FORM A - AREA

Assessor's Sheets

USGS Quad

Area Letter Form Numbers in Area

Massachusetts Historical Commission 58, 70 80 Boylston Street <52tS+ fV} ~ VI, "3}. ~oston, Massachusetts 02116

157,

I I Marlborough I I__
Town

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85, 195-201;
535-560

Marlborough

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Place (neighborhood or village)

Name of Area
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East Main Street Area" residential; commercial

,- Present Use

Construction Dates or Period Overall Condition

mid-19th- to early 20th C. fair to good

Major Intrusions and Alterations

some visible

alteration and demolition: a few modem stores on lower E. Main. Acreage ca. 13 acres Recorded by Organization Anne Forbes, consultant Marlborough Historical Comm.
9/1/94

Date (month/day/year)

SEE ATIACHED

MAP

"Includes entire street, unless otherwise noted: Auburn Street Clinton Street: 11-50, inclusive Church Street: 3 Davis Street East Main Street: odd #s, 47-133 inclusive; odd and even #s, 135-202, inclusive Elm Place Stevens Street: 4-24, inclusive

Follow Massachusetts Historical Commission

Survey Manual instructions for completing this form

AREA FORM ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION [X] see continuation sheet Describe architectural, structural and landscape features and evaluate in terms of other areas within the community. Although many of the 55 buildings in this ca. 12-acre area have been altered, in contrast with some of the later-nineteenth-century neighborhoods at Marlborough center, its unique character derives from the predominance of pre-1855 Greek Revival houses, intermixed with stylish examples from the later decades of the nineteenth century. The East Main Street area consists of the southeastern section of busy East Main Street/Route 20, (north of Sawin and facing Spring Hill), and a broad west-east band of buildings flanking East Main as it turns east toward Hosmer Street. The area includes the base of Stevens Street south of the Rocklawn and Chipman Cemetery, the four buildings of Elm Place, and a small late-nineteenthcentury neighborhood on Davis, Auburn, and lower Clinton Streets. Only two modem intrusions exist here, a late-twentieth-century fast-food restaurant and a highly-modernized one-story store block of ca. 1930, both on East Main Street. What appears to be a large intrusion, the four-story L-plan comer building at 133 East Main (MHC #541), is actually the 1878 Rice & Hutchins Middlesex Factory, recently modernized with new siding, windows, etc. The East Main Street area claims several of the most high-style Greek Revival houses in Marlborough. The large temple-front houses of Samuel and John Chipman, (see Forms #85 and 195), both probably built in the late 1830's, are the largest and best-preserved of the group. Both have flushboarded facades and wide corner pilasters, and the John Chipman House is one of the few in Marlborough to display floor-length triple-hung windows on the facade. (Cont.) HISTORICAL NARRATIVE [X] see continuation sheet Explain historical development of the area. Discuss how this area relates to the historical development of the community. Even though East Main Street was in existence by the late-eighteenth-century as part of the county road system and as a section of the Boston Post Road, the ca. 12-acre area flanking it northeast of today's Sawin Street did not begin to develop as part of Marlborough's busy center villages until about 1850. From that time through the 1880's it gradually changed from a rural area to the easternmost combined industrial/residential section of Marlborough center. In 1800 a few houses stood on the east side of East Main south of this area, but except for a small artisan's shop and one or two houses that have since been demolished, this section was virtually all open land. The nearest buildings were two houses to the northwest on Spring Hill, the Stevens family homestead well to the north off Stevens Street, and the old homestead of John Howe to the east. (See Form #44.) Through the mid-1830's, even as gradual development came to the East Village at the base of Spring Hill (See Area Form I), this area remained rural. (Cont.) BIBLIOGRAPHY and/or REFERENCES [ ] see continuation sheet Bigelow. Historic Reminiscences of Marlborough. 1910. Hudson. History of the Town of Marlborough, 1862. Hurd. History of Middlesex County. 1890. Maps, birdseye views, and atlases: 1853, 1857, 1871, 1875, 1878, 1889, Sanborns. Marlborough directories and tax valuations. Pictorial Marlborough. 1879. [X] Recommended as a National Register District. * If checked, you must attach a completed National Register Criteria Statement form. *(part of area only--see Criteria Statement)

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INVENTORY FORM CONTINUATION SHEET Massachusetts Historical Commission 80 Boylston Street Boston, Massachusetts 02116

Community Marlborough Area(s)
J

Property East Main Street Area Form Nos. 85, 195-201, 535-560

ARCHITECfURAL DESCRIPTION, cont. The Thankful Stowe House and the Whitney House at 16 and 24 Stevens Street are less intact, but the Stowe Huse retains its proportions and magnificent tetrastyle portico, and the Whitney House displays the same comer pilasters as those on the Chipman houses. (See Forms #197 and 198.) Several other Greek Revival houses located here, though in less than intact condition, still illustrate other forms and aspects of the style. The highly-altered William Holyoke House at 140 East Main Street is one of a handful of examples at Marlborough center of the little 1 1I2-story temple-front cottage, and its neighbor, the Felton House at 138 East Main, though later updated in the Queen Anne Style, may have started out the same way. (See MHC #544 and Form #200.) Three tall 2story gable-end houses with pedimented facades are located at 156, 166, and 178 East Main Street. (MHC #s 546,556, and 555.) 178 East Main has large paneled comer pilasters, as does the Stowe House, also pedimented, at 97 East Main (MHC #540), (later updated with a Queen Anne porch). 156 East Main has a fully-sidelighted recessed entry. 160 East Main Street, (MHC #557), one of the three Davis family houses, is the area's only two-story, three-bay side-gabled house with a projecting lobby entrance. A nearby house of about the same vintage, 12 Davis Street, (MHC #547), is the area's only illustration of the one-room-deep, five-bay "stOly-and-a-half cottage that continued from the Federal into the Greek Revival period. The largest of the Greek Revival buildings in the area is the unique three-part, 2 lI2-story house of Charles Palmer at 7 Elm Place (MHC #537). Though altered, it still displays its generous Greek Revival proportions and paneled comer pilasters.
l

Three examples of the small Second Empire mansard cottage of the 1860's and 1870's, all somewhat altered, are located in this area at 157 and 167 East Main, and at 24 Clinton Street (MHC #s 559, 558, and 552.) Well-preserved houses in the other major late-nineteenth-century styles, the Italianate and the Queen Anne, also appear here. 151 East Main Street, (MHC #560,) probably built around 1860, is an unusual Marlborough example of the early Tuscan Italianate, with a very shallow-hipped roof. The R.D. Mortimer House (MHC #545), at 148 East Main, although updated with a slightly later Queen Anne comer porch, is a good example of the typical bracketed "uprightand-wing" form. The best-preserved Italianate building here is the ca. 1878 extended farmhouse of O.P. Walker at 3/5 Stevens Street (see Form #199). A tall gable-end house, it has two porches on the typical chamfered posts of the Italianate era, and paneled and scroll-bracketed window crowns. Several other houses, though somewhat altered, still have such ltalianate details as heavy, bracketed window hoods (cf, e.g. 47 East Main, 17 Clinton Street, and 10 and 18 Auburn Street--MHC #s 535, 553, 549, and 550.) Several gable-end houses were built in the area during the 1880's and 1890's with some vernacular Queen Anne details. In particular, several porches with lathe-turned posts and saw-cut brackets grace the area, on houses such as 50 Clinton Street, 22 Davis Street, and 202 East Main (MHC #s 551, 548, and 554.) The 1890's gable-end duplex at 4/6 Stevens Street (MHC #543) has porches at both stories with lattice-work frieze screens, and also displays an elaborate gable-screen, incised verge boards, skirted gables, and the leaded-glass-surrounds at the l-over-Lsash windows that are some of the hallmarks of the Queen Anne. The best-preserved of the Queen Anne houses is the little Brigham House at 10 Stevens Street (see Form #196). Here patterned shingle, turned posts and frieze screen at the wraparound porch, and some vertical-and diagonal-board reminiscent of the Stick Style all combine in one of the area's most charming houses. The large, 2 l/2-story gable-end C.L. Bliss House at 165 East Main Street also retains some Stick Style elements in its horizontal wall banding and in the diagonal, horizontal, and vertical stickwork of its gables. (See Form #201). (Cont.)

INVENTORY FORM CONTINUATION SHEET

Community Marlborough

Property East Main Street Area Form Nos. 85,195-201,535-560

Massachusetts Historical Commission 80 Boylston Street Boston, Massachusetts 02116

Area(s)
J

ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION, cont. Two bungalows bring the area into the early modem era--a large, hip-roofed example of ca. 1910 at 79 East Main Street, and a smaller one at 2 Elm Place. (MHC #s 539 and 538).

HISTORICAL NARRATIVE, cont. The first real catalyst for development along upper East Main and lower Stevens Streets came with the opening of several small early shoe "manufactories" in the late 1830's and 1840's. This "first generation" of Marlborough's shoe industry was characterized by a proliferation of small companies, most of which were short-lived, and many of which eventually sold out to larger concerns. The earliest major shoe manufacturer in the area was John Chipman, whose father, carpenter Samuel A. Chipman, had a house just south of the location of today's Elm Place (at about the location of 51 East Main.) John Chipman set up his first shop on the adjoining Amory Cotting property. His brother Samuel joined him in 1842, and they remained in partnership for several years, soon moving their shop to the property at 83 East Main Street. (See Forms #85 and 195). By the 1850's, upper East Main in the vicinity of what was formerly known first as "Stevens' Comer," and later "Chipman Comer", (the intersection with lower Stevens Street) had joined the West Village and the south side of Main Street as the third major locus for shoe-manufacturing in the center of Marlborough. Other early entrepreneurs who opened shoe -shops in the area included Elijah Dickinson in 1842, and two men in 1851: Charles G. Whitney (see Form #197--16 Stevens Street) and Thomas J. Howe. The latter two both began on East Main east of Stevens. C.G. Whitney later formed the firm of Whitney & Palmer with Charles Palmer, building a shop in 1856 on the lane that later became Elm Place. Mr. Palmer eventually built the grand house at 7 Elm Place for his own residence. In 1859 CiG. Whitney teamed up with Charles Howe, who relocated here from Main Street. In the early 1860's, when many of the smaller shoe manufacturers were consolidating, Charles Whitney, Samuel Chipman, and Lewis Felton (see Form #200--138 East Main Street) formed the firm of Whitney, Felton & Chipman, and built the first of the major factories to be located on the southeast comer of the East Main/Stevens intersection; (by then known as "Chipman's Comer"-it was at about this time that Lincoln Street was extended east to create even more of a true square at the intersection.) The company was bought out in ca. 1867 by Rice & Hutchins, a large Bostonbased shoe company that had been started by a local resident, William Rice. The factory burned and was replaced with a larger one in 1878, which still stands today in highly altered form as 133 East Main Street. Named the Rice & Hutchins Middlesex Factory, from at least the time of its construction the intersection, and the growing area around it, gained yet another name, "Middlesex Square." The residential development of the East Main Street area progressed, first slowly, then more rapidly after 1855. As in other formerly rural areas, houses here were built on land divided out from the older homesteads for the homes of new generations. Also in typical fashion, neighboring families here tended to intermarry. Hence the Chipmans, Howes, Stowes, Whitneys, Feltons and others were all related, and formed familial business partnerships. The first increase of houses in the area was the result of relatives building homes near each other. (Cont.)

INVENTORY FORM CONTINUATION SHEET

Community

Property

Marlborough East Main Street Area Massachusetts Historical Commission 80 Boylston Street Boston, Massachusetts 02116 Area(s)
J

Form Nos. &5, 195-Wl, 535-Sffi

HISTORICAL NARRATIVE, cont. The opening of the larger factories, however, together with the presence, from 1853, of the Methodist Church on the new Church Street (see Form #97), combined to inspire more rapid residential development all along the adjacent sections of East Main Street later in the century. By 1870, on the north side of East Main several acres of the farm then belonging to Rufus Howe (see Form #44), and possibly some land belonging to members of the Davis family, were laid out for the new Davis, Auburn, and Clinton Streets. Rufus Howe himself retained ownership of the four lots on the north side of Auburn Street for many years, in fact, and his greenhouses still occupied much of the east side of Clinton Street at the end of the nineteenth century. By 1889, the area was nearly fully-developed with houses. Among the last historic buildings to be built were two 1880's houses at 4/6 and 10 Stevens Street on the former Stowe/Whitney property of #16 (see Forms #196 and 197), and the ca. 1890's house on the former Stowe property at 97 East Main. In the early part of this century a few more houses were built on the open spaces of the area or as replacements for a few that had been demolished.

The buildings discussed above and listed on the Area Data Sheet represent some of the most historically or architecturally significant resources in the area. There are several more historic properties located in the area, however. See Area Sketch Map for their locations.

INVENTORY FORM CONTINUATION SHEET

Community Marlborough

Property East Main Street Area Form Nos. 85t 195-201t 535-560

Massachusetts Historical Commission 80 Boylston Street Boston, Massachusetts 02116

Area(s)
J

AREA DATA SHEET NOTE: Although the inventory includes the entire area outlined on the Area Sketch Mapt only resources which have individual forms, or are mentioned in text of the Area Form, have been given inventory numbers and are listed on the Area Data Sheet. As a rule, these represent the most historically or architecturally significant resources in the area. There are many more historic properties located within the area, however. (See Area Sketch Map for their locations.) Starred properties (*) have individual inventory forms). MHC# 549 550 553 552 551 547 548 535 536 539 *195 540 541 542 *200 544 545 Parcel # 57-373 57-372 58-16 58-5 50-3 57-383 57-385 70-329 70-328 57-182 57-184 57-186 57-190 57-190 57-379 57-380 57-381 Street Address 10 Auburn Street 18 Auburn Street 17 Clinton Street 24 Clinton Street 50 Clinton Street 12 Davis Street 22 Davis Street 47 East Main Street 51 East Main Street 79 East Main Street 83 East Main Street 97 East Main Street 133 East Main Street 135 East Main Street 138 East Main Street 140 East Main Street 148 East Main Street Saml. Chipman Hse. J. Andrews Hse. Historic Narne Date Style/type

ca. early 1870's Italianate ca. early 1870ts Italianate ca. 1870 ca. 1873 ca. 1890 mid-19th C. ca. 1890 ca. 1900 ca. 1900/earlier ca. 1910 ca. 1835-40 Itali an ate mansard cottage Queen Anne 1 1/2-S. cottage Queen Anne Italianate astylistic Bungalow Greek Revival Greek Revival astylistic Itali an ate Greek Revival! Queen Anne Greek Revival Italianate

Emerson Stowe Hse. ca. 1850 Rice & Hutchins factory 1878 Nourse House Felton House Whitney/Dadmun/ Holyoke House R.D. Mortimer Hse ca. 1870 ca. 1845 ca. 1850 ca. 1880

INVENTORY FORM CONTINUATION SHEET

Community Marlborough

Property East Main Street Area Form Nos. 85, 195-201, 535-560

Massachusetts Historical Commission 80 Boylston Street Boston, Massachusetts 02116

Area(s) J

AREA DATA SHEET, cont. MHC# 560 546 559 557 *201 556 558 555 554 538 537 *199 543 *196 *197 *85 *198 Parcel # 57-169 57-382 57-168 57-391 57-160 57-394 57-159 57-395 58-13 70-326 70-327 57-378 57-230 57-232 57-233 57-377 57-234 Street Address 151 East Main Street 156 East Main Street 157 East Main Street 160 East Main Street 165 East Main Street 166 East Main Street 167 East Main Street 178 East Main Street 202 East Main Street 2 Elm Place 7 Elm Place 3/5 Stevens Street 6 Stevens Street 10 Stevens Street 16 Stevens Street 17 Stevens Street 24 Stevens Street Charles Palmer Hse. Davis House Davis House c.i, Bliss House Davis House Historic Name Bowen House Davis House Date 1860's ca. 1850 ca. 1876 ca. 1840's ca. 1888 ca. 1850 ca.1876 ca. 1850 ca. 1890 ca. 1915 ca. 1860 ca. 1878 ca. 1890 ca. 1889 Style/type Italianate Greek Revival mansard cottage astylistic Queen Anne Greek Revival mansard cottage Greek Revival Queen Anne Bungalow Greek Revival Italianate Queen Anne Queen Anne Greek Revival Greek Revival Greek Revival

D.P. Walker House
Brigham duplex Brigham House

Thankful Stowe Hse. ca. 1852 John Chipman House ca. 1838 L.P. Whitney House ca. 1850

INVENTORY FORM CONTINUATION

SHEET

Community Marlborough

Property East Main Street Area

Massachusetts Historical Commission 80 Boylston Street Boston, Massachusetts 02116

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Property East Main Street Area Form Nos. 85, 195-201, 535-560

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Community Marlborough

Property East Main Street Area Form Nos.
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Community

Property Address

Marlborough East Main/MiddlesexSquare Area(s) J; K Form No(s). 85, 196-200, 202, 546, 556-560

National Register of Historic Places Criteria Statement Form
Check all that apply: [ ] Eligible only in a historic district [ ] Contributing to a potential historic district [x] Potential historic district Criteria: [x] A [] B [x] C [] A [] D [] B [] C [] D [] E [] F [] G _

[ J Individually eligible

Criteria Considerations:

Statement of Significance by __ A_._F_o_r_b_es The criteria that are checked in the above sections must be justified here.

A potential National Register District, meeting Criteria A and C of the National Register, exists in the vicinity of the old Middlesex Square, where several houses, from the high-style Greek Revival to the elaborate, well-preserved Queen Anne, reflect the affluence of the early shoe-manufacturers of the Middlesex Square (formerly "Chipman's Comer") neighborhood, and that of their relatives and descendants. Several recent restorations, notably of the C.L. Bliss property, where cigars were once made, and the little multi-color Queen Anne Brigham Cottage, combine with other houses which, though perhaps threatened by pending resale or recent neglect, still retain virtually all their characteristic features, to create one of the most intact nineteenth-century building clusters in Marlborough center. Suggested district boundaries, (which, regretfully, leave out the highly-altered anchor property of the 1878 Rice & Hutchins Middlesex Square shoe factory at 133 East Main) extend from 135 East Main east to 167 and around the comer of Walnut to the mansard cottage of Thomas Jackson at 7 Walnut, and north from the base of Stevens Street to the Whitney House at 24 Stevens.

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