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SAND87-2118.

UC-32
Unlimited Release
Printed October 1987

Ducted Propeller Design and Analysis

Robert J. Weir
Prepared by
Sandia National Laboratories
Albuquerque, New Mexico 8 7 185 and Livermore, California 94550
for the United States Department of Energy
under Contract DE-AC04-76DP00789

Abstract

-

The theory and implementation c) the design of a ”Jcted propeller blade are presented
and discussed. Straightener (anti-torque) vane design is also discussed. Comparisons are
made t o an existing propeller design and the results and performance of twc example
propeller blades are given. The inflow velocity at the propeller plane is givcm special
,
.

, :..
attention and two dimensionless parameters independent of RPM are discussed. UF*,
~ W D 111
off-design performance are also investigated.

SF29000(8-81I

Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States
Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation.
NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an
agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their
contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express
or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use wouid not infringe privately owned
rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or
service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not
necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring
by the United States Government, any agency thereof or any of their
contractors or subcontractors. The views and opinions expressed herein do
not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, any
agency thereof or any of their contractors or subcontractors.

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Contents
vii

Symbols

1 Introduction

1

2 Discussion

1

2.1

Inlet Velocity

........................

3

2.1.2

Propeller Induced Velocity

........................
Blade Design by Blade Element Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Swirl Velocity Induced by the Propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3

2.3

2

Duct Induced Velocity

2.2.2

Induced Velocity in Hover

............
Chord Distribution Determined by Thrust Distribution . . . . . . .

Determination of Forces on the Blade Elements

Flow Straightener Design by Element Torque Matching

...........

............................

2.3.1

No Swirl Condition

2.3.2

Vane Chord Distribution Determined by Equating Element Torques

2.3.3

Determination of the Forces on the Vane Elements

..........

3 Verification

4

Design Examples
4.1

4.2
4.3
4.4

....................................
KACA 4312 Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G6 610 Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Straightener Vanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...
111
Constraints

1

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2.1.1

2.1.3
2.2

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .2 5.3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Thrust Coefficient . Radial Advance Ratio .4 . . . . ... .5 Comparison to Experimental Results 5. . . . . .. ... . . . . .. ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . Experimental Setup 18 18 18 28 28 6 Conclusions 37 References 38 Appendices 39 A Ducted Propeller Design Code 40 B Sample Input 45 C Sample Output 40 iv - . . . . .. . Local Advance Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . .. . .. . . . . .. .

. . . . ... . Example 2 .... . . . . . . . Wooden Propeller j Distribution 1' Above Ground . . Propeller Blade Untwisted Planform 14 1 2 3 Propeller Blade Sectional Geometry . . .. . . . . ... ... 12 Straightener Vane Chord Distribution Comparison.. . . .. . Propeller Blade Untwisted Planform . .. . . . .. Ground Effect on j ' Distribution .. . 29 20 Composite Propeller j ' Distribution 1'' Above Ground 30 21 Wooden Propeller j'Distribution 6' Above Ground . .... ........ . .... ... .. Straightener Vane Chord Distribution Comparison. .. . . ... . .. . .. .... Composite Propeller j Distribution Comparison . Wooden Propeller j Distribution 6' Above Ground . Example 2 .List of Figures 4 . 5 Ducted Propeller Geometry 6 Thrust Distribution Comparison of Example Propellers 13 7 Example 1...... . .... Verification of Propeller Pitch Distribution .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .... ... . Straightener Vane Sectional Geometry .... ... . . .. . . 4 7 10 11 12 11 . No Twist ... . .. ..... .. . . ... . . . . . . . . .. ... . .. ... . .. .. . .. . .. . . .... ... . ... 31 22 . . Propeller Blade Twist Distribution ... ... .. .. . . ... . . . . .. .. . . .... . . . . .. .. . . Twisted 20 13 Composite Propeller j Distribution 6' Above Ground 22 14 Composite Propeller j Distribution 1" Above Ground 8 9 10 Example 1... ... .. . . 15 16 17 19- 18 . . ... . . . . . . Propeller Blade Twist Distribution .. ... . . . .. . . . .. ... .. Verification of Propeller Chord Distribution . . .... ... . ... .... .. . .. . ..... . . Wooden Propeller CT RPM and Ground Sensitivity . . . . . .. . . . . .. .... . .. .. . ... . . . . . .. . . . . 27 19 Composite Propeller j' Distribution 6' Above Ground . 15 16 17 23 24 25 Wooden Propeller j' Distribution 1'' Above Ground V 23 24 25 26 32 33 34 35 . .. . . . Ground Effect on j Distribution . ..... . ... Composite Propeller CT RPM and Ground Sensitivity ... ... . ... ... ..

26 Composite Propeller CT Comparison To Theory vi .. ... . 36 ....... ...

Symbols A area (unsubscripted refers to annular area swept out by the prw peller blades) A1 thrust distribution exponent B number of blades (unsubscripted refers to propeller) C nondimensional force coefficient= C chord D drag F force j local advance ratio= V j' radial advance ratio= K propeller induced velocity factor L lift P input power Q torque 9 dynamic pressure= i p V 2 (unsubscripted refers to freestream) R propeller tip radius & radial position along blade span S duct length to exit radius ratio z duct airfoil cross section camber ratio (maximum camber/chord) T thrust V air velocity W velocity difference between freestream and propeller jet velocities = v. z fraction of blade span= angle of attack (unsubscripted refers to a propeller section) vii . .v.

viii .B pitch angle setting (unsubscripted refers to the propeller) 6 duct induced velocity factor 8 angle from axial flow line to velocity vector behind the propeller P air density U ratio of clear duct area to propeller swept area=$ d angle from propeller plane t o resultant velocity vector into the propeller (I angle from straightener vane trailing edge camber line to axial flow line fl propeller angular velocity W jet swirl angular velocity subscripts 0 freest ream 4 jet A axial flow at the propeller plane D drag d duct induced (Cdrefers to sectional drag) H hub i propeller induced L lift 1 sectional lift P propeller R resultant vector T thrust (VTrefers t o propeller tip velocity) V straightener vane X force tangent t o the propeller plane of rotation Y force normal to the propeller plane of rotation .

commonly used in free propeller design.e.+6) (1) W 2VO 1 VO . 2. A V = Vob. through the propeller in forward motion. Crucial to the performance of a ducted propeller is the design of the propeller itself. Sheehy'. from McCormick*.1 Introduction The use of ducted propellers as the main propulsion units on aircraft has been investigated since the end of World War 11. and 2) negating tip effects if the gap between the inner wall and the propeller tip is very small (i. This small gap was assumed in the analysis. VA = VO + 5 + vO6 W T 9A CT = . Besides fluid losses. However. losses involving friction and boundary layer separation inside the duct often decrease the efficiency gain. a VTOL surveillance platform being developed for the United States Marine Corps. lightweight composite materials and integrating the duct into the structure.03 in. Because. the weight of the duct often negates any benefit it provides. and the thrust coefficient are. 2 Discussion - The effects of the duct on the propeller are two-fold: 1) inducing an increment of velocity.1 Inlet Velocity From momentum. 0. a ducted propeller is more efficient in hover than a free propeller. the thrust. it is desirable for Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL) applications. the thrust of a ducted propeller is the product of the mass flow rate. that half of the velocity change occurs upstream of the propeller and including the increment in velocity induced by the ducted propeller in forward motion.= 2 ( 1 + . but uses an approach t o the propeller-duct interaction proposed by T.). This problem can be partially alleviated by using strong. and its change in velocity. tiz. then the velocity through the propeller. A method of designing a ducted propeller blade was investigated and developed to maximize the thrusting efficiency for the Airborne Remotely Operated Device (AROD). Expressing the change in velocity as w and noting. W. This method is based on Blade Element Theory. theoretically.

For these values.where 6 is the factor to determine the duct induced velocity into the propeller in forward motion w = v4 . Sheehy gives a relation for the duct induced velocity which is the negative of equation (6). resulted in the propeller thrust coefficient. W. This.05 and 0. the difference in CT between the ducted propeller and the free propeller is Solving for w in equation (3) yields w = 2.033 4. 8 . the velocity induced by the duct in forward flight can be expressed as 1 6d=1-(%?)'( + 0.1) (5) Duct Induced Velocity Finding the increment of velocity induced by the duct in forward flight is accomplished by using the relation developed by Helmbold' a length to exit radius ratio. This would 2 .) p is the air density A is the annular area swept out by the propeller blades= A (R2.88s 1+0.R.089s + 2.431s 1+1.0 and a camber ratio. between 0. between 0.458 4.5 and 2.1 vi (4- . however.1.) R is the propeller radius RH is the hub radius V4 The thrust coefficient for a free propeller (no duct induced velocity) is So. being double the thrust coefficient of the propeller and the duct combined.1.893s S 2 ) '+ (6) where R.v. z (the ratio of the maximum difference between the duct mean camber line and the chord line to the duct chord length). The paper by T. is the duct exit radius. is the propeller j e t velocity (velocity in the jet far downstream of the propeller) Vi is the freestream velocity T is the total thrust g is the dynamic pressure = SpV.CTp.

there is another duct induced velocity due to the interaction of the duct and that source in forward motion. 6. Kucheman and Weber’ provide the following expression for the propeller induced velocity term.2 Propeller Induced Velocity Since there is an energy source in the duct.1.3 Induced Velocity in Hover In hover. then 3 . there is no Vo. va = vc and from the conservation of mass. and V&.1. so CT is based on V ’ instead of VO If the expansion is complete at the exit. which is the prediction of the momentum analysis done by Lazareff‘. 2. Vo6. 2. in forward flight is then the sum of Vo6. denoted by subscript e. The total duct induced velocity.imply that ducting the propeller is inherently detrimental. where the value of K depends on the geometry of the shroud and the position of the propeller in the duct. which contradicts past conclusions that ducting the propeller is beneficial. The conclusion is that Sheehy’s statement of Helmbold’s relation is in error and that equation (6) is correct. namely the propeller. The above modified expression resulted in the propeller providing about half of the total thrust.. if the duct weight can be held low.

air density. propeller size. This then becomes the value of the velocity VA through the propeller when in hover. the airfoil section at that station generates lift and drag according to its sectional properties. The air velocity is composed of the axial velocity VA.the rotational velocity nr. The final values of 6../ Figure 1: Propeller Blade Sectional Geometry where RH is the hub radius and u is the exit area to propeller area ratio. 2. At each station along the span of the propeller blade. and V.the air velocity .2 Blade Design by Blade Element Theory The analysis leading to the propeller design is based on blade element theory.'V and the blade pitch setting angle (see Figure 1). CT. 4 .. Thus'V in hover is dependent only on the desired hover thrust. or (3) through (9) if in hover. and half of the final swirl velocity iur (half is induced upstream of the propeller and half in the slip stream). are found by iterating on equations (1) through (7) if in axial flight. Cl and Ca. and the duct expansion.CT.

This velocity can be expressed.1 Swirl Velocity Induced by the Propeller The swirl velocity is induced by the rotating propeller blade dragging some of the air it passes through along with it. 2. a. and the relation for the factor e in Pope's equation. the lift to drag ratio should be maximized. the most efficient angle of attack of the section can be achieved by selecting the correct /3 for that section at its design operating condition.3 Chord Distribution Determined by Thrust Distribution The incremental thrust from each blade element is given by.sin 4) L 1 cos 4 (h) This indicates that. Since. /3.2. and the blade pitch angle.2.2. 4 can be determined trigonometrically (see Figure 1). 2. D ( Cx = Ci sin 4 + ( "L CY = ~1 cos 4 . 1 2 --or = P 2r stpV~ A where P is the power input into the air by the propeller= f2'pV~ is the thrust provided by the propeller r is the radial station from the hub center R is the propeller angular velocity Tp After i u r is determined.the local airfoil section should have during operation to maximize the propeller efficiency.2.. . E.2 Determination of Forces on the Blade Elements The vertical and horizontal force components on the blade element are. e = as. for high ratios of thrust to engine torque. 4. the sectional angle of attack is the difference between the air velocity angle. Maximizing then determines what angle of attack. from Figure 1. from Pope'.

If this thrust is different from the required thrust. The propeller design after each iteration is checked for the thrust produced over the blade. can be varied to yield the chord distribution necessary to produce a given thrust with maximum root chord restrictions. t o arrive at the total thrust. AI is multiplied by the ratio of the old thrust to the new thrust and that value is reiterated on until a value of AI is found which will accommodate both the total thrust and the ratio of the total thrust to that of the propeller. where B is the number of blades vz q R = i2P R 2=. 6 . This thrust is multiplied by the number of blades and the ratio of the total thrust coefficient to the propeller thrust coefficient.so that the local blade chord at radial station r is.3 Flow Straightener Design by Element Torque Matching Flow straightener vanes can be included in the analysis as well. The first is accomplished by choosing the vane airfoil cross section at each station to have a mean camber line at the trailing edge whose tangent is parallel to the axial flow line. The flow straightener vanes need accomplish two tasks: turn the flow after it leaves the propeller so that it leaves the duct flowing axially (i. then modified during iterative passes on the propeller chord distribution. taking out the swirl velocity) and counter the torque produced by the forces on the propeller in the plane of rotation.?1 R 2. where ZH is x at the hub and AI is first assumed. The thrust distribution over the blade. yet very flexible with a wide range of possible thrust distributions. The second is accomplished by equating the torque of each blade section on each blade to the torque generated by the straightener vane sections directly downstream of the blade sections. The present analysis uses a relation for the thrust distribution which is an exponential function of the blade radial station only. This relation was chosen because it is simple and easy to modify. (z). 2. e.

This is done by requiring that the mean camber line of the trailing edge of the vane be as nearly parallel to axial flow as is practical. + 0 (see Figure 2). 7 .3.3.2 Vane Chord Distribution Determined by Equating Element Torques The flow straightener vanes can be simultaneously designed to take out the torque on the vehicle produced by the propeller and the engine. 2. e. since thin airfoil theory states that the flow will follow the mean chamber line of the airfoil. the swirl velocity from the propeller must be negated. i. The incremental torque generated by each propeller blade element is."\ Edge Figure 2: Straightener Vane Sectional Geometry 2.1 No Swirl Condition To provide purely axial flow.

and duct conditions were taken. The NACA 1 6 5 1 2 has an L/Dof 67 at angles of attack of 4 O and 8". The propeller blade derived by the computer was then compared to the actual seven-foot diameter Convair propeller blade.Cxvq~ R2zdz Equating the two and noting that'V is the same for the propeller as it is for the vanes. for a vehicle designed by Convair'. It is stated that the blade angle of attack is far from stall to increase off-design performance.c. used a NACA 16-512 airfoil section at an L/D of 67. RPM. = B.3 D e t e r m i n a t i o n of the Forces on the Vane Elements . dQ. 3 Verification To verify this analysis. This is then iterated on until the total vertical force component on the duct-propeller combination balances the required thrust. yields. the propeller blade section. an element of the straightener vanes of the same width and at the same radial station must generate the same torque as that produced by the propeller blade element. The Convair propeller was %bladed. The vertical and horizontal force components on the straightener vanes are determined like those on the propeller and are. rotated at 1860 RPM to produce 2200 lbs of thrust. required thrust. but in the opposite direction. This should be taken into account by reducing the required duct-propeller thrust and recalculating the propeller required for such a reduced thrust. 8 . (cos e + -sin e) D V L V The vertical force component on the vanes then contributes to the thrust.To counter this torque. 2. and consumed 400 hp on a sea level standard day with no duct diffusion considered. The torque generated by a vane element (denoted by the subscript u) is.7.3. so the angle of attack of each blade element is fixed at 4" which has a C1 of 0. cXv = C.

Figures 3 and 4 show the comparison between the design of a propeller with a 7-foot
diameter by the present analysis and Convair's 7-foot diameter propeller. The agreement
is very good with the propeller chord distribution being, at most, 2% lower than Convair's
chord at any location. The propeller pitch distribution shows almost the same accuracy
with at most a 6% greater pitch angle than that used by Convair. The predicted power
consumption also compares well with 411 hp to Convair's 400 hp.

4
4.1

Design Examples
Constraints

The examples which follow were done in support of the AROD project for the Marines.
The duct geometry was for a propeller diameter of 2 ft, hub diameter of 8 in, an exit
radius of 1.14 f t reflecting a diffuser total angle of 1 4 O , and duct length to exit diameter
and camber ratios of 1.24 and 0.1, respectively, see Figure 5. This geometry resulted in an
exit to propeller plane area ratio of 1.34.
The propeller blades were restricted to 3 in number and had to produce a total duct-_
propeller thrust of 85 Ibs in hover at 7200 RPM in an air density of 0 . 0 0 1 9 2 9 . Two
blade sections were considered; the KACA 4312 and the G6 610 airfoils. The propeller
maximum root chord was limited by two constraints. The vertical distance between the
leading and trailing edges of the propeller at the root could not exceed 2 in. and the crosssectional area of the root section could not be less than the 0.6 in2 of fiber from the hub
attachment for the composite blade. Areas of 0.71 and 0.75 in2 for the NACA 4312 and
G6 610 , respectively, were used t o leave room for the resin matrix.

4.2

NACA 4312 Blade

Figure 6 shows the predicted thrust distributions over the propeller radius for the two
airfoil sections. The XACA 4312 airfoil is similar to the popular propeller airfoil, the Clark
Y. Though 3-dimensional data were available, none of the needed 2-dimensional data for
the Clark Y airfoil were found. The maximum L/D for this airfoil is 80 and occurs at an
angle of attack of 10' where the Cl is 0.8. To account for the losses at the tips and to be
conservative, the lift was reduced and the drag increased by 10% so that Ct = 0.72 and
L/D= 66.12. The resulting propeller, for a thrust of 85 Ibs, has a blade taper ratio (the
ratio of blade root chord to blade tip chord) of 2.61, a root blade pitch angle of 41.98',
and a tip blade pitch angle of 21.01". The torque necessary to rotate the propeller at 7200
R P M is 10.23 ft-lbs. This results in an engine power setting of 14.02 hp, resulting in a
propulsive efficiency (thrust power/torque power) of 92.4%. The design propeller geometry
is shown in Figure 7 and the pitch distribution is shown in Figure 8.
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Figure 3: Verification of Propeller Chord Distribution
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Figure 4: Verification of Propeller Pitch Distribution
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may be desirable because it is easier t o manufacture.1%. This airfoil section has a radius of curvature to chord ratio of 1. 14.78" at the root and 11. The vane chords were restricted to be less than 13 inches t o keep them completely in the duct. These constraints resulted in 5 straightener vane blades in the duct t o counter 12 . a blade pitch angle of 32.4248 at an angle of attack of 0.6".26 hp.52.3 G6 610 Blade The second airfoil section whose thrust distribution is shown in Figure 6 is a circular arc airfoil.81" at the tip. The power requirements for the same thrust are also slightly higher. This airfoil. the maximum L/D is 52.mean camber line chord Figure 5: Ducted Propeller Geometry 4. The propeller geometry is shown in Figure 9 and the pitch distribution is shown in Figure 10. The torque necessary to rotate the propeller at 7200 RPM is slightly higher. The resulting blade which provides 85 Ibs of thrust has a taper ratio of 1. 91. The vane pitch was restricted to 0" to embed structural members. has a value of 0. the G6 610. 4. This results in a slightly lower eficiency.40 ft-lbs. though it makes a larger and less efficient propeller. After losses are taken into account. 10.4 Straightener Vanes Both propellers use straightener vanes in the duct with NACA 0012 cross-sections and the vane pitch forced to 0".97.9 and the C.

. v) 3 k 0 cd I- m 1'0 P'O Figure 6: Thrust Distribution Comparison of Example Propellers 13 0'0 .0 0 6 0 ad 0 r.c.

Propeller Blade Untwisted Planform 14 .0 Figure 7: Example 1.

Propeller Blade Twist Distribution 15 0'02 t 0 .cp G .-r' -U 0 ad 6 c) 0 z 6 I 0 O'SP O'OP d O'OE 0'9E 0'92 Figure 8: Example 1.0 c\j F 0 t F 0 oj n .

Propeller Blade Untwisted Planform 16 .CD 0 cj 0 0 0 'P 0'2 0'0 0'2(*lJ!) V P W O J j Q6P3 Q P W Figure 9: Example 2.

0n Q 6 0 0 ad I I 1 0 1 r.Ti I 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I h- 0 0 c a. 0 5 0 I' I I I 6 I I A A 0 Lcj 0 d O'SE O'OE 0'92 0'02 0'91 Figure 10: Example 2. Propeller Blade Twist Distribution 17 0'01 .

It is a function of the radial 18 . 5. Both of these designs were investigated at three rotational speeds both with the landing ring (which is 16 in. The two propellers that were investigated during the experiment were a composite blade using the chord distribution specified in the above G6 610 airfoil section design and a wooden aircraft propeller cut to fit the duct. The local advance ratio is the ratio of the inlet velocity at the propeller plane to the tangential velocity due to the propeller rotation at any blade span location. Figure 12 shows the vane chord distribution if the NACA 0012 is held at an L/D of 100 at an angle of attack of loo. j.Letting the vane pitch angle vary. and between 7110 RPM and 7350 RPM for the composite propeller).1 Comparison to Experimental Results Experimental Setup To better understand the axial flow velocity at the propeller plane. The rake of probes behind the propeller was moved t o three locations for each of the conditions above. It is interesting that the vane chord distribution curves are almost exactly the same as the thrust distribution curves on the propellers. 5 5. The scope of the test included two propeller designs. Both of these propellers were run at the maximum rotational speed the engine could produce (between 7590 RPM and 7740 RPM for the wooden propeller. .the propeller torque. The wooden propeller was also run at 7000 RPM and 6250 RPM while the composite propeller was run at 6700 RPM and at 6OOO RPM. This was to provide off-design data and to determine what factors were RPM sensitive. but on a different scale.and the radial advance ratio. j = $. the local advance ratio. The vane chord distributions resulting from both propellers are shown in Figure 11. or changing the airfoil section has almost no effect on the resulting propeller. behind the duct exit) 6 ft above the ground and 1 in.2 Local Advance Ratio The resulting data revealed two parameters which were insensitive to rotational speed. 3. Ambient temperature and pressure readings were taken during the entire test so that air density values could be determined by the ideal gas equation. an experiment was performed using a rake of 9 static pressure probes interspaced with 4 total pressure probes mounted downstream of the propeller. above the ground. The velocities could then be determined through Bernoulli’s equation. only on the size and number of the straightener vanes since the vanes provide only a very small part of the thrust. the number of vanes is reduced to 4 and the similarity between the vane chord distribution and the blade thrust distribution breaks down. When the vane pitch is allowed to vary so as to maintain an L/D over the w e .

0 Figure 11: Straightener Vane Chord Distribution Comparison. No Twist 19 .

Twisted 20 . 0 d O'P Figure 12: Straightener Vane Chord Distribution Comparison.0 oj 0 ad 0 t.

though using circular arc airfoils. This could maintain approximately the same local advance ratio at any RPM. or at negative angle of attack. or the aerodynamic pitching moments of the blade sections. Why this is is unclear. though variations were held within 2%. and Min RPM refer to the three rotational speeds mentioned above. A severe loss in induced velocity is apparent near the tip of the blade. Med. The mechanism causing this untwisting could be centrifugal force. A more accurate. This is not done through calculating the flow resulting from the desired RPM and resulting thrust. If some sections are stalled.position only (see Figures 13-16). Figure 17 compares the experimental values of j distribution on the composite propeller t o that predicted by the design analysis for the G6 610 airfoil. as the RPM change further from the design value. or due t o interaction between the duct wall boundary layer and the blade tip. the local advance ratios w i 11 be increasingI y in accurate. Max. above the ground. at one RPM. This dependence on the RPM of the local advance ratio in the theoretical results suggests that the theory will not adequately predict off-design performance. so that the sectional angles of attack and their Cl’sincrease which induces more. . The wooden propeller’s length of transition from hub to blade is longer than that of the composite propeller. The comparison is quite good. axial flow. which changed the sectional characteristics from the design. The assumptions used in the off-design analysis are possibly not valid since the resulting thrusts and mass flow rates are matched to the desired RPM. especially considering that the thrust of the wooden and composite propellers either remains the same or decreases in the presence of the ground. but time consuming method would be t o determine the mass flow due to the RPM and then the thrust. apparently due to pressure leakage around the tip through the gap between the tip and the duct wall. but from the lift off of the propeller. The pitch distribution also differed from the design values. The lack of dependence on RPM of the experimental values of j could be due to the blade untwisting when the RPM increases. the characteristics of the propeller would alter for the other RPM. but are not at other RPM. Figure 18 compares the local advance ratios of both propellers at maximum rotational speed 6 ft above and 1 in. This figure indicates that there is very little ground effect on the composite propeller the ground effect is more pronounced on the wooden propeller. Another aspect shown in Figure 17 is that the local advance ratio should theoretically be a function of RPM. considering that the experimental propeller. The effect on the tip losses of the two blades when in the ground effect region are 21 . Tip effects are also alleviated on the composite propeller while they are enhanced on the wooden propeller in the presence of the ground. used a varying radius of curvature to chord ratio along the span. The fact that the analysis assumes a constant blade cross-sectional shape while the actual propeller cross-section changes along the span may also explain the independence of RPM. The most marked difference occurs near the hub of the wooden propeller so the ground effect may disturb the flow at the hub to blade transition more. Exact numbers are not quoted since constant speeds between runs couldn’t be maintained. That lift is then used t o determine the total thrust which determines the mass flow rate.

a : CD I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I % rn I I L c I L cg 0 I I I 1 u3 0 . I I I I I I zii z z n ii I 0 0 I I c\! 0 T 0 Figure 13: Composite Propeller j Distribution 6' Above Ground 22 0 0 .+ a- m- c I :a3 .

U .1 I I D a. f D - I I I 1 II 1 1 N m 0 0 I II W 0 v) 0 -? cr) 0 0 cv 0 i II n II / T 0 Figure 14: Composite Propeller j Distribution 1” Above Ground 23 0 0 .

: I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 L. I I I I 0 F I . I I I I .1 " " . I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I U I I 1 0 1- I I I I I I I 1 I I 3a 1 cc) a N m 0 m 0 @a -? 0 0 0 0 0 Figure 15: Wooden Propeller j Distribution 6' Above Ground 24 0 0 .

a- c/) c I I U I I I 0 m: I <a..- a 0 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I N II II II m o a I I 0 CQ v) 0 0 9 c*) 0 0 c\! 0 Figure 16: Wooden Propeller j Distribution 1" Above Ground 25 0 0 .. + a- V I 0 I -a I I I I I I I a.... o1 :D.. 5 a 0 a c a > I I I 3 I .--..i--"+ ..> + > + I I a- I I I a- - I ......'... I I I I I I I ' I I I I I I I I ...

/ 0 + O 0- I (13 U a a> 0 c 0 I 0 a 0 9 v) 0 0 m 0 c'! 0 Figure 17: Composite Propeller j Distribution Comparison 26 .

- 6 N Q X W 0 0 Figure 18: Ground Effect on i Distribution 27 .cv t 0 .+ (13 0 v U t 0 .

another nondimensional parameter is produced. but the ground effect seems to be beneficial to the composite blade while being detrimental to the wooden blade.3 Radial Advance Ratio If the local advance ratio is multiplied by the square of the fraction of the blade span 2 at each location.also unclear. how the theoretical analysis on the propeller becomes less and less accurate away from the design RPM of 7200. The losses of the composite blade are more pronounced than those of the wooden blade. Though a high degree of scatter is present. again. This is most likely due to the differences in blade section and twist from that of the proposed design and the possibility of blade untwisting under load. 5. that the ground proximity appears to lessen tip effects on the composite blade. This appears to be the ocly clear position that is derivable from the data though. An improvement in the analysis would be to include the blade material properties so that untwisting could be modeled. (i) . and the composite blade producing more thrust which increases the disk loading making it more susceptible to stall. The noteworthy aspect of this parameter is that it is linear with 3 radial location. j'= . a high tip chord to tip gap ratio would be desirable. making it more susceptible to stall than the wooden blade. This could be due t o a number of causes: the leading edge of the circular arc airfoil is much sharper.CT = tends to increase when the ground is near and decrease aP ~ T A slightly with RPM. while enhancing tip spillage with the wooden propeller. A. Since the ground effect inducement of greater tip losses on the wooden propeller still doesn't produce tip losses of the magnitude of the composite propeller tip losses in ground effect. which may be called the radial advance ratio since it is dependent on the fraction of the radius at which it is calculated. based on propeller tip speed (VT = RR). Like the local advance ratio. Figures 19-22 show an interesting correlation. the thrust coefficient. 28 .4 Thrust Coefficient Figures 24 and 25 directly show the effect of RPM and the ground proximity on thrust. Figure 26 shows. Figure 23 shows about the same sensitivity to ground proximity as the local advance ratio has. 5. but of radial location only. The sensitivity of this parameter to tip effects appears to be more dramatic than the sensitivity of the local advance ratio. the radial advance ratio is not a function of the RPM of the propeller. The thrust coefficient data associated with the composite propeller is more highly scattered than that associated with the wooden propeller. the method of measuring the thrust (reading an LED scale against a bright sky background). The major difference between the two propellers at the tip is that the chord of the wooden propeller is larger than that of the composite blade. up to the region where tip effects occur..

00 0 1 m m- v 0 a I a. 0 C co > 2 - cv m e (CJ a m 0 0 0 T: 0 T: \ L n 0 0 o!ieu ameAptj le!petj Figure 19: Composite Propeller j ’ Distribution 6’ Above Ground 29 0 0 .

a- > + cn aa- a. v) I m : x w LL - rw “u f fII n I I I I -----r------ n DO^ .D I I I 0 + (13 U a- I I I I I I I I a. 0 t I I I I I I I I I 1 1- 1 (CI > 3 J 1 U 0 cv 0 - - In 0 0 0 1 0 o!ieu a3ueApv p p e g Figure 20: Composite Propeller j’ Distribution 1” Above Ground 30 0 0 0 . E .

t c D3 I 0 : I I I I I N - m 0 T 0 0 0 m 0 0 o!ieu aweApv le!peu Figure 21: Wooden Propeller j' Distribution 6' Above Ground 31 0 0 .

IC) 0 0 IC) 0 0 0 0 T 0 0 o!getf cnueApV Ie!peH Figure 22: Wooden Propeller j 'Distribution 1" Above Ground 32 0 .-.

a o n c .I U 6 c 0 . le!peu Figure 23: Ground Effect on j’ Distribution 33 0 0 0 . I CI cc) @ V 0 I as U L a> 11 N X W 0 0 7 0 0 0 o!ieu aDueApti.

'1 I 1 I I I I U 0 I w e 9 0 .- I c i b I I I a I I I I I-- I I I I I I I U c I I 1 I I G .r ...I I I I 1 I I ..- Q) I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 I I I I I I 00 co 0 0 0 e 1 d d 0 0 Figure 24: Wooden Propeller CT RPM and Ground Sensitivity 34 0: -----...r-----..+------+-----........*----.. I <D I I I I I I I n Q 2 I I I I I I I --------r .r .... c D I I I I 0 : I I I I ----------.-J-----.0 u I - I I I I I 0 -----+------*-----I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 L I I & ------ c I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m 0 0 *ln mJ 0 0 0 m 0 I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 0 v) 9 0 I I * 0 I 1""" ' " 1 I I I I I I I -------------- I .

. a L .0 0 cy b 0 0 0 b 0 0 Q a0 cp . asniql Figure 25: Composite Propeller CT RPM and Ground Sensitivity 35 0 0 0 0 0 (D 2 a. + 0 0 a- v) 0 E0 c) I I I I I I I I Io Tt 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 (0 * m (D 0 cy I I 0 <D 0 I I I I I 0 0 0 0 Walaljpo3 . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OD 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I : 0 0 (0 I cp I 1 I I I I I I I I I a.

c 0 0 0 0 cn b 5 e- E" 0 0 43 0 0 0 0 <D 0 0 d <D 0 0 N <o 0 0 0 CD 8 0 <D 9 0 m d 0 0 0 0 CI) 0 0 8 0 Figure 26: Composite Propeller Cr Comparison To Theory 36 5 0 .

It is also probable that the differences in the tested blade geometry from that of the blade in the analysis could account for the differences in off-design performance. The reduction in complexity reduces the computation time by much more than the reduction in accuracy. it is not trustworthy for predicting off-design performance. However. while no potential equations need to be solved. Using this analysis to determine off-design performance is not as accurate.6 Conclusions The design of a propeller blade for a ducted propeller can be very complicated. while the analysis is fairly accurate in designing a propeller blade and set of straightener vanes to yield required performance at specific design conditions. however. Another possibility is inaccurateassumptions in the off-design RPM analysis. These drawbacks do not outweigh the speed and accuracy of the analysis at the design condition. though. So. a fairly accurate prediction of performance for a blade designed for operation under specific conditions can be made. reducing the RPM of the blade 600 RPM from the design speed results in a 40% error in the thrust coefficient. Flexing and twisting of the blade away from its original shape cause changes in the operating conditions not considered in the analysis. Or. The reason for the inaccuracies may lie mainly in structural considerations. A possible improvement would be the inclusion of the sectional pitching moment and blade material properties. it could be a result of a combination of the above. In fact. using several simplifying assumptions. 37 . N o more than 6% error is seen in the design comparable to the Convair propeller design.

E. Paper D. Jr. Inc. N. . . Technical Proposal". "Aerodynamics of Shrouded Propellers". E. D. Aerodynamics of V/STOL Flight . B. Wiley and Sons. 73-54. Wichita. E. 1953. "Computer 2. . 1948.Y . H. pp 8. R. N. pp 237-289. Alan. New York. K. Kucheman and Weber. . . 1967. Dover Publications. Engineering port No.3 and 0. and Von 38 - . . 1961.8". 11. 5. Helmbold. New . M. Jacobs. . McCormick. M. W. T. . Sheehy. 6. AIAA Paper No. . Aerodynamics of Propulsion h c . 10. N. Stevenson. .References 1. N. 1959. "The Characteristics of 78 Related Airfoils Sections From Tests in The Variable-Density Wind Tunnel". AGARDograph 126. Re- 4. . London. Nov. and Harper. 1973. Pope. Academic Press. 1955. . I. . Riegels. New York. Y. D. 3. NACA TR-460. Doenhoff. K. New 7. W. GDC PIN 66-947. Y. . F. McGraw Hill Book Company. I. H. Butterworths. 1966. Low Speed Wind Tunnel Testing York. Vol. "Proposal For AID. 189. Lazareff. B. T. and Pinkerton. . Lindsey. A. NACA TN-1546. W. "Range of Application of Shrouded Propellers". . N . . 4-8-4-46. and Daley. University of Wichita. .Theory of Wing Sections. . York. Y. Aerofoil Sections: Results From Wind-Tunnel Investigations T h e retical Foundations . 9. B. Ward. Aided Shrouded Propeller Design-. 1966. KS. . "Aerodynamic Characteristics of 24 NACA 16-Series Airfoil Sections at Mach Numbers Between 0. Abbott. .

Appendices A Ducted Propeller Design Code B Sample Input C Sample Output 39 .

~ .7 .~l.b6.1FLAC/9.342. 8 S ~ l ~ 6 0 ~ / d8t8 ~l~d/-l.cls(lZ) dimonsion c x (90). 4 2 5 .-.47~6~. .21.6.5 .7.00192. 8 .0.STA~S=’~W’) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C DPEN(lJNIT=3.88.2 .687.044.0.1/ d8t8 m l p h / .4.l0. RH=RHI/lZ.. ~ .1/ DATA C L ..f f .62..72S. 2 .5.824/ d8t8 ri~h/-6.CMAX1/3. G A U U ~ ~ A L F .8.1~Q.-2. ~ 1 ~ 9 . .BV. 3 .. AND SECTION DATA.8 . 3 . S .7.90. MAXIMIZE THE GAMMAS.l6.0. .STATlJS=’tEW~) INPUT DATA BLOCK TREQ DESIGN THRUST (LBS) ve DESIGN FORWARD VELOCITY (FT/S) RHO DESIGN AIR DENSITY (SLUCS/FTB) RPI RADIUS OF THE PROPELLER (IN) z CAMBER RATIO CL PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONAL LIFT COEFFICIENT GAMMA PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONAL LIFT/DRAG ALF PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONAL ANGLE OF ATTACK OMECl PROPELLER DESIGN ROTATIONAL SPEED (RPY) PI INITIAL GUESS AT REQUIRED POWER PROPELLER HUB RADUIS (IN) RHI B NUMBER OF PROPELLER BLADES BV NUUBER OF STRAIGHTENER VANES PROPELLER POSITION FACTOR Kl CLV STRAIGHTENER VANE SECTIONAL LIFT COEFFICIENT GAMMAV STRAIGHTENER VANE SECTIONAL LIFT/DRAG ALFV STRAIGHTENER VANE SECTIONAL ANGLE OF ATTACK MAXIMUM PROPELLER ROOT CHORD LENGTH CMAXI RADIUS OF THE EXIT HUB (IN) RHEI DTOR CONVERSION FACYOR FOR-DECREES TO RADIANS EXHANG EXIT ANGLE OF THE DIFFUSER SCORDI DUCT CHORD LENGTH OF ORIGINAL VEHICLE fIN> RADLI DUCT EXIT RADIUS OF ORIGINAL VEHICLE (IN)‘ CVMAXI MAXIMUM STRAIGHTENER VANE CHORD LENGTH NUMBER OF ANGLES OF ATTACK IN LIFT VS ANGLE NZ OF ATTACK MATRIX FOR PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONS MATRIX OF ANGLES Of ATTACK FOR THE PROPELLER ALF (NZ) BLADE SECTIONS MATRIX OF LIFT COEFFICIENTS FOR THE PROPELLER CLS (NZ) BLADE SECTIONS XLOD(N2) = MATRIX OF LIFT TO DRAG RATIOS FOR THE PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONS NSECT = NUMBER OF BLADE SECTIONS I FLAG-TO CALCULATE-OFF-PERFORMANCE -IFLAC .n~. RWE=RHEI/l2.9. 8 . 6 . . ~ .BETA1 (90). 1 .12.1 .191.R~0.K1.Z/8S. RADL=RADLI/lP.878. .6~6l.C(90) . FOR HIGHEST EFFICIENCY. L 6 6 .6. . SI (RP/1.LETE (180) DIMENSION PHIM(S0) .14.el/ d8t8 ~l0d/-3.0174633.976. ~ 0 .Ducted Propeller Design Code A C C C C C C PROGRAM PROPS THIS PROGRAM DESIGNS PROPELLER BLADE CHORD AND PITCH DISTRIBUTION BASED ON DUCTED FAN GEOMETRY.GAM~V.43.BETA(90) .0. . 2 .3.0.283.~8~6~ -861.3.0.~~~~3~9~~~ 1 23.21.0.8lph(l2) .6. CVMAX=CVYAXI/12.CV(W) DIMENSION c y ( 9 0 ) .41.4.FX(90) ..2.789.-1. CMAX=CYAXI/lP. PERFORMANCE REQS.0. CALCULATE EXIT RADIUS. 1 ~ 8 ~ 7 2 ~ 0 ~ 2 6 ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ / DATA B.S. . 8 S 4 l .RP1./ DATA CVMAX1. x lod (12) OPEN(UNIT=2.14. .6. 7 8 9 . SCORD=SCORDI/12.60. ~ .DATA TRE~.0.EXHANG. 1 .3.6. O M E C l ~ P I . 4 .6/ DATA RHE1. IT ALSO DESIGNS THE FLOW STRAIGHTENER VANES TO MATCH PROP TORQUE.~(SCORD-RADL)rTAN(EXHANG*DTOR) RH=RP/3.24.V0.5.CLV.RADL1/4..DT0R.~. ETC. &CORD) /RE 40 .l9. S .3 .BETAV(W) . REAL K1 .-3.l67l~2S4l.SC0RD1. 9 / 1 C C c C C d8t8 C~S/-. OFF-DESIGN PERFORMANCE IS ALSO PREDICTED FOR RPM DIFFERENT FROM THE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AFTER THE PROPELLER BLADE IS DESIGNED.~.12.6.6. ~ 7 S .277.FILE=’prop.42~l.FILE=’DESIG. R H I / 0 ~ 4 Z S l S 2 ~ 0 .~/ d8t8 ~ ~ ~ / .6.TORQI(W) .1~.~. .~8~l.DAT’. .681. ~ S .DAT’.12.2.24ll2~O2~~~49~~~l~/ COVERT FROM INCHES TO FEET RP=RPI/l2.FY(QB) .NSECT.ALFV.287. IF PROPORTIONAL TO ORIGINAL AROD RE~RP+RP/l.

033*4.76*C (I *12.O. 0.RHO~VRSQR)/X**Al 2 0 C (I)=DTPDX*X**Al/(B*RP*CY (1)*0.) PIN=10.001) GOTO 10 CALCULATE VELOCITY THROUGH PROP AND PROP THRUST.-SQRT(RE/RP) ( (.431*S)/(1+1. ) D C d (I /RP ) =B*C ) (I *C ) X ( I ) .6.~X~OMEG~RHO~VA~~.+DEL*VB I F (V0. 41 .cy (1) THRUST=THRUST+B*C(I)*CY(I)*.RPoDELXoc 11). . ) VA=W TP=QBA*CTP DELX=l. LETE (I)=0.14169286*RP**2 CT=T/Q0A TL=CT*Q0A CTPNr CT DETERMINE PROP AND SHROUD THRUST COEFFICIENTS WITH HELMBOLD'S C FUNCTIONS.CONVERT PROP SECTION AOA AND VANE SECTION AOA TO RADIANS ALFrALFoDTOR ALFV=ALFV*DTOR CONVERT RPM TO RADISEC C C OMEC=OMEGl*2*3./(2.88 1 O S ) / (1+0. CT .X-VTAN) ) PHIM (I =PHI ) CY ( I ) = C L * (COS (PHI) -SIN (PHI) /GAMMA) C X ( I ) r C L * (SIN(PH1) +COS (PHI)/CAYMA) BETA1 (I)=(PHI+ALF) / d t o r VRSQR=VAO*~+(RP. EFFICIENCY. 8 THETAM=3.893*S) *S*2**2) DELI=0. AND RESET NEW CT I F ( V 0 .6+RHO*W*~2*3. CALCULATE EXPANSION RATIO AM) THE PRODUCT OF THE FREE S T R W DYNAMIC PRESSURE AND THE DISK AREA SIC=(RE**2-RHE**2) / (RP**2-RH**2) q0A=0.l416~266~(RP~~~-RH~~2~RP)) PHIrATAN (VA/ (0MEC.14169266/60.NE.14169286*(RP**2-RH*@2))) Q0A=0. CT=T/Q0A TL~TOQ~JA CTPN=CT CALCULATE ABOVE BASED ON VELOCITY THROUGH THE PROP INSTEAD OF V0 IF I N HOVER IF<V0rNE.s.RnO.14169266*RP~*2 T=TREQ CALCULATE TOTAL THRUST COEFFICIENT. AND MAX STRAIGHTENER VANE PITCH Al=l ETA=0.6*RHO*VRSQR=RP*DELX*C I) *CX (I) FY (I)= .41* (SQRT(l+CTP)-l) DEL=DELO+DELI CTPN=CT-P*DEL* (SQRT ( 1 4 T P ) -1) TEST=ABS (CTPN-CTP) /CTP I F (TEST.6*RHO*VRSQR*RP*RP+X*DELX TORQI (I TORQ=TORQ+TORQI(I) F X (I =) .6*RHO*VRSqR) 0) 12.089*S)*2+(2. SET PROP S f R I P C WIDTH AND 1ST PROP STRIP NUMBER AFTER HUB C VA=VB+W/P.XOOMEG-~AN)O*~ I F (I NE. 600. CHECK FOR RUN-AWAY POWER VALUES C I F (PIN.458+4.NSECT X=I*l.) DELO-1 .NE. ALSO CALCULATE SHROUD INDUCED VELOCITY THROUGH PROP C I F NOT I N HOVER C 10 CTPICTPN W=V0* (SqRT(l+CTP)-1) iF(V0.0.0 16 THRUST=0. IXS) GOTO 20 DTPDXrCMAX~(B~RP~CY(I). GT.0:) COT0 10 ./NSECT VTAN~PIs6S0. C C C C C 6 SET I N I T I A L VALUES OF THRUST EXPONENT./NSECT XH=RH/RP IXS=XH*NSECT+B.S INTEGRATE THRUST AND TORQUE OVER BLADE C TORQr0. TOTAL THRUST.O.8.VRSQR. EQ.RP.- I C C W=SQRT(TREQ*SIC/(RH0*3.6*RHO*VRSQR*RP*OELX 60 CONTINUE C CALCULATE E X I T VELOCITY AND POWER AT PROPELLER PLANE VEsVA/S I C PIN=THRUST*VA/660.26*C (I LETE(NSECT+l-IXS+1)=-0.14169266/2.6 DO 60 I=IXS.6*RHQ*V0**2~3.

eel) GOT0 16 S I Z E STRAIGHTENER VANES BY VANE STRIP TORQUE CANCELLING PROP STRIP TORQUE AT SAME RADIAL STATION./NSECT VTAN=P106SB.I.+SQRT(l . CE ALFV) GOTO 86 THETAM=THETAM/DTOR PRINT .RHOOVAOS.IXSV (I) SPTORQ=SPTORQ+TORQI CONTINUE EN0 I F DO 7 I I=IXSV. I F THE CENTERBODY RADIUS IS LARGER THAN THE PROP HUB.6.O sPToRq=e. (ALFV.R H ~ ~ ~ ) / T ) ~ S ~ I .6 SPILLS1 / (NSECT-IXSV) fF(IXS. oX*OMEG.OR.e . ~ * ( ..6 T O R q V d . CTPOCT=CTPN/CT lTOT=QBAeCT OUTPUT DATA BLOCK CR = PROPELLER ROOT CHORD (IN) CT P PROPELLER T I P CHDRD (IN) BETAR PROPELLERROOT-PITCH -ANGLE (DEW BETAT = PROPELLER T I P PITCH ANGLE (DEG) . LT THETAM) THETAYtTHETA THEN I F (ALFV EQ. . 66 - .) ETAt2. TAKE THE PROP SECTIONAL TORQUES WITHIN THE CENTERBODY RADIUS AND DISTRIBUTE THEM EVENLY OVER THE STRAIGHTENER VANES nw.NE. BETAV (11 =e. ~ E T A CTrCTPN+2*DEL* (SQRT (l+CTPN) -1) . IXSV) BETAVR=BETAV (IXSV) I F (I CV(1) =B*C (I)oCX (I 0) (COS (THETA)) oo2/ (BVoCXVo (SIN(PHIM(1))) 0. .’THETA < ALFV. CONVERGED 86 T r T + N TEST3rABS (TREq-T) /T I F (V0. / (1. EQ.) . C C C C C C C C C 42 . 141692660 ( R P o o ~ .R H ~ o ~ o R P ) ) THETArATAN (VTAN/VA) IF (THETA. .GT. e .~ORHO~VAOVA/((COS(THETA))~O~)ORPORPOX 1 oDELX 70 CONTINUE CHECK FOR VANE EFFICIENCY GOTO 86 I F ( (1V.)) PRINT 6 6 FORMAT(lX.14169266ofHETAo0. C .CE. CLV=203. ETA=PIN/PM E T A L ~ ~ ~ S ~ R T ( S I C ~ R W O ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ( R P O ~ ~ .foRHOoVAoVAo 1 XeRPoRPoDELX) I F (I EQ.2) CV(I)=CV(I)+SPTORqoSPILLo (COS(THETA))oo2/(BVoCXVo . RERUN AT CLV AND QAWFOR MFbTHETAU’ 1 THETAM STOP ITERATE M I L ADD VANE THRUST AND COMPARE TO REQUIRED TOTAL THRUST.C C C C C C C 6s RESET POWER. IXSV) CVR=CV (IXSV) F I (CV (I) LT. THRUST EXPONENf.IXSV) THEN DO 66 I = I X S . CVMAX) GOTO ee BV=BV+l COT0 66 60 lV=TV+BVoCV (I e.9 C A M M V ~ C L V / ( ~ . I ~ ~ ~ ~ C L V O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O C L V ~ I ~ ~ ) ) USE BETAV (I)= (THETA-ALFV) / dt or END I F C Y V d L V e (SIN (THETA -COS (THETA) /CAMMV) cxv=cLv.O .I ). (cos (THETA] + S I N (THETA) /cmuv) EQ .NSECT X=Iol.e XHV=RHE/RP IXSVxXHVoNSECT4. / (2. ) 6rRHOe (VA/COS (THETA) ) ooPoCYV*RPeDELX TORQV=TORQV+BV~CV(I)~CXVO. LE . AND CHECK FOR CONVERGENCE ON PROPELLER THRUST PIrPIN Al=TP/THRUSToAl TEST2rABS (TP-THRUST) /TP I F (TEST2 .’VANE GAMMA INSUFFICIENT PICK ANOTHER’) COT0 OB 80 I F (THETAM.b .EQ. .+CTPN)) F I (TESTS.sei) COTO w T~TREQ/To(1-N) GOT0 6 CALCULATE FINAL PERFORUANCE PARAMETERS W PYxOUEC*TORQ/660.

CTPOCT.2~.VA. c l m .Al.)’ 1 ’TE 1 0 4 FORMAT(lX.’ .PIN.TPS‘. o ) ’dons~ity=’.e) STOP OPEN(UNIT=l. ( jj ) = b o t a l ( jj ) + d o I p t o Id = t TORQr0.EQ.TORQV 108 f o r m o t ( ’ rpm d01t.nz.BETAVR. S r h o 2 = r h o o (14-i i i)/le.’ mlugs/cubic f o o t ’ w r it o ( l .gonnu) CY (~)=CLO(COS(PHI)-SIN(PHI)/GAMMA) CX(j)=CLo(sIN(PHI)+CoS(PHI)/CAMMA) VRSQR=VAOO~+(RPOXOOMEG-VTAN)OO~ TORQI ( j ) -8.2~)) 100 CONTINUE WRITE 2.CVRol2.o)’VA.lORq.0 THRUSTr0.NSECT X = j e l .) BETAV (I) 1 0 6 FORMAT(lX.BETA1 (NSECT) .o) ’ Go 610 A i r f o i l Bled.T.o)’T. ’ (IN) (IN) (IN) ’ 1 ’[IN) t IN) (DEG) ’1 DO 110‘I=IXS.6(f8.6oRH02oVRSQR*RPoRPoXoDELX TORQ=TORQ+TORQI(j) 43 ’. . .p h i m ( j ) I f d o o If / d t o r call l i n t o r p ( 8 l p h .rho2. 1 BETAV (NSECT) WRITE(3.FILE=’por m. .7(F8.1416Q266/6~.o)’CR.NSECT bot.104) Go 610 C I R C ARC AIRFOIL V = 0 KTS 7200 RPY’) 102 FORMAT(lSX.0 DO 260 j=IXS.ETAL’.. r r i t o ( 1 .b o t m ( j )o d t o r . * 1 cv (I)012. o~~=onwg2*203. +XOOMECORHO~OVA*~. PHIzATAN (VA/ (OMEGORPOX-VTAN)) PHIM (j ) =PHI I f . ’ X PROP CHORD LE VANE CHORD PROP PITCH VANE PITCH. o l f d .CMAX+lP.o)’CVR.BOT ‘C C C C -- C C C C C C C C C C C C C m(ITE(3.103) WRITE(2.STATUS=’NEW’) writo(1. BETAl (I .BETAT..DAT’.6..xIod.102) WRITE 12.CVT. d o 200 i i = l .PTHRST.ETA.3.NSEiT ‘ X=Iol.o) ’TORQV’ .BETAR.CT.9 ) 0180./NSECT WRITE (2.C (j ) oCX ( j) . 103 FORMAT(lX. c l ) c a l l Iintorp(aIph.f8. C (1)012.BV.p t h r u m t p r o p t o r q u o vono t o r q u o 1 ’powor off # / h p ( i d o o l ) ’) 1 0 9 forrnat(lx. l 0 8 ) d o 200 i=1.CV(NSECT)ol2.2x. Dmmignod o t 7280 r p m ’ do 200 i i i r 1 ..mIfd.ETAL WRITE(3. n r .116) XoRP.12.f8.6.Al.LETE(NSECT+l-IXS+I).3X)) 110 CONTINUE I F (IFLAC.17 orm~2=0nWg1+(i.PTORq‘.ETA.LETE(I) .BETAVR. do 300 j j = ixs. / ( 2 . l l ~ 300 120 dolprii-6.CTP/CT.ETA = EFFICIENCY (THRUST POWER/TORQUE POWER) ETAL t THRUST EFFICIENCY (THRUST/POWER LBS/HP) T = TOTAL THRUST (LBS) PTHRST = THRUST POWER (HP) BV = NUMBER OF STRAIGHTENER VANES TORQ = TORQUE PRODUCED BY PROPELLER (FT-LBS) TPS = THRUST PRODUCED BY PROP AND SHROUO = VANE ROOT CHORD (IN) CVR = VANE T I P CHORD (IN) CVT BETAVR = VANE ROOT PITCH ANGLE (DEC) BETAVT = VANE T I P PITCH ANGLE (DEG) VA t AXIAL A I R VELOCITY (FT/S) = THRUST EXPONENT A1 CTP = PROPELLER THRUST COEFFICIENT = TOTAL THRUST COEFFICIENT CT PTORQ = TORQUE POWER (HP) TORQV = VANE TORQUE (FT-LBS) WRITE(3. 1 BETA1 ( T X S ) .BETAVTD.PM WRITE(3.C(NSECf)~12. /NSECT 141692660 (RP*o~-RH+o~oRP)) VT&N=PI*S60.3.

rnk. +DEL*V0 I F (V0.NE.141692660RPbo2 CT=T/Q6A TL= C 1 Q 0 A CTPNtCT C DETERMINE PROP AND SHROUD THRUST COEFFICIENTS WITH HELMBOLD’S C FUNCTIONS.) W=V0* (SQRT(l+CTP) -1) DELO=l .l41692SS*(RP~~~-RH~~2~~)) THETA=ATAN(VTAN/VA) IF(THETA.0.8 XHV=RHE/RP IXSV=XHV*NSECT+0.6*RHO2*VRSQRoRPoDW( 260 c o n t i n u o PIN=THRUSTeVA/668. 0. I t .RHO2*VA*~. 4 .~.6*RH02* (VA/COS (THETA)) *.*X*OUEC.t.14169266* ( R P o o ~ .14169266*THETA*0.Z.~orqv.S.6*RHOS*VA*VA/ ( (COS (THETA) ) e.41* (SQRT(l+ClP)-l) DEL=DELO+DELI CTPN=CT-~ODEL*(SQRT(l+CTP)-1) TEST=ABS(CTPN-CTP /CTP I F (TEST./(NSECT-IXSV) I F (IXS .8.468+4. ALSO CALCULATE SHROUD INDUCED VELOCITY THROUCH PROP C I F NOT I N HOVER 220 CTP-CTPN I F ( V 0 .0.Ot8~ 288 c o n t i n u o STOP END 44 .) COT0 220 W S Q R T (TREQ*SIC/ (RHO2*3.2) i f ( c t p .8~ 1 .-SQRT(RE/RP)*(( . IXSV) THEN DO 266 k=IXS. ota=pin/pm lf(t.8 266 TORQVt0.R H * * ~ ) ) ) Q8A=8. t=thrust*ct/ctp lvr0. It.8~9*S)~Z+(2.S)/(1*0. ~ ~ ~ ~ * C L V * O ~ . O .doIp.IXSV SPTORQ=SPlORQ+TORQI(k) CONTINUE END I F DO 2 7 0 j=IXSV.torq.b. EQ.893.43l*S)/(l+l.oETA rrito(l.S).) o t o 268 ETALPPOSQRT(~IC.00011 GOT0 2 2 0 C CALCULATE VELOCITY THROUGH PROP AM) PROP THRUST VA=V0+W/2./NSECT VTAN~PI*660.881) goto 280 IF(VB..6 SPILL=l. ~ * ( ./(2.2) *RPoRP*X 1 oDELX 278 continuo T-T+N I pitpin t f ((.lt.(t-told)/told).l09) onrg2.6*RH02mWbo2b3.NSECf X = j 01.0.NE . 9 9 ) goto 206 DEL110.9 C A M M V ~ C L V / ( ~ .RH02~3.LT.8 SPTORQ=8. ~ ~ O C L V + ~ .~ .14169266* (RPor2-RHoe2) /T) 0668. CT.2rCWoRP*DELX TORQV=TORQVdV*CV (j) r C X V * .833+4.NE.THRUSTtTHRUST+BeC(j)*CY(j)*. ) VA=W t o Id = t g o t 0 120 2 3 0 pm=onrgotorq/660. ~ ) ) C Y V d L V * (SIN (THETA) -COS (THETA /CAUMV) cxv=cLv* (cos (THETA) + S I N (THETA{ /cAuWv) TV=TV+BV*CV ( * ) .THETAM) THETAMtTHEtA CLV=2*3.

O/ B.3./ CVMAXI.~..~66..RHI/0.l4.8...0l~.S.41.789.8..W4 .8.-3.CMAXI/3.2.21.8.283 3 .l4.~. RADLI CVMAXI = MAXIMUM STRAIGHTENER VANE CHORD LENGTH t NUMBER OF ANGLES OF ATTACK I N L I F T VS ANGLE NZ OF ATTACK M A T R I X FOR PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONS = M A T R I X OF ANGLES OF ATTACK FOR T H E PROPELLER A L F (NZ) BLADE SECTIONS = M A T R I X OF L I F T C O E F F I C I E N T S FOR THE PROPELLER CLS (NZ) BLADE SECTIONS XLOD(N2) x M A T R I X OF L I F T TO DRAG R A T I O S FOR THE PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONS = NUMBER OF B L A D E SECTIONS NSECT IFLAG t F L A G TO CALCULATE OFF-PERFORMANCE TREQ DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA TREQ.12.9IO.~.~42a.6.044.6~.0. 1 23.~.287.GAMMA.084. 587.-2.~.62.-2.?.1/ CL.l~.~a~.62.426I.nz.726..B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Sample Input I N P U T DATA BLOCK = D E S I G N THRUST (LBS) ve = D E S I G N FORWARD V E L O C I T Y (FT/S) RHO = D E S I G N A I R D E N S I T Y (SLUCS/FT3) RPI = R A D I U S OF T H E PROPELLER (IN) t CAMBER R A T I O Z CL = PROPELLER B L A D E SECTIONAL LIFT C O E F F I C I E N T GAMMA = PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONAL L I F T / D R A G t PROPELLER BLADE SECTIONAL ANGLE OF ATTACK ALF OMECl P PROPELLER D E S I G N ROTATIONAL SPEED (RPM) t I N I T I A L GUESS A T REQUIRED POWER P I = PROPELLER HUB RADUXS (IN) RHI x NUMBER OF PROPELLER BLADES B = NUMBER OF STRAIGHTENER VANES BV Kl x PROPELLER P O S I T I O N FACTOR STRAIGHTENER VANE SECTIONAL LIFT C O E F F I C I E N T CLV x STRAIGHTENER VANE S E C T I O N A L L I F T / D R A G GAMMAV x STRAIGHTENER VANE SECTIONAL ANGLE OF ATTACK ALFV = MAXIMUM PROPELLER ROOT CHORD LENGTH CMAXI x R A D I U S OF THE E X X T HUB fIN1 RHEI DTOR = CONVERSION FACTOR FOR DEGREES TO RADIANS EXHANG = E X I T ANGLE OF THE D I F F U S E R = DUCT CHORD LENGTH OF O R I G I N A L V E H I C L E (IN) SCORDI x DUCT E X I T R A D I U S OF O R I G I N A L V E H I C L E (IN).-S.624/ 45 .4.43.~.PI.ALFV.6/ RHEI.~.EXHANG.CLV.8a?2~.a3.918.IFLAG/9.277.NSECT.~.-. 8 7 8 .90.S.l67a.0l74~33.?.El/ d 8 t 8 x 10d/-3.V0. 1 .3.191.4.lI0.976.2S4.6.-0.681.7.OMEGl..-1.RPI.4.2.6L1192.Kl.12..DTOR.9/ d 8 t 8 cla/-.GAMMV.109.RHO.26.12.~846~~~6l.RADLI/4. l b .Z/85.BV.SCORDI.426.ALF.8.~.6.1/ d8t8 ~lph/-7.

63162 2.17888 -2.93944 -2 .13333 4.a9829 7.aiess 8.69094 2.08647 1.69301 -2.20086 ii a3333 11. 87193 16.8iasi 9.66261 2.13836 a.00000 9. GO 610 R CC I PROP CHORD (IN) -a.62aa9 a.02112 -1.69774 0.63ei3 9.69420 0.79690 2.13333 8.63441 0 .49468 2. 86434 0.79286 9.29328 18.- 6 6.a7866 -2.80070 9.80000 10.46486 2.12440 6.a3333 7.00000 0. 77791 9.00000 6.00000 9.OS279 0.77680 2.60090 7 .07101 -1.89674 27.90616 2 .08667 7.6a608 0.33333 9.92676 -1 .77966 16.67247 e.46049 ne.62394 2.63333 8.72941 1.e6369 -2.69481 2.92861 2.19433 29.93333 7.42816 2.67211 4.60OW 9.66769 2.98312 3 .62367 9.20279 a.86086 -1 86661 -1. a2196 2.68301 2.a9097 2. amas za.49716 2.69896 2.64164 16. e m 2 2.98624 -1.eeeee 9.09228 -1 .86667 8 .66647 2. oast4 -1.68660 1 .e9794 12.e2861 a. 68460 9.61696 2.17141 a.64841 7.66241 -2.16817 -1.74429 e.86667 6. 87912 ia .20000 9.C Sample Output Propeller Design Geometry X 4.83868 2.OB164 -1.96644 7.20000 6.60000 8.82833 VANE ?ITCH (DW 9.78626 9.80000 4 -93333 6 .be000 9. 00800 9.e8934 26. 26885 a.2atae 13 .ra418 a. 66144 29.00900 9.71926 2.76716 9.84436 9.88222 1.raaos 8.- 9.40000 4.13744 2.41664 2.a4422 1.41661 16.11312 -2.27146 -2.11163 a. 1419s a.33333 6.66644 8. 81721 9.17269 26. 00008 e .eoaw 18. ea023 4. a3984 a.00000 .93737 -1.26667 4.67616 0.40316 2 . W 7 9 0.98260 -2. 72089 d.78424 -1 .87600 9.76717 2. 607a4 19.143413 28.20000 7.67483 in.e2671 -2.60079 9.ewe0 .26814 19.e4837 14.76672 -1.69180 0.e9832 6.4aaea 6.69923 0.02600 14 .?a332 -1.67860 16.19638 -2. 86000 e.e3076 9.00860 @.19193 4.69684 18.14616 -2.69476 9.63764 2.98000 8.16641 6 .60000 11.80000 6.47619 14.46667 11.72630 -1 .79966 9.- 9.SO838 6. 04668 a.67981 9 .86021 2.96973 2. 99000 0.96667 6.00000 6.31667 2.Ob236 -1 -79323 -1.w000 9.60389 9. a8347 6.60000 9.49219 -2.27949 LE ARC AR IFOLI (IN) 9.43937 8.00900 9.16179 -2.48088 2.23268 -2.68326 0.ee~i9 a .46800 8.16213 84.47777 -2.08814 14. a0369 a .64998 4.49684 22.eww e.60000 a .e7638 4.e9768 -2.24931 7.78869 2.960W 6.7a213 0.68686 9.97164 -1 .62609 -2.73333 9.wew e. 613es 21 .eoew 0.ee186 12.16142 a3 .00000 .mise -1 -94921 -1.66667 4.70962 v = e KTS 7 2 w MY VANE CHORD PROP-PITCH i . be0M 8.16218 8 .64679 9.73800 2.13333 6* 26667 6.66298 9.63306 -2. 62663 la.19172 7.00000 9.26667 10.88060 0.a9804 14.66788 9.98929 18.91226 -1 .60873 2.66667 6.84962 29.06664 17.46667 6.73333 11.60000 7.90323 -1.96666 2.86868 6.96788 -2 .22676 2. 00009 6.e7623 9.42924 4.97717 2.191ea 16.67777 8.e4974 0. 76863 0.a3300 2.a1234 -2.e9911 -1.61926 9.80000 8.93aa3 9.63333 10.a1862 ai .86667 19.73333 6.63333 6.79437 e.68891 9.e6667 11.ewm 2a .6 .00000 6. 00000 0.47683 0. 29929 22.00000 0.42644 -2. US64 -1. bee00 0.16426 17 le967 le.86000 9.ewe0 6.21492 a2 .43669 24.82766 la.68021 2.46164 -2. 24a77 6 .6637’1 8.77641 -1.39040 2.62718 9.67076 9.wew 6.01166 -1 .33372 -2.48000 6.29169 -2.44999 2. 66987 rr (IN) -2.eee00 10.68316 2.We00 6. ia.46667 9.00800 9.18382 11.86414 e.weme 9.46667 7.37742 a.60000 6.26667 8.21438 -2.e6646 a .71746 -1.66639 6 .98879 a.94673 6 .68488 -2.mea 9.46891 27. 23626 8.98842 (DEG) 36.83496 9.64208 1.96261 2.00060 0.a9989 4.60704 9.46880 16.00080 9. ioiao 16.68049 0.90098 9.82692 9.28987 2.64831 2.86868 9. tab13 e.79862 46 21.73333 7.66682 6A1847 6. i74a4 6.31110 2.41802 18.00Oea 9. 90000 9.19419 22.61684 e.eeme 0. 90008 9.86667 12.36721 2.81749 2.41664 a .83268 6.66667 8.80881 9.66637 0.88270 16.90612 16 .60639 17.seeee 9.. 60000 8.98 686 24.00000 9. 77078 0 * 76386 9.46734 2.WMe 1.70093 2.26189 -2.E8239 2.93213 i 9 .72629 e .89339 6.93333 11 .66667 18.00000 e.00000 e.e1439 -1.71606 9.wm .00000 e.79661 4.4s7a6 3.13333 10.61696 28.63333 4.00000 6.92649 6.66782 26 .wew 0.08667 9.a6678 -2.88776 2.62022 e.976 19 28.16662 2.12894 -2.64192 e.14481 .98000 @.37899 2.68929 9.74976 -1 -74147 -1 .

Propeller Design and Performance Summary C C C C C C C C C C C C C c C C OUTPUT DATA BLOCK CR I PROPELLER ROOT CHORD (IN) CT .BETAR. w e e e e B E + o e 0.666682 8.608888 11.BETAVR.TPS 84.8888888E40 VA.ETAL 3.6824098 15.CT.PTORQ 169.fORQ.33178 84.BETAVT 1.688888 2.3606 1.BETAT.9166644 T. 12390 12.279492 36.63447 TORQV 11.c PROPELLER T I P CHORD (IN) BETAR = PROPELLER ROOT PITCH ANGLE (DEG) BETAT .PTHRST.CTP/CT.82833 8.33177 47 .796618 8.CVT.687638 8.16213 18.ETA.Al.BV.43411 CVR.99263 14.22281 8.I PROPELLER T I P PITCH ANGLE (DEC) I EFFICIENCY (THRUST POWER/TORQUE POWER) ETA €TAL I THRUST EFFICSENCY (THRUST/POWER L@S/HP) T = TOTAL THRUST L0S) PTHRST I THRUST POWER IHP) 0v L NUMBER OF STAIXCHTMER VANES TORe I TORQUE PRODUCED 8Y PROPELLER (FT-LbS) t THRUST PRODUCED 0 Y PROP AH) SHROW TPS = VANE ROOT CHORD IN) CVR CVT I VANE T I P CHORD ( N) BETAVR = VANE ROOT PITCH ANGLE @EO) BETAVT L VANE T I P PITCH ANGLE (DEC) VA = A X I A L A I R VELOCITY (FT/S) A1 o THRUST EXPONENT = PROPELLER THRUST C O E F F I C I W CTP CT I TOTAL THRUST COEFFICIENT PTORQ = TORQUE POWER (HP) TORQV 2 VANE TORQUE-(FT-LBS) -- 4 CR.

981 2.188 -23.aii 18.188 0.e88 -2 .481 9 A32 9.461 8.08808 6788.e88 -a.a48 14.698 7000.498 14.912 11 .me 1 . ia3 6. am6 a. 642 16 .198 11 .012 10. 247 12.744 16.88888 6088*em -2.693 66.682 -2.246 9.a82 a.219 18.88080 6688.673 9.869 11 . 08888 6888.am 18.663 16.696 it.088 -1.e00 6408 .99880 -4.e88 -3.88008 6000 .211 16. 880 12.88880 e7m. bee80 6808.e08 -3.9BBBB 1 .am a . 80608 1 .920 8.266 9.321 10.68888 6888.166 3.988 19.998 -4 * 69888 6980.764 6.e49 9.80888 6680 .794 21.492 2.a18 11.662 198. 6988. 117 -6.466 1 .011 6.842 i4.663 6.282 38.228 16.see88 2.88808 r Pm 6408.746 0.218 14 .886 9.we 3.e66 14.874 0.a48 29 .633 0.68888 6980.886 la.918 11 .800 1 88080 6688* 088 9.e02 11 .872 9.080 -8 .267 8.486 19.674 12.680 16 .00008 6608.698 -2.096 7. 869 8.4i6 i .eia 9.490 1 4 1 7 .876 7.e80 2.773 9.869 7 .812 14.a27 11.462 16.899 9.932 12.88080 6808 . 800 1.631 -2.466 26 . 1 ~ ~ 9.791 4.W8 14.e44 13.698 6900. 00088 6780.E89 4.296 61.986 d/hp (idmo I) 21 .a88 9.e14 i6.97a 0.980 4 .268 a.017 11.968 la.e40 9.486 17.a m 14 .021 -6. eeeee 4 .e82 12.921 -0.996 12.190 9.000 6680 .868 8.479 16.e8880 6588. 889 9.726 1a.897 12 . bee00 7888.311 18. ieeee 6688.a79 24.939 17.a77 -2.747 4 .08808 6.e96 9.e08 -1 .4~ 14.88008 4.682 16.796 9.271 6.212 19.880 6480.916 12.117 9.669 -ai .88880 6080.e00 -2.149 6.677 0.979 8.976 18.4119 0.137 12.667 14.761 2.m t.908 7880.466 29.2a9 12.492 29.008 -2. 667 13.4a9 14.226 29. 214 6.834 la.090 6.92a 9.e88 6.666 a.688 14.900 9.326 6 .88888 6788.eaa 0.626 14. a32 9. 916 18.723 17 .163 -4.E14 18 .880 -.849 la.116 76. 896 9.068 11 .m a 73.979 42. 822 11 .880 a .690 -3.677 2.483 86.648 6.e83 7.948 9.ais 16.088 -1.779 0.636 2.064 a.e77 it.000 -2.289 6.819 ia.00000 6400 .am -a.E84 4.see 4.94a 2.808 -6.E27 8.e0008 7088. 899 191 .see 1.217 0.000 2.272 9.746 2.00888 6780 .473 96.468 a. a21 9.a36 -1.446 91.80808 6600.268 18.369 67.7a8 67. 241 96.626 14.68888 6788.a28 @.812 9.926 i6. 98888 -4.009 6.680 9. 762 12.688 107. 98888 7080.80088 6680.280 4 .e49 13.672 17.8ll12.446 11 .089 9.988 3.898 91 .919 19.622 11 .861 11 .762 23.oeeeo 6788 .679 9.698 -1 .786 9.888 43.i7a 11.244 la .109 17.aaa a4.168 1 .4)~ 19.868 8.663 1.a66 187.161 28.e0800 6.972 14.729 6.662 la.90880 6908.438 16.644 16.ea2 0.880 6488 .888 6688.278 9.811 11.e8888 2 * 00000 a .941 -2.616 17.884 9.88000 3.998 6.939 16.768 -6.983 9 .683 8.629 6.126 7.866 6.166 9.114 6.866 8.08800 6400.969 ia .e08 6908. e99 la.062 7.69888 7988.662 19.988 1 88880 2.90808 a.e37 14.bee88 6600 .477 16.219 71.891 0.900 69BB.e38 4.791 6 .98008 6688.e88 -4.e99 114.263 91 .726 11.941 18.891 9.476 66.e91 19.636 12.966 19 .021 9.906 7.769 6.90880 7088.723 7.OB4 9.687 6.491 9.949 4.463 2.796 0.626 14.111 6.864 8.w e 0 0 6788.087 9.El8 8.913 16.6aa 0. ai8 8 .126 86. w l 90 .794 81 .749 21.e80 -1.768 8.e0088 6680.e08 8.942 67 . 90008 1 . 196 6.242 aa .911 9. in8 0.68880 6688.674 0 .603 19.e64 86.770 la.863 126.880 8.189 1 .68888 a.786 66.e61 9.900 4.986 16 .a66 81.e80 6688.98808 6800 .978 29.E84 1.062 9.882 6.pa7 48 mf f 8.279 77 .869 7.916 6.884 13.448 18. i6a 1a.4s 128.668 aO.4a4 12.962 8.274 a.193 -1.296 16.232 81 .994 19. 988 9.724 96.941 23.714 14-64a 1a .W9 11.982 6.emee 6680.963 9.886 9.819 12.436 a .698 6680 .224 9.e37 11.673 9.844 17. 69088 6688. 876 0.e8808 6000 .863 7.478 16.Propeller Off-Design Performance do I t 8 p -3. .800 6688.086 -9.949 16.766 4.499 8 .08808 6788.186 8 .912 7 .881 0.777 47.274 48.e49 42. 849 9.289 9.729 16.4aa 14.164 17.88008 6080 .146 22 .90088 6988. 919 9.ai6 13. 862 8.727 6.238 18.228 7.88880 6988.8B0 6988 * we 6908.e08 6408 .497 0 .W1 19.611 19.874 16.e8888 2.217 6.141 i8.962 7.00080 7080.249 7.291 ia.913 9.698 12 .268 182.448 9.623 9.e88 -4.888 2.917 6.817 4.798 8.w 12.88800 6780.846 86.771 1. 199 6.792 191.238 9.684 6 .888 4.196 62.80880 3.872 76.P91 69.908 .417 8.688 e.006 12.291 113.126 i9.980 8.000 8.688 8.we88 7888.686 16.267 6.627 6.e67 8 .680 -3.181 9. 661 12.877 6.980 1. a98 19.80080 6400 .888 8 .664 9. ai8 18.666 119.bee -2.m 0.e78 8.92) 8.98000 6888.u7 4 .894 0.868 6.BB@ -4.163 62.e00 -1.e79 17 .686 29.676 96.473 11 .491 4.la16 12.867 72.e00 6400 -900 4.166 9. 686 18.4a3 6.

a20 66.e37 99.000 3.164 11.000 -3.294 16.a11 aO.218 12 .762 17.607 11 .000 7100.912 6.e10 16.1J1 9.973 8.894 0.766 3.00000 6.426 67.we00 0.00000 7600. -6.000 1 .717 13.4a6 8.000 7300.189 16.696 1 .766 13.483 12.663 162.418 27.843 6.a02 17.740 16.a63 9.000 7700.726 7.m 7.836 6.966 2.247 16.176 13.00000 3.000 6. a29 78.606 67.234 7.000 -6.00000 7400 .000 7 7 0 0 .000 2.720 20.917 26.836 104.612 2.231 22.831 6.884 6 .000 -1 .817 6.00000 7600.978 21.864 12.009 119. tat 4.662 11.401 6. 432 20.622 41. 662’ 1 49 ett 6.171 6.169 17.00000 7400.616 12.000 7300.486 12.00000 -6.a63 DrOD ie.00000 a.376 1.261 toraua van.me 16.am 8.986 40.000 6.978 16.600 7600.686 7. 844 8.614 4.911 13 .00000 -2.600 7200.843 6.764 16.966 7.671 6.666 2 .366 17 .669 17.E62 0.e78 11. 867 e .776 14.649 4 .000 7300.630 8 .000 7700.867 22.79s 11 .869 in .618 8.00000 3.360 6.444 8.00000 1.000 7100.00000 -1.6Zl 7 .000 7700.263 169.00000 7400.000 7100.223 168.000 2.000 -6.161 28.00000 7600.00000 7600. 839 8.486 6.276 6.616 107.832 6.767 62.916 6 .943 46.468 14 .891 4.843 6.639 26.00000 7408.000 -6.000 4.697 116.768 122.00000 7400 .363 176.621 8 .774 14.00000 -4.900 144.468 11.822 9.966 19. 7000.460 9. be000 -2.626 111.00000 .68800 6.00000 7400 .674 12.918 4.263 8.798 13.000 7200.488 16.627 28.469 6.669 0.000 26.E33 -6.00000 7600.000 7200.00000 4.087 6 .638 14.m9 6.492 6.737 8 .169 11 .489 146.133 7.000 7600.689 11.338 136 .363 79. 6ae 10 .163 19.S12 6.989 6. 00000 4.00000 7600.00000 2.000 7100.992 9.00000 - -.000 7100.a49 6.072 112.712 18.964 9.464 21.639 8.e63 as.166 23.916 6.874 6.--.W9 e.000 7300.e62 11.414 18.408 9.766 8 . 876 6.689 12. 00000 7700.904 8.984 6.407 19.637 6.00000 7400.417 6.000 6 .882 84.4a4 12.818 6.846 11.000 -3.248 12.000 7200.183 24.a87 10.000 1 .608 6.000 7200.730 47.937 12.986 8 .784 +/hp (1 der 1) 7.341 21 .692 7.889 6 .812 2.000 3 e0000 7600 000 -2.496 169.498 8 7 .793 16.00000 -2.634 6.784 113.647 26.469 2.00000 -0.164 ii .106 8.689 6.00000 2.478 a3.000 7300.862 ai .000 7600.000 7600. 697 6.430 86 .941 91 .607 18.179 14.838 8.314 31.a74 7. 00000 7700.987 6.898 162.492 124.286 9.101 166 . 916 6.00000 3.862 6.00000 1 .878 0.893 6 .400 16.211 146.000 4.00000 1.747 11 .e76 19.772 20.e88 26.308 14.739 8.a96 16.366 18.713 14.688 7700.000 7100.718 18.00000 -6.770 78.486 33.126 19.387 10.000 -4.974 la.184 94.944 17.712 14.794 16.867 3.000 7700.00000 -4.263 6.497 6 .662 132.00000 7400 .989 14.181 4 .00000 1 .000 7300.000 -4.00000 7600.864 6.381 6.663 8.a14 10. 848 6.600 7700 .e71 9.e34 7.682 9.144 21.677 126.866 6.000 7300.400 6.460 6.966 166.431 160.000 7200.a36 16.689 12 .ne8 16.677 io.874 ai.000 -6.974 17.868 0.343 72.832 13.000 7100.712 11.879 6.447 9.368 20.264 16.686 20.781 6.748 28 -893 22 .80000 -6.00000 -1 .898 6 * 878 8.086 8.818 6.000 -2.446 24.867 8.192 0.00000 3.744 13.692 16.633 23.607 6.669 16.a86 19.841 7.000 3.687 8.216 26.168 62.see 6 .228 13.219 11.e37 .199 23.106 7.00000 7400.677 12..464 6.871 22.I33 12.773 20.00000 4.666 68.777 10.793 6.683 4.672 8.877 7.000 7700.620 1.619 18.000 7100.146 19.711 8.232 118.792 9.786 11.e17 6.00000 -3.726 0.889 96.000 1 .103 12 .837 6 .000 7200.622 12.983 26.878 7.466 18.a33 10.00000 7400.00000 4 .7a9 7.626 1. 812 6.970 24.e33 17.266 16.00000 -2.000 7100.000 7200 .00000 2.000 do I t 8 p 6.802 0.168 7.803 7.961 8.00000 -3. 816 6.e0000 7600.630 0.00000 7600.697 36.129 132.732 16.248 9.848 8 .499 18.648 8.304 11.421 61 .107 ia .49a 9.136 21 .482 138 .179 2.062 11.000 1 .863 8.342 11.664 98.296 21 .641 8. 884 0.337 126.837 22.741 29.00000 7600.000 0.192 9.000 7200.e39 161.902 6.e0000 7600.000 -2.e00 2.910 16.636 7.ea6 9.386 26.673 30.000 7600.646 21.986 16.166 17.167 4.00000 4. a m ii.663 6 .000 -4.00000 - 6 .898 8.e00 7700.918 6.a40 11.621 6.224 12.669 8.060 1.80000 -1 .662 106.982 6 .826 8.sea 12. o w 0 0 6 .a76 14 .861 6.a76 101.00080 7600.326 14 -697 21.000 7200. a82 6. 166 6.216 14 .00000 -3.649 96.667 9.668 16.784 16.790 9.413 89 .00000 1.982 10.898 6.669 24.669 i6.949 18.W4 16.896 16.662 6.262 3.607 6.00000 7600.788 13.196 7.000 7300. 138 12.00000 7300.000 7300.621 13.681 18.968 16.000 7100.163 9.ow 8.687 7 .a06 26 .00000 7400.634 6.827 67.883 26.448 7 .627 4.671 23.618 3.869 6.634 12.000 7100. torauo nowor 17.rpr.00000 thrurt 132.668 12.863 130.686 e.247 138 .419 6.000 7200.831 9 .06000 -4 * 68000 -a. B26 6.613 3.E62 8.637 12.694 12.761 4.966 6.786 12.681 16.663 a6 .000 6. 910 8.760 6 0 .e61 101.947 26.e41 19.000 7300.744 8 . ~ i e 24.4e4 12. 898 6.722 6.202 a . 7600.630 12.00000 6.633 0.796 8.434 73.269 18.00000 -4.00000 7600.663 7.00000 6.684 62.361 33.687 22 .736 11 .363 6.662 8.849 17.00000 2.638 27..773 7 . 889 6.604 8.00000 7600.a89 19.063 29.869 139.

ne7 83.810 e.000 7800 .844 9.788 18.a46 a2.829 6.e00 7800.e0000 6.873 12.086 9.e38 27.774 8.048 9.8W 9.137 82.800 7000.466 21 .e00 7800 .272 a6.683 84.260 9.764 9.e00 7800 .00000 -1 .867 11.671 181 .438 16 .ee0 7900.826 is.661 16.633 17.00000 -2.879 7.887 140. 078 22. a22 12.77a 2~.886 8. a71 21. 573 10.e12 50 7.674 21.00000 7 0 ~ .872 188.80000 -4.e0000 -2.aee0. e0000 1. 134 14.7248 96.e0000 7900.880 e000.483 12.689 11 189 18 616 9 748 8 ma 8 279 7 66 1 7 181 6.897 24.401 18.00000 -6.e10 6.se4 * .786 8 .118 11.000 4 .000 do I t a p -6.e0000 4 .176 8.648 9.287 12. mff (1. 173 18 a 4 1 19. 613 11.I10 2 3 .464 134 .a67 27.e46 in.00000 -4 .698 161.687 6. a23 61.aa7 9 .?E8 8.463 0. .636 .797 e.987 88.803 171.461 24 .6n8 26.7(19 11.800 8000.711 a i .916 18.a14 8.00000 7900 . b0B 8000 .083 14.682 18.147 6 .wa 9.e0008 r9m .666 8.768 21.a72 3 4 .927 166.. 107.832 8 . 804 8.000 -6.6ie 184. 0 7 6 143.e51 149. e0000 -1 .e42 4.867 @.689 7. 00000 4.666 20.e00 7800. a m 18.491 48.e08 7800 . 1) 11.e0000 0 .00000 1908. m e 26.a61 17. me -1 .268 26. a .981 21.680 11 . 689 6 .696 26. aee 8.000 8000. 802 e.479 19.614 89.766 23 . 826 0. 866 9.984 17 .271 126.894 16.774 6 .714 16.868 9.a91 a.642 0.762 177.322 168.80000 .272 11.662 i72.e00 7000.463 6 .228 194 .e0000 7900. m 6.a17 20.00000 7908.e26 19.961 8.876 9. a96 66.697 a8 iae 42.766 22.000 6.496 6.876 6.691 11 .664 26 .e m 8000. eee 29.e0000 e. ~ 9 38 .136 6 .866 8.766 8.842 6 .677 8 .00000 2.6e2 28.668 18.666 17 .00800 a .680 8 .e10 i a .rpr. 00000 7900.BBBBB -3 . 937 a6 .983 .894 9.00000 thru8t prop t o r q u e ran.00000 n .628 4.925 torque power a.684 8 .e0000 7900. e00 ~ 0 0 0e00 .961 0.WQ (1.611 8.e08 0 8000.114 128.866 8.e00 2.423 18.269 166.117 11 .876 112.964 66.224 70.166 7.121 20.711 7. n a #/hP (id.e00 1.444 16.462 ie.800 s m 0 .846 22 .000 7800 .967 10.038 116.mi 0.e00 0 8000. 7800. be000 -4 80000 -8.00000 6. 7800 .e60 7.000 -3 .927 8.839 14.412 6.631 14.800 7 e ~e00 ~ .126 23. 329 22.621 14.666 18 A33 16. 00000 1 e0000 2. D6B 6.6ai 46.837 128 . 879 6.3(16 9.984 8.181 16 .626 ie.sm 6.e00 ~ 0 0 .800 -2. toe i e .822 76.in9 11.

D. Newsom 9130 R. 3141 S. Weir (10) 1552 D. D. 1554 D.L. C. Andreas 9132 A. L. W. Peterson 1530 L. C. McBride 1553 S. 1510 J. J . Barton 1556 W. Jacobs 5261 C. F. Kunziato 1520 C. Boultinghouse 5261 H. Greenholt 5261 K . D. Davison 1550 R. W . A . J. Watts 9132 J .Distribution . Cole 1551 R. McAlees. Aeschliman 1554 J . Maydew 1551 J . W. Henfling 1555 W. K . R. Hartwigsen (4) 5261 C. E. Oberkampf 5260 J. P. Ladenberger (5) 3151 W . White 9132 J. D. Jr. Phelan 51 . Arlowe (5) 9120 M. Garner (3) R. C. M.

H. H. D. Ohio 43220 Dr. J. Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center Carderock Laboratory Bethesda. Lee The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 2300 West Case Rd. B. Washington. W. Missouri 65401-0249 Prof. D. Columbus. G. R. Young Department of the Navy Naval Ocean Systems Center Code 5302 P. Eversman The University of Missouri-Rolla Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Rolla. 20008 Dr.Boehler Aerophysics Company 3500 Connecticut Ave N. Maryland 20084-5000 M. Bowles. C. E. Oetting The University of Missouri-Rolla Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Rolla. USMC Marine Corps Development and Education Command Quantico. W. Dean COL R.Box 997 Kailue. W.3154-1 C. Chaplin Department of the Navy David W. Missouri 65401-0249 52 . Hawaii 96734-0997 Prof. Dalin (28) for DOE/OSTI 8024 P.O. VA Prof.