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Transportation engineering lecture notes: Modes of transportation: - Human being has always remained surrounded by the

three basic mediums known as land, water and air. Thus the modes of
transportation are also connected with these three mediums. Land has given
scope for the development of road and rail transport while water and air have
developed waterways and airways respectively. Thus there are four different
modes of transportation as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.

Road ways / highway
Railways
Airways
Waterways/ sea ways
Roadways/ highways: It is the basic mode of transportation and the only
mode which give door to door service to people and goods. It plays a very
important role in the development of economy of the country. Basic need
of roads arose thousands years back when only earthen roads were used
for transportation only. They only increase time of the journey but also
affects the comfort of the passengers and also their safety, beside the life
of earthen roads was never consistent because of these problems, the
concept of firm roads were develop which later on took the shape of
bitumen or concrete road. Roadways do not only increase the modern
highway system but also the city streets, feeder road and village roads.

Every highway can be a road but every road can’t be highway.
2. Railways: - After highway it is the second most common mode of
transportation and it is considered to be cheapest mode among all the
movement of equal and good load is possible because of railways. It is very
useful when you are travelling long distances within a country or from one
country to another country. Another important advantage of railway is that
if the system is manage properly there is no disturbance in the movement
of train which save a lot of time and other resources, also because of
railway lines are fixed the chances of accidents are minimum because the
trains have only to move on the railway line.

3. Airways: - In old times when air ways were not yet develop; the time of
travelling was normally very high especially when you move from one
country to another country because of the lesser speed of vehicles and
several obstructions like seas and oceans from a mountain, from protocol
of different countries etc. Therefore with the development of aero plane,
the distances were reduced to a great extent because of the higher speed
of aero plane and also because it could by pass any type of obstruction.
Besides saving time, it has got relative amount of safety due to the
fixed routes, heights and timings of the aero plane but whenever the accidents
occurs the chances of survival are minimum. Its major drawback is that it can only
be used by elide class of the people.
4. Seaways: - Seaways are broadly classified into two types as:
(a) Inland waterways
(b) Docks, harbours and ports
(a) Inland waterways: - Inland waterways were mainly used in accidents times
for the movement of people when other modes of transportation were not
yet developed. They were used whenever seas, rivers or any other form of
water channel was available. Nowadays it is rarely used because of the long
time it takes in order to reach from one place to another. Mostly people
use it for recreation purpose.
(b) Docks, harbours and ports: - On the other hand docks, harbours and ports
are extensively used for the transportation of heavy machinery and huge
quantity of goods and cargo from one country to another having
developed. Ports and harbours can not only fulfils their requirements but
also can earn huge amount revenue by transportation the goods of other
neighboring land locked countries. The biggest advantage of docks and
harbours is that the material at a cheaper cost besides taking proper
measures the safety of this mode can be ensured.
Minor modes of transportation: - Apart from these four systems of
transportation some other minor modes used are
(a) Pipeline

(b) Cables, ropes and elevators
(a) Pipeline: - Pipelines are used for the transportation of liquids and gases
from the source of generation to the houses and other commercial places.
(b) Cables, ropes and elevators: - This mode of transportation is used for
mainly for small groups or parts of buildings just like in a mountainous
region when you have to reach from one place to another and no road is
available. Cables are used to carry people while in multipurpose buildings
elevators are used in order to carry people from one story to another story
of the building.
Need and scope of comprehensive plan: - Following points should be kept in
mind in order to prepare a comprehensive plan for the transportation plan:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.

Straight route
Early grades and curves
Availability of land
Availability of material
Geometric design
Straight route: - The road, highway and railway should be aligning as
straight as possible because the construction cost is greatly decreased if the
road is constructed as straight as possible. Straight route also makes the
journey of the passengers easy and comfortable which is one of the major
prerequisite of any transportation system. Also from safety point of view
straight route is considered to be the best as chances of accidents are
minimum if you follow the rules of traffic. Another important aspect of the
keeping the route straight is to ensure less wear and tear on vehicles,
hence increasing the life of the vehicles.
2. Easy grades and curves: - Another important point of planning of transport
system is provision of easy gradients and proper curves by providing them
comfort and safety of the journey and also the vehicle life can be
maximized just like it is essential to avoid curves as much as possible and it
becomes absolutely necessary then transition curves should be provided
because the change in duration is gradual in it. In the same way proper
filling and cutting is done in order to have easy gradients along the routes

super elevations etc. Availability of material: . railways etc involve a lot of money therefore this factor is also consider very important.Another important point to prepare a comprehensive plan is to make sure that adequate land is available for the construction of our proposed transportation system. It also indicates that enough space is also spread for the future development. Geometric design: . thickness of road and all its layers. the proposed alignment should be free from any type of dispute. drainage consideration.The cost of project greatly depends on the easy and cheap access to the materials therefore in the planning stage it is kept in mind the near by resources of material and the proposed alignment can be changed in order to have an easy access towards material as the construction of any transportation system highways. Availability of land: . All these factors are important too much to be properly design in order to have a safe movement of vehicles and also for the durability of the road. design of bridges.In the planning phase it is also very important to have proper design of the road so the life of road could be maximized certain features which come under design are various site distances. flyovers under passes. 3. camber. . design of embankments. 5. 4. Similarly care should be taken in order to finalize the site for bridge so that access to materials and machinery is safe and easy. Availability of land mainly indicates that after acquiring the land.besides blasting is also done in mountainous region to prepare proper gradients.In the construction of tunnels and bridges it is always kept in mind that the access to the machinery and material is easy and safe and it is also kept in mind such a site should be selected where cost is minimum for this purpose the whole region along the proposed route is surveyed and determine that which particular route has minimum distances for the construction of tunnels and bridges it would greatly affect the cost of bridges and tunnels. This rarely is one important aspect of planning because the needs in the future will surely increase and the transportation system will ultimately fail if the adequate land is not acquired. Sites for bridges and tunnels: .

speedy movement of people and goods. Principles of planning: . A transportation system should be planned in such a way that it contributes the development of the area. Available resources should be utilized up to a maximum benefit so as to save the economy of the project. therefore adequate amount of length should be reserved and continuous monitoring should be done so that any illegal settlement and encroachment take place. Future expansion should be kept in mind while planning a new transportation system. . Although principle of planning is to ensure the safety of passengers and vehicles for that purpose detail traffic study should be carried out and the network should be designed properly. There should be adequate amount of funds available for construction of the transportation system because if the funds are not available then not only the quantity of work compromised but also huge financial losses will be suffered. therefore while finalizing the alignment such areas should by pass and the route finalized should be made free from frost and rain. efficient. comfortable.It is important to select or finalize the route according to various weather conditions like as much as possible areas of resistant.Free from frost and rain: .Following points should be kept in mind while planning a new transportation system: A transportation system should provide a safe. Foe that purpose trained people or population growth and increased in the movement of vehicles moving per year should be determined. Therefore availability of funds and labors should be kept in mind for the maintenance purpose. snowfall and rain fall should be avoided in order to increase the road life as well as safety of the journey. A basic principle of planning a new transportation system is to give maximum utility to the people. Maintenance is also an important factor because transportation system gets deteriorated if proper maintenance is not done with passage of time.

Finance: . . villages and localities and cities are along the purposed alignment beside that past train of bucklation growth are studied and future trains are estimated. The funds could be in the shape of funds generated by NGO or by international NGO donor agency.The first phase of planning is the economy of project and when we talk about the economy the first thing that comes in mind is how much the purposed transportation system will benefit the people of that area. construction along the highway etc are also estimated in the finance phase another important thing is the allocation of funds for the maintenance purpose. Existing facilities are studied to see whether it is important to enhance them or kept them at their level. There are very stages of surveying starting with map study. affezibiliy report is prepared beside that after the completion of the project how much revenue could be generated from vehicle registration. According to that transportation system is planned. different types of taxes. Another important thing in the economy is the development of industrial and agricultural sectors of the area because with the construction of a new road. which actually indicates how much funds are available for the construction of the transportation system. 2. For this purpose a detail survey is carried out to see how many towns. 3. Estimating all those funds and rough cost of project. Survey: . funds donated by wealthy people with and outside the country.Phases of planning: 1. railway. port or harbour will definitely facilitate the development of the area and the country. which could easily be carried out in the office and root could be purposed after which reconnaissance is done and thing which are not mentioned in the map are noted and slight adjacements could be made in the purposed root after wards preliminary survey is carried out with the help of minor instruments it gives you some more detail of the area after detail survey is done in order to fix the alignment of the road. Economy: .Once a purposed project is considered feasible then the next phase is survey.After the economy is studied the second phase of planning is finance.

The rails are joined to each other by fish plates and bolts and the rails are fastened to the sleepers with the help of various fittings such as spikes and keys. Modern method 1. curves and super elevations. Methods of Construction of railway track: 1. Basically a track consists of two parallel rails having a specified distance between them known as gauge and fastened to the sleepers. Generally the things which are design can be thickness of various layers of a road or highway. Old method: . the estimated vehicle load. rails. design of pre stress bridges and tunnels. different site distances. . Or Railway track is also known as permanent way. shoulders etc. The name of permanent way is given to the track to distinguish the final track constructed for the movements of trains from the temporary track laid for transporting the construction materials such as sleepers. Old method 2. The sleepers are spaced at a specified distance and are held in position by embedding in ballast. embankment. camber. fittings and fastenings. Design: . These sleepers are embedded in a layer of ballast of specified thickness spread over the formation. Mostly the machinery was not used for the transportation of passengers and goods.Once a report I finalized various components of the transportation system are design and construction becomes easy. ballast etc.In this method the construction work was done with the help of labor. ballast etc to provide a road for the movement of locomotive or coaches. Railway track: The railway track is a structure consisting of parallel lines of rails with their sleepers.  The track is the rail road on which two trains run.4.

In the survey we collect the data about the following points: Soil Routes advantages and disadvantages Best position of station and yards Best track type Best route 3. o The gauge of the track should be correct and uniform. Designing: . Survey: .in designing a designer finalize the following points: Route of track Length of track No of tracks Position of stations Type of gauge Width of formation Depth of ballast Type of material which is used in construction Every detail about the field work will be given in designing Requirements of an ideal track: A good track should provide comfortable and safe journey at the maximum permissible speed with minimum maintenance cost.In this method the work of construction is done with the help of machines and modern techniques and equipments are used for construction. To achieve these objectives the track should meet the following requirements. . Planning: .2. Steps for construction of railway track (old method) 1. Modern method: .In this initial stage we discuss the following points:Route of track Advantages of track Disadvantages of track Contractor details Budget 2.

Components of railway track: . o The track should be design in such a way that the load of the train should be distributed uniformly. o The track structure should be such that initial and maintenance cost is minimum. o In straight portion of the track whenever a curve is required transition curve should be provided which should be as straight as possible. o Adequate provision of repair and replacement and renewal of damaged portion should be provided. centrifugal force and lateral trust. o The track should possess high resistance to damage at the time of derailment. o Joints.o The alignment of the track should be correct having no kinks or irregularities. o The gradients should be uniform and as gentle as possible. o The drainage system of the track should be perfect so that stability of the track is not affected by water logging or drainage water. o Super elevation should be provided on the curve portion of the track to sustain the effects of the centrifugal force. o In order to absorb shocks and vibrations of the moving train the track should resilient and elastic. o The friction between the wheels of the locomotives and the rails should be minimum so as to avoid extra heat which could generate fire.The track or permanent way is consisted of the following components: (a) Formation (b) Sleepers (c) Rails . points and crossings should be designed and maintain properly. o The track should possess antitheft and sabotage qualities. The change of gradients should be followed by a vertical curve to give smooth ride. o The track should be stiff and tough in order to sustain variation in temperature.

Adding a layer of soil of 15-20cm. It gives a surface where ballast rests. Compaction of layers according to the type of soil. Purpose of track formation:  To make regular bed to put the ballast section.(d) Ballast (e) Fittings and fastenings (a) Formation: . Traditionally. It takes the total load of track and the trains moving over it. it was the finished surface of the earthworks.  It must be compact well for the surface soil and gently finished without any excavation to prevent bad drainage. It includes sub grades and earth work and sub ballast.Formation is the base or foundation of the railway track. It is prepared over various layers and is of highly importance for a proper railway track.  To provide good drainage Steps for construction of track foundation:     Preparing of natural ground surface by releasing of trees. Disadvantages of track foundation:     Unstable foundation leads to increasing of maintenance cost Low speed of train May cause accidents May find soft spots filled with water which are at last caused sliding or failure  These spots increase by increasing the movement . OR The formation is the surface on which the track (including ballast) is laid.  To support the load coming for ballast and train. The soil of good properties to be put at the top and slopes while the soil of low properties to be put at the middle.

Treatment of track foundation:  Drainage of water must be away from the track  Bitumen coating should prevent the soil from water table  Releasing of trees by burning. mechanically or manually and chemically  Chemical materials to be mixed with soil to improve its properties (b) Sleepers: . hold the rails upright. Besides it also transfer the load of the locomotives to the ballast below. . To resist the extension of rail due to change of temperature Placing of sleepers: After the ballast section the sleepers are placed at suitable locations. Purposes of sleeper:     Keeping of rails at constant distance. Sliding will happen as a result of rain. It is dangerous type of unstable soil. Sleepers placed should be :  According to design  Same level  Uniform size © Rails: . After the placing of sleepers rails are fixed on the sleepers. Insure elastic layer between the rail and the ballast section. ties transfer loads to the track ballast and sub grades. Distribute and transfer the load on layer area of the ballast section.The sleepers hold the rail together in proper position and help in providing and maintaining a proper gauge with the help of fittings and fastenings. 1st alignment is also made before fixing of rails. Generally laid perpendicular to the rails. keep them spaced to the correct gauge.Rails are the steel girders over which train or locomotive moves and transfer the wheel load of train to the sleepers below. Or Railway sleeper is a rectangular support for the rails in railway tracks.

their wheels. goods and passengers over a large area of formation through sleepers and ballast. Function of rails: .  The rails bear the stresses developed due to vertical loads transmitted to it through axles and wheels of the rolling stock due to breaking forces and thermal stresses etc.Following are the function of rails:  The rails distribute heavy load of the locomotives. Double headed rail Bull headed rail Flat footed rail Double headed rail: .  The pathway of a railway track has a very less friction which is about 20% of the friction of the normal road making it safer for the movements of the rails.Rails can be classified into the following three categories: 1. Such rails have to be supported on chairs which rest on sleepers.  The rails provide a level and continuous surface for the smooth movement of the trains. Bull headed rail: . during its service life the rail could be inverted and reused without any further expenditure. axels. The idea behind the developing this type of rail was that once the top head was worn out. 2. Types of rails: .  The rails serve as a lateral guide for the running of wheels.Originally the rails used were double headed made of I-section or dumb bell section. 2. But later it was found that during continuous movement of trains after the service life of the top head was over the head had already been dented and could not be reused.Or Rails are steel girders over which the train moves and give smooth movement to the wheels of the locomotives. 3. It also transmits the wheel load to the sleepers below. 1.It was almost similar to the double headed rail the only difference being more amount of metal used in the head of the bull headed .

 It requires less fastenings than bull headed rails.Following are the requirements of an ideal rail section:  The rail should possess adequate lateral and vertical stiffness. Advantages of flat footed rails:  For fixing the sleepers in flat footed rails no chairs are needed. It is also known as Vignole rail. web and foot of the rail should be properly balanced. . 3. Flat footed rail: .  The rail should be shaped suitably. Requirements of an ideal rail section: .  Flat footed rails give longer life to the track and reduce maintenance cost.  The depth of the rail head should be sufficient margin for the vertical wear.rail allow greater wear and tear. This rail also require chairs for fixings it to the sleeper which proved to be greater drawback.  Flat footed rails have been widely accepted through out the world.  The metal distribution in head.  The width of the foot of the rail should be sufficient to spread the rolling stock load in a larger area of the sleeper.To remove the drawback of other two types of rails Charles Vignoles developed an inverted T-Shaped section known as flat footed rail in 1836.  Flat footed rails give stability to the track as these rails distribute rolling stock load over number of sleepers.  For the same weight.  The surfaces and gauge faces should be hard and capable to resist water. the rail is stronger vertically and laterally better than bull headed rails.  Flat footed rails develop fewer kinks and maintain a more regular top surface than bull headed rails.  The shape of the bottom of the head and top of the foot should be such that fish plates could be fixed easily.  It is cheaper than bull headed rails.

Points of comparison between double headed and bull headed rails with flat footed rail: Comparison points Initial cost Strength and stiffness Rigid Arrangements Maintenance Suitability Double headed and bull headed rails These require more cost fastening so their initial cost is more. These rails are more rigid. These rails require less maintenance. The centre of the gravity of the rail section should be located very near the centre of the height of the rail so that maximum compressive and tensile stresses are equal. These rails require less and cheaper fastenings so their initial cost is less. Arrangements at these places are complicated. These rails are more suitable due to more strength. These rails are less rigid. These arrangements are simple.  The contact area between the rail and wheel should be sufficient to minimize the contact spaces. These rails are more suitable for tracks when lateral loads are important than vertical load. These rails require heavy maintenance. stiffness and durability.  Generally we can say that the rail should have economical section consistent with strength. . These rails have more strength and stiffness. Flat footed rails These rails have less strength and stiffness. stiffness and better stability and economy.

The gauge is defined as the minimum distance between the running inner faces of the rail. Out of these effects wear is considered to be a major one which is actually changes in the dimensions of the rail. The rail top flows and assumes the shape like forming projections on the side.Due to the continuous loading of the locomotives. Traffic consideration Cost consideration Physical features Development of poor areas Speed of movement Cost of the track Uniformity of gauge Defects of rail: . 5. abrasive forces. Factors affecting the choice of the gauge: .Due to the impact of different types of forces coming on the top of the rail. . 6. Actually it is very difficult to spell out the reasons for adopting different gauges in different countries.Rail gauges: . Due to historical consideration gauges have been adopted on the railways in the world. 7. Wear of the rail can be classified into three categories: (a) Rail wear on head (b) Rail end batter or wear at the end of the rail (c) Wear on the sides of the rail (a) Rail wear on head or rail wear on the top: . 3. temperature changes. 4. friction etc may cost various types of defects in rail which ultimately leads to the repair or replacement of the rail. The gauge has to be according to its size but incase of the future planning following features or factors are kept in while choosing a type of gauge: 1. These projections beyond the original section of the rail are known as burns.Practically it is quite impossible to a particular type of gauge because whatever type of locomotives is available in the country. In some countries gauge measured between the runnings faces of the rails. quality and alignment of the track. 2.

 Corrosion of rail also helps in the wear of top of a rail.Cause of wear development on the top of a rail: .  Fish bolts and fish plates become loose  Due to the vibrations at the joints the settlement of ballast takes place resulting in depression of sleepers . Measurement of wear: The wear on rails can be measured by any of the following methods:  By weighing the rail  By profiling the rail section with the help of lead strips and needles  By specific instruments designed to measure profile of rail and to record it simultaneously on the graph paper (b) Rail end batter or wear at the end of a rail: . We can say that at the end of the rail if there is slight change in the height of the rail it means the rail has gone worn out at the end. It is measured as the difference between the vertical height of rail and at a point 30 cm away from the end.  The grinding action of sand particles between the wheels and rail also help to produce wear of a rail.The hammering action of moving loads at the rail joints cause the rail end batter in course of time.Following are the causes for the development of wear on the top of a rail:  The main factor or cause of rail wear of head is movement of heavy loads of the locomotives over a small area of rail resulting in high amount of stresses which exerted the elastic limit and produces wear.  The head of the rail worn out due to abrasion forces of the wheels. Effects of end wear of a rail: .Due to the hammering action of moving loads at the rail joints following side effects are produced:  The contact surfaces between the rails and sleepers get worn out. If the batter is up to 2mm it is considered as average or tolerable bit if it exceeds 2mm it is considered to be serve and needs to be replaced or properly repaired.

Causes of wear on the side of a rail: . Measures to minimize wear of rails: .These factors further worsen the situation by increasing the rail end batter due to the following reasons:  Due to heavy loads and large joint openings  Due to poor maintenance of the track  Due to bad condition of vehicle springs (c) Wear on the sides of a rail: .Following measures could be taken to minimize wear of the rails:        By conning of the wheels By providing super elevation on the tracks By the use of special alloy steel for rails By adopting good maintenance of the track Regular tightening of fish bolts and packing of ballast will reduce wear By reducing number of joints and expansion gaps When the wear exceeds 5 % of the total weight of the section the rail must be replaced  By lubricating the gauge face of the outer rails  By adopting exchange of inner and outer rails  By introducing check rails on the curves .  Unlike the road vehicles the trains do not bent to the shape of the curvature resulting in the biting of the inner rail of the outer rail by wheel flanges due to the rigidity of wheel base.It is caused by following reasons:  On the curve portion of the track.  Wear also takes place on the inner rail on a curved section due to the skidding and slipping action of the wheels on the curve.This is the most destructive type of wear and occurs when the track is on the curves and dimensions of the rails from outer as well as inner rail changes due to this wear. the centrifugal force causes thrust of the wheel flanges against the side of the outer rail head which results in the grinding of the rail flanges producing side wear on the outer rail.

Second major effect in the rail is creep which is longitudinal movement of the rail in the direction of movement of locomotives. . Causes of the creep: . Minor causes of rail defects: Following are the minor causes of rail defects:        Improper fixing of rails with sleepers Bad quality of sleepers used Improper maintenance of the track and joints Loosing of fittings and fastenings Improper super elevation of curve portion Bad drainage of the ballast Inferior quality of rails used Other minor causes of defects of rails: 1. Second major cause of creep is when the locomotives move on a track it generate a wave action in the rails due to the elasticity of the track that wave action would also generate creep. The unequal contraction and expansion due to the various temperature changes may also cause creep.Creep: . Wheel burns: . It could be either in the forward direction and backward direction.Following are the causes of the creep: Application of brakes and applying acceleration to generate a lot of force which may move the rail and cause creep.Due to the acceleration and breaking activity high amount of abrasive forces are generated which may cause a lot of heat and hence wheel burns takes place which are docks spots on the rail and if not repair in time will ultimately caused the parts of metals to flow which may causes depression of the rail table and serve consequences may be witnessed. By the application of brakes creep takes place in the forward direction and acceleration causes creep in the backward direction. Its values ranges from the absolutely nothing to 6 inch.

3. It is used universally accepted throughout the world and were introduced for the first time in 1835. Insure elastic layer between the rail and the ballast section. longitudinal and lateral stability to the track To provide insulation for the electrified track Keeping of rails at constant distance.The rails bent vertically at the ends are known as hogged rails. ties transfer loads to the track ballast and sub grades. yielding formation. Railway sleeper is a rectangular support for the rails in railway tracks. Generally laid perpendicular to the rails. Purposes of sleeper:          To hold the rails to correct gauge and alignment To give a firm and even support to the rails To provide proper grade. It is generally seen in the form of depression and the surface shows fracture with numerous cracks around it. keep them spaced to the correct gauge. Distribute and transfer the load on layer area of the ballast section. loose and faulty fastenings etc. Sleepers: .The scabbing of the rails is due to the falling off patches of metal from the rail table. The hogging of the rails is one of the serious defects which develop due to poor maintenance of rail joints. Scabbing of the rails: . Hogging of the rails: . The hogged rails must be replaced or repair in time to avoid derailment. it causes deterioration to the running quality of the track. To resist the extension of rail due to change of temperature To provide easy mean of replacement of rails without disturbing the whole traffic .2. hold the rails upright.Sleepers are transverse support to a railway track which provides stiffness to it.

1st alignment is also made before fixing of rails. Sleepers placed should be:  According to design  Same level  Uniform size Requirements of an ideal sleeper: .An ideal sleeper should meet the following requirements:  The initial as well as maintenance cost should be minimum  The weight of the sleeper should be moderate so that it can be handled easily so that gauge may be adjusted easily and maintained costly  It should be shock and vibration absorbent which developed due to passage of fast moving trains  The design and material of the sleeper should be such that it may possible to be used on a circular track  The sleeper should have sufficient bearing area  It should be antitheft and anti sabotage qualities  The sleeper should hold its position and not get disturbs by the moving traffic Sleeper density: . Generally one sleeper is used for every one meter length of the rail.The number of sleeper used per rail length is known as sleeper density.Placing of sleepers: After the ballast section the sleepers are placed at suitable locations. It is specified as N+x or M+x where N or M is the length of the rail and x is the mathematical number which varies according to the following factors:      Axle load and speed of the train Type and section of the rail Type and strength of sleeper Depth of ballast cushion Nature of formation .

Advantages of wooden sleepers: . Wooden sleepers Cast iron sleepers Steel sleepers Concrete sleepers Wooden sleepers: .Wooden sleeper is the ideal type of sleeper hence they are universally used. 2. 3. In other words sleepers can be divided in to the following four categories: 1. The utility of timber sleeper has not decreased due to passage of time.Naturally in railways the sleeper density for broad gauge is N+7 where length of the rail is normally 12 or 13 meter.Wooden sleepers have the following disadvantages:  They are easily liable to attack by vermin and weather  Their service life is shorter than any other type of sleeper .Wooden sleepers have the following advantages:            They are cheap and easy to manufacture They are ideal for track of circular section They are more useful for heavy loads and high speed They are easy to handle without damage They absorb shocks and have good capacity to dampen the vibrations They are more useful for yielding formation Alignment can be corrected easily They are more suitable for modern methods of maintenance They can be used with or without stone ballast They can be used on bridges They can be used for gauntleted track also Disadvantages of wooden sleepers: . 1.In railways mostly following four types of sleepers are used. However due to the low service life about 15 years and high maintenance cost the use of wooden sleepers on main lines has been completely stopped by the year 1999. 4. Classification of sleepers: .

The increasing shortage of good timber in the country and other economical factors are mainly responsible for the use of steel sleepers.Steel sleepers have the following advantages:         It is more durable Its service life is about 50 years It is easy to maintain gauge and lesser maintenance problems It gives better lateral rigidity Lesser damage during handling and transport Its manufacturing process is easy It is not susceptible to vermin attack and fire hazards Its scrap value is very good Disadvantages of steel sleepers: .Steel sleepers have the following disadvantages:        It is liable to corrosion It is unsuitable for electrified tracks Due to slopes at two ends it is liable to become centre bound It require more fittings in numbers More ballast is required than other types of sleepers During service it develops cracks at rail seats It can be used only for rails which it is manufactured . It is difficult to maintain gauge with their use They are susceptible to fire Scrap value is negligible Their maintenance cost is higher than any other type of sleeper They are liable to mechanical wear Steel sleepers: . About 27% of the track on railway is laid on steel sleepers Advantages of steel sleepers: .     2..

They are used extensively all over the world at present45% of the total tracks are being laid with cast iron sleepers.The development of the concrete sleeper took place in the year 1877 due to shortage of timber but most of the work was carried out on it after the World War II.3. Cast iron sleepers: . packing and development of high creep etc resulting in replacement of sleeper The cantilever ends of rails are long which results in hogging of the rail ends and deterioration of ballast under the joint which results in the replacement of sleeper 4.Cast iron sleepers have the following advantages: Gauge maintenance is difficult as tie bars get bent up They are not suitable for electrified tracks They need large number of fittings They are more liable to breakage and damage if handled roughly The rail seat wear out quickly resulting in loosening keys Heavy intensities of traffic and greater speed more than 110 km/hour will cause loosening of keys.Cast iron sleepers have the following advantages: They are easy to manufacture They are lesser liable to cracks at rail seats Their service life is up to 50 to 60 years They provide high lateral and longitudinal stability to the tracks They are lesser liable to corrosion Their scrap value is very good Disadvantages of Cast iron sleepers: . Advantages of Cast iron sleepers: . . Concrete sleepers: .

It also causes loosing of fittings and fastenings therefore it is very important to regular maintenance the rail joints. strength and stability to the track  They are specially suitable for long welded rail track due to great resistance to the buckling of the track  Concrete sleepers with elastic fastenings maintain better gauge.Concrete sleepers have the following disadvantages:  Being heavy their handling and lying is very difficult and costly. cross level and alignment. It also loose in compaction of ballast under the sleeper bed and make the maintenance of joints difficult. It also retain very well. .  Concrete sleepers can also be used in tracks circulated areas as concrete is poor conductor of elasticity  Concrete sleepers neither are susceptible to attack by vermin nor they are to corrosion  They are susceptible to fire hazards  The service of concrete is very long about 50 to 60 years  Concrete sleepers can be manufactured from local material also Disadvantages of Concrete sleepers: . This gap also causes serve blows to the passengers due to the moving of wheels over this gap.A rail joint is the weakest part of the track. This gap cause breaks in continuity of rails forming the weakest part of the track. In order to provide provision for expansion and contraction of rails due to variation in temperature certain gap is provided at each joint.Advantages of Concrete sleepers: . Mechanical devices have to be used which involve heavy expenditure  At the time of derailment of the concrete sleepers are damaged heavily  There is no scrap value of the concrete sleeper  The concrete sleepers should be maintained by heavy “ON TRACK” tampers Rail joints: .Concrete sleepers have the following advantages:  Concrete sleeper being very heavy give more elastic modulus.

It is used in the curve section.Requirements of an ideal rail joints: . (b) Staggered joints: .When a joint in one rail is exactly opposite to the joint in the other parallel rail it is called square joint. According to position of sleepers 1. .An ideal rail joint should possess the following characteristics:  The rail joint should be capable of holding the two ends of rails as near as possible  The rails on both parts at the joints should be at a same level and in a straight line  An ideal rail joint should have the same strength and stiffness as the rails which have been joined together  The rail joint should provide space for expansion and contraction due to the variation in temperature  The initial cost of the joint and its maintenance should be minimum  The joint should be such that any rail could be replaced without disturbing the whole track Types of rail joints: . According to position of joints 2.In this group following two joints may be classified: (a) Square joints (b) Staggered joints (a) Square joints: .When a joint in one rail is not exactly opposite to the joint in the other parallel rail it is called staggered joint.Depending upon the position of joints and sleepers rail joints may be classified as follows: 1. According to position of joints: . It is very common in straight roads.

According to position of sleepers: . Alignment:-Making the position of centre line on the ground and giving direction to the railway track is known as alignment of the railway track. The running of this type of joint is hard and the joint tends to be high.In this group following three joints may be classified: (a) Suspended joint (b) Supported joint (c) Bridge joint (a) Suspended joint: . The improper alignment would either prove uneconomical in initial cost of construction or in the maintenance of . There is heavy wear and tear of the sleeper supporting the joint and maintenance of the joint is very difficult.2.It includes changes in vertical curves and gradients.This joint is similar to the suspended joint with the difference that a length of metal is used to connect the ends of two rails so that bending stresses may not develop in the rails. The alignment or location of the railway track comprises of the following two components: (a) Horizontal components (b) Vertical components (a) Horizontal components: . The alignment of a new railway track should be done after careful study of the area.When the sleeper is placed exactly below the rail joint the joint is called supported joint.When the rails are placed at the centre of two consecutive sleepers the joint is known as suspended joint. (b) Supported joint: . In this joint load is equally distributed on two sleepers therefore it is widely used.It includes the straight path its width. Importance of the alignment: . (c) Bridge joint: . (b) Vertical components: . curves and deviations in width and curves.Both these components play a vital role in determine the alignment of a railway track.

radius of curves. Traffic: . Design features such as gradients. any type of water channel like river. 1. 3.The various factors which control the alignment of a railway track are as follows: 1. Obligatory points Traffic Geometric design Topography of the area Economics Other considerations Obligatory points: .The alignment should suit traffic growth and its impact should be studied carefully and as much as possible the alignment should pass through thickly populated area so as to benefit maximum amount of people. mountain etc.It is general outlook of any area therefore it should be properly studied carefully in order to study a new alignment. 4. expensive structure.the track aligned and construction it becomes impossible to change it due to increase in cost of adjoining land and high cost of the construction etc. Geometric design: . pound or stream. In topography various features are considered like type and nature of soil. temples. site distances and the thickness of foundation and ballast layer should be properly constructed. . slope of the ground.To get the maximum benefit of a railway alignment geometric design standards should be strictly followed. 6. 2. 5. 3. Topography of the area: . a bridge or an intermediate town. curves. a mountain pass. 4. (ii) Points through which track not pass should like religious places as mosques. a fertile land or an area under consistent water logging or flooding.These are the points which control the alignment of the railway track and can be further classified into two groups: (i) Points through which track must pass like tunnel. Factors controlling the alignment: . 2.

Jetties and groins are structures designed to modify or control sand movement. making up trains. cost of the maintenance and cost of vehicle operation must be taken into account. The basic function of a siding is to provide temporary storage for wagons.Railway yards can be classified into the following categories: (a) Passenger yards (b) Goods yards (c) Marshalling yards (d) Locomotive yards Siding: . The factors like initial cost. Groins are barrier type structures extending .5. Jetties and groins: .When a branch line from a main line terminates at a dead end with a buffer stop is called a siding. When sand being transported along the shoreline by waves and currents arrives at inlets. unloading of cargo and passengers etc. A jetty is generally employed at inlets for the purpose of navigation improvements.Beside other factors the alignment to be finalized should be economical.Following points should also be consider beside above mention factors: (i) Drainage considerations (ii) Water logging (iii) Right angles Requirements of a good alignment:     It should be feasible and easy to construct and maintain. Other considerations: .A yard is a system of various number of tracks laid with definite limit for various purposes such as sorting out vehicles. loading. Economics: . locomotives etc. Types of yards: . 6. It should be economical It should be safe for traffic It should be free from any type of the deviation Yards: .

steel. The basic purpose of a groin is to interrupt the sand movement along a shore. Wharves and breakwaters: . concrete or rock but can be classified into basic physical categories as high or low. The type depends on foundation conditions and wave. . Wharves (docks and piers) are structures located on the shore and can be used for swimming. concrete or rock.from the backshore seaward across the beach. A groin can be constructed in many ways using timber.Wharves.A jetty is usually constructed of steel. Breakwater protects the shore line from wave action and coastal erosion. Long or short and permeable. fishing or for securing boats. climate and economic considerations. Construction: . breakwaters are marine structures used for various recreational and commercial purposes.

below and around the ties. Prevent growing of herbs.  The ballast section is important for the track. Absorption of impacts. To provide easy operation and maintenance.  Ballast holds the sleepers in position and provides a uniform level surface. It means incase of no of ballast section the sleepers will implant in the foundation.  Regular pressure distribution. It is packed between. Stability of sleepers at its position.Ballast:  Track ballast forms the track bed upon which railway sleepers or railroad ties are laid. They also provide drainage to the track and transfer the train load to a larger area of formation.  Placing of ballast . Purpose of ballast section:       Transfer the load of train to the roadbed. Allowing of water to drain. Design of ballast section:  Thickness of ballast section must be adequate under the sleepers to distribute the pressure on the foundation.  The bearing capacity on the foundation is less than the allowable pressure at least.

It should be kept in the mind that joints need about 30% extra maintenance than the plan track. The rails are fixed together by tighten fish bolts with help of nuts. They should be capable to holds the ends of rail both laterally and vertically. 2. 4. Fish plates: The function of fish plate is to hold two rails together both in horizontal as well as vertical planes. 2. 3. They must be capable to hold the under side of rail and top of foot. There shape should be such that free movement of trains is not disturbed at any joint. 6. Fish plates Bolts Chairs Keys Bearing plates Spikes and screws 1. holes are drilled in the fish plate for inserting the bolts.(f) fitting and fastening: The fitting and fastening are the devices used to connect and provide a grip between rails and sleepers in order to keep the track in a stable position. 4. . The fitting and fastening are used to keep the rail and sleepers in a compact form. Rails and sleepers without any joint become loose and cause heavy wear and tear of the track materials. at each joint the pair of fish plates is used. 3. The rails are fastened with the sleepers by fittings and fastenings. They should be able to absorb shocks develops by jumping wheels over the expansion gapes of the rail. Requirements of fish plates: 1. 5. Types of fittings and fastenings: 1. They provide a grip between rails and sleepers.

Foe each sleepers usually have two hook bolts are quite adequate. Requirements: . Another key were patented by Morgan hence known as Morgan keys. The shape of chairs depends upon the type of rail used. They are used in location where gauge is to be preserved.5.chairs are made of cast iron. They increase the bearing area on the sleeper and thus decrease loading intensity. 4. but liable to be attacked by vermin’s. The chairs are fixed with sleepers by means of spikes. Keys: . Silicon. Advantages of bearing plates: 1.They were wedge shape wooden or metal pieces. but their fixing and removal is difficult. Bearing plates: . expansion or compaction. Chairs: Chairs are used to hold the double headed and bull headed rails in position. 5.This is an alternative to round spikes. They help in distributing the load from rails to sleepers.4 kg. 3. and nowadays Stewart metal key is popular. Requirements: . Manganese. They should be capable to with stand weir due to impact. Sulphur and Phosphorus 2. therefore a number of metal keys have been devised. Chairs are an important part of fixing and fastening as they hold the rail tightly in its position. B) Hook bolts: Hook bolts are used to fix sleepers to girders of bridges. The weight of each chair is approximately 20. Bolts: Types of bolts: a) Fang bolts b) Hook bolts A) Fang bolts: . Composition: Carbon.They keep the rail in proper position. Wooden keys are cheaper.Bearing plates are used for fixing or distributing the load of vehicles from rail to sleeper. . fang bolts have proved more effective.

They decrease the wear and tear of the spikes. 4. A rail spike is roughly chisel shaped and with a flat edge point.The main function is to keep the rail in gauge. 3. 4. 3. Requirements of an ideal fastening: 1. 5. Function: . It should be able to hold the rail in proper position and should have enough resistance again moving loads. Spikes and screws: The device used to hold the rails with the sleepers are known as the spike. 5. 2. . Requirements of good spikes: 1. The rail cutting on curves is reduced by the use of bearing plates.2. It should be capable to absorb shocks and vibration. The rail spike is a large nail with an offset head that is used to secure rails and base plates to rail load ties in the track. 3. It should contain less number of components. They increase the overall stability of the track. 2. 4. It should be easy to fix and adjust. 6. 7. It should be able to resist corrosion. It should be such that it could be fixed or removed easily. They prevent the rail cutting because the rail cuts the sleepers surface due to abrasion. 6. It should be cheep. It should be able to resist corrosion for a longer period of time. 6. Bearing plates help to maintain the gauge of the track better. It should be cheap and durable. They can be used with or without chairs and bearing plates. It should be capable to resist creep. It should be capable to give sufficient insulation to the electric track.

unloading of cargo and passengers are provided. In general it can be said that a port includes a harbour along with other facilities. An artificial harbor has deliberately constructed breakwaters. A harbor is a body of water where ships. sea walls. Classification depending upon the utility 3. Classification based upon the location .A port is a harbour having terminal facilities like landing and picking passengers and cargo etc. Classification of harbour: . Harbor can be natural or artificial. docks and harbours:Port: .The harbours are classified as under: 1.Ports.A harbour is a sheltered area of the sea where facilities for loading. boats and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather or else are stored for future use. If ship is subjected to vertical moment by tides great inconvenience will be felt in lifting the cargo from the ship and special arrangement will be needed for lifting cargo.Docks are necessary for discharging of cargo as ships require number of days for discharging cargo during which period they need a uniform water level. Classification depending upon the protection needed 2. Docks are the enclosed required for berthing ships to keep them to float in uniform level. Harbour: . In other words we can say that every port is harbour but inverse is not true. jetties or otherwise they could have been constructed by dredging and these require maintenance by further periodic dredging. Docks: .

(b) Semi-natural harbour: . Classification depending upon the protection needed: Depending upon the protection needed.This type of harbor is protected on sides by headlands and it requires man made protection only at the entrance.Natural formations affording safe discharge facilities for ships on sea coasts. Requirement of harbour of refugee:  Ready accessible from high seas  Safe and convenient anchorage against sea  Facilities for obtaining supplies and repairs All type of naval craft.On dangerous coast-lines. The factor such as local geographical features. Classification depending upon the utility: . small and big.Depending upon their utility. harbours are classified into five major types: (a) Harbour of refuge (b) Commercial Harbours (c) Fishery Harbours (d) Military Harbours (e) Marina Harbours (a) Harbour of refuge: . in the form of creeks and basins are called natural harbours. will need refugee in an emergency and hence such refugee harbour should provide commodious accommodation.1. In other words natural harbour is an inlet protected from storm and waves by natural configuration of land. disabled or damaged ships. development of the area etc have made the natural harbour big and attractive. Modern big ships will require a lot of elbow room for purpose of manoeuving or turning about. growth of population. . under stress of weather conditions will need quick shelters and immediate repairs. harbours are broadly classified as: (a) Natural harbour (b) Semi-harbour (a) Natural harbour: .

(d) Military harbour: .(b) Commercial harbour: . telephone etc for small boat owners having temporary or permanent berths.Harbour should be constantly open for departure and arrival of fishing ships. (e) Marina harbour: . Preliminary requirement are loading and unloading facilities for the perishable fish catch like railway sidings. They do not normally have any emergency demand like a harbour of refugee and practically the size and number of ships using such harbours are known factors. They serve as supply depot also. washing machine.This is harbour providing facilities of fuel.commercial harbor could be situated on coasts.The harbor entrance should be designed and located for quick easy negotiation by ships overtaken by storms. Classification based upon the location: . estuaries. Basic requirement of commercial harbour are:     Special accommodation for the mercantile marine.These harbours are the naval vessels bases which are meant to accommodate the naval vessels. The layout of a harbour is greatly influenced by its location and based on the location. Harbours are further classified into following four major types: (a) Canal harbour (b) Lake harbour (c) River harbour (d) Sea or ocean harbor . big rivers on inland river coasts. Storage sheds for cargo Good and quick repairs facilities to avoid delay More sheltered condition as loading and unloading could be done with advantage in calmer waters (c) Fishery harbour: . In other words marina as a small harbour or boat basin providing dockage. roads and refrigerated stores with ample storing space for preserving the catch. supply and services small pleasure crafts. It should be narrow enough not to expose.

The harbour constructed along the shore of lake is known as lake harbour. If the lake is large then the conditions are similar to those in ocean expect that ideal action does not occur. They are intended for sea going vessels. (d) Sea or ocean harbour:. River creates the main transportation route to join the hinterland and the sea. It is found that maintenance dredging of canal basin is generally negligible. good and quick repair facilities Ample space for loading and unloading cargo.The harbour located on the coast of a sea or an ocean is called the sea harbour.The harbour constructed along the bank of river is known as river harbour.The harbour located along the canals for sea navigation and inland is known as canal harbour. Requirements of an ideal harbour:  For harbour of refugee: Facilities of obtaining repairs and refugee Safe and convenient anchorage against the sea Ready accessibility from the high seas  For commercial harbour:Storage shads for cargo To avoid delay. and facilities for transporting loading and unloading cargo  For fishing harbour:it should be constantly open for arrival and departure of fishing ships loading and unloading facilities along with quick dispatch for the perishable fish catch such as railway sidings and roads should be there refrigerated stores with sufficient storing for preserving the fish Site selection of harbour: Availability of cheap land and construction material  Natural protection from waves and winds  Transport and communication facilities . (b) Lake harbour: .(a) Canal harbour: . (c) River harbour: .

     Industrial development of the locality Sea bed. sub soil and foundation conditions Availability of fresh water and electrical energy Favorable marine conditions Traffic potentiality of the harbour .