
You must try again and again. = Trebuie s ncerci mereu.
always = totdeuna, ntotdeauna
I am always at home on Sundays. = Sunt totdeauna acas duminica.
The sun always rises in the east. = Soarele rsare totdeauna n est.
You must always remember these rules. = Trebuie s-i aminteti mereu aceste reguli.
Before = nainte; at an earlier time = ntr-un moment anterior
I had read that book before. = Citisem cartea aceea nainte.
ever = vreodat
Do you ever go to see them ? = Te duci vreodat pe la ei ?
Have you ever tried ? = Ai ncercat vreodat ?
never = niciodat; at no time = on no occasion = cu nici un prilej
I have never tried. = N-am ncercat niciodat.
I never go to seeaside alone. = Nu merg niciodat singur la mare.
He is never at home after eight o'clock. = El nu este niciodat acas dup ora opt.
I can never understand what he says. = Nu neleg niciodat ce zice el.
Never do things by halves .( prov.) = S nu faci niciodat lucrurile pe jumtate.
Never too old to learn. (prov.) = Nu suntem niciodata prea btrni s nvm.
0ften = adesea; many times = de multe ori
I often go to see them . = Merg adesea pe la ei.
How often do you visit them ? = Ct de des i vizitezi ?

83

I have often been there. = Am fost adesea acolo.


rarely = seldom= rareori
You can seldom see such animals. = Rareori poi vedea asemenea animale.
I rarely agree with them. = Rareori sunt de acord cu ei.
sometimes = uneori = now and then = cnd i cnd
Somtimes she makes good decisions. = Uneori ia hotrri bune.
Sometimes clemency is cruelty and cruelty is clemency. (prov.) = Uneori clemena este cruzine, iar cuzimea este clemen.
I want to tell you what I really think about it. = Vreau s-i spun ce cred eu cu adevrat despre asta.
We are nearly always at home on Sundays. = Aproape totdeauna suntem acas duminica.
We must talk about it beforehand. = Trebuie s discutm despre asta n prealabil.
They are always asking for money. = Ei cer totdeauna bani.
He often goes to Paris. = El pleac adesea la Paris.
He has often been to Paris. = El a fost adesea la Paris.
He has been there quite often . = El a fost acolo chiar/foarte des.
As often as we try to find out the truth . . . = Ori de cte ori ncercm s aflm adevrul ....
I have seldom met such good people. = Eu rareori am ntlnit/cunoscut oameni aa buni.
We seldom go shopping. = Noi rareori mergem dup cumprturi.
What do you usually do on holidays ? = Ce facei voi de obicei n vacan ?
I have sometimes seen them in the park. = I-am vzut uneori n parc.
The boys will be home very soon. = Bieii vor fi acas foarte curnd.
It will soon be five years since he has learned English. = Vor fi curnd cinci ani de cnd nva el englezete.
They arrived at the theatre twenty minutes too soon. = Ei au ajuns la teatru cu douzeci de minute mai repede/devreme.
The girl started to learn as soon as she received the books. = Fata a nceput s nvee de ndat ce a primit crile.
No sooner said than done. = Zis i fcut.
No soonerhad I arrived home than it began to rain. = Nici n-am ajuns acas c a i nceput s plou.
You will find out the truth sooner or later. = Vei afla adevrul mai devreme sau mai trziu.
We shall forget as long as we live. = Nu vom uita ct vom tri.
I expect my friends pretty soon. = i atept pe prietenii mei destul de curnd.
What day is it today ? = Ce zi este astzi ?
Today is Saturday, not Sunday. = Azi este smbt, nu duminic.
Where's today's newspaper ? = Unde este ziarul de astzi ?
Yesterday's newspaper is here, but today's isn't. = Ziarul de ieri este aici, dar cel de azi nu este.
Today is Saturday, tomorrow will be Sunday and the day after tomorrow will be Monday. = Azi este smbt, mine va fi
duminic, iar poimine va fi luni.
They only returned home yesterday . = Ei s-au ntors acas doar/abia ieri.
Yesterday was Friday and the day before yesterday was Thursday. = Ieri a fost vineri, iar alaltieri a fost joi.
I read a book yesterday. = Yesterday I read a book. = Am citit o carte ieri. = Ieri am citit o carte.
Where shall we be tomorrow morning/afternoon/evening/night ? = Unde vom fi mine diminea/dup mas/sear/noapte ?
The announcement won't appear in tomorrow's newspaper. = Anunul nu va apare n ziarul de mine.
We shall meet at the theatre tonight at seven o'clock. = Ne vom ntlni la teatru disear la ora apte.
1.7.4.2. LOCUL ADVERBELOR DE MOD
He was walking fast, not slowly. = El mergea repede, nu ncet
briefly = pe scurt
He spoke about it briefly. = El a vorbit despre asta pe scurt.
Did they do it deliberately? = Au fcut-o deliberat?
The letter must be written very carefully. = Scrisoarea trebuie scris foarte atent.
You must learn to speak English fluently. = Trebuie s nvei s vorbeti englezete curgtor/fluent.
I love this country very much. = Iubesc aceast ar foarte mult.
This lesson can easily be learned. = Aceast lecie poate fi uor nvat.
He almost always makes mistakes. = El aproape totdeauna face greeli.
Breakfast was almost ready. = Micul dejun era aproape gata.
It is almost time we started to play tennis. = Este aproape ora s ncepem s jucm tenis.
Almost no one can believe such a thing. = Aproape nimeni nu poate crede un asemenea lucru.
They were fully satisfied. = Ei erau pe deplin satisfcui/mulumii.
Our trip took fully five days. = Excursia noastr a luat cinci zile ntregi.
I saw people who could hardly walk. = Am vzut oameni care abia puteau merge.
That man can hardly speak. = Omul acela abia poate vorbi.
It is nearly seven o'clock and we're nearly ready. = Este aproape ora apte, iar noi suntem aproape gata.
He is probably the best football player. = El este probabil cel mai bun juctor de fotbal.
There are people who drive too quickly. = Sunt/Exist oameni care conduc prea repede.

84

quite = chiar, total, n ntregime


It is quite so. = Este chiar aa. = Este exact.
I know he is quite right. = tiu c are perfect dreptate.
He spoke in quite another tone. = Vorbi pe cu totul alt ton.
There are quite a few people in the street. = Sunt foarte muli oameni pe strad.
really = ntr-adevr, cu adevrat
I want to tell you what I really think about it. = Vreau s-i spun ce cred eu cu adevrat despre asta.
scarcely = abia, greu, cu greutate
I can scarcely hear what you say. = Abia aud ce zici.
He could scarcely recognize me. = M-a recunoscut cu mare greutate. =Abia dac m-a recunoscut.
It was really what he deserved. = A fost ntr-adevr ceea ce merita.
I strongly advise you to do it. = Te sftuiesc special s-o faci.
They felt truly grateful. = Se simeau ntr-adevr recunosctori.
They were watching a truly beautiful picture. = Admirau un tablou cu adevrat frumos.
I want to tell you what I really think about it. = Vreau s-i spun ce cred eu cu adevrat despre asta.
We are nearly always at home on Sundays. = Aproape totdeauna suntem acas duminica.
Din exemplele de mai sus se vede clar c adverbele : fully, hardly, nearly, probably, quite, really, scarcely, strongly
i au locul n general naintea cuvntului pe care l determin.
We are fully satisfied. = Suntem total mulumii.
Our journey took fully five hours. = Cltoria noastr a durat cinci ore ncheiate.
I hardly know that man. = Abia dac l cunosc pe omul acela.
They hardly ever go out. = They very seldom go out. = Ei ies din joi n pati. Ei ies foarte rar.
I can hardly see that plane. = Abia dac pot vedea avionul acela.
He has hardly any money. = He has very little money. = El are foarte puini bani.
Nearly all my friends came to my party. = Aproape toi prietenii mei au venit la petrecerea mea.
We are nearly ready. = Suntem aproape gata.
He nearly always loses his gloves. = El aproape totdeauna i pierde mnuile.
It is nearly five o'clock. = Este aproape ora cinci.
The little boy can nearly ski. = Bieelul aproape c tie s schieze.
She will probably pass the exam. = Probabil ea va trece la examen.
He was quite another man. = Era cu totul alt om.
They quite forgot about the whole story. = Au uitat total de ntrega poveste.
He knows me quite well. = El m cunoate foarte bine.
I don't know what he really thinks of us. = Nu tiu ce crede n realitate despre noi.
He really knows nothing. = El nu tie chiar nimic.
I scarcely/hardly hear that noise. = Abia aud zgomotul acela.
He strongly advises me to do it. = El m sftuiete insistent s-o fac.
She spoke loud/loudly and clear/clearly. = Ea vorbi tare i clar.
He only bought the book (but he didn't read it). = El doar a cumprat cartea (dar n-a citit-o).
He showed the book to me only. = El mi-a artat cartea doar mie.
He read only half of the book. = He only read half of the book. = El a citit doar jumtate din carte.
The food tastes good. = Mncarea are gust bun.
She was looking at them with disgust. = Ea privea la ei cu dezgust.
Unhappy, she went back home. = Nefericit, ea merse napoi acas.
What is strange, it is he who insists. = Ce este ciudat, este c el insist.
They are smoking very heavily. = Ei fumeaz foarte mult.
That boy spoke extremely quickly. = Biatul acela a vorbit extrem de repede.
John was playing surprisingly well. = John juca surprinztor de bine.
John's friend reasoned extremely soundly. = Prietenul lui John judeca extrem de sntos.
John received about double the amount he expected. = John a primit aproape dublu suma la care se atepta.
We paid more than twenty lei for it. = Am pltit mai mult de douzeci de lei pentru asta.
He didn't have more than one hundred lei on him. = Nu a avut mai mult de o sut de lei la el.
I counted aproximately twenty five new comers. = Am numrat aproximativ douzeci i cinci de noi venii.
The bottle was three quarters full. = Sticla era trei sferturi plin.
They don't like it much. = Nu le place mult.
These are far more important problems. = Acestea sunt probleme mult mai importante.
The first thing is that he is not here. = Primul lucru este c el nu este aici.
The heart that once truly loves never forgets. (prov.) = Dragostea adevrat nu se uit niciodat.
He didn't expect us to be here. = El nu s-a ateptat ca noi s fim aici.

85

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. (prov.) = Cine se culc devreme i se scoal devreme
ajunge sntos, bogat i nelept.
By doing nothing, we learn to do ill. (prov.) = Lenea e mama tuturor viciilor.
Four eyes see more than two. (prov.) = Patru ochi vd mai bine dect doi.
1.7.4.3. LOCUL ADVERBELOR DE LOC
We'll be waiting inside, not outside. = Vom atepta nuntru, nu afar.
I found the book where I had put it. = Am gsit cartea unde am pus-o.
I saw John in the park. = L-am vzut pe John n parc.
They walked past my car. = Ei au trecut de maina mea.
They were walking about the town. = Ei se plimbau prin ora.
He was left well behind. = El a fost lsat mult n urm.
We shall find the book somewhere. = Vom gsi cartea undeva.
The book may be anywhere. = Cartea poate fi oriunde.
We may walk everywhere. = Ne putem plimba peste tot.
1.7.4.4. PROPOZIII CU MAI MULTE ADVERBE
I must give this book to your friend today at six o'clock. = Trebuie s-i dau a- ceast carte prietenului tu azi la ora ase.
It will be written by John later this week, perhaps on Saturday afternoon. = Va fi scris() de John mai trziu sptmna
aceasta, poate smbt dup-mas.
They are requested to be quiet between twelve and five o'clock every day. = Lor li se pretinde s fie linitii ntre orele
doisprezece i cinci dup-amiaza n fiecare zi.
My friends are living in the country somewhere near Cluj. = Prietenii mei triesc la ar undeva lng Cluj.
It will be hard for her to live on her small pension from now on. = Va fi greu pentru ea s triasc din mica ei pensie de
acum nainte/ncolo.
We all are to meet them at the station tomorrow at a quarter past twelve. = Noi toi urmeaz s-i ntlnim la gar mine la
doisprezece i un sfert.

1.8. PREPOZIIA (THE PREPOSITION)


(lat. prae = nainte, positia = poziie)
Prepoziia este partea de vorbire care unete diferite uniti sintactice n cadrul unei propoziii, realiznd relaii
de timp, loc etc.
The book is on the table. = Cartea este pe mas.
He will be there at three o'clock. = El va fi acolo la ora trei.
Prepoziiile sunt: - simple : about, on, under etc.
- compuse : into, within, without etc.
- complexe : because of, instead of etc.
- locuiuni prepoziionale : by means of, in the middle of etc.
Termenii ntre care prepoziia realizeaz un raport au funcii sintactice diferite. Ea leag un verb de complementul lui sau
un substantiv de un adjectiv sau adverb.
Prepoziia of este cea cu care se formeaz genitivul prepoziional/analitic, iar prepoziia to este aceea a dativului prepoziional.
S-a vzut cu ocazia prezentrii declinrii substantivelor i conjugrii verbelor c limba englez este o limb analitic. La
conjugarea verbelor este obligatorie prezena pronumelui personal alturi de verb pentru realizarea persoanei acestuia.
n cazul substantivelor ns, prepoziiile preiau funciile terminaiilor cazurilor limbilor sintetice. Ele sunt considerate
instrumente gramaticale, dar rolul lor este important. Cei ce doresc s tie bine limba englez, trebuie s acorde o atenie la fel
de mare i prepoziiei.
n limba englez prepoziia st fie naintea substanivului sau altui cuvnt cu care este n relaie, fie la sfritul
unei propoziii.
What is he talking about? = About what is he talking? = Despre ce vorbete el?
Who(m) is he talking about ? = About whom is he talking ? = Despre cine vorbete el ?
Whose friend are you talking about ? = About whose friend are you talking ? = Despre prietenul cui vorbeti tu ? = Despre
al cui prieten vorbeti tu ?
What are you looking at ? = At what are you looking ? = La ce priveti tu ?
Who(m) is this poem by ? = By whom is this poem ? = De cine este poezia aceasta ?
Who(m) is this book written by ? = By whom is this book written ? = De cine este scris cartea aceasta ?
To whom must you give the book ? = Who(m) must you give the book to ? = Cui trebuie s-i dai cartea ?
He is the boy who(m) I must give the book to. = El este biatul cruia trebuie s-i dau eu cartea.
The boy to whom I must ... = Biatul cruia trebuie s ...
n concluzie, prepoziiile n limba englez pot aprea n post - poziie n :

86

1. - ntrebrile care ncep cu cuvintele who, what, which


2. - n subordonatele atributive
3. - n unele exclamaii: What trouble they've got into ! = n ce ncurctur au intrat !
4. - n unele construcii pasive: He is looked for by us.
dar
He is sought by us este forma preferat
5. - n propoziii infinitivale: They are impossible to talk to. = Cu ei este imposibil de discutat.
6. - n propoziii/fraze afirmative care ncep cu who, what, which: What I am looking at is John's house. = La (ceea) ce
privesc
eu este casa lui John.
Cele mai importante prepoziii n limba englez sunt :
about = despre
along = de-a lungul
around = mprejur; vreo
below = dedesubt
beyond = dincolo de
in = n
near = lng
on = pe
past = pe lng; dincolo de
throughout = prin, peste, dup
up = n susul; ctre

above = deasupra
alongside = unul lng altul, alturi
at = la
beneath = sub; mai jos de
by = de, de ctre, prin
inside = nuntru
notwithstanding = cu toate c
opposite = peste drum de, vizavi
round = n jurul
to = la, ctre
within = n, nuntrul; nu mai trziu de

across = de-a curmeziul/ latul


among = ntre
before = nainte
besides = n afar de
for = pentru
into = n, spre
of = de
over = peste
since = de, de la
under = sub
without = fr

1.8.1. EXPRESII / STRUCTURI IDIOMATICE CU PREPOZIII, CU ADVERBE SAU CU ADJECTIVE


about = cam, n jurul; despre; prin etc.
it is about two o'clock = este n jurul orei dou
about the town = prin ora
a journey about the world = o cltorie prin lume
to have money about oneself = a avea bani asupra sa
above = deasupra
a plane above the clouds = un avion deasupra norilor
above my head = deasupra capului meu
across = peste, de-a curmeziul
a bridge across the Danube = un pod peste Dunre
to be able to swim across = a fi n stare s traverseze not
to sail across the ocean = a naviga peste ocean
the hotel across the road = hotelul de peste drum
to walk across a street = a traversa (pe jos) o strad
after (prep.) = dup, de etc.
after all his care = cu/dup toat grija lui
after breakfast = dup micul dejun
time after time = deseori, foarte adesea
day after day = zi de zi
to run after somebody = a alerga dup cineva
after five o'clock = dup ora cinci
to inquire after smb. = a ntreba de cineva
soon after five o'clock = imediat/curnd dup ora cinci
after (adv.) = dup
They came two days after. = Ei au venit dou zile dup aceea.
soon after = curnd dup aceea
against = contra, mpotriva
against the enemy = mpotriva dumanului
a race against time = o curs contra cronometru
against the laws = mpotriva/contra legilor
to swim against the stream = a nota contra curentului
to marry against one's will = a se cstori mpotriva voinei proprii
to hit one's head against a wall = a se lovi cu capul de un perete
to lean against a wall = a se rezema de un perete
to save money against a rainy day = a economisi bani albi pentru zile negre
along = de-a lungul, pe, etc.
to walk along the road = a merge pe drum
along a valley = de-a lungul unei vi
along the sea shore = de-a lungul rmului
among/amongst = ntre/ printre etc
among us = ntre noi (ntre trei sau mai muli)
a house among the trees = o cas ntre copaci
among his friends = ntre prietenii lui
to hide among the bushes = a se ascunde ntre/printre tufiuri
they divided the money among themselves = au mprit banii ntre ei
a city among the largest cities of the world = un ora printre cele mai mari orae ale lumii
amongst the most important reasons = printre cele mai importante cauze
lots of flowers amongst the trees = multe flori ntre/printre copaci
I chose him from among those boys. = L-am ales pe el dintre bieii aceia.
around (prep.) = n jurul, prin etc.

87

a trip around the country = o cltorie prin ar


Put a coat around the baby ! = Pune o hain pe copil ! = ]nvelete copilul cu o hain !
The planets move around the sun. = Planetele se mic n jurul soarelui.
to sail around the world = a naviga n jurul lumii
in a voyage around the world = ntr-o cltorie n jurul lumii
to sit around the table = a edea n jurul mesei
She had a scarf around her neck. = Ea avea o earf n jurul gtului.
He showed us around the house. = Ne-a prezentat casa lui. = Ne-a condus prin casa lui.
around (adv.) = de jur mprejur etc.
Is an island a land with water all around ? = Este o insul un uscat/pmnt nconjurat de ape ?
Winter will soon be around again. = Iarna se va instala din nou.
We could have fruit all the year around. = Am putea avea fructe tot timpul anului.
to have a wall all around = a avea un zid de jur mprejur
Come around to see us tomorrow ! = Trecei/Venii mine pe la noi !
at = la etc.
at my command = la ordinul meu, la comanda mea
at noon = la prnz
at day break = la revrsatul zorilor, n zori
at the age of = la vrsta de
at that time = la/pe vremea aceea
at the same time = n acelai timp
at first = la nceput
at random = la ntmplare, haotic
to be at school = a fi la coal
at last = n cele din urm, n final
at what time ? = la ce or ?
to be at smb.'s mercy = a fi la mila cuiva
at the end of a book = la sfritul unei cri
at one/two etc. o'clock = la ora unu/dou etc.
at any moment = n orice clip
at the end of the week = la sfrtul sptmnii
before (prep.) = nainte de etc.
two days before Easter = (cu) dou zile nainte de Pati
to come before the fixed time = a veni nainte de ora
fixat
since before the war = de dinainte de rzboi
before the war = nainte de rzboi
before (adv.) = nainte
I've met him before = l-am cunoscut (mai) nainte
the day before = cu o zi nainte
before long = soon = curnd
before (conj.) = nainte
You must eat smth. before you go. = Trebuie s mnnci ceva nainte de a pleca.
Tell him now before you forget. = Spune-i acum nainte de a uita.
That happened in the year 55 B.C. (B.C. = Before Christ) = Asta s-a ntmplat n anul 55 nainte de Christos.
behind (prep.) = n spatele
to hide behind a tree = a se ascunde dup un copac = a se ascunde n spatele unui copac
to hide behind the door = a se ascunde dup u
to come out from behind the door = a iei de dup u
behind (adv.) = n spate, n urm, napoia etc.
to attack from behind = a ataca din spate
to be behind with one's work = a fi n urm cu lucrul
to fall on one's behind = a cdea pe spate
below (prep.) = sub ,dedesubt
The sun goes below the horizon. = Soarele se deplaseaz sub orizont.
a leg broken below the knee = un picior fracturat sub genunchi
below sea level = sub nivelul mrii
to be below fifty = a fi sub cincizeci de ani
below the average = sub nivelul mediu
below (adv.) = sub, dedesubt
We could see the lake below. = Puteam s vedem lacul dedesubt.
He lived in the room below. = El locuia n camera de dedesubt.
here below = on earth = pe pmnt
beneath (prep.) = dedesubt, sub
beneath one's dignity = sub demnitatea cuiva
beside = by the side of = lng, alturi de
a small park beside the river = un prcule lng ru
to live beside the sea = a tri lng mare, a locui pe rmul mrii
besides (prep.) = pe lng
besides this = pe lng asta/aceasta.

88

besides (adv.) = moreover = in addition to = n plus, pe deasupra


He is tired and besides, away from home. = Este obosit i n plus, departe de cas.
between (prep.) = ntre
between Africa and Europe = ntre Africa i Europa
an understanding between us = o nelegere ntre noi
between the two World Wars = ntre cele dou rzboaie mondiale
a war between two countries = un rzboi ntre dou ri
a comparison between two things = o comparaie ntre dou lucruri
between (adv.) = ntre
They visited the two museums with a quick lunch between. = Ei au vizitat cele dou muzee cu un prnz rapid ntre ele.
Prepoziia/Adverbul between se folosete cnd este vorba de dou elemente, persoane etc. Cnd este vorba de mai multe
elemente se folosete prepoziia among.
beyond (prep.) = dincolo, etc
a hill beyond the village. = un deal dincolo de sat.
the country beyond the sea = ara de dincolo de mare
What is there beyond the stars ? = Ce se afl dincolo de stele ?
Those apples are beyond reach. = Nu se poate ajunge la merele acelea.
It was a scene beyond description. = A fost o scen indescriptibil.
beyond limits = peste limit
beyond (adv.) = dincolo, peste etc.
Alaska and the lands beyond = Alaska i teritoriile de dincolo de ea
John loves her beyond measure. = John o iubete peste msur.
by (prep.) = lng, cu, dup, pe etc.
to sit by smb. = a edea lng cineva
a house by the river = o cas lng ru, o cas pe malul rului
to have a day by the sea = a petrece o zi pe malul mrii, a petrece o zi pe litoral
to open by force = a deschide ceva cu fora
to travel by bus/train/plane/etc. = a cltori cu autobuzul/trenul/avionul/etc.
to travel by ship/steamer = a cltori cu vaporul
to travel by day not by night = a cltori ziua nu noaptea
to come by the nearest road = a veni pe drumul cel mai apropiat
to travel to Bucharest by Piteti = a cltori la Bucureti prin Piteti
to tell the time by the sun = a spune ora dup soare
to live by oneself = to live alone = a locui/tri singur
to pay smth. by cheque = a plti ceva cu cec
by (adv.) = deoparte
to put/lay/set smth. by = a pune ceva deoparte
by and by = later on = mai trziu, apoi; curnd, dup puin timp
by and large = on the whole = n mare, n ansamblu
down (prep.) = n jos, la vale
to run/walk down a hill = a alerga/merge la vale pe un deal
tears running down her face = lacrimi rostogolindu-se pe chipul / faa ei
He is swimming down the river. = El noat n ru la vale.
to walk down the street = a merge la vale pe strad, a merge n josul strzii
down (adv.) = jos
The sun goes down in the west. = Soarele coboar la apus.
to be knocked down by a bus = a fi dobort la pmnt de un autobuz
to sit down = a sta jos, a se aeza
during (prep.) = n timpul
They came to see us during our absence. = Au venit pe la noi n absena noastr.
during our lifetime = n timpul vieii noastre
during our holidays = n timpul vacanei noastre
except (prep.) = not including = apart from = cu excepia
every day except Saturday = n fiecare zi cu excepia zilei de smbt
all my friends except Jim = toi prietenii mei cu excepia lui Jim

89

for (prep.) = de la, pentru etc.


something good for food = ceva comestibil, ceva bun de mncare
to sail for Sidney = a naviga spre Sidney
to be ready for smth. = a fi gata pentru ceva
for a time = (pentru) un timp
They have been here for a week. = Ei sunt aici de o sptmn.
to leave for school = a pleca la coal
to go for a walk = a merge la o plimbare
to look for aid/help = a cuta ajutor
from (prep.) = din, de la
from one place to another = dintr-un loc n altul
from flower to flower = din floare n floare
to jump from the roof = a sri de pe acoperi
wine made of grapes = vin fcut din struguri
to be far from home = a fi departe de cas
from first to last = de la primul la ultimul
in (prep.) = din, n, la
the best tennis player in the world = cel mai bun juctor de tenis din lume
it is in the house = este n cas
a holiday in the mountains = o vacan la munte
to live in the country = a tri la ar
to lie in bed = a sta ntins n pat
to have a picnic in the woods = a servi un picnic la pdure
in (adv.) = nuntru, ntr-un
in general = n general
to be in = a fi nuntru (n cas/camer)
in brief / short = pe scurt
There is nobody in. = Nu este nimeni nuntru.
in a word = ntr-un cuvnt
in conclusion = n concluzie
in the meantime, meanwhile = ntre timp
in fact = de fapt
into (prep.) = n, nspre
to come into the house/room = a intra n cas/camer
to get into trouble = a da de bucluc/necaz/belea
to fall into the river/lake = a cdea n ru/lac
to turn English into Romanian = a traduce din englez n
romn
to get into difficulties = a da de greuti/dificulti
near (prep.) = lng, aproape de
near the seashore = lng rmul mrii
near me or near my friend = lng mine sau lng prietenul meu
to have a dictionary near at hand = a avea un dicionar la ndemn
near (adj.) = apropiat
there is a near way to = este un drum mai apropiat ctre
the nearest way to = cel mai apropiat drum spre
near (adv.) = aproape
the river/lake is quite near = rul/lacul este foarte aproape
to live nearby = a locui n apropiere
Come near and listen to what I say ! = Vino aproape i ascult la ce spun !
of (prep.) = de, cu, din etc.
ten kilometers south of Constana = zece kilometri la sud de Constana
a bottle full of wine = o sticl plin cu/de vin
a book of proverbs = o carte de proverbe
to die of hunger and thirst = a muri de foame i sete
a family of five = o familie din cinci membri
off [of] (adv.)
the lake is six kilometers off = lacul este la o deprtare de ase kilometri
how far is it off? = la ce distan/deprtare este de aici?
to take off one's shoes = a-i descla pantofii
the holidays are far off = e mult pn la vacan
to turn the light off = a stinge lumina
to take off one's coat = a-i dezbrca haina
to take a day off = a-i lua o zi liber de la serviciu
off (prep.)
to fall off the ladder/bicycle = a cdea de pe scar/biciclet
to fall off the horse = a cdea de pe cal
to be off duty = a fi liber, a nu fi la serviciu
off (adj.)
on the off chance that = n cazul n care, dac
my off time = timpul meu liber
an off season = un sezon mort/slab
on (prep.) = pe
a book on the table = o carte pe mas
to sit on the grass = a sta jos pe iarb
a picture on the wall = un tablou pe perete
to write smth. on paper = a scrie ceva pe hrtie
a hat on her/his head = o plrie pe capul ei/lui
to go on foot = a merge pe jos/picioare
out of (prep.) = afar din, din
to go/walk out of a room = a iei dintr-o camer
trees grow out of the earth = copacii cresc din pmnt
to do smth. out of pity = a face ceva de/din mil
to ask out of curiosity = a ntreba de/din curiozitate

90

to be out of work = a fi omer


over (prep) = peste, deasupra, asupra
over their heads = deasupra capetelor lor
a bridge over the river = un pod peste ru

something out of use = ceva ieit din uz


to be over forty = a avea mai mult de patruzeci de ani
to have authority over smb. = a avea autoritate asupra cuiva

over (adv.)
I am to turn over the page. = Urmeaz s dau pagina.
over again = nc o dat
to boil over with rage = a spumega de mnie
over and again = de mai multe ori
to turn over the leaves of a book = a da/ntoarce foile unei cri
past (prep.) = peste, i, trecut de
half past one, two etc. = unu, dou etc. i jumtate
past (adv.)
to run past smb. = a trece n fug pe lng cineva, a trece de cineva n fug
round (adj.) = rotund
a round table = o mas rotund
a round peg in a square hole = potrivit ca nuca n perete
round (prep.) = n jurul
to run round a house = a alerga n jurul unei case
round
the
sun
=
n
jurul
soarelui
since (prep. & adv.) = de, din, de la
since four o'clock = de la ora patru
I haven't seen them since. = Nu i-am vzut de atunci.
through (prep.) = pe, prin, printre
to come in through the door = a intra pe u
to look through a telescope = a privi printr-un telescop
to go through life = a trece prin via
throughout (prep.) = n, prin, peste
throughout our holidays = pe tot parcursul vacanei noastre
to revise a book throughout = a revizui o carte complet
throughout this country = de-a lungul i de-a latul acestei ri
to (prep.) = la, ctre, spre
this road leads to Braov. = drumul acesta duce la Braov.
to go to school/church = a merge la coal/biseric
to walk to school = a merge la coal pe jos
to go to school by bus = a merge la coal cu autobuzul
to go to the baker's = a merge la patiserie/brutrie
to go to bed = a merge la culcare
to come to an end = to finish = a lua sfrit, a se termina
to turn to the right and to the left = a se ntoarce la dreapta i la stnga
to go from place to place = a merge dintr-un loc ntr-altul
under (prep.) = dedesubt, sub, mai jos de
to swim under water = a nota pe sub ap
to be under arms = a fi sub arme
under the age of fourteen = sub vrsta de paisprezece ani
to be under treatment = a fi sub ngrijire medical, a fi n tratament
under my, your etc. feet = sub tlpile mele, tale etc.
to be under observation = a fi sub observaie
this question under examination = aceast chestiune n studiu
under (adv.)
That boat went under. = Barca aceea a mers la fund.
underneath (prep.) = sub, dedesubtul
The ball rolled underneath a table. = Mingea s-a rostogolit sub o mas.
up (prep.) = ctre, spre, n susul
to run up the hill = a alerga pe deal n sus, a urca dealul n fug
to walk up a hill/mountain = a urca un deal/munte
the ups and downs of life = vicisitudinile/valurile vieii
up (adv. particle)
to be up for sometime = a fi n picioare de ctva timp, a fi sculat de ctva timp
to be up till late = a nu se culca pn trziu
He lifted his head up. = El i-a ridicat capul.
Up with him ! = Sus cu el ! = S se scoale !
Time's up. You must leave. = Timpul s-a terminat. Trebuie s pleci.
upon = on (prep.) = pe, n
many books upon that desk = multe cri pe banca aceea
We see two boats upon the lake. = Vedem dou brci pe
lac.
a tree upon the top of the hill = un copac n/pe vrful dealului

91

upon the surface of the sea = pe suprafaa mrii


upon our word = pe cuvntul nostru
with (prep.) = cu
in the mountains with my friends = la munte cu prietenii
eva
mei
to discuss smth. with smb. = a discuta ceva cu cineva
to cut smth. with a knife = a tia ceva cu un cuit
to help smb. with smth. = a ajuta pe cineva la ceva
to travel with smb. = a cltori cu cineva
in comparison with = n comparaie cu
to walk with haste = a merge grbit
in conection with = n legtur cu
to go for a walk with smb. = a merge la plimbare cu cinwithin (prep.) = n, n cadrul / interiorul / limita
They are running within a circle = Ei alearg ntr-un
cerc.
within a week/month = n mai puin de o sptmn/lun
within the law = n limita/limitele legii
within our room = n interiorul camerei noastre
without (prep.) = fr
not to succeed without money = a nu reui fr bani
to come without delay = a veni fr ntrziere
to escape without damage = a scpa nevtmat
to come without doubt = a veni fr ndoial
to be without help = a fi fr ajutor, a fi lipsit de ajutor
It goes without saying. = Se nelege de la sine.
to do smth. without success = a face ceva fr succes
They passed without saying a word. = Ei au trecut fr a spune vreun cuvnt.
I cannot speak German without mistakes. = Nu pot vorbi germana fr greeli.
1.8.2. VERBE CU PREPOZIII OBLIGATORII
to accuse smb. of smth. = a acuza pe cineva de ceva
to agree on = a fi de acord asupra
to approve of smth. = a aproba ceva
to ask smb. for smth. = a cere cuiva ceva
to be acquainted with smth.=a fi obinuit cu ceva
to be angry with smb. = a fi suprat pe cineva
to be astonished at = a fi uimit/uluit de
to be characteristic of = a fi caracteristic pentru
to be concerned with = a fi preocupat de
to be crazy about = a fi nebun dup
to be dependent on/upon = a fi dependent de
to be different from = a fi diferit de
to be good at = a fi bun la, a se pricepe la
to be grateful to = a fi recunosctor fa de
to be of opinion that = a fi de prere c
to be on the move = a fi n micare
to be independent of = a fi independent de
to be intent on = a fi absorbit de
to be jealous of = a fi gelos pe
to be polite to = a fi politicos/civilizat cu
to be proud of = a fi mndru de
to be seized with = a fi prins de
to be sorry for = a-i prea ru pentru; a-i cere scuze
to be surprised at = a fi surprins de
to beg for = a ceri/implora
to belong to = a aparine
to boast of = a se luda/fli cu
to call for = a cere, a necesita
to call at a place = a trece printr-un loc
to compare to/with = a compara cu
to conceal from = a se ascunde de
to contribute to = a contribui la
to cure of = a vindeca de
to defend from = a apra de
to die of = a muri de
to do without = a se lipsi de, a face fr
to embark on = a o porni ntr-o direcie;

to agree with smb./smth. = a fi de acord cu cineva/ceva


to apologize for = a-i cere iertare pentru
to arrive at/in = a ajunge la/n
to be accustomed to smth. = a fi obinuit/ familiar cu ceva
to be afraid of smb./smth. = a se teme de cineva/ ceva
to be anxious about smth. = a fi ngrijorat de ceva
to be aware of = a fi contient de, a-i da seama de
to be close to = a fi aproape/ alturi de
to be confident of = a fi ncreztor n
to be cruel to = a fi crud cu, a fi crud/ru fa de
to be deprived of = a fi lipsit/deposedat de
to be fond of = a fi amator de
to be good/kind to = a fi amabil cu
to be indignant at = a fi indignat de
to be bent on/upon = a fi hotrt s
to be impressed by = a fi impresionat de
to be indifferent to = a fi indiferent fa de
to be interested in = a fi interesat de
to be patient with = a fi rbdtor cu
to be preoccupied by = a fi preocupat de
to be satisfied with = a fi mulumit cu/de
to be similar to = a fi asemntor cu
to be superior to = a fi superior
to be typical of = a fi caracteristic pentru
to begin by = a ncepe prin
to beware of = a se feri/pzi de
to borrow from = a mprumuta de la
to call on smb. = a vizita pe cineva
to care for = a ine la, a-i plcea
to complain of = a se plnge/vita de
to congratulate on = a felicita pentru
to count/rely on/upon = a se bizui / baza pe/ conta pe
to deal with = a se ocupa cu/de
to depend on/upon = a depinde de
to differ from = a diferi de
to doubt of = a se ndoi de
to escape from = a scpa de

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to feed on = a hrni cu
to forgive for = a ierta pentru
to go to = a merge la, a se duce la
to hope for = a spera la
to insist on = a insista asupra
to introduce to = a prezenta (cuiva)
to knock at = a bate la
to laugh at = a rde de
to lend to smb. = a da mprumut cuiva
to long for = a tnji dup
to look after = a ngriji de, a avea grij de
to look into = a examina
to look on/upon = a considera
to meet with = a ntmpina
to move from ... to ... = a se muta din ... la/n ...
to part with = a se despri de
to pass for = a trece drept
to pine for = a tnji dup
to prevent from = a mpiedica/opri s
to protect from = a proteja/apra de
to pull at = a trage la
to recover from = a-i reveni dup, a se face bine dup
to refrain from = a se abine de la
to resort to smb. = a se adresa cuiva, a apela la cineva
to reproach smb. with smth. = a reproa cuiva ceva
to be sated with = a fi stul/dezgustat de
to send for = a trimite dup
to smell of = a mirosi a
to stare at = a privi fix/intens la
to subtract from = a scdea din
to supply with = a aproviziona cu
to think about/of = a se gndi la
to transform/change into = a transforma/schimba in
to wait for smb. = a atepta pe cineva

to fill with = a umple cu


to glance at = a arunca o privire la
to go in for = a se prezenta la
to indulge in = a se deda la, a se complace n; a ndemna s
to interfere in = a interveni n, a se amesteca n
to intrude on = a deranja, a tulbura
to leave for = a pleca la
to laugh with joy = a rde de bucurie
to live on = a tri din/cu
to look at = a privi la
to look for = a cuta
to look like = a semna cu
to look to = a se ngriji de
to mistake for = a confunda cu, a lua drept
to object to = a obiecta asupra/ mpotriva
to participate in = a participa la
to peep at = a privi pe furi la
to play at = a se juca de-a
to profit by smth. = a profita de ceva
to provide with = a nzestra cu
to put in(to) practice = a pune n practic
to refer to = a se referi la
to remind smb. of smth. = a aminti cuiva de ceva
to retire from = a se retrage din
to rush at smth. = a se repezi la ceva
to see to = a se ngriji/ocupa de
to separate from = a separa de
to stand for = a reprezenta
to start for = a porni ctre/spre
to succeed in = a reui s
to take into account/consideration = a lua n seam/consideraie
to threaten with = a amenina cu
to translate from ... into ... = a traduce din ... n ...
to worry about = a-i face griji n privina

1.9. CONJUNCIA (THE CONJUNCTION)


(lat.: conjunctio, con = mpreun; junctio = legtur)
Este partea de vorbire care leag n propoziii cuvinte cu aceeai funcie sintactic, sau
1.9.1. CLASIFICAREA CONJUNCIILOR
a) conjuncii simple: and, after, but etc.
b) conjuncii compuse: however, unless etc
c) conjuncii corelative: either ... or ...; neither. . . nor; both... and... ; in order to; as if ; as though
Dup funcii conjunciile sunt:
1.9.1.1. CONJUNCII COORDONATOARE (COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS)
Conjunciile coordonatoare leag pri de propoziie cu aceeai valoare sintactic sau propoziii de acelai fel.
1.9.1.1.1. CONJUNCII COPULATIVE (COPULATIVE CONJUNCTIONS)
and = i, iar
I see a boy and a girl. = Vd un biat i o fat.
He went home and brought the book. = El a mers acas i a adus cartea.
as well as = precum i
He speaks English as well as German. = El vorbete engleza precum i germana
both . . . and = att.... ct i ......
I like both English and German. = mi place att engleza ct i germana.
not only . . . but also = nu numai ... ci i .....

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I like not only English but also German. = mi place nu numai engleza ci i germana.
1.9.1.1.2. CONJUNCII DISJUNCTIVE (DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS)
Conjunciile disjunctive exprim o alternativ.
either . . . or = sau.... sau ....., fie..... fie....
He can speak either English or German. = El tie s vorbeasc fie engleza fie germana.
neither . . . nor = nici.... nici.....
I see neither him nor her. = Nu-l vd nici pe el, nici pe ea.
otherwise = altfel , altminteri
The book is expensive, otherwise it is very useful. = Cartea este scump, altminteri este foarte util.
else (if not) = altfel (dac nu), or else = c/cci altfel, c dac nu
Hurry up or (else) you will miss the train. = Grbete-te, (c) altfel pierzi trenul.
1.9.1.1.3. CONJUNCII ADVERSATIVE (ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS)
Conjunciile adversative exprim contrastul.
but = ns, dar;
We want to buy a house but we don't have money. = Vrem s cumprm o cas dar nu avem bani.
however = ns, dar totui
I didn't want to do it, however I did it. = N-am vrut s-o fac, dar am fcut-o.
nevertheless = totui, cu toate acestea
Mathematics is difficult, nevertheless I like it. = Matematica este grea, totui mi place.
still = totui, ns, dar, cu toate acestea
It is expensive, still I'll buy it. = Este scump, totui o voi cumpra.
while = whereas = pe ct vreme, n timp ce, pe cnd
Your motorcar is old, while/whereas mine is new. = Maina ta este veche, pe cnd a mea e/este nou.
yet (nevertheless) = totui, cu toate acestea
These goods are expensive, and yet people buy them. = Aceste mrfuri sunt scumpe i totui lumea le cumpr.
1.9.1.1.4. CONJUNCII CONCLUSIVE (ILLATIVE CONJUNCTIONS)
Conjunciile conclusive exprim o concluzie.
accordingly = n consecin, deci, prin urmare, ca atare
I found the book I needed and accordingly I bought it. = Am gsit cartea, de care aveam nevoie i, n consecin am cumprat-o.
consequently = n consecin, aadar, prin urmare
I found the book interesting, consequently I bought it. = Am gsit cartea interesant, aadar am cumprat-o.
so = aadar, de aceea, prin urmare, astfel c, aa c
I considered the book important, so I bought it. = Am considerat cartea important, astfel c am cumprat-o.
therefore = astfel cA, deci, de aceea, aadar, prin urmare, n consecin
I didn't find them in the park, therefore I went home. = Nu i-am gsit n parc, aadar am plecat acas.
1.9.1.1.5. CONJUNCII CAUZALE (CAUSAL CONJUNCTIONS)
for = cci, pentru c, ntruct, deoarece, fiindc
It is very hot for it is August. = Este foarte cald cci este august.
Sunt rare ns cazurile cnd se ntlnesc n engleza vorbit astfel de exemple/cazuri cu for cauzal.
1.9.1.2. CONJUNCII SUBORDONATOARE (SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS)
Conjunciile subordonatoare leag o subordonat de regenta sa.

1.9.1.2.1. CONJUNCII DE LOC (CONJUNCTIONS OF PLACE)


where = unde
You must come here where I live. = Trebuie s vii aici unde locuiesc/triesc eu.
wherever = oriunde
We'll live wherever it is possible. = Vom tri oriunde va fi posibil.
as far as = pn unde / la

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I shall/will go as far as you go. = Voi merge pn unde mergi tu.


whence = de unde
I'm going there whence you are coming. = Merg acolo de unde vii tu.
1.9.1.2.2. CONJUNCII DE TIMP (CONJUNCTIONS OF TIME)
after = dup, dup ce
I came after you had left. = Am venit dup ce ai plecat tu. = Am venit dup ce plecasei tu.
before = nainte de a
I must put down your telephone number before I forget it. = Trebuie s-mi notez numrul tu de telefon nainte de a-l uita.
the first time = prima dat/oar cnd
I realized he was a serious man the first time I saw him. = Mi-am dat seama c este om serios cnd l-am vzut prima dat .
all the time = tot timpul ct
We are laughing all the time we are watching the play. = Rdem tot timpul ct privim piesa.
as long as = ct timp
A man must learn as long as he lives. = Un om trebuie s nvee ct timp triete.
as soon as = de ndat ce, imediat ce
I must find out the truth as soon as I arrive. = Trebuie s aflu adevrul imediat ce sosesc.
since = de cnd
I haven't seen him since he was a student. = Nu l-am vzut de cnd era el student.
ever since = chiar de cnd
I relized he was a good man ever since I met him. = Mi-am dat seama c este om bun chiar de cnd l-am cunoscut.
till = until = pn cnd, pn ce, pn la, pn s, pn
You must wait till they come. = Trebuie s atepi pn vin ei.
when = cnd
I shall tell you everything when you come. = i voi povesti totul cnd vei veni.
whenever = ori de cte ori
I realize she is an excellent singer whenever I listen to her. = ]mi dau seama c este o cntrea desvrit ori de cte ori o
ascult.
while = ct timp, n timp ce
While there is life, there is hope. = Omul sper ct triete.
the moment = n momentul /clipa n care
I recognized him the moment I saw him. = L-am recunoscut n clipa n care l-am vzut.
the very moment = chiar n momentul/clipa n care
I understood the real state of things the (very) moment I entered their house. = Am neles adevrata stare a lucrurilor
(chiar) n momentul n care am intrat n casa lor.
1.9.1.2.3. CONJUNCII DE MOD (CONJUNCTIONS OF MANNER)
Conjunciile de mod introduc subordonate modale.
as = cum, aa cum, dup cum, ntocmai cum, n acelai fel n care
He talks as he thinks. = Vorbete cum gndete.
He knows many things young as he is. = El tie multe lucruri aa tnr cum este.
as if = as though = ca i cnd, de parc, parc s
He opend his mouth as if to say something. = A deschis gura parc s spun ceva.
He greeted us as if he knew us. = Ne-a salutat ca i cnd ne-ar cunoate.
not so . . . as . . . = nu aa de . . . ca . . .
Your house is not so big as I thought. = Casa ta nu este aa mare cum am crezut.
as . . . as = la fel de ...ca.., tot aa de ca....
She sang the song as beautifully as she could. = Ea a cntat cntecul ct a putut de frumos.
so much as = aa de mult ct/ca
I do not like tennis so much as he does. = Mie nu-mi place tenisul aa de mult ct lui.
so far as = n msura n care
You will buy the house so far as you can afford it. = Vei cumpra casa n msura n care i poi permite.
1.9.1.2.4. CONJUNCII DE CAUZ (CONJUNCTIONS OF CAUSE)
Conjuncii de cauz introduc subordonatele cauzale.
because = for the reason that = pentru c, pentru motivul c , deoarece , ntruct
I bought the ball because it was cheap. = Am cumprat mingea pentru c era ieftin.
seeing that = vznd c
Seeing that it was raining I entered the house. = Vznd c plou am intrat n cas.

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since = ntruct, deoarece, cci


Since it is raining, I must take my umbrella. = ntruct plou, trebuie s-mi iau umbrela.
now that = acum c, deoarece
Now that I have come I shall/will drink a cup of coffee. = Acum c am venit, voi bea o ceac cu cafea.
1.9.1.2.5. CONJUNCII DE SCOP (CONJUNCTIONS OF PURPOSE)
Conjunciile de scop introduc subordonatele finale.
in order to/that = cu scopul de a, ca s
We have come to school in order to learn. = Am venit la coal ca s nvm.
lest (+ should) = ca s nu
Turn on the light lest you should knock your head against smth. ! = Aprinde lumina ca s nu te loveti cu capul de ceva !
so that = aa nct, ca s
Turn on the light so that I can see better ! = Aprinde lumina ca s pot vedea mai bine !
1.9.1.2.6. CONJUNCII CONCESIVE (CONJUNCTIONS OF CONCESSION)
Conjunciile concesive introduc subordonatele concesive.
though = although = dei, cu toate c
I shall/will go there although it is late. = Voi merge acolo dei este trziu.
even if = chiar dac
I shall go there even if it is very late. = Voi merge acolo chiar dac este foarte trziu.
however (much) = orict de (mult)
You must buy it however much it costs. = Trebuie s-o cumperi indiferent ct de mult cost.
no matter how = nu conteaz ct/cum, indiferent ct/cum
You must read it no matter how borring it is. = Trebuie s-o citeti indiferent ct de plictisitoare este.
Boring as it is you must read it. = Plictisitoare aa cum este trebuie s-o citeti.
in spite of = n ciuda
He succeeded in spite of all the difficulties that he came across. = El a reuit n ciuda tuturor dificultilor pe care le-a ntmpinat.
in spite of the fact that = n ciuda faptului c, dei, chiar dac
They failed in spite of their efforts. = Au euat n ciuda eforturilor lor.
notwithstanding = dei, n ciuda/pofida faptului c
They failed notwithstanding the efforts they made. = Ei au dat gre n ciuda/ pofida eforturilor pe care le-au fcut.
1.9.1.2.6. CONJUNCII CONDIIONALE (CONJUNCTIONS OF CONDITIONAL)
Conjunciile condiionale introduc subordonatele condiionale.
if = dac
I shall not come if I don't have time. = Nu voi veni dac nu voi avea timp.
if only = doar/numai dac
I shall come if only I have time. = Voi veni doar dac voi avea timp.
on condition that = cu condiia c
I shall come on the condition that I have time. = Voi veni cu condiia c voi avea timp.
provided that = cu condiia c
I shall come provided that I have time. = Voi veni cu condiia c voi avea timp.
if and only if = dac i numai dac
I shall come if and only if I have time. = Voi veni dac i numai dac voi avea timp.
as long as = att timp ct, dac
I shall not give you the money as long as you don't tell me the truth. = Nu-i voi da banii atta timp ct nu-mi vei spune
adevrul.
but = dac nu
But for John, I would have gone. = Dac n-ar fi fost John a fi mers.
unless = dac nu
I shall not give you the money unless you tell me the truth. = Eu nu-i voi da banii dac nu-mi vei spune adevrul.
1.9.1.2.8. CONJUNCII CONSECUTIVE (CONJUNCTIONS OF RESULT)
Conjunciile consecutive introduc subordonatele consecutive.
so . . . that . . . = aa de . . . nct . . ., that = nct/c;
I lent you the book so that you could read it. = i-am mprumutat cartea ca s-o poi citi.

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such . . . that . . . = aa/astfel de . . . nct/c . . .


Such was the force of the wind that we could not stand. = Aa mare era fora vntului c noi nu puteam sta n picioare.
1.9.1.2.9. CONJUNCII ATRIBUTIVE (ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS)
Conjuncile atributive introduc subordonatele atributive sau relative.
that = care, pe care, de care (pentru persoane i lucruri)
This is the book that I need. = Aceasta este cartea de care am eu nevoie.
He is the man that/who knows us. = El este omul care ne cunoate pe noi.
who (pronume relativ) = care
He is the man who knows us. = El este omul care ne cunoate.
whose = al, a, ai, ale cui/crui/crei/cror
He is the playwright whose plays are eternal. = El este dramaturgul ale crui piese sunt eterne.
to whom = who(m) . . . to = cruia, creia, crora
The boy, to whom I must give this book, is my friend. = The boy, who(m) I must give this book to, is my friend. = Biatul,
cruia eu trebuie s-i dau aceast carte, este prietenul meu.
whom / that = pe care (pentru persoane)
The boys, whom/that you see, are John's friends. = Bieii, pe care i vezi, sunt prietenii lui John.
which / that = care, pe care (pentru lucruri)
The house, which/that you see, is mine. = Casa, pe care o vezi, este a mea.
1.9.1.2.10. CONJUNCII SUBIECTIVE ( SUBJECT CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS)
Conjunciile subiective introduc subordonatele subiective.
that = c
That we have to work hard is a necessity. = C trebuie s muncim mult este o necesitate.
who = cine, care
Who knows the truth is not here. = Cine tie adevrul nu este aici.
what = ce
What I like is not to be found here. = Ce-mi place mie nu se gsete aici.
when = cnd
When he comes depends on the weather. = Cnd vine el depinde de vreme.
why = de ce, din ce cauz
Why he has come is a mystery. = De ce a venit el este un mister.
what . . . for = for what = pentru ce
For what he has come is a mystery. = Pentru ce a venit el este un mister.
how = cum
How he has done it is a mystery. = Cum a fcut-o este un mister.
where = unde
Where we shall go is a mystery. = Unde vom merge este un mister.
wherever = oriunde
Wherever we went would be a mystery/secret. = Oriunde am merge ar fi un mister/secret.
whenever = ori de cte ori
Whenever we went would be a mystery. = Ori de cte ori am merge ar fi un mister.
whose = al, a, ai, ale
Whose this book is is a mystery. = A cui este aceast carte este un mister.
what kind / sort of = ce fel de
What kind / sort of man he is is a mystery. = Ce fel de om este el este un mister.
which = care
Which book I must buy is a mystery. = Care carte trebuie s-o cumpr este un mister.
which of = care dintre
Which of us will travel by train is a secret. = Care dintre noi va cltori cu trenul este secret.
1.9.1.2.11. CONJUNCII COMPLETIVE (OBJECT CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS)
that = c
You did not tell me that you would come earlier. = Nu mi-ai spus c vei veni mai devreme.
Conjuncia that se poate omite: I knew you were very busy. = tiam c eti foarte ocupat.
1.9.2. ALTE CUVINTE DE LEGTUR
for instance = for example = de exemplu/pild
one = o dat
One, you would have more spare time. = O dat, ai avea mai mult timp liber.

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two = doi, n al doilea rnd


Two, you would be better paid. = Doi, ai fi mai bine pltit.
Secondly, and far more importantly . . . = n al doilea rnd, i mult mai important . . .
and to conclude . . .= i n ncheiere
first / firstly = n primul rnd, mai nti
second / secondly = n al doilea rnd
third / thirdly = n al treilea rnd
to conclude = n ncheiere / concluzie
for a start = pentru nceput
I want to begin by saying that. = Vreau s ncep prin a spune (spunnd) c.
Another thing is that . . . = Alt lucru este c . . .
Which is far more important. = Care este cu mult mai important.
There is still another thing. = Mai este nc un lucru.
The final thing I must say is . . . = Ultimul lucru pe care trebuie s-l spun este . . .
The second/third reason is . . . = Al doilea/treilea motiv este . . .
Also, it's not . . . = De asemenea, nu este . . .
You didn't read that book. = I didn't read it either. = Neither did I. = Tu nu ai citit cartea aceea. = Nici eu n-am citit-o.
"You are in a hurry." "Indeed we are." = Voi v grbii. Ne grbim, ntr-adevr; Da, aa este; Sigur c da.
That reminds me of . . . = Asta mi amintete de . . .
By the way. = By the by. = Apropo.
In a word, briefly. = ntr-un cuvnt, pe scurt.
My conclusion is that . . . = Concluzia mea este c . . .
That is. = That is to say. = Adic
This is another way of putting it. = Aceasta este un alt fel/mod de a-l spune/ exprima.
Such an example would be . . . = Un astfel de exemplu ar fi
As a result...= consequently... = Ca urmare; n consecin...
The consequence was that . . . = Consecina/urmarea a fost c . . .
The consequence of his being late was that . . . = Consecina/urmarea ntrzierii lui a fost c . . .
in other words = cu alte cuvinte
in that case = n cazul acela
if so = dac e aa
if not = dac nu
I would rather say = a spune/zice mai degrab
a way of putting it = un fel de a spune
a better way of putting it = un fel mai bun de a zice
It would be better to . . . = Ar fi mai bine s. .
on the one hand / side = pe de o parte; on the other hand / side = pe de alt parte
on the contrary = dimpotriv
by contrast = prin contrast
Of course, he . . .= Desigur, el . . .
He is , of course.... = El este, desigur...
it is true that = este adevrat c
There is little doubt about that. = Este puin ndoial n privina aceasta/aceea.
There is no doubt about that. = Nu este nici o ndoial n acest sens.
The truth is that . . . = Adevrul este c . . .
He will even read it. = El o va i citi. = El chiar o va citi.
"He likes to spend his holidays at the seaside". "So do we". = Lui i place s-i petreac vacana la mare. i nou.
"We are at the seaside". "So am I". = Noi suntem la mare. i eu.
"He can speak French". "So can we". = El tie s vorbeasc franuzete. i noi.
"He cannot speak French". "Neither can we"; "We can't either". = El nu tie s vorbeasc franuzete. Nici noi.
the first reason = primul motiv, prima cauz
the first suggestion = prima sugestie
He feels so bad today. = El se simte aa (de) ru azi/astzi.
I do not feel that bad. = Eu nu m simt aa (de) ru.
I expected it to be this big. = M-am ateptat s fie aa de mare.
in the same way as = n acelai fel ca
much similar to = mult asemntor cu
The girl other than Jane. = Alt fat dect Jane; Alt fat n afar de Jane.

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2. S I N T A X A (THE SYNTAX)
(gr.: syn = mpreun, cu; taxis = aranjament, aezare)
Sintaxa este aceea parte a gramaticii care se ocup cu studiul funciilor cuvintelor n propoziii i cu studiul propoziiilor n fraz. Ea stabilete regulile dup care se mbin propoziiile n fraz.

2.1. SINTAXA PROPOZIIEI (THE SYNTAX OF THE SENTENCE)


Propoziia este comunicarea n care se afl un singur predicat. Din punct de vedere formal propoziiile sunt simple i
dezvoltate. Propoziia simpl conine doar subiect i predicat. The boy learns. = Biatul nva.
2.1.1. Subiectul (The Subject)
Subiectul este partea propoziiei, care poate fi uneori autorul aciunii, alteori obiect al aciunii svrite de altcineva.
Subiect mai poate fi cineva/ceva despre care se comunic ceva n propoziie. Rspunde la ntrebrile: who ? = cine ?; what ? =
ce ? n exemplul The boy learns cuvntul the boy este subiect, iar cuvntul learns este predicat.
2.1.2. Predicatul (The Predicate)
Predicatul este partea de propoziie prin care se comunic ceva despre subiect sau ce anume svrete/face subiectul.
Subiectul i predicatul sunt pri principale ale unei propoziii. Se poate vorbi uneori despre propoziii cu mai multe
subiecte sau cu subiect multiplu: The boys and the girls learn to swim. = Bieii i fetele nva s noate.
n momentul n care ntr-o comunicare apar dou predicate, comunicarea respectiv nu mai este propoziie ci fraz.
n cazul n care pe lng subiect i predicat exist i alte pri de propoziie, propoziia respectiv nu mai este o propoziie
simpl, ci o propoziie dezvoltat: A clever student learns every day. = Un student detept nva n fiecare zi.
Predicatul unei propoziii este reprezentat printr-un verb la unul dintre cele patru moduri personale ale verbului
care sunt: indicativ, condiional, subjonctiv i imperativ.
Predicatele sunt: a) verbale
b) nominale
Predicatul verbal este reprezentat printr-un verb principal.
He studies chemisty. = El studiaz chimie. They will come by coach. = Vor veni cu autocarul. He had seen the monastery. =
El vzuse mnstirea. Three and three makes six. = Trei plus trei fac ase.
Predicatul nominal const dintr-un verb copulativ i un nume predicativ
Iat cteva verbe copulative: to be, to become, to continue, to get, to grow, to seem etc.
Everybody grows old. = Toat lumea mbtrnete. = Toi mbtrnesc.
Nici verbele modale nu pot fi singure predicate n propoziii, ci mpreun cu verbul pe care l preced.
I must go to church. = Trebuie s merg la biseric.
He is clever. = El este detept.
He must be clever. = Probabil c este detept.
Roses smell sweet. = Trandafirii miros plcut.
Their pleasure is to swim. = Plcerea lor este s noate.
We are to leave right away. = Urmeaz / Trebuie s plecm imediat.
He could come any minute. = Ar putea veni n orice clip.
It is I. = Eu sunt. = Sunt eu.
Prile secundare ale propoziiei sunt atributul i complementul.
2.1.3. Atributul (The Atribute)
Atributul determin un substantiv i i are locul naintea lui.
She is singing a beautiful song. = Ea cnt un cntec frumos.
He is my friend. = El este prietenul meu.
He is my good friend. = El este prietenul meu cel bun. = El este bunul meu prieten.
John is my best friend. = John este cel mai bun prieten al meu.
Uneori atributul st dup substantivul su.
They were the last to come. = Ei au fost ultimii care au venit.
You can ask the man in the street. = l poi ntreba pe omul de pe strad.
The book read by me is interesting. = Cartea citit de mine este interesant.

2.1.4. Complementul (THE OBJECT)

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2.1.4.1. Complementul direct (The Direct Object)


Complementul direct este partea de propoziie asupra creia se orienteaz aciunea subiectului. Se exprim prin
substantive / pronume n cazul acuzativ.
I am reading a book. = Eu citesc o carte.
I = subiect; am reading = predicat
What am I reading ? = Ce citesc eu ?
Who is reading a book ? = Cine citete o carte ? a book = complement direct
I am reading an interesting book. = Eu citesc o carte interesant. interesting = = atribut
Locul complementului direct n propoziie este dup verbul su. Exist i un complement intern (The Cognate
Object), care st ntre verbul tranzitiv i complementul direct propriu-zis.
to run a swift race = a face o curs rapid
to dream an interesting dream = a visa un vis interesant
Dublul complement direct:
I teach them grammar. = i nv pe ei gramatic.
I = subiect;
teach = predicat
Who teaches them grammar ? = Cine i nva pe ei gramatic ? them, grammar = complemente directe
What do I do ? = Ce fac eu ? Whom do I teach grammar ? = Pe cine nv eu gramatic ? What do I teach them ? = Ce i
nv eu pe ei ?
I see people in the street. = Vd oameni pe strad. What do I see in the street ? = Ce vd eu pe strad ? I see John in the
street. = l vd pe John pe strad. Whom do I see in the street ? = Pe cine vd eu pe strad ?
2.1.4.2. Complementul indirect (The Indirect Object)
Complementul indirect este cel asupra cruia aciunea subiectului se ndreapt / rsfrnge indirect i este exprimat prin
substantive sau pronume n cazul dativ.
I shall buy a book for you. = Voi cumpra o carte pentru tine.
He bought the boy a book. = He bought a book to the boy. = El i-a cumprat biatului o carte. = El i-a cumprat o carte biatului.
To whom did he buy it ? = Who(m) did he buy it to ? = Cui i-ai cumprat-o ?
He bought a book for the boy. = El a cumprat o carte pentru biat.
Who(m) did he buy a book for ? = For whom did he buy a book ? = Pentru cine a cumprat el o carte ?
Complementul indirect rspunde la ntrebri ca:
to whom? = who(m)... to ? = cui ?
for whom? = who(m)... for ? = pentru cine ?, cui ?
about whom ? = who(m)... about ? = despre cine ?
with whom ? = who(m)... with ? = cu cine ?
without whom ? = who(m)... without ? = fr cine ?
Complementul indirect n limba englez poate fi alctuit cu unele prepoziii ca to, for, about, with, without i
atunci el poart numele de complement indirect prepoziional, sau poate aprea fr prepoziie.
- neprepoziional:
I shall give you a book. = i voi da ie o carte.
I shall buy you a book. = i voi cumpra ie o carte.
- prepoziional:
I shall give a book to you. = i voi da o carte ie.
I shall buy a book for you. = Voi cumpra o carte pentru tine.
2.1.4.2.1. Verbe cu prepoziii pentru complemente indirecte
to accustom oneself to something = a se obinui cu ceva
to administer smth. to smb. = a administra/aplica ceva cuiva
to announce smth. to smb. = a anuna ceva cuiva
to appear to = a prea
to attribute smth. to smb. = a atribui ceva cuiva
to belong to = a aparine
to communicate smth. to smb. = a comunica ceva cuiva
to confide smth. to smb. = a destinui ceva cuiva
to convey smth. to smb. = a comunica/transmite ceva cuiva to deliver smth. to smb. = a nmna/livra ceva cuiva
to describe smth. to smb. = a descrie ceva cuiva
to explain smth. to smb. = a explica ceva cuiva
to be devoted to smb. = a fi devotat cuiva
to impute smth. to smb. = a imputa ceva cuiva
to introduce smb. to smb. = a prezenta pe cineva cuiva
to leave smth. to (chance) = a lsa ceva (la voia ntmplrii)
to listen to smb./smth. = a asculta la cineva/ceva
to mention to smb. that = a meniona cuiva c
to prescribe smth. to smb. = a prescrie ceva cuiva
to propose smth. to smb. = a propune ceva cuiva
to prove to smb. that = a dovedi cuiva c
to relate to smb. smth. = a relata cuiva ceva
to be related to smb. = a fi rud cu cineva, a se nrudi
to resign smth. to smb. = a ceda ceva cuiva
to say smth. to smb. = a zice/spune ceva cuiva
to reveal smb. smth. = a dezvlui cuiva ceva,
to say no to smth. = a refuza ceva, a zice nu la ceva
to seem to smb. = a i se prea cuiva, a-i prea cuiva
to speak to smb. about smth. = a vorbi cu cineva despre ceva, to submit to = a (se) supune
to suggest smth. to smb. = a sugera ceva cuiva
to yield to smth. = a consimi la ceva; a ceda la ceva

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2.1.4.2.2. Verbe cu complement direct i complement indirect


to allow smth. to smb. = a permite ceva cuiva
to bring smth. to smb. = a aduce ceva cuiva
to give smb. smth. = to give smth. to smb. = a da ceva cuiva
to give smb. much trouble = to give much trouble to smb. = a da cuiva mult btaie de cap = a da mult btaie de cap cuiva
to give smb. an example = a da cuiva un exemplu
to grant smb. smth. = to grant smth. to smb. = a garanta cuiva ceva = a garanta ceva cuiva
to hand smb. smth. = to hand smth. to smb. = a nmna cuiva ceva = a nmna ceva cuiva
to leave smb. smth. = to leave smth. to smb. = a lsa cuiva ceva = a lsa ceva pentru cineva
to lend smb. smth. = to lend smth. to smb. = a da cuiva mprumut ceva = a da ceva mprumut cuiva
to offer smb. smth. = to offer smth. to smb. = a oferi cuiva ceva = a oferi ceva cuiva
to owe smb. smth. = to owe smth. to smb. = a datora cuiva ceva, a datora ceva cuiva
to pay smb. smth. = to pay smth. to smb. = a plti cuiva ceva = a plti ceva cuiva
to promise smb. smth. = to promise smth. to smb. = a promite/fgdui cuiva ceva = a promite/ fgdui ceva cuiva
to refuse smb. smth. = to refuse smth. to smb. = a refuza cuiva ceva = a refuza ceva cuiva
to sell smb. smth. = to sell smth. to smb. = a vinde cuiva ceva = a vinde ceva cuiva
to send smb. smth. = to send smth. to smb. = a trimite cuiva ceva, a trimite ceva cuiva
to show smb. smth. = to show smth. to smb. = a arta cuiva ceva, a arta ceva cuiva
to tell smb. smth. = to tell smth. to smb. = a spune/povesti cuiva ceva, a spune/ povesti ceva cuiva
to wish smb. smth. = to wish smth. to smb. = a ura/dori cuiva ceva = a ura/ dori ceva cuiva
to write smb. smth. = to write smth. to smb. = a scrie cuiva ceva
2.1.4.3. Complementul prepoziional (The Prepozitional Object)
Complementul prepoziional este un complement al unui verb cu prepoziie.
OF - de, cu, din etc.
to be afraid of = a se teme de
to be aware of smth. = a fi contient de ceva, a-i da seama de ceva
to approve of smth. to smb. = a aproba ceva cuiva
to be characteristic of smb. = a-i fi caracteristic cuiva, a fi caracteristic pentru cineva
to deprive smb. of smth. = a lipsi/priva pe cineva de ceva
to be fond of smth. = a fi amator de ceva
to accuse smb. of smth. = a acuza pe cineva de ceva
to be independent of smth (smb). = a fi independent de ceva (de cineva)
to be jealous of smb. = a fi gelos pe cineva
to be proud of smb./smth. = a fi mndru de cineva/ceva
to beware of = a se feri / pzi de
to boast of smth. = a se luda cu ceva
to complain to smb. of smth. = a se plnge cuiva de ceva
to cure smb. of smth. = a vindeca pe cineva de ceva
to die of smth. = a muri de ceva
to doubt of smth. = a se ndoi de ceva
to remind smb. of smth./smb. = a aminti cuiva de ceva/cineva
to smell of smth. = a mirosi a ceva
to taste of smth. = a avea gust de ceva
to think of smth. = a reflecta/medita la/asupra, a lua n seam ceva
to be confident of = a fi ncreztor n, a avea ncredere n
FOR - de la, pentru etc.
to apologize for = a-i cere iertare pentru
to ask smb. for smth. = a cere ceva cuiva
to be angry with smb. for smth. = a fi suprat pe cineva pentru ceva
to be anxious for smth. = a fi ngrijorat/nelinitit de ceva
to call for = a necesita
to care for smb (smth). = a-i plcea de cineva, ceva
to forgive smb. for smth. = a ierta pe cineva pentru ceva
to long for = a tnji dup, a visa la
to pine for smth. = a tnji dup ceva
to look for smb./smth. = a cuta pe cineva /ceva
to mistake smb. (smth) for smb. (smth) else = a confunda pe cineva cu altcineva
to pass for = a trece drept
to send for smb. = a trimite dup cineva
to stand for smb./smth. = a reprezenta pe cineva, a reprezenta ceva

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to be sorry for smth. = a-i prea ru de/pentru ceva


to struggle for smth. = a lupta pentru ceva
to thank smb. for smth. = a mulumi cuiva pentru ceva
to wait for smb.( smth) = a atepta pe cineva / ceva
to wait for. = a atepta
TO = la, ctre, spre
to apologize to smb. for smth. = a-i cere iertare cuiva pentru ceva
to agree to smth. = a fi de acord cu ceva
to accustom oneself to smth. = a se obinui cu ceva
to be grateful to smb. for smth. = a fi recunosctor cuiva pentru ceva
to be accustomed to smth. = a fi obinuit cu ceva
to be cruel to smb. = a fi crud/nemilos fa de cineva
to be different to = a fi diferit/deosebit de
to be good/kind to smb. = a fi bun/amabil fa de cineva, a fi bun cu cineva
to be indifferent to = a fi indiferent fa de
to be polite to = a fi politicos cu, a fi politicos fa de
to be similar to smth. = a fi similar/asemntor cu ceva
to be superior to = a fi superior
to belong to = a aparine
to boast to smb. about smth. = a se luda cuiva cu ceva
to compare smth. to smth. = a compara ceva cu ceva
to contribute to smth. = a contribui la ceva
to introduce smb. to smb. else = a prezenta pe cineva altcuiva
to lend smth. to smb. = a mprumuta ceva cuiva
to move to another place = a se muta n alt loc
to refer to smb./smth. = a se referi la cineva/ceva
to resort to smth. = a recurge la ceva
FROM DE LA, DIN
to be different from = a fi diferit/deosebit de
to borrow smth. from smb. = a mprumuta ceva de la cineva
to conceal smth. from smb. = a ascunde ceva cuiva
to differ from smth./smb. = a diferi de ceva/cineva
to escape from something = a scpa de ceva
to move from... to... = a se muta de la... la...
to prevent smb. from doing smth. = a opri/preveni pe cineva s fac ceva
to refrain from smth. = a se abine de la ceva
to retire from one place to another = a se retrage dintr-un loc n altul
to defend smb. from smth. = a apra pe cineva de ceva
to translate from... into... = a traduce din... n...
to tell smb. from smb. else = a deosebi pe cineva de altcineva
WITH - CU
to agree with smb. on smth. = a fi de acord cu cineva asupra unui fapt
to acquaint oneself with smth. = a se familiariza cu, a se obinui cu
to be acquainted with = a fi familiarizat/obinuit cu,
to be patient with smb. = a fi rbdtor cu cineva, a fi rbdtor fa de cineva
to be satisfied with = a fi mulumit/satisfcut de
to deal with smth. = a se ocupa cu ceva, a trata ceva
to deal with smb. = a avea de-a face cu cineva
to fill smth. with smth. = a umple ceva cu ceva
to compare with = a (se) compara cu
to meet with smb. = a se ntlni cu cineva
to meet with smth. = a ntmpina ceva; a trece prin ceva; a da de ceva
to part with smb./smth. = a se despri de cineva/ceva
to play with smb./smth. = a se juca cu cineva/ceva
to be sated with smth. = a fi stul/dezgustat de ceva
to supply smb. with smth. = a aproviziona pe cineva cu ceva

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to threaten smb. with smth. = a amenina pe cineva cu ceva


ON / UPON PE, IN
to be crazy on smth. = a fi mare amator de ceva, a fi mort dup ceva
to be dependent on smth. = a fi dependent de ceva
to count on/upon smb./smth. = a se bizui/baza pe cineva/ceva, a conta pe cineva/ceva
to call on smb. = a vizita pe cineva, a trece pe la cineva
to congratulate smb. on smth. = a felicita pe cineva pentru ceva
to depend on/upon = a depinde de
to feed smb. on smth. = a hrni pe cineva cu ceva
to insist on = a insista asupra
to intrude smth. on/upon smb. = a se impune ceva cuiva
to knock on smth. = a se lovi de ceva
to live on = a tri cu
to look on/upon a show = a privi la (ca spectator)
to look on smb. as = a considera pe cineva drept
to be intent on/upon = a fi concentrat asupra, a fi absorbit de
ABOUT n jurul; despre; prin etc.
to be concerned about smth. = a fi preocupat, ingrijorat de ceva
to be crazy about smth. = a fi mare amator de ceva, a fi mort dup ceva
to boast to smb. about smth. = a se luda cuiva cu ceva
to think about smth. = a se gndi la ceva
IN - din, n, la
to be interested in smth. = a-l interesa ceva
to have similar tastes in = a avea gusturi asemntoare pentru
to be superior in = a fi superior n/ca
to indulge in = a se complace n, a se deda la
to interfere in smth. = a se amesteca/bga n ceva
to laugh in smb.'s face = a-i rde cuiva n nas
to participate in smth. = a participa la ceva
to succeed in = a reui s
AT = LA
to be astonished at smth. = a fi uimit/surprins de ceva
to be good at smth. = a fi bun, a se pricepe la ceva
to be indignant at smth. = a fi indignat de ceva
to be surprised at smth. = a fi surprins de ceva
to glance at smb./smth. = a arunca o privire la cineva/ceva
to knock at = a bate la
to look at smb./smth. = a privi la cineva/ceva
to play at smth. = a se juca de-a ceva
to laugh at smb./smth. = a rde de cineva/ceva
to rush at smb./smth. = a se repezi la cineva/ceva
BY = lng, cu, dup, pe etc.
to be impressed by smb./smth. = a fi impresionat de cineva/ceva
to be preoccupied by smth. = a fi preocupat de ceva
to begin by = a ncepe prin a
to pass by smb./smth. = a trece de cineva/ceva
to profit by smth. = a profita de ceva
AGAINST = contra, mpotriva
to defend against = a apra contra/mpotriva
to knock against smth. = a se lovi de ceva
to protect smb. against smth. = a proteja pe cineva mpotriva/de ceva
AFTER = DUP
to look after smth./smb. = a avea grij, a se ngriji de ceva/cineva

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WITHOUT = FR
to do without = a se lipsi/dispensa de = a se descurca fr
to ask smb. smth. = a ntreba pe cineva ceva
to interfere between = a se amesteca ntre
to look like smb. = a semna cu cineva
to look like smth. = a semna cu ceva
to move smth. near smth. = a muta ceva lng ceva
to pass oneself off as = a se da/prezenta drept
to transform smth. into smth. else = a transforma ceva n altceva
to pass smb./smth. = a trece de cineva/ceva
n limba romn aceste complemente prepoziionale au ca echivalent complementul indirect n acuzativ care rspunde la
ntrebrile: cu cine?, cu ce?, la cine?, la ce?, fr cine? etc.
2.1.4.4. Complementul circumstanial de loc (The Adverbial of Place)
Se exprim printr-un adverb de loc.
William the Conqueror landed at Pevensey, on the coast of Sussex. = William Cuceritorul a debarcat la Pevensey, pe coasta
Sussex-ului.
We are at home. = Noi suntem acas.
English is spoken all over the world. = Engleza este vorbit n toat lumea.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: where ? = unde ?, from where ?, where...., from? = de unde ?, how far ? = ct de departe ?,
pn unde ? etc.
2.1.4.5. Complementul circumstanial de timp (The Adverbial of Time)
Se exprim printr-un adverb de timp.
I was at home yesterday. = Yesterday I was at home. = Ieri eram acas.
I have never seen him there. = Nu l-am vzut pe el niciodat acolo.
We have lived in Craiova for twenty five years. = Locuim n Craiova de douzeci i cinci de ani.
Rspunde la ntrebarea when ? = cnd ?
2.1.4.6. Complementul circumstanial de mod (The Adverbial of Manner)
Se exprim prin adverbe de mod.
Alice sings beautifully. = Alice cnt frumos.
The children were playing happily. = Copiii se jucau fericii.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: how ? = cum ?, how much ? = ct, ct ?, in what way ? = n ce fel ?, how many times ? = de
cte ori ?
2.1.4.7. Complementul circumstanial de cauz (The Adverbial of Cause)
Exprim cauza aciunii svrite de subiect i exprimat prin predicat.
I couldn't come because of the rain. = N-am putut veni din cauza ploii.
We arrived late on my account. = Am ajuns trziu din cauza mea.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: why ? = de ce ?, for what reason ? = din ce cauz/motiv ?, on what account ? = din ce cauz
?, on whose account ? = din cauza cui ? = din a cui cauz ?
2.1.4.8. Complementul circumstanial de scop/final (The Adverbial of Purpose)
Reprezint materializarea scopului subiectului propoziiei n care se afl.
He only works for money. = El muncete numai pentru bani.
He worked hard to make a good impression and to get much money. = A muncit mult/ serios ca s fac o bun impresie i
s ctige bani muli.
This device is used for various purposes. = Acest dispozitiv este folosit n/pentru diverse scopuri.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: for what purpose(s) ? = cu ce scop(uri) ?, for what ? = what... for ? = pentru ce ?
2.1.4.9. Complementul circumstanial concesiv (The Adverbial of Concession)
They have come in spite of the bad weather. = Ei au venit cu toat vremea rea.
They played tennis in spite of my refusal not to play. = Ei au jucat tenis n pofida refuzului meu de a juca.
Rspunde la ntrebri ca: in spite of whom /what ? = n pofida/ciuda cui ?
2.1.4.10. Complementul circumstanial condiional (The Adverbial of Condition)
Reprezint condiia subiectului n propoziie.

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Weather permitting we'll arrive earlier. = Dac vremea va permite vom sosi mai devreme. = Cu permisiunea vremii vom
ajunge mai devreme.
Come with your friend if possible! = Vino cu prietenul tu dac e posibil!
Rspunde la ntrebarea: on what condition ? = cu ce condiie ?
2.1.4.11. Complementul de agent (The Adverbial of Agency)
Complementul de agent sau subiectul logic este folosit numai la diateza pasiv.
The book was read by the student. = Cartea a fost citit de student().
Se vede clar c autorul aciunii este studentul. Cartea este subiectul gramatical, ntruct despre ea se face comunicarea.
The house was destroyed by the earthquake. = Casa a fost distrus de cutremurul de pmnt.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: by whom ? = who(m)... by ? = de (ctre) cine ?, by what ? = what ...by ? = de ce ?
2.2. SINTAXA FRAZEI (THE SYNTAX OF THE COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCE)
Fraza este o comunicare alctuit din mai multe propoziii aflate ntre ele fie n raporturi de coordonare fie de
subordonare. n cadrul coordonrii, prile de propoziie n propoziie i propoziiile n fraz sunt independente una de alta. Se
pot lega ntre ele prin conjuncii coordonatoare sau juxtapunere / alturare.
Subordonare nsemneaz raport / relaie sintactic de dependen a unei pri de propoziie de alt parte de propoziie
sau a unei propoziii de alt propoziie. Elementul subordonat depinde de termenul su regent, iar propoziia subordonat
depinde de regenta sa. Elementul subordonat este deci termenul dependent, iar cel regent este cel care guverneaz n cadrul
relaiei respective.
Subordonarea se realizeaz prin conjuncii subordonatoare, prin juxtapunere sau printr-un cuvnt de legtur
subordonator.
Propoziia regent este aceea de care depinde semantic o alt propoziie n cadrul aceleiai fraze. Propoziia
subordonat se poate adresa unui singur cuvnt din regenta sa, iar acest cuvnt, care se numete termen regent, determin felul
subordona-tei respective.
Pentru a se alctui o fraz este necesar ca n cadrul ei s existe o propoziie principal, un fel de nucleu al frazei. Alturi
de ea exist propoziii secundare, adic propoziii totdeauna cu sens insuficient. Secundarele, spre deosebire de principale nu
pot exista /funciona izolate n comunicare. Propoziia secundar funcioneaz n fraz ca o parte secundar a propoziiei
principale.
2.2.1. Propoziia subiectiv (The Subject Clause)
Funcioneaz ca subiect al predicatului din regent i ntregete nelesul regentei.
Why they didn't come is still a secret. = De ce nu au venit ei este nc secret.
How to write a book is not known by anybody. = Cum s scrii o carte nu se tie de ctre oricine.
Se ntlnete dup expresii ca:
it is advisable that = este recomandabil ca
it is better that = este mai bine s
it is certain that = este sigur c
it is desirable that = este de dorit ca
it is meet and proper that = se cuvine ca
it is inevitable that = este inevitabil ca
It is necessary that I came. = Este necesar ca eu s fi venit.
It is important that they will buy this book. = Este important ca ei s cumpere aceast carte.
It is possible that he may come tomorrow. = Este posibil ca el s vin mine.
When they will come is not my business. = Cnd vor veni ei nu este treaba mea.
When they come is not my business. = Cnd vin ei nu este treaba mea.
When they came is not my business. = Cnd au venit ei nu este treaba mea.
When they had come is not my business. = Cnd veniser ei nu este treaba mea.
It is impossible that they should have come by train. = Este imposibil ca ei s fi venit cu trenul.
It is compulsory for us to be there. = It is compulsory that we should be there. = It is compulsory that we be there. = Este
obligatoriu ca noi s fim acolo.
It is good for them to live here. = It is good that they live here. = It is good that they should live here. = E bine ca ei s
locuiasc aici.
2.2.2. Propoziia predicativ (The Predicative/Complement Clause)
mplinete funcia de nume predicativ al verbului din regenta sa i se introduce n maniera n care se introduc i
subiectivele.
Why he has come is the question. = De ce a venit el este problema.
Why he has come = subiectiv
is the question = predicativ
It looks as if it were going to rain. = Arat de parc ar avea de gnd s plou.
It looks = subiectiv ;
were going to rain = predicativ
2.2.3. Propoziia atributiv (The Atributive Clause)

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Este un atribut al unui substantiv din regenta sa.


Every man, who knows him, appreciates him very much. = Fiecare om, care l cunoate, l apreciaz foarte mult.
Every man appreciates him very much = propoziie regent
who knows him = atributiv
Termenul regent al atributivei de mai sus este substantivul man.
The reason why he has come is very clear. = Motivul pentru care a venit este foarte clar.
It rained cats and dogs on the day on which we arrived. = A plouat cu gleata n ziua n care am sosit.
2.2.4. Propoziia completiv direct (The Object Clause)
Este complementul direct al verbului tranzitiv din regent.
I did not ask him whether he was thirsty. = Nu l-am ntrebat dac i este/era sete.
Did you know whose that house was ? = Ai tiut tu a cui este/era casa aceea ?
I told you whom he gave the books to. = Eu i-am spus cui a dat el crile.
He said that he would come later on. = El a zis c va veni dup aceea.
I advised him to stay with us. = I advised that he stay with us. = L-am sftuit s stea cu noi.
2.2.5. Propoziia subordonat temporal (The Adverbial Clause of Time)
Este n fraz complementul circumstanial de timp pe lng un verb sau adverb din regenta sa.
I shall read this book when I have time. = Voi citi aceast carte cnd voi avea timp.
Termenul regent este verbul read.
Buy your ticket immediately that you reach the station! = Cumpr-i biletul imediat cum ajungi la gar!
I shall read this book before you come home. = Voi citi aceast carte nainte ca tu s vii acas.
I shall give you the money as soon as I meet you. = i voi da banii de ndat ce te voi ntlni.
They have been dancing ever since the party started. = Ei danseaz chiar de cnd a nceput petrecerea.
She is happy when she is with her family. = Ea este fericit cnd este cu familia ei.
You may stay until your cousin arrives. = Poi sta pn sosete veriorul tu.
He may write the letter while we are swimming. = El poate scrie scrisoarea n timp ce noi notm.
You will repeat the lesson till/until you know it. = Vei repeta lecia pn o vei ti.
No sooner had the sunset than they went to bed. = Nici n-a apus soarele c ei s-au i dus la culcare.
He may stay until John comes. = El poate sta pn vine John.
Subordonata temporal rspunde la ntrebrile: when ? = cnd ?, how long? = de ct timp ?, since when ? = de cnd ?,
till when ? = pn cnd ? etc.
2.2.6. Propoziia circumstanial de loc (The Adverbial Clause of Place)
Este complementul circumstanial de loc al unui verb sau adverb din regenta sa de care se leag prin adverbe relative ca:
where = unde, wherever = oriunde etc.
You cannot live where they live. = Nu poi tri unde triesc ei.
We may spend our holidays wherever we like. = Noi putem petrece vacana/ concediul oriunde ne place.
I'll go wherever I can find work. = Voi merge oriunde pot gsi de lucru.
2.2.7. Subordonata de proporie (The Clause of Proportion)
Este o variant a subordonatei de mod.
The more we are, the better it is. = Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att mai bine.
As time went on, (so) she began to type more quickly. = Cum timpul a trecut, ea a nceput s bat la main mai repede. = Cu
trecerea timpului ea a nceput s scrie la main mai repede.
The harder you work, the more money you make. = Cu ct munceti mai mult, cu att ctigi mai muli bani.
2.2.8. Subordonata preferenial (The Clause of Preference)
Se traduce prin subordonata opoziional.
Rather than play football, I'd prefer to swim. = Dect s joc fotbal, a prefera s not.
Rather than play football, you had better learn. = Dect s joci fotbal, mai bine ai nva. = Dect s joci fotbal, mai bine s
nvei.
I would play football rather than learn. = A juca fotbal mai degrab dect s nv.
2.2.9. Propoziia circumstanial de mod i comparativ (The Adverbial Clause of Manner and Comparison)
Joac rolul de complement circumstanial de mod pe lng un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa.
Mary sings as beautifully as her sister does. = Maria cnt la fel de frumos cum cnt sora ei.
My friend is older than your friend (is). = Prietenul meu este mai mare/btrn dect este al tu.
He looked at me as if/though he hadn't known me. = El a privit la mine de parc nu m-ar fi cunoscut.
Alice sings more beautifully than Jane (does). = Alice cnt mai frumos dect cnt Jane.
She was singing as beautifully as her sister, Alice was. = Ea cnta la fel de frumos cum cnta sora ei, Alice.

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Tomorrow we shall work more than we worked yesterday. = Mine vom munci mai mult dect am muncit ieri.
Subordonata circumstanial de mod rspunde la ntrebrile: how? = cum?, how beautifully ? = ct de frumos ?, how
much ? = ct de mult ?, how little ? = ct de puin ?, how big ? = ct de mare ? etc.
She cooks the breakfast exactly as her mother did. = Ea pregtete micul dejun exact cum fcea mama ei.
2.2.10. Propoziia subordonat cauzal (The Adverbial Clause of Cause/Reason)
Este n fraza respectiv un complement circumstanial de cauz pe lng termenul su regent care este un verb sau un
adverb din regenta sa.
I didn't meet them there because I was late. = Nu i-am ntlnit acolo pentru c am ntrziat.
Se leag de regenta sa prin conjuncii sau adverbe relative ca: because = pentru c, for the reason that = pentru motivul
c, seeing that = vznd c, on the ground that = din cauz c, owing to the fact that = datorit faptului c, as = cci, since =
ntruct, on account that = din cauz c etc.
Rspunde la ntrebri ca: why ? = de ce ?, on what account ? = din ce cauz, for what reason ? = din ce motiv/cauz ? etc.
Seeing that they did not come I went home. = Vznd c ei nu vin am plecat acas.
I did not come owing to the fact that it was too late. = Eu nu am venit pentru faptul c era prea trziu.
2.2.11. Propoziia subordonat final (de scop) (The Adverbial Clause of Purpose)
Corespunde n fraza respectiv unui complement circumstanial de cauz pe lng un verb sau adverb din regenta sa,
respectiv pe lng termenul su regent.
You must get up earlier, so that you can meet him at the station. = Trebuie s te scoli mai devreme ca s-l poi ntmpina pe
el la gar.
We got up early, so that we should not be late for school. = Ne-am sculat de-noapte ca s nu ntrziem de la coal.
He must turn on the light lest he should knock himself against something in the darkness. = El trebuie s aprind lumina ca
s nu se loveasc de ceva pe ntuneric.
Subordonata final se leag de regenta sa prin conjunciile i adverbele relative: in order that = cu scopul de a, so that
= aa nct, that = nct/c, lest (+ should) = ca s nu, for fear that = de team s nu, on purpose to = cu scopul de a.
I shall go to England so that I can learn English well. = Eu voi merge n Anglia ca s pot nva englezete bine.
n limba englez un mare numr de subordonate finale se realizeaz cu ajutorul modului infinitiv, dei se tie c
infinitivul nu este un mod personal.
We go to school to learn. = Mergem la coal s nvm. = Mergem la coal pentru a nva.
We go to church to pray. = Mergem la biseric pentru a ne ruga. = Mergem la biseric s ne rugm.
They came here on purpose to borrow money from us. = Ei au venit aici cu scopul de a mprumuta bani de la noi.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: on what purpose ? = cu ce scop ?, for what reason ? = pentru care motiv ?, for what ? =
what.. for ? = pentru ce ?
2.2.12. Subordonata concesiv (The Adverbial Clause of Concession)
Se introduce prin conjunciile: though, although = dei, cu toate c, however = orict de, whoever = indiferent cine, in
spite of = n ciuda /pofida, even if/though = chiar dac, whichever = indiferent care, no matter who = indiferent cine, no
matter whose = indiferent al, a, ai, ale cui ?, no matter by whom = no matter who(m)... by = indiferent de cine, no matter
why = indiferent de ce, no matter how = indiferent cum , no matter when = indiferent cnd, no matter where = indiferent
unde
Though it is late we shall sit and watch the football match. = Dei este trziu noi vom sta i vom privi meciul de fotbal.
We shall watch the football match although it is late. = Noi vom privi meciul de fotbal dei este trziu.
Late as it is we shall watch the football match. = Trziu aa cum este noi vom privi meciul de fotbal. = Aa trziu cum este
noi vom privi meciul de fotbal.
You should be waiting for him even if it were late. = Ar trebui s-l atepi chiar dac ar fi trziu.
n acest ultim exemplu se observ n subordonat folosirea modului subjonctiv prin care se exprim o situaie ireal sau o
presupunere.
You should have been waiting for him even if it had been late. = Ar fi trebuit s-l atepi chiar dac era trziu.
We shall go to see them even if it is rather early. = Mergem pe la ei dei este cam devreme.
I buy it however expensive it is. = l /O cumpr indiferent ct este de scump().
I should buy it however expensive it were. = A cumpra-o indiferent ct ar fi ea de scump. = L-a cumpra indiferent ct ar
fi de scump.
If they're poor, at least they're honest. = Dac sunt sraci cel puin sunt cinstii.
2.2.13. Propoziia consecutiv (The Adverbial Clause of Result or The Consecutive Adverbial Clause)
Exprim rezultatul/urmarea/consecina aciunii din propoziia regent.
Alice was so beautiful that everybody was admiring her. = Alice era aa/att de frumoas nct toat lumea o admira.
His explanation was so clear that each of us understood it = Explicaia lui a fost aa de clar nct fiecare dintre noi a
neles-o.

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He never goes to the seaside but spend a lot of money. = El nu merge niciodat la mare fr s cheltuiasc muli bani.
Such was the force of his argument that everybody agreed with him. = Aa mare a fost fora argumentului su c toat
lumea a fost de acord cu el.
Se introduce prin conjunciile: so... that... = aa de... nct/c, that = c/nct
He was so clever that everybody admired him. = El era aa/att de detept c/nct toat lumea l admira.
2.2.14. Propoziia subordonat condiional (The Adverbial Clause of Condition or the Conditional Clause)
Reprezint condiia nfptuirii/ndeplinirii aciunii din regenta sa. Se leag de regenta sa cu ajutorul conjunciilor
condiionale : if = dac, on condition that = cu condiia c, providing/provided that = cu condiia c, suppose/supposing
that = presupunnd c = dac, unless = dac nu, cu condiia c nu , whether... or not = dac... sau nu, as soon as = de ndat
ce = dac, as long as = ct timp = dac, in case = n caz c = dac
Exist trei tipuri de condiionale, clasificare fcut n raport cu posibilitatea realizrii/ ndeplinirii aciunii din regenta
respectiv.
a) Subordonata condiional tip I condiie real i posibil, iar verbul din regenta sa este la viitor. Locul lor n
fraz se poate schimba.
If I have time I shall read this book. = Dac voi avea timp voi citi aceast carte.
I shall read this book if I have time. = Voi citi aceast carte dac voi avea timp.
I shall not read this book unless I have time. = Nu voi citi aceast carte dac nu voi avea timp.
I shall read this book on the condition that I have time. = Voi citi aceast carte cu condiia c voi avea timp.
Remind him of his promise in case he forgets. = Amintete-i de promisiunea lui n caz c uit.
I'll remind you of your promise in case you forget. = i voi aminti de promisiunea ta n caz c uii.
I'll not be waiting for you if you are late. = Nu te voi atepta dac vei ntrzia.
I'll not wait for you if you are late. = Nu te voi atepta dac vei ntrzia.
Din exemplele de mai sus se vede c aciunea din condiional probabil/ posibil se va ndeplini.
b) Subordonata condiional tip II condiie ireal i improbabil, dar nu imposibil.
I should read this book if I had time. = Eu a citi aceast carte dac a avea timp.
Se observ c n exemplul de mai sus verbul este la modul condiional, timpul prezent, iar n regent verbul este
modul subjonctiv, timpul prezent. n aceast situaie condiia devine probabil. n acest caz aciunea din regent pare mai
degrab s nu se realizeze sau presupunerea din regent pare s fie n contradicie cu realitatea ori faptele cunoscute.
He would buy this palace if he had money. = El ar cumpra acest palat dac ar avea bani.
If he were to go on a journey round the world he would be very happy. = Dac el ar fi/ trebui/ urma s mearg ntr-o
cltorie n jurul lumii ar fi foarte fericit.
He would be very happy if he were to go on a journey round the world. = El ar fi foarte fericit dac ar fi s plece/mearg
ntr-o cltorie n jurul lumii.
c) Subordonata condiional tip III condiie imposibil
n situaia aceasta verbul din regent este la modul condiional perfect, iar cel din regent este la modul subjonctiv
perfect. Condiiile sunt trecute, sunt deci imposibil de ndeplinit.
If I had had time I should have read the book. = Dac a fi avut timp a fi citit cartea.
sau:
I should have read the book if I had had time. = Eu a fi citit cartea dac a fi avut timp.
I should have spoken to that Englishman if I had been able to speak English. = A fi vorbit cu englezul acela dac a fi tiut
englezete.
sau:
Had I been able to speak English I should have spoken to that Englishman. = S fi tiut eu s vorbesc englezete a fi
vorbit cu englezul acela.
If you treat us kindly, we'll do anything for you. = Dac ne tratezi (ne vei trata) amabil vom face orice pentru tine.
If you listened to us, you wouldn't make mistakes. = Dac tu ai asculta de noi n-ai face greeli.
If you ever have any trouble, let us know. = Dac avei/ai vreodat vreo suprare, d-ne de tire.
If it were to rain, you would get wet. = Dac ar fi s plou, v-ai uda.
Should you change your mind, let me know. = Dac s-ar ntmpla s te rzgndeti, d-mi de veste.
Give it back to him, or I'll tell your mother. = D-i-l napoi c altfel i spun mamei tale.
2.2.15. Subordonata condiional concesiv (The Alternative Conditional Concessive Clause)
He will pay for everything, whether he likes it or not. = El va plti pentru tot, chiar dac i place sau nu.
Wherever you live, you have to work hard. = Oriunde (indiferent unde) trieti, trebuie s munceti serios/mult.
Wherever you lived, you'd have to work hard. = Oriunde ai locui/tri ar trebui s munceti mult.
2.3. CONCORDANA TIMPURILOR (THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES)
Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonat cu timpul verbului din regenta sa. n limba englez
timpul verbului din subordonat trebuie s se subordoneze timpului verbului din regent. Cu alte cuvinte timpurile

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verbelor din regente dicteaz folosirea anumitor timpuri n subordonatele lor.


Exist n acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut i aplicat.
Regula I: Dac n regent verbul este la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense n subordonat se poate folosi orice
timp.
Regula II: Dac n regent verbul este la trecut n subordonat el trebuie s fie la unul din cele trei timpuri trecute ale
limbii engleze: The Past Perfect, The Past Tense, The Future in the Past.
Regula III: Dac verbul din regent este la viitor n subordonatele condiionale i temporale, el trebuie s fie la Present
Tense sau Present Perfect Tense, iar dac subordonata este completiv direct verbul va fi la viitor.
REGENT
I. Verbul este la prezent

SUBORDONAT
verbul poate fi la orice timp

he had come = venise


he came = a venit
We all know that = Noi toi tim c
he will come = el va veni
he would come = el ar veni
he would have come = el ar fi venit
II. Verbul este la trecut
verbul trebuie s fie la trecut
she had come = ea venise - anterioritate
He did not know that = El nu a tiut she came = ea a venit - simultaneitate
c
she would come = va veni - posterioritate
III. Verbul este la viitor
A. verbul s fie la Present sau Present Perfect n subordonatele condiionale i
temporale
I shall tell you the truth if/when = i voi spune adevrul dac /cnd
you give (have given) me the book. = mi vei da cartea.
B. verbul va fi la orice timp n subordonata completiv direct.
I shall see what = Eu voi vedea ce
I shall do. = voi face.
EXCEPII (deci cazuri cnd nu se aplic regulile de concordan a timpurilor)
1. Cnd n subordonat se exprim un adevr tiinific /general.
Everybody knew that gold is a metal. = Toat lumea tia c aurul este metal.
I told you that silver is gray. = i-am spus c argintul este gri.
2. Cnd subordonata este:
a) cauzal
He will not go to school because he didn't learn his lessons. = El nu va merge la coal pentru c nu i-a nvat leciile.
We shall go on the trip because they gave us the money. = Vom merge n excursie pentru c ei ne-au dat banii.
b) atributiv
You will see the man who wrote that book. = l vei vedea pe omul care a scris cartea aceea.
I saw the girl who will play the piano. = Am vzut fata care va cnta la pian.
c) comparativ modal
Tomorrow I shall work more than I worked yesterday. = Mine voi munci mai mult dect am muncit ieri.
Alte exemple:
If you didn't give him the money he won't buy any books. = Dac nu i-ai dat banii el nu va cumpra nici o carte.
If I had bought that house I would be a rich man now. = Dac a fi cumprat casa aceea a fi un om bogat acum.
If you came in time you wouldn't have missed the train. = Dac veneai la timp n-ai fi pierdut trenul.
If you were with us you would have admired the scenery. = Dac erai cu noi ai fi admirat peisajul.
2.4. TRANSFORMAREA VORBIRII DIRECTE N VORBIRE INDIRECT
Vorbirea direct reprezint cuvintele unei persoane rostite ntr-o mprejurare, n prezena cuiva sau n
conversaie cu cineva. n limba romn vorbirea direct se marcheaz n scris prin linie de dialog. n limba englez ea se
marcheaz prin ghilimele, care se ataeaz totdeauna sus.
limba englez
limba romn
"What is your name ?" he asked me. =
Cum te cheam ? m ntreb el.
"My name is George", I answered. =
M cheam George, am rspuns eu.
Prezentarea /repetarea cuvintelor unei persoane de ctre alta oral sau n scris poart numele de vorbire direct sau stil
direct - aa cum se vede n exemplele de mai sus. Reluarea acestor cuvinte i prezentarea lor de (ctre) cineva sub form de

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propoziii subordonate poart numele de vorbire indirect sau stil indirect. S-a transformat astfel vorbirea direct n vorbire
indirect.
"What is your name ?" he asked me. = Cum te cheam ? m ntreb el.
devine:
He asked me what my name was. = El m ntreb cum m cheam.
Exist un mare numr de verbe cu ajutorul crora se realizeaz trecerea de la vorbirea direct la vorbirea indirect. Printre
acestea sunt:
to say (a zice /gri), to ask (a ntreba), to admit (a admite /ncuviina), to acknowledge (a recunoate), to agree (a fi de acord),
to answer /reply (a rspunde), to think (a gndi /crede), to tell (a spune), to wonder (a se mira) etc. Ele se numesc verbe
introductive. Iat concret cum se face transformarea vorbirii directe n vorbire indirect:
a) "I am at home" he says.
b) "I am at home" he said.
Dac verbul introductiv este la prezent, aa cum se vede n varianta a) verbul din vorbirea direct care prin transformare
ajunge predicatul subordonatei, nu-i va modifica timpul, ci i-l va menine astfel:
"I am at home" he says. devine: He says (that) he is at home.
Propoziia regent este He says, iar propoziia he is at home este subordonat. n varianta b) transformarea se face astfel:
"I am at home" he said. devine: He said that he was at home.
Verbul said, n vorbirea indirect, verbul regentei, este la Past Tense. Vom aplica concordana timpurilor. Astfel verbul am
trece i el la Past Tense. n cazul b) timpurile verbelor din vorbirea direct transformndu-se dup cum urmeaz:
The Present
devine
The Past Tense
The Past Tense i The Present Perfect
devin
The Past Perfect
The Future
devine
The Future in the Past
Tot n aceast situaie se mai produc urmtoarele schimbri:
I
you
we
my
your
mine
yours
this
today
yesterday
last month
two/three days ago
here
now
today

he/she
I/we
they
his/her
my/our
his/hers
mine
that
that day
the day before or the previous day
the month before
two/three days before
there
then
yesterday or that day

our
me
you
us
ours
yours
these
last week
last night
last year

on this day
tonight
tomorrow

their
him/her
me/us
them
theirs
ours
those
the week before
the night before
the year before
on that day
that night
the next day or the
following day

Exemple:
"This is my brother" he said.
He said that that was his brother.
"These are our friends" they said. They said that those were their friends.
"You are in our garden" they said. They said that we were in their garden; They said that I was in their garden.
"I can come by my motor-car" John said. John said that he could come by his motor-car; John said that he was able
to come by his motor-car.
"I shall come by my motor-car" John said. John said that he would come by his motor-car.
"I came by my motor-car" John said. John said that he had come by his motor-car.
"I have come by my motor-car" John said. John said that he had come by his motor-car.
"I should come by my motor-car" John said. John said that he would have come by his motor-car.
"Yesterday was my birthday" John said. John said that the previous day had been his birthday.
"You can see us if you turn on the light" they said. They said that we could see them if we turned on the light.
"You will find us at home if you come earlier" they said. They said that we/I would find them at home if we/I came
earlier.
"You can see me if you open your eyes" he said. He said that I could see him if I opened my eyes.
2.4.1. Transformarea n vorbire indirect a ntrebrilor generale
ntrebrile generale sunt cele care pot primi rspunsul da sau nu.
"Do you know me"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I knew him.

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"Did you know me"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I had known him.
"Are you living in this town"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I was living in that town.
"Will you come with us"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I would come with them.
"Is he going to read this book"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether he was going to read that book.
"Was he going to read this book ? he asked me. He asked me if/whether he had been going to read that book.
"Can you come with me"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I could come with him.
"Must you go there now"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I had to go there then.
"Did you have to go there with them"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I had had to go there with them.
2.4.2. Transformarea n vorbire indirect a ntrebrilor speciale
ntrebrile speciale sunt cele care:
nu pot primi un rspuns scurt, adic da sau nu
au o intonaie cobortoare (ca i propoziiile afirmative)
se formeaz cu pronume, adjective sau adverbe interogative, sau cu combinaii ale acestora:
who? = cine, care ?
who else ? = mai cine ?, cine mai ?, cine altcineva ?
whose ? = al, a, ai, ale cui ?
whose else ? = al, a, ai, ale mai cui ?, al, a, ai, ale cui mai ?, al, a, ai, ale cui altcuiva ?
to whom ? = who(m)... to ? = cui ?, la cine ?
to whom else ? = mai cui ?, cui mai ?, cui altcuiva ?, la cine altcineva ?
whom? = pe cine?
whom else? = pe mai cine?, pe cine mai?, pe cine altcineva?
about whom? = who(m)... about? = despre cine?
about whom else? = despre mai cine?, despre cine mai?, despre cine altcineva?
after whom? = who(m)...after? = dup cine?
after whom else? = dup mai cine? = dup cine mai? = dup cine altcineva?
among whom? = who(m)... among? = printre cine?, ntre cine?
among whom else? = printre mai cine?, printre cine mai?, printre cine altcineva?
at whom? = who(m)... at? = la cine?
at whom else? = who(m) else... at? = la mai cine?, la cine mai?, la cine altcineva?
because of whom else? = din cauza mai cui?, din a mai cui cauz?
before whom else? = naintea mai cui?, n faa mai cui?, naintea cui altcuiva?
between whom? = who(m)... between? = ntre cine?
between whom else? = ntre mai cine?, ntre cine altcineva?
beyond whom? = who(m)... beyond? = dincolo de cine?
beyond whom else? = dincolo de mai cine?, dincolo de cine altcineva?
by whom? = who(m)... by? = de cine?
by whom else? = de mai cine?, de cine altcineva?
far from whom? = departe de cine?
far from whom else? = departe de mai cine?, departe de cine altcineva?
for whom? = who(m)... for? = pentru cine?
for whom else? = pentru mai cine?, pentru cine altcineva?
from whom? = who(m)... from? = de la cine?
from whom else? = de la mai cine?, de la cine altcineva?
near whom? = who(m) near? = lng cine?
near whom else? = lng mai cine?, lng cine altcineva?
of whom? = who(m)... of? = despre cine? = la cine?
of whom else? = despre mai cine?, despre cine altcineva?
past whom? = dincolo de cine?
past whom else? = dincolo de mai cine?, dincolo de cine altcineva?
through whom? = who(m)... through? = prin cine?
through whom else? = prin mai cine?, prin cine altcineva?, prin cine altul/alta/alii/altele?
with whom? = who(m)... with? = cu cine?
with whom else? = cu mai cine?, cu cine altcineva?
without whom? = who(m)... without? = fr cine?
without whom else? = fr mai cine?, fr cine altcineva?
what? = ce?
what else? = mai ce?, ce mai?, ce altceva?
about what? = what... about? = despre ce?

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about what else? = despre mai ce?, despre ce altceva?


after what? = what... after? = dup ce?
after what else? = dup mai ce? = dup ce altceva?
at what? = what.. at? = la ce?
at what else? = la mai ce?, la ce altceva?
because of what? = din cauza cui?
because of what else? = din cauza mai cui?, din ce alt cauz?
before what? = nainte de ce?, n faa a ce?
before what else? = n faa mai cui?, n faa a ce altceva?
by what? = what... by? = de ce?, prin ce?
by what else? = de ce altceva?, prin ce altceva?
far from what? = departe de ce?
far from what else? = departe de ce altceva?
from what? = what... from? = din ce?, de la ce?
from what else? = din ce altceva?, din mai ce?
near what? = lng ce?
near what else? = lng ce altceva?, lng mai ce?
of what? = what... of? = despre ce?
of what else? = despre ce altceva?
past what? = dincolo de ce?
past what else? = dincolo de ce altceva?, dincolo de mai ce?
through what? = what... through? = prin ce?
through what else? = prin ce altceva?
with what? = what... with? = cu ce?
with what else? = cu ce altceva?
without what? = what... without? = fr ce?
without what else? = fr ce altceva?, fr mai ce?
when? = cnd?
when else? = cnd altcndva?, mai cnd?
from when? = de cnd?
from when else? = de cnd altcndva?, de mai cnd?
since when? = de cnd?
since when else? = de cnd altcndva?
till/until when? = pn cnd?
where? = unde?
where else? = unde mai?, mai unde?, unde altundeva?
where abouts? = pe unde?
from where? = de unde?
from where else? = de unde altundeva?
which? = care?
about which? = which... about? = despre care?
about which of them? = despre care din/dintre ei/ele?
after which of us/you/them? = dup care dintre noi/voi/ei /ele?
after which (boy)? = dup care (biat)?, dup al ctelea biat?
among which (trees)? = ntre/printre care (copaci)?
among which of them? = ntre care dintre ei?
(Which one of us is he looking at? = La care dintre noi privete el?)
before which of us? = n faa cruia/creia/crora dintre noi?
between which of them? = ntre care dintre ei/ele?
beyond which (house)? = dincolo de care (cas)?
beyond which of them? = dincolo de care dintre ei/ele?
far from which (place)? = departe de care (loc)?
for which of us/you/them? = pentru care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
from which of us/you/them? = de la care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
near which of us/you/them? = lng care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
near which of the lakes? = lng care dintre lacuri?
past which of us/you/them? = dincolo de care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
(Past which of you did he walk? = Dincolo de care dintre voi a trecut el?)
through which of us/you/them? = prin care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

112

with which of us/you/them? = cu care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?


without which of us/you/them? = fr care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
how? = cum?
how else? = mai cum?, cum mai?
how long? = de ct timp?, de ct vreme?
"Who are you"? he asked me.
He asked me who I was.
Cine eti tu? m-a ntrebat el. devine : El m-a ntrebat cine sunt eu.
"Who else is with you"? he asked me. He asked me who else was with me.
Cine mai este cu tine? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cine mai este/era cu mine.
"Whose are these books"? he asked me He asked me whose those books were.
Ale cui sunt aceste cri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ale cui sunt/erau crile acelea.
"Whose else are these books"? he asked me. He asked me whose else those books were.
Ale cui altcuiva sunt aceste cri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ale cui altcuiva erau crile acelea.
"To whom can you give this money"? he asked me. = "Who(m) can you give this money to"? he asked me. He asked
me to whom I could give that money. = He asked me who(m) I could give that money to.
Cui poi da aceti bani? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cui pot/puteam s dau banii aceia.
"To whom else can you give this money"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else can you give this money to"? he asked me. He
asked me to whom else I could give that money. = He asked me whom/who else I could give that money to.
Cui altcuiva poi da aceti bani? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cui altcuiva i pot/puteam da eu banii aceia.
"Whom do you see"? he asked me. He asked me whom I saw.
Pe cine vezi? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pe cine vd.
"Whom else do you see"? he asked me. He asked me whom/who else I saw.
Pe cine altcineva vezi? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pe cine altcineva vd. = El m-a ntrebat pe cine mai vd.
"About whom are you talking"? he asked me. = "Who(m) are you talking about"? he asked me. He asked me about
whom I was talking. = He asked me whom/who I was talking about.
Despre cine vorbeti? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat despre cine vorbesc.
"About whom else can we talk"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else can we talk about"? he asked me. He asked me about
whom else we could talk. = He asked me who(m) else we could talk about.
Despre cine altcineva putem discuta?, m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat despre cine altcineva putem discuta.
"After whom is the dog running"? he asked me. = "Who(m) is the dog running after"? he asked me. He asked me after
whom the dog was running. = He asked me who(m) the dog was running after.
Dup cine alearg cinele? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dup cine alearg cinele.
"After whom else was the dog running"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else was the dog running after"? he asked me. He
asked me after whom else the dog was running. = He asked me who(m) else the dog was running after.
Dup cine altcineva alerga cinele? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dup cine altcineva alerga cinele.
"Go and fetch a doctor" he told me. He told me to go and fetch a doctor.
Du-te i adu un doctor, mi-a zis el. El mi-a zis s merg (s m duc) s aduc un doctor.
"At whom are you looking"? he asked me. = "Who(m) are you looking at"? he asked me. He asked me at whom I was
looking. = He asked me who(m) I was looking at.
La cine priveti tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat la cine privesc eu.
"Because of whom are you late"? he asked me. He asked me because of whom I was late. = He asked me who(m) I
was late because of.
Din cauza cui ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din cauza cui am ntrziat.
"On whose account are you late"? he asked me. = "Whose account are you late on"? he asked me. He asked me on
whose account I was late. = He asked me whose account I was late on.
Din cauza cui ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din cauza cui am ntrziat.
"Due to what are you late"? he asked me. He asked me due to what I was late.
Datorit crui fapt ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat datorit crui fapt am ntrziat.
"Due to whom are you late"? he asked me. He asked me due to whom I was late. = He asked me who(m) was I late due
to.
Datorit cui ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat datorit cui am ntrziat.
"Because of whom else are you late"? he asked me. He asked me because of whom/who else I was late.
Din cauza cui altcuiva ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din cauza cui altcuiva am ntrziat.
"Due to whom else are you late"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else are you late due to"? he asked me. He asked me due to
whom else I was late. = He asked me whom/who else I was late due to.
Datorit cui altcuiva ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat datorit cui altcuiva am ntrziat.
"Before whom were you sitting"? he asked me. He asked me before whom I had been sitting. = He asked me who(m) I
had been sitting before.
n faa cui edeai tu, m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat n faa cui edeam eu.
"Before whom else were you sitting"? he asked me. He asked me before whom else I had been sitting.

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n faa cui altcuiva edeai tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat n faa cui altcuiva edeam eu.
"Between whom are you going to sit"? he asked me. ="Who(m) are you going to sit between? he asked me. He asked
me between whom I was going to sit.
ntre cine intenionezi s ezi? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ntre cine intenionez eu s ed/stau.
"Between whom else did you sit"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else did you sit between"? he asked me. He asked me
between whom else I had sat. = He asked me who(m) else I had sat between.
ntre cine altcineva ai stat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ntre cine altcineva am stat.
"Beyond whom do you live"? he asked me. = "Who(m) do you live beyond"? he asked me. He asked me beyond whom
I lived.
Dincolo de cine locuieti? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dincolo de cine locuiesc.
"By whom is this book written"? he asked me. = "Who(m) is this book written by"? he asked me. He asked me by
whom that book was written. = He asked me who(m) that book was written by.
De cine este scris cartea aceasta? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de cine este scris cartea aceasta/aceea.
"By whom else were you seen"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else were you seen by"? he asked me. He asked me by whom
else I had been seen. = He asked me who(m) else I had been seen by.
De cine altcineva ai fost vzut? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de cine altcineva am fost eu vzut.
"Far from whom do you live"? he asked me. He asked me far from whom I lived.
Departe de cine locuieti tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat departe de cine locuiesc.
"Far from whom else were you"? he asked me. He asked me far from whom else I had been.
Departe de cine altcineva erai tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat departe de cine altcineva eram eu.
"For whom will you write this letter"? he asked me. = "Who(m) will you write this letter for"? he asked me. He asked
me for whom I should write that letter. = He asked me whom I should write that letter for.
Pentru cine vei scrie aceast scrisoare? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pentru cine voi scrie eu scrisoarea aceea.
"For whom else will you buy books" he asked me. = "Who(m) else will you buy books for"? he asked me. He asked me
for whom else I should buy books. = He asked me whom else I should buy books for.
Pentru cine altcineva vei cumpra cri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pentru cine altcineva voi cumpra cri.
"From whom do you have this present"? he asked me = "Who(m) do you have this present from"? he asked me. He
asked me from whom I had that present. = He asked me whom I had that present from.
De la cine ai acest cadou? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de la cine am cadoul acesta/acela.
"From whom else do you have these presents"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else do you have these presents from"? he
asked me. He asked me from whom else I/we had those presents. = He asked me who(m) else I/we had those presents
from.
De la cine altcineva ai aceste cadouri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de la cine altcineva am cadourile acelea/acestea.
"Near whom are you going to sit"? he asked me. = "Who(m) are you going to sit near"? he asked me. He asked me
near whom I was going to sit. = He asked me who(m) I was going to sit near.
Lng cine ai de gnd s ezi? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat lng cine am eu de gnd s ed/stau.
"Near whom else did you sit"? he asked me. ="Who(m) else did you sit near"? he asked me. He asked me near whom
else I had sat. = He asked me who(m) else I had sat near.
Lng cine altcineva ai stat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat lng cine altcineva am stat (eu).
"Of what did they die"? he asked me. = "What did they die of"? he asked me. He asked me of what they died. = He
asked me what they died of.
De ce au murit ei? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de ce au murit ei.
"About whom are you speaking"? he asked me. = "Who(m) are you speaking about"? he asked me. He asked me
about whom I was speaking. = He asked me who(m) I was speaking about.
Despre cine vorbeti tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat despre cine vorbesc eu.
"Of what kind of music are you fond? he asked me. = "What kind of music are you fond of"? he asked me. He asked
me of what kind/sort of music I was fond. = He asked me what kind of music I was fond of.
De ce fel de muzic eti amator? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de ce fel/gen de muzic sunt amator.
"Past whom did they hurry"? he asked me. = "Who(m) did they hurry past"? he asked me. He asked me past whom
they hurried. = He asked me who(m) they hurried past.
De cine au trecut ei n grab? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de cine au trecut ei n grab.
"Through whom did you receive this letter'? he asked me = "Who(m) did you receive this letter through"? he asked me.
He asked me through whom I received that letter. = He asked me whom I had received that letter through.
Prin cine ai primit scrisoarea aceasta? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat prin cine am primit scrisoarea aceea.
"Through whom else can you receive books"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else can you receive books through"? he asked
me. He asked me through whom else I could receive books. = He asked me who(m) else I could receive books through.
Prin cine altcineva poi primi cri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat prin cine altcineva pot primi eu cri.
"With whom will you go on the trip"? he asked me. = "Who(m) will you go on the trip with"? he asked me. He asked
me with whom I should go on the trip. = He asked me who(m) I should go on the trip with.

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Cu cine vei merge n excursie? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cu cine voi merge eu n excursie.
"Shall I tell you a novel"? he asked me. He asked me if he should tell me a novel.
S-i povestesc un roman? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dac s-mi povesteasc un roman.
"Where is the boy you spoke to?" he asked me. He asked me where the boy I had spoken to was.
Unde este biatul cu care ai vorbit? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat unde este biatul cu care am vorbit.
"Do you know that three and three make six"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I knew that three and three make
six.
tii c trei plus trei fac ase? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dac tiu c trei plus trei fac ase.
"I dreamed that I was flying" he said. He said (that) he had dreamed that he had been flying.
Am visat c zbor, a zis el. El a zis c a visat c zboar. etc.
2.4.3. ntrebrile disjunctive (The Tag/Tail Questions)
Se traduc n limba romn prin ntrebrile: aa-i, nu-i aa sau nu?
Ele se formeaz cu ajutorul unuia dintre urmtoarele verbe: be, do, have, shall, will, can, may, must, need, ought to,
dare
You are at home, aren't you? = Eti acas, nu-i aa?
You are not at home, are you? = Nu eti acas, nu-i aa?
He was at home, wasn't he? = Era acas, nu-i aa?
He was not at home, was he? = El nu era acas, nu-i aa?
He will not be at home, will he? = El nu va fi acas, nu-i aa?
He will be at home, won't he? = El nu va fi acas, nu-i aa?
Ele pot avea fie intonaie cobortoare i n acest caz nu se ateapt o confirmare sau o infimare din partea interlocutorului
fie o intonaie urctoare i n cazul acesta ntrebarea trebuie s primeasc rspuns (afirmativ sau negativ).
De fapt ele sunt nite comunicri formate din dou pri. Dac prima parte este afirmativ, a doua parte este obligatoriu
negativ i invers. La formarea lor se mai ine seam, dup cum s-a vzut n exemplele prezentate, de timpul i aspectul verbului
primei pri a comunicrii.
They saw us in the street, didn't they ? = Ei ne-au vzut (pe noi) pe strad, nu-i aa ?
They did not come by bus, did they ? = Ei nu au venit cu autobuzul, nu-i aa ?
We have lived here for ten years, haven't we ? = Locuim aici de zece ani, nu-i aa ?
You ought to learn, oughtn't you ? = Se cuvine s nvei, nu-i aa ?
He can't answer the question, can he ? = Nu poate s rspund la ntrebare, nu-i aa ?
I could come earlier, couldn't I ? = Eu puteam (a putea) veni mai devreme, nu-i aa ?
She daren't go there alone, dare she ? = Ea nu are curaj s mearg acolo singur, nu-i aa ?
You said they could come, didn't you ? = Ai/Ai spus c pot veni, nu ?
2.4.4. Cteva reguli de ortografie i punctuaie n limba englez
Punctul (The Full Stop)
Punctul se aeaz la sfritul propoziiilor afirmative.
We like tennis very much. = Ne place tenisul foarte mult.
Semnul ntrebrii (The Question Mark)
Semnul ntrebrii se aeaz la sfritul propoziiilor/frazelor interogative.
What is your name ? = Cum te cheam ?
Who is the boy who brought this book ? = Cine este biatul care a adus cartea aceasta ?
Semnul exclamrii (The Exclamation Mark)
Semnul exclamrii se folosete dup:
a) propoziiile imperative:
Go and fetch a doctor! = Du-te i adu un doctor!
b) propoziiile care conin o mirare n care se exprim admiraia fa de ceva/ cineva:
How beautiful she is! = Ce frumoas este ea !
How beautiful she is singing! = Ce frumos cnt ea!
c) dup interjecii:
"Hush! Hush!" said the Rabbit.
Dou puncte (The Collon)
Dou puncte se aeaz cnd urmeaz o enumerare, se introduce un citat sau urmeaz cuvintele cuiva (vorbire direct).
He said that he saw things like: books, pencils and pens. = El a zis c a vzut lucruri cum ar fi: cri, creioane i stilouri.
That's what he said: "Read these books and you will find out interesting things"! = Iat ce a zis el: Citete aceste cri i
vei afla lucruri interesante!
One can visit the following cities: Cluj, Rome and London. = Se pot vizita urmtoarele orae: Cluj, Roma i Londra.
Punctul i virgula (The Semicolon)
Punctul i virgula are semnificaia unei pauze mai mari dect cea realizat cu ajutorul punctului. Se folosete mai rar.

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"I've told you once -I tell you again; We're not at home" = -i-am spus o dat -i spun din nou; nu suntem acas.
Virgula (The Comma)
Virgula desparte cuvinte sau propoziii cu aceeai valoare sintactic
John, Bill and Nick are good friends. = John, Bill i Nick sunt prieteni buni.
Ea se folosete:
a) dup adverbe de afirmaie sau negaie:
No, he said. = Nu, a zis el.
Yes, they answered. = Da, au rspuns ei.
b) Dup adverbe ca: indeed (ntr-adevr), however (totui), too (de asemenea), of course (desigur):
Of course, he is right. = Desigur, el are dreptate.
c) n frazele alctuite prin coordonare:
They went home, ate a little, took the ball and began to play football. = Au mers acas, au mncat puin, au luat mingea i
au nceput s joace fotbal.
d) ntre subordonatele de acelai fel:
He talked to me about the books that he read, that he had to read and that he liked to read. = Mi-a vorbit despre crile
pe care le-a citit, pe care trebuie s le citeasc i pe care i plcea s le citeasc.
n numerele lungi, virgula are n limba englez rolul punctului n limba romn.
1, 000, 000 = 1. 000. 000
Linia de desprire (The Dash)
Linia de desprire marcheaz o idee nedeterminat sau o pauz lung, asemntoare cu aceea redat prin punct, iar uneori
preia locul virgulei:
"This will bring them here -when"? = -Asta i va aduce aici -cnd?
"It's -it's a very fine day!" said a timid voice at her side. = -Este -este o zi foarte frumoas! zise o voce timid (de) lng ea.
Liniua de unire i de desprire (The Hyphen)
Se mai numete cratim. Apare n cuvintele compuse:
up -to -date = modern
kind - hearted = bun la suflet
a sewing - machine = o main de cusut
Ghilimelele (The Inverted Commas)
Ghilimelele n limba englez marcheaz vorbirea direct:
"I've not made up my mind", he said. = - Nu m-am hotrt, zise el.
2.4.5. Desprirea cuvintelor n silabe
Cuvintele compuse se despart n respectivii componeni:
Monday = Mon/day
textbook = text/book
schoolboy = school/boy
understand = under/stand
Prefixele i sufixele se despart de cuvintele la care se gsesc ataate:
understanding = under/stand/ing
scholarship = scholar/ship
misunderstanding = mis/under/stand/ing looked = look/ed
improvement = improve/ment
smaller = small/er
Terminaia s la plural, sau la persoana a treia a verbelor sau de la genitivul sintetic nu se poate separa /despri de cuvntul
respectiv.
speaks = speaks
the girls' = the girls'
boys = boys
the boy's = the boy's
Iar acum, n final, celor ce doresc s-i fac o imagine mai cuprinztoare asupra regulilor de punctuaie, le propun s
rsfoiasc lucrri ale prozatorilor englezi, americani, australieni etc. Acolo vor putea gsi exemple edificatoare.

116

I
Present
Infinitive
to arise
to awake
to backbite
to be
to bear
to beat
to become
to beg
to begin
to bend
to beset
to bid
to bind
to bite
to bleed
to blend
to bless
to blow
to break
to breed
to bring
to broadcast
to build
to burn
to burst
to buy
to cast
to catch
to chide
to choose
to cleave
to cling
to clothe
to come
to cost
to creep
to crow
to cut
to dare
to dig
to do

LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE


III
IV
TRADUCERE
Past Participle
Present Participle
arose
arisen
arising
a se ridica/urca/ sui/ivi, a rsri; a se strni/ isca
awoke
awake
awaking
a se trezi/detepta/ scula
backbit
backbitten/ backbit backbiting
a defima/ ponegri/ brfi/calomnia,
was/were
been
being
a fi, a se afla /gsi
bore
born
bearing
a purta/duce, a transporta/ cra; a rodi,
beat
beaten
beating
a bate/lovi ; a suna
became
become
becoming
a deveni/ajunge, a se potrivi
begot
begotten
begetting
a procrea, a da natere la; a cauza
began
begun
beginning
a ncepe, a debuta, a porni
bent
bent/bended
bending
a (se) ndoi/ n covoia/nclina/supune, a ceda
beset
beset
besetting
a aranja/pune/ potrivi; a bloca; a coplei, a ocupa
bid/bade
bid/bidden
bidding
a ruga/implora; a porunci/ ordona, a licita, a fgdui
bound
bound
binding
a (se) lega/uni, consolida, cptui, ntri,
bit
bit/bitten
biting
a muca, ciupi, apuca, defima
bled
bled
bleeding
a stoarce/slei, sngera
blent/blended blent/blended
blending
a (se) amesteca, a (se) combina, (se) asorta,
to break
broke
blessing
a binecuvnta/ slvi/ glorifica, apra; sfini
to blew
blown
blowing
a bate/sufla, adia, rsuna, erupe
broke
broken
breaking
a (se) rupe/ sparge/ frnge
bred
bred
breeding
a crete/cultiva, hrni/ nutri, educa, a (se) nmuli
brought
brought
bringing
a aduce, mna/ mpinge, determina
broadcast
broadcast
broadcasting
a difuza/ rspndi/ transmite, semna
built
built
building
a construi/ cldi/ zidi,
burnt/ burned burnt
burning
a arde/cauteriza
burst
burst
bursting
a izbucni/ plesni/ crpa
bought
bought
buying
a cumpra, corupe/mitui,
cast
cast
casting
a arunca/ azvrli, distribui,
caught
caught
catching
a (se) prinde/ apuca/fixa,
chide
chide/chidden
chiding
a certa/mustra/ dojeni, cicli
chose
chosen
choosing
a alege/ selecta/ prefera, a vrea
cleft/clove
cleft/clove
cleaving
a (se) crpa/ despica/detaa
clung
clung
clinging
a se lipi/aga de, a se ine de; a se mula (pe)
clothed/ clad clothed/clad
clothing
a (se) mbrca/ nvemnta/acoperi, a se gti
came
come
coming
a veni/sosi, a se apropia; a exagera
cost
cost
costing
a costa/face, fixa preul
crept
crept
creeping
a (se) tr/ furia, a fi plecat/ umil
crowed/ crew crowed
crowing
a cnta cucu- rigu; a-i manifesta bucuria
cut
cut
cutting
a tia/reteza/ seciona/despica/ciopli
dared/ durst
dared
daring
a ndrzni/ cuteza, a avea curajul
dug
dug
digging
a spa, a dezgropa/scormoni/ rscoli
did
done
doing
a face/svri/ executa/nfptui

to draw
to dream
to drink
to drive
to dwell

drew
dreamt
drank
drove
dwelt

II
Past Tense

drawn
dreamed/ dreamt
drunk
driven
dwelt

drawing
dreaming
drinking
driving
dwelling

117

a trage/ ntinde/ remorca, a trasa; a distila


a visa, a-i nchipui, crede/ gndi
a bea, a sorbi, a suge
a conduce maina; a circula
a locui/ tri/ domicilia/ slui

to eat
to fall
to feed
to feel
to fight
I
Present
Infinitive
to find
to flee
to fly
to forbear
to forbid
to forecast
to forego
to forknow
to foresee
to foretell
to forget
to forgive
to forsake
to forswear
to freeze
to gainsay
to get
to gird
to give
to go
to grave
to grind
to grow
to hang
to have
to hear
to hide
to hit
to hold
to hurt
to inlay
to keep

ate
fell
fed
felt
fought

found
fled
flew
forbore
forbade
forecast(ed)
forewent
foreknew
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forsook
forsworn
froze
gainsaid
got/gotten
girt/girded
gave
went
graved
ground
grew
hung/hanged
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
inlaid
kept

found
fled
flown
forborne
forbidden
forecast(ed)
foregone
foreknown
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forsaken
forsworn
frozen
gainsaid
got/gotten
girt/girded
given
gone
graved/ graven
ground
grown
hung/hanged
had
heard
hid/hidden
hit
held
hurt
inlaid
kept

eating
falling
feeding
feeling
fighting
IV
Present Participle
finding
fleeing
flying
forbearing
forbidding
forecasting
foregoing
foreknowing
foreseeing
foretelling
forgetting
forgiving
forsaking
forswearing
freezing
gainsaying
getting
girding
giving
going
graving
grinding
growing
hanging
having
hearing
hidding
hitting
holding
hurting
inlaying
keeping

to kneel
to knit
to know
to lade
to lay
to lead
to lean
to leap
to learn
to leave
to lend

knelt/ kneeled
knit/ knitted
knew
laded
laid
led
leant/ leaned
leapt/ leaped
learnt/ learned
left
lent

knelt/kneeled
knit/knitted
known
laden/laded
laid
led
leant/leaned
leapt/leaped
learnt/ learned
left
lent

kneeling
knitting
knowing
lading
laying
leading
leaning
leaping
learning
leaving
lending

to let
to lie
to light

let
lay
lighted/lit

let
lain
lighted/lit

letting
lying
lighting

II
Past Tense

eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
III
Past Participle

118

a mnca, a lua/ servi masa, a se hrni cu


a cdea/pica, a se prbui
a (se) hrni, a alimenta, a nutri
a simi/resimi/ percepe, a pipi
a (se) lupta/ bate, a disputa, a purta rzboi
TRADUCERE

a gsi/ntlni; a vedea, a da de, a descoperi


a fugi; a se refugia din, a pr- si
a zbura, a trece n zbor, a nala n aer
a se abine de la, a se feri de, a evita
a interzice, a nu ngdui/ permite, a opri
a prevedea; a calcula dinainte
a anticipa, a preceda
a cunoate/ti dinainte; a prevedea/ presimi
a prevedea
a prezice/ prevesti/ prooroci
a uita; neglija/ nesocoti/omite
a ierta
a prsi/abandona; a renuna la , a se lsa de
a jura fals, a depune mrturie fals
a nghea/ degera, a se congela; a se nspimnta
a contrazice, a contesta/nega/tgdui
a cpta/obine/ procura, a face, a dobndi
a incinge, a nconjura
a da/drui/oferi, a face cadou, a repartiza, a nmna
a merge/pleca, a se deplasa/duce, a umbla
a grava, a sculpta, a ciopli, a spa
a mcina/rni/ pisa, lefui/ poliza, scrni
a crete/spori, a se dezvolta/ maturiza/coace, a cultiva
a (se) spnzura/ aga/atrna, a prinde/fixa
a avea; a suferi de;a primi n vizit; a bea/mnca
a auzi, a audia, a asculta
a (se) ascunde/ piti, a dosi/ tinui
a lovi/nimeri, a bate / izbi, a atinge, a da lovitura
a ine/pstra, a deine, a se menine/pstra
a rni/leza, a duna/strica, a lovi, a durea
a intercala/ introduce/nsera
a pstra; a respecta, a ine seama de, a rmne/sta, a
ine/menine
a ngenunchea, a se aeza n genunchi
a croeta/ tricota/ mpleti; a deosebi; a fi la curent cu
a ti , a cunoate
a ncrca/ mbarca
a pune/aeza/ ntinde/depune, a expune; a sta/ a edea
a duce/conduce/ ghida, a comanda
a se rezema/ sprijini, a se aplica/ nclina, a conta pe
a sri/slta, a face salturi
a nva/ afla/ studia, a se in- strui
a lsa/abandona/ prsi, a pleca din
a da mprumut, a mprumuta (cuiva), a nchiria, a se
preta la, a folosi
a lsa/ngdui/ permite, a fi de nchiriat, a nchiria
a sta ntins/ culcat, a zcea; a exista, se afla/ gsi
a aprinde (foc etc.); a lumina; a poposi

to lose
to make
to mean
to meet

lost
made
meant
met
II
Past Tense

lost
made
meant
met
III
Past Participle

losing
making
meaning
meeting

I
Present
Infinitive
to melt
to misgive
to mislay
to mislead
to mistake
to misunderstand
to mow
to outride
to outrun
to overcast
to overcome
to overdo
to overeat
to overfeed
to overlie
to overrun
to oversee
to overset
to oversleep
to overtake
to overthrow
to partake

melted
misgave
mislaid
misled
mistook
misunderstood

melted /molten
misgiven
mislaid
misled
mistaken
misunderstood

mowed
outrode
outran
overcast
overcame
overdid
overate
overfed
overlay
overran
oversaw
overset
overslept
overtook
overthrew
partook

mowed/mown
outridden
outrun
overcast
overcome
overdone
overeaten
overfed
overlain
overrun
overseen
overset
overslept
overtaken
overthrown
partaken

IV
Present Participle
melting
misgiving
mislaying
misleading
mistaking
misunderstanding
mowing
outriding
outrunning
overcasting
overcoming
overdoing
overeating
overfeeding
overlying
overrunning
overseeing
oversetting
oversleeping
overtaking
overthrowing
partaking

to pay
to put
to read
to rend
to repay
to reset
to retell
to rid
to ride
to ring
to rise
to rive
to run
to saw
to say
to see
to seek
to sell
to send
to set
to sew
to shake
to shear
to shed
to shine

paid
put
read
rent
repaid
reset
retold
rid/ridden
rode
rang
rose
rived
ran
sawed
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
sheared/ shore
shed
shone

paid
put
read
rent
repaid
reset
retold
rid/ridden
ridden
rung
risen
riven/rived
run
sawn/sawed
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn/sewen
shaken
shorn/sheared
shed
shone

paying
putting
reading
rending
repaying
resetting
retelling
ridding
riding
ringing
rising
riving
running
sawing
saying
seeing
seeking
selling
sending
setting
sewing
shaking
shearing
shedding
shining

119

a pierde
a fabrica/face/ confeciona; a construi
a nsemna; a vrea s spun, a crede/gndi
a (se) ntlni; a ntmpina; a se mpreuna/ a face
cunotin
TRADUCERE
a se topi/dizolva; a se lichefia; a se nduioa
a presimi ceva ru; a inspira fric/nencredere
a pierde/rtci (un obiect), a pune unde nu trebuie
a conduce/ ndruma greit
a nelege greit
a nelege/ interpreta greit cuvintele cuiva
a cosi, a secera, a tunde/cosi cu maina
a ntrece/depi pe cineva clare
depi pe cineva in fug, a intrece pe cineva alergnd
a ntuneca; a surfila; a nchide
a nvinge/birui/ coplei/dobor/ nfrnge
a exagera, a ntrece msura, a merge prea departe
a mnca prea mult, a se ghiftui
a supraalimenta
a se ntinde peste
a se revrsa; a depi limitele
a supraveghea, a controla
a rsturna ordinea, a zdrnici
a dormi prea mult, a se scula trziu
a depi un autovehicul; a-l ajunge o nenorocire
a rsturna/a dobor, a nfrnge/ nvinge/nimici
a profita/uza de, a se nfrupta din; a lua parte la ceva, a
mprti
a plti/achita; a prezenta avantaj
a aeza/pune, supune
a citi/interpreta, a studia, a se pregti
a (se) rupe/ sfia/despica/crpa
a rsplti/ recompensa; a napoia datoria
a restabili, a repune; a potrivi ceasul
a spune/povesti din nou, a repovesti, a repeta
a se descotorosi/debarasa/elibera de, a salva/mntui de
a clri (calul/ bicicleta); a domina/stpni
a suna/rsuna, a anuna/semnala, a suna bine
a se ridica/ nla/ scula, a se agita/ rscula
a crpa/spinteca/ despica, a rupe/sfia
a fugi/alerga, a conduce/administra; a topi
a tia cu ferstrul
a zice/spune/ gri, a afirma, a meniona; a admite
a vedea, a ne- lege, a remarca/ observa
a cuta/cerceta, a explora, a solicita
a vinde, a desface mrfuri, a pcli
a expedia/ trimite, a transmite, a lansa
a pune/aeza/ instala, a culege la tipografie
a coase, a lucra cu acul
a scutura/zgudui/agita, a amenina cu pumnul
a tunde/despuia; a pgubi
a vrsa (lacrimi); a pierde; a lepda
a strluci, a luci; a izbndi

to shoe
to shoot
to show
to shrink
I
Present
Infinitive
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to slay
to sleep
to slide
to slit
to smell
to sow
to speak
to speed
to spell
to spend
to spill
to spin
to spit
to split
to spoil
to spread
to spring
to stand
to steal
to stick
to sting
to stink
to strike
to string
to strive
to swear
to sweep
to swell
to swim
to swing
to take
to teach
to tear
to tell
to think
to throw
to thrust
to tread
to unbend
to unbind
to undergo
to undersell
to
understand
to undertake

shod
shot
showed
shrank
II
Past Tense

shod
shot
shown/showed
shrunk
III
Past Participle
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slain
slept
slid/sliden
slit
smelt
sown/sowed
spoken
sped/speeded
spelt/speld
spent
spilt/spilled
spun
spat/spit
split
spoilt/spoiled
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
struck/ stricken
strung
striven
sworn
swept
swollen/ swelled
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
thrust
trodden/trod
unbent
unbound
undergone
undersold
understood

shoeing
shooting
showing
shrinking
IV
Present Participle
shutting
singing
sinking
sitting
slaying
sleeping
sliding
slitting
smelling
sowing
speaking
speeding
spelling
spending
spilling
spinning
spitting
spiting
spoiling
spreading
springing
standing
stealing
sticking
stinging
stinking
striking
stringing
striving
swearing
sweeping
swelling
swimming
swinging
taking
teaching
tearing
telling
thinking
throwing
thrusting
treading
unbending
unbinding
undergoing
underselling
understanding

shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept
slid
slit
smelt
sowed
spoke
sped/ speeded
spelt/spelled
spent
spilt/spilled
spun/span
spat/spit
split
spoilt /spoiled
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank/stunk
struck
strung
strove
swore
swept
swelled
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
thrust
trod
unbent
unbound
underwent
undersold
understood
undertook

a (se) nchide
a cnta; a uiera
a se scufunda, a cdea la fund; a scdea/amortiza
a edea, a sta jos, a poza ca model
a omor/asasina/ ucide, a masacra
a dormi, a adormi
a aluneca, a se da pe ghea, a se furia/ strecura
a crpa/spinteca/ despica, a face o deschiztur n
a mirosi, a adulmeca
a semna, a nsmna
a vorbi/gri, a rosti
a accelera, a goni, a merge cu vitez, a se grbi
a ortografia, a rosti un cuvnt liter cu liter
a cheltui/consuma/ epuiza; a petrece timpul
a (se) revrsa/ vrsa/mprtia
a toarce/fila/ rsuci, nvrti/ roti
a scuipa/expectora; a ploua mrunt
a (se) scinda/ descompune/ diviza/dezbina/ dezintegra
a strica/ deteriora/altera/rsfa; a prda/ jefui
a ntinde/desfura, a desface, a lungi, a mprtia
a sri/ni, a ncoli/rsri, a izvor; a exploda
a sta n picioare, a se ine drept; a fi, a se afla
a fura/terpeli, a amgi/seduce, a cuceri
a nfige/nepa/ introduce/mplnta; a (se) lipi, a adera
a mpunge/nepa/ rni; a nela/amgi, a ustura
a mirosi urt, a pui, a duhni
a (se) lovi/izbi/ ciocni, a bate; a prinde rdcini
a lega cu sfoara; a ntinde coarda, a nira pe a
a se strdui/ lupta/zbate, a-i da osteneala, a tinde/nzui
a jura, a depune jurmntul; a njura
a mtura, a terge praful
a umfla, a mri; a bomba
a nota, a pluti, a trece not; a inunda
a se legna/ balansa/roti/nvrti, a oscila/ pendula
a lua, a mprumuta; a pune mna
a nva pe cineva, a instrui, a preda, a da lecii
a rupe/sfia, a distruge; a smulge
a spune/povesti, a exprima; a arta/ indica
a (se) gndi/ crede, a imagina/nchipui
a (se) arunca/ lansa/ azvrli; a lepda, fta
a mplnta/ vr/ndesa
a clca/pi, a pi/clca pe
a (se) ntinde/ destinde/relaxa
a dezlega/ desface, a desprinde, a slobozi, a elibera
a suferi/ndura/ suporta, a trece prin
a vinde mai ieftin, a vinde sub preul de cost
a nelege/pricepe, a sesiza

undertaken

undertaking

a ntreprinde, a lua asupra sa, a-i asuma

120

a ncla, a pingeli, a potcovi, a tlpui


a trage (n), a mpuca, a vna, a revrsa/ mprtia
a arta/indica, a demonstra/dovedi, a aprea, a se ivi
a se scurta/ micora, a se strmba
TRADUCERE

to undo
to upset
to wake
I
Present
Infinitive
to wear
to weave
to wed
to weep
to win
to wind
to withdraw
to withhold
to withstand
to write

undid
upset
woke/woked
II
Past Tense

undone
upset
waked/woken
III
Past Participle

wore
wove
wedded
wept
won
wound
withdrew
withheld
withstood
wrote

worn
woven/wove
wedded/wed
wept
won
wound
withdrawn
withheld
withstood
written

undoing
upsetting
waking
IV
Present Participle
wearing
weaving
wedding
weeping
winning
winding
withdrawing
withholding]
withstanding
writing

121

a anula, desfiina, a desface, a distruge


a (se) rsturna, a dezorganiza, a afecta
a (se) trezi/ detepta; a priveghea, a strni
TRADUCERE
a purta, a fi mbrcat cu; a se uza/ponosi
a ese, a mpleti; a se ames teca/bga n
a (se) cstori, a da/lua n cstorie
a plnge, a vrsa lacrimi
a ctiga/obine, a reui; a ajunge la
a erpui, a (se) rsuci, a nfura/ nveli
a retrage/retracta, a lua napoi, renuna
a opri/reine de la, a interzice ceva
a se mpotrivi/ opune la, a rezista
a scrie, a redacta