1. Stock market crash - Fall of 1929, stock prices suddenly plunged.

On october 24, "Black Thursday," panic selling set in. JP Morgan "saved the day" with $20 million. On "Black Tuesday," Oct 29, stock prices plummeted again. The market settled into a grim pattern of declines and weak rallies. 11 prominent stock holders committeed suicide. 2. Buying on margin- the buying of stocks with the intent of resale within a small amount of time. This led to inflated prices on stocks as it was prevalent in the 1920s. A cause for the great depression 3. "Hoovervilles" - Shanty towns where the homeless and unemployed would stay, many in washington DC. Named after the president who started the great depression. 4."Okies" - Plagued by dust storms, and evictions, thousands of tenant farmers and sharecroppers were forced to leave their land during the great depression. Known as the "Okies and Arkies," they took off for California with their few belongings. 5. Bonus Army - In the Summerof 1932 in wash DC, Congress was considering a bill to authorize immediate issuance of $2.4 billion bonuses to WWI veterans not due till 1945. 15,000 unemployed veterans and their families converged on the capital, calling themselves the Bonus Expedionary Force or "Bonus Army" and camping on vacant lots. When Hoover stopped the bill, many stayed. When military including tanks and tear gas were used to move them, FDR said "This will get me elected." 6. Reconstruction Finance Corporation - passed by Congress in 1932, designed to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads. Conservative economic approach, banks continued to collapse. 7. Harley-Smoot Tariff- 1930, signed by Hoover against econ approval. A congressional compromise serving special interests, the tariff raised duties by about 1/3. Hoover argued it would help farmers + manufacturers. Actually the tariff further weakened the economy by making it even more difficult for foreign nations to sell their products and thus earn dollars to buy US products. 8. New Deal - Roosevelt summoned Congress to an emergency session. On March 9th, launched a hundred days. 9. Hundred Days - in this first hundred days passed the Emergency Banking Relief Bill (reopening of banks and prohibited the hoarding of gold), the Economy Act (balance the budget by cutting veteran's benefits and allows and reducing the pay of federal employees, Beer-Wine Revenue Bill, 21- Ammendment (ended prohibition), Agricultural Adjustment Act (restored farmers purchasing power by telling farmers to sell less food), a plan for public works, NIRA, and took US off of Gold standard 11. FDIC -Banking Act of 1933 set up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for insuring bank deposits. 12. CCC- Civilian Conservation Corps established by Roosevelt used unemployed to biuld roads, naval aircraft, railroads, etc. 13. TVA - To control flooding and to generate electricity, the Tennessee Valley Authority constructed dams along the Tennessee River and its tributaries from Paducah, KY to Knoxville TN. Goal to inmprove the econ of river valley, dug a 650 mile navigation channel, and produced nitrogen fertilizer. Became a notorious pollute of the region, landslides and erosion 14. NIRA- the National Industrial Recovery Act was the industrial conerstone of the New Deal. Established the National Recovery Administration. Laissez-Faire. Created Unionization, 15. AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Act. May 12, Congress finally overcame opposition to the domestic allotment plan. Farm Credit Act provided short + long term loans that enabled many farmers to refinance and onto their lands and homes. 16. SEC - Security and Exchanges Commission; established to regulate the stock market and offer the sale of security to prevent corporate abuses 17. FHA - created after the National Housing Act of 1934; regulated rate of interest and terms of mortgages; furthered suburban sprawl 18. Father Coughlin - opponent of the New Deal; called the FDR administration Capitalists and Communists; had a radio show which expressed anti-semitism and adamantly New Deal 19. Huey Long: Share Our Wealth - Senator; liked the New Deal at first; later began to think NRA was too conservative; seizure by taxation of all incomes greater than 1 million and all inheritances greater than 5

million 20. Townsend Plan - coined by Dr. Francis E. Townsend after he was thrown out of work with only 100$; revised Old Age Revolving Pensions; Plan=government paid monthly pensions of 200$ to people over 60, but they had to spend all the money in a month 21. Upton Sinclair/EPIC - the author of The Jungle; former socialist; End Poverty in California; plan to implement socialist reforms through Cali s Democratic Party; the state of California take over idle factories and farmland which would be run in the theme of production for use rather than profit 22. 2nd New Deal - the second response to the setbacks, skepticism, and popularity, spring 1935, radical, pro-labour, anti-business acts that strengthened the welfare of unions and unemployed persons 23. Wagner Act (NLRA) - National Labour Relations Act; did not allow employer interference in worker unions 24. NLRB - the enforcer of the National Labour Relations Act; made sure that employers didn t interfere; brought cases to the supreme court; still exist today 25. Social Security - program that worked off of Townsend Plan; old age pensions, public assistance, unemployment compensation funded by payroll taxes 26. REA - Rules Enabling Act; gave power for the judiciary system to make the public aware of the federal rules of civil procedure 27. Roosevelt Coalition - the three categories of people whose votes allowed for the Democratic Party to stay in politics; New Deal specifically tailored programs to suit these people (Solid South, Organized Labour, African-Americans) 28. Court packing: Roosevelt wanted to increase the size of the Supreme Court by naming up to 50 additional federal judges to make it more sympathetic to the New Deal. The Judiciary Reorganization Bill, which did not pass, requested the authority to add a federal judge whenever an incumbent failed to retire within six months of reaching age 70. 29. 1937/39 Recession: FDR ordered cutbacks in government spending, the Federal Reserve Board tightened credit, and the New Deal came to an end (spring 1938). 30. Fair Labor Standards Act (1938): forbade labor by children under 16 and established a minimum wage and 40 hour work week for many 31. Conservative Coalition: consisted of the urban masses, organized labor, 11 states of Confederacy, and northern blacks 32. CIO: a faction of the AFL founded by John Lewis. It advocated the organization of workers in massproduction industries on an industry-wide basis. 33. sit-down strikes: The United Auto Workers Union ordered a sit-down strike at Fisher Body plant in Flint, Michigan. The goal of the union was to gain recognition from General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler. GM turned off the heat and called police- workers threw stuff- police used tear gas- workers turned water hoses on them. After the back and forth actions, GM and Chrysler signed recognition of the union, and Ford did four years later. 34. Scottsboro Trials: March 31, 1931. Nine blacks riding a freight train in Scottsboro, Alabama were arrested and charged for hurting and throwing white hoboes off the train, and allegedly raping two white women. Medical evidence showed the men were not guilty of rape, and yet eight were convicted of rape. The case eventually got pushed aside because blacks were systematically excluded from Alabama juries. 35. A. Philip Randolph: A civil rights leader, Randolph founded the March on Washington Movement and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. 36. Executive Order 8802: established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to prohibit government contractors from engaging in employment discrimination based on race, color or national origin. 37. Frances Perkins: The first woman appointed to the US Cabinet. 1. Isolationism: After the war, Americans returned to their policy of isolationism, in order to focus more on domestic police and less on foreign affairs. 2. Washington Naval Conference: Called to by the Harding administration, the conference was attended by

nine nations who had interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia. It was the first disarmament conference in history. 3. Kellogg- Brian Pact: a multinational treaty that prohibited the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defense. It was the result of a determined American effort to avoid involvement in the European alliance system; in its original form, the Pact of Paris was a renunciation of war between only France and the United States of America. However, Frank B. Kellogg, then U.S. Secretary of State, wanted to retain American freedom of action; he thus responded with a proposal for a multilateral pact against war open for all nations to become signatories; formal name is General Treaty for the Renunciation of War. It was counted as an attempt to limitation of arms, yet the period it witnessed caused a stronger realist approach in international relations 4. Dawes Plan: a plan to ensure payments of reparations by Germany after World War I, devised by an international committee headed by Charles Gates Dawes and put into effect in 1924 5. Stimson Doctrine: policy of the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 10, 1933, to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force. The doctrine was an application of the principle of ex injuria jus non oritur. It followed Japan's unilateral seizure of Manchuria in northeastern China following action by Japanese soldiers at Mukden (now Shenyang), on September 18, 1931. The doctrine was also invoked by U.S. Under-Secretary of State Sumner Welles in a declaration of July 23, 1940 that announced non-recognition of the Soviet annexation and incorporation of the three Baltic states Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania; Stimson had stated that the United States would not recognize any changes made in China that would curtail American treaty rights in the area and that the "open door" must be maintained. The declaration had few material effects on the Western world, which was burdened by the Great Depression, and Japan went on to bomb Shanghai 6. Good Neighbor Policy: a diplomatic policy of the U.S., first presented in 1933 by President Roosevelt, for the encouragement of friendly relations and mutual defense among the nations of the Western Hemisphere 7. Neutrality Acts: laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts; widely regarded as having been generally negative: they made no distinction between aggressor and victim, treating both equally as "belligerents"; and they limited the US government's ability to aid Britain against Nazi Germany. The acts were largely repealed in 1941, in the face of German submarine attacks on U.S. vessels and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 8. FDR S Quarantine Speech : calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by isolationists and foes to intervention. No countries were directly mentioned in the speech, but it was interpreted as referring to Japan, Italy, and Germany. Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression 9. Arsenal of Democracy : slogan coined by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in Dec. 1940 promising to help the British and Russians fight the Germans by giving them military supplies while staying out of the actual fighting. It was announced in a radio broadcast on December 29, 1940, a year into World War II and a year before being attacked, at a time when Nazi Germany had occupied much of Europe and threatened Britain; Roosevelt referred to Detroit, Michigan as "the great arsenal of democracy" because of the rapid conversion of much of the Detroit-area automotive industry to produce armaments during World War II. The speech was "a call to arm and support" the Allies in Europe, and to a lesser extent China, in their all-out war against Germany and Japan 10. Four Freedoms : freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear; stated as goals of U.S. policy by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941 11. Lend- Lease Act: the materiel and services supplied by the U.S. to its allies during World War II under an act of Congress (Lend-Lease Act) passed in 1941; such aid was to be repaid in kind after the war

12. Atlantic Charter: the joint declaration of President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill (August 14, 1941) resulting from a conference at sea, setting forth the peace aims of their governments for the period following World War II. The declaration was later endorsed by a number of countries and incorporated in the purposes of the United Nations 13. Pearl Harbor: a harbor near Honolulu, on S Oahu, in Hawaii: surprise attack by Japan on the U.S. naval base and other military installations December 7, 1941 1. D-Day: code name for the first day of a military attack, especially the American and British invasion of German-occupied France during World War II on June 6, 1944; This marked the beginning of the victory of the Allies in Europe. Germany surrendered less than a year later 2. Island hopping the U.S. strategy in the Pacific regarding Japan (from Hawaii to Iwo Jima). The U.S. would skip the most fortified islands when possible and go from island to island in an effort to strand the Japanese so as to cut off their supply from the home islands. 3. Manhattan project The secret atomic program begun in August 1942, first bomb dropped as a test in New Mexico July 1945 and was ready to be used in the war. The aim of the project was victory in the war, though it was slightly controversial due to the sheer number of deaths it would cause. 4. Hiroshima/Nagasaki the two Japanese cities bombed using the Atomic bomb. Hiroshima bombed first on August 6, 1945, leveling the city and killing approximately 130,000 people. Nagasaki bombed on August 9, 1945, did the same thing to the city and killed nearly 60,000 people. Many more died from nuclear poisoning in the years to come. 5. War Production Board created one month after Pearl Harbor by President Roosevelt. Assigned to the task of converting the economy from civilian to military production. 6. Office of Price Administration imposed maximum prices on commodities to control inflation and introduced rationing programs. 7. Internment camps All Japanese-Americans living in California, Oregon, and Washington was sent to an internment camp. Camps were in bleak spots such as Arizona, Utah, and Wyoming. Bleak and demoralizing, horrible standard of living, one family to a room. 8. Double V campaign victory at home and abroad for Blacks in the military. Wanted to embarrass the government for neglecting a tenth of the population. Civil rights membership expanded greatly by the end of the 1940 s, setting stage for the civil rights movements of the 50 s. 9. Race Riots 1943- Almost 250 racial conflicts exploded in 47 cities. Outright fighting between blacks and whites, in one case in Detroit after the first day 25 blacks and 9 whites lay dead. Large mobs of white people roamed the city attacking blacks. 10. Rosie the Riveter advertising campaign encouraging women to join the work force to replace the men gone to fight. Many women wanted to remain in their jobs afterwards but this was ultimately never the purpose and most believed they should return to their place in the home . 11. Economic Bill of Rights Delivered as part of Roosevelt s 1944 State of the Union address, declared every American had the right to a decent job, sufficient food, shelter, clothing, and financial aid in times of need. 12. Dumbarton Oaks Conference Meeting of the four policemen to set up a world peacekeeping organization (China, Russia, U.S., and Britain). 13. United Nations purpose of the Dumbarton Oaks meeting, approved with a preliminary charter of a supreme security council of the great powers and then a weak general assembly. Security Council would have 5 permanent members each with veto power (France, Britain, U.S., Russia, China). 14. Yalta Conference- wartime meeting called by President Roosevelt in February of 1945 between the U.S. , U.K. , and Soviet Union. Each nation had their own goals at the conference: Britain sought to make France a partner in the postwar occupation of Germany for protective reasons, the Soviet Union wanted reparations to rebuild those things destroyed by the war, and the U.S. lobbied for the United Nations Organization 15. Potsdam Conference- involved the three nations who attended the Yalta Conference except the U.S. was represented by President Truman instead of Roosevelt. The three nations gathered to decide in which

way Germany would be punished after their defeat in World War II. The Conference also established postwar order and peace treaties issues. 1. Employment Act 1946- enacted by President Truman, the act resulted in the Council of Economic Advisors. The gov t was given the responsibility ofmaintaining ahigh employmentlevel oflabor and price stability during the time where inflation reached 18.2% 2. GI Bill 1944- signed by FDR, the bill provided college education for returning World War II veterans as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It gave other benefits to the veterans including different types of loans for them to start their own businesses or buy homes. 3. Post-War Strikes- Late 1945 and early 1946 had brought a wave of strikes as competitive labor and industrialists strategically positioned themselves in a new post-war economy. The biggest strikes took place in the auto, steel, and coal mining industries. 4. 80th Congress- the first televised meeting of the legislative branch of the federal government; met from January 3, 1947 to January 3, 1949, during the third and fourth years of Truman s Presidency. In this Congress, Republicans gained a majority of both the House and Senate. The Democrats had the majorities in the previous Congress and they regained them back in the 81st Congress. 5. Taft-Hartley Act- U.S. federal law that monitors the activities and power of labor unions; the Taft-Hartley Act amended the previous Wagner Act administered by President FDR; although vetoed by President Truman, the Taft-Hartley was legislated after overriding the President s veto 6. 1948 Election: Dixiecrats, Progressives, Truman, Dewey upset- Truman(24 million popular votes and 303 electoral votes) beat Dewey (22 million popular votes and 189 electoral votes) in the 1948 election for these reasons: The new deal coalition and southern whites rallied to Truman s support, many farmers voted for Truman, and the extremist images of the Dixiecrats and the Progressives helped Truman by making the Democratic Party look moderate 7. Fair Deal- a legislative program that established the call for universal health care as a rallying cry for the democratic party.Lyndon Johnson credited Truman's unfulfilled program as influencing Great Society measures such as Medicare that Johnson successfully enacted during the 1960s. The Fair Deal faced much opposition from the many conservative politicians who wanted a reduced role of the federal government. The series of domestic reforms was a major push to transform the United States from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy.It faced strong opposition from the conservative Democrats and Republicans. 8. Post-war concensus- an era in British political history which lasted from the end of World War II in 1945 to the election of Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in 1979. During this period, Britain took belief in Keynesian economics, a mixed economy with the nationalisation of major industries, the establishment of the National Health Service and the creation of the modern welfare state in Britain. 9. Desegregation of the military- President Harry S Truman's Executive Order 9981 ordered the integration of the armed forces shortly after World War II, a major advance in civil rights. Using the Executive Order (E.O.) meant that Truman could bypass Congress.At the end of June 1950, the Korean War broke out.The first months of the Korean War were some of the most disastrous in U.S. military history. The North Korean People's Army nearly drove the American-led United Nations forces off the Korean peninsula. Faced with staggering losses in white units, commanders on the ground began accepting black replacements, thus integrating their units. The practice occurred all over the Korean battle lines and proved that integrated combat units could perform under fire. 10. "To Secure These Rights"- laws guaranteeing voting rights and equal employment opportunity and for the establishment of a permanent commission on civil rights. 11. Cold War- the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939 1945), primarily between the Soviet Union and its satellite states, and the powers of the Western world, particularly the United States. Although the primary participants' military forces never officially clashed directly, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, a nuclear arms race, economic and technological competitions, such as the Space Race.In the 1980s, the United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures against

the USSR, which had already suffered severe economic stagnation. Thereafter, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of perestroika ("reconstruction", "reorganization", 1987) and glasnost ("openness", ca. 1985). The Cold War ended after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, leaving the United States as the dominant military power, and Russia possessing most of the Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal. 12. George Kennan Long Telegram - After Stalin gave a speech in February 1946 that depicted the world as threatened by capitalist acquisitveness, the American charge d affaires in Moscow, George F. Kennan, sent a pessimisitic long telegram to Washington. He asserted that Soviet fanaticism made even a temporary understanding impossible. 13. Churchill: Iron Curtain Speech - Winston Churchill delivered a stirring speech in Fulton, Missouri. He is a former British prime minister who wartned that a Soviet-erected iron curtain had cut off Eastern European countries from the West. He called for Anglo-American partnership to resist the new menace. 14. Baruch Plan- In 1946, Truman backed this plan named after the author, financer Bernard Baruch. Largely a propaganda ploy, this proposal provided for the U.S. s abandonment of its monopoly only after the world s fissionable materials were brought under the authority of an international agency. 15. Iran: 1946- The two Cold War powers, U.S. and Russia, supported two different groups in Iran, where the U.S. helped bring the pro-West shah to the throne. 16. Greece & Turkey 1947- Greece was in a civil war where British requested American help to defend their conservative client government agaisnt a leftist insurgency. The Soviets had little influence in those areas. Most communists there were pro-Tito than pro-Stalin. Truman gained support in sending military advisors and using U.S. money to defeat the insurgents. 17. Truman Doctrine- Truman in this dramatic speech that would guide American policymakers for almost a half-century stated that the policy of the U.S. should be supporting free peoples who are resisiting attempted subjugation by armed miniorities or by oustide pressures. 18. Containment- The Truman Doctrine helped launch the containment doctrine: the U.S. had to draw the line agaisnt communism everywhere. 19. Mr.X - Mr.X is the pen name of State Department official George F. Kennan who published an influential statement of the containment doctrine in the magazing Foregin Affairs. He advocated a policy of firm containment, designed to confront the Russians with unalterable counterforce at every point where they show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world. 20. Marshall Plan- A U.S. plan launched in 1948 to finance a massive European recovery program. It sent $12.4 billion to Western Europe before the program ended in 1951 in order to stimulate business at home by ensuring the foreign aid dollars will be spent in the U.S. on American-made products. 21. National Security Act- Passed July 1947 creating the Department of Defense replacing the Department of War, the National Security Council to advise the president, and the Central Intelligence Agency to conduct spying and information gathering. 22. Berlin Airlift- Soviets cut off Western access to the jointly occupied city of Berlin, located well inside the Soviet zone. In response to this bold move, Truman ordered a massive airlift of food, feul and other supplies to Berlin. This effort blunted the Soviets who finally lifted the blockade in Mary 1949. 23. NATO- The North Atlantic Treaty Organization founded by U.S., Canada, and many western European nations in April 1949. NATO would function as a tripwire if the Soviets every pushed westward allowing the U.S. to bring full force bearing on the Soviets. 24. NSC-68- After Mao s victory in China and Soviet acquisition of the atomic bomb, the National Security Council delivered to the president in April 1950 a significant top secret document tagged NSC-68. The report appealed for a much enlarged military budget and the mobilization of public opinion in support of such an increase. 38. New Look- the name given to the national security policy of the United States during President Eisenhower s administration. It reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments of the United States with the nation's financial resources and emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats.

39. Liberation/Rollback- tactical term used by the United States foreign policy strategists during the Cold War. It was defined as using military force to roll back communism from the countries it had taken root in. 40. Massive retaliation- military doctrine and nuclear strategy in which a state commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attack. The term was coined by President Eisenhower s Secretary of State John Dulles in a speech on January 12, 1954. 41. Brinksmanship- term coined by Secretary of State John Dulles during the height of the Cold War. The term came from the political strategy of pushing the military to the brink of war in order to convince another nation to follow your demands. Dulles defined his policy of brinkmanship as "The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art. 42. Covert Action- a military, intelligence or law enforcement operation that is carried clandestinely and, often, outside of official channels. Covert operations aim to fulfill their mission objectives without any parties knowing who sponsored or carried out the operation. The CIA is the sole agency legally allowed to carry out covert actions. 44. Domino Theory- a foreign policy act used during the Cold War that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. 45. Suez Crisis- a military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel beginning on 29 October 1956. The attack followed Egypt's decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam. 46. Eisenhower Doctrine- doctrine announced by President Eisenhower to the U.S. Congress on January 5, 1957. Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism. 47. Sputnik-the first Earth orbiting artificial satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low earth orbit by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 and was the first in a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik Program. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik s success helped to ignite the United States and the Soviet Union in the Space Race during the cold War. 48. NASA- an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation s civilian space program. NASA was established by the National and Aeronautics and Space Act on July 29, 1958, becoming operational in October 1958. 49. National and Defense and Education Act- act signed into law on September 2, 1958, provided funding to United States education institutions at all levels. The act authorized funding for four years, increasing funding per year: for example, funding increased on eight program titles from 183 million dollars in 1959 to 222 million in 1960. While motivated by the increase in the number of students attending college and a growing national sense that U.S. scientists were falling behind scientists in the Soviet Union it was arguably catalyzed by early Soviet success in the Space race. 50. U2 incident- occurred on May 1, 1960 when an American U2 spy- plane was shot down over Soviet territory. The United States government at first denied the plane's purpose and mission, but then was forced to admit its role as a covert surveillance aircraft when the Soviet government produced its remains (largely intact) and surviving pilot Francis Powers. 51. Cuba s military involvement in Latin America mostly with the aim of overthrowing U.S. backed right wing regimes, many of them dictatorial has been extensive. Castro is a communist Cuban politician, one of the primary leaders of the Cuban Revolution, the Prime Minister of Cuba from February 1959 to December 1976, and then the President of the Council of State of Cuba until his resignation from the office in February 2008. He currently serves as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, a position he has held since its inception in 1965. 52. Military-industrial complex (MIC) is a concept commonly used to refer to policy relationships between governments, national armed forces, and the industrial sector that supports them. These relationships

include political approval for research, development, production, use, and support for military training, weapons, equipment, and facilities within the national defense and security policy. It is a type of iron triangle. 53. Babyboom most often refers to the dramatic post-World War II baby boom (1946-1964). There are an estimated 78.3 million Americans who were born during this demographic boom in births. The term is a general demographic one and is also applicable to other similar population expansions. 54. The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest (the geographic southern United States. The Sun Belt has seen substantial population growth in recent decades, fueled by milder winters; a surge in retiring baby boomers who migrate domestically; as well as the influx of immigrants, both legal and illegal. 55. Suburbs in North America exploded during the post-World War II economic expansion. Returning veterans wishing to start a settled life moved en masse to the suburbs. Levittown developed as a major prototype of mass-produced housing. At the same time, African Americans arrival in Northern cities en masse in addition to race riots in several large cities such as Detroit, Chicago, and Philadelphia further stimulated white suburban migration. 56. Rock n Roll s effects were worldwide and massive. Far beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. In addition, rock and roll may have helped the cause of the civil rights movement because both African American teens and white American teens enjoyed the music. Rock and roll songs described events and conflicts that most listeners could relate to from some point in their lives. An awakening in the young American culture began to take place. 57. TV commercials have become one of the most effective, persuasive, and popular method of selling products of many sorts, especially consumer goods. 58. Women by the millions took factory jobs to make up for the domestic manpower shortage during the war. After the war the number of working women dropped, but by 1950 it was climbing again, at the rate of a million a year. By 1956, 35 percent of all adult women were members of the labor force, and nearly a quarter of all married women were working. 59. Beatnik, a media stereotype of the 1950s and early 1960s, was a synthesis of the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s into violent film images and a cartoonish misrepresentation of the real-life people and the spirituality 60. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional. The decision overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. The Warren Court's unanimous (9 0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This victory paved the way for integration and the civil rights movement. 61. Emmett Louis "Bobo" Till (July 25, 1941 August 28, 1955) was an African American boy from Chicago, Illinois, who was murdered at the age of 14 in Money, Mississippi, a small town in the state's Delta region, after reportedly whistling at a white woman. The murder of Emmett Till was noted as one of the leading events that motivated the American Civil Rights Movement. The main suspects were acquitted, but later admitted to the murder. 62. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The boycott resulted in a crippling financial deficit for the Montgomery public transit system, because the city's black population who were the drivers of the boycott was also the bulk of the system's ridership. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 1, 1955 to December 20, 1956 when a federal ruling took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional. 63. Rosa Parks, refused to obey bus driver James Blake's order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger. Parks' action sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

11. Voting Right Act of 1965- Outlawed voting practices that discriminated or disenfranchised blacks or any other race, its also disqualified any laws or requirements to vote such as gender, race, and past family. This also allowed for the attorney general to supervise voter registration in areas where fewer than half of the minority residents of voting age were registered. 12. War on Poverty- The government decided to use its money to wipe out poverty through education and job opportunities, which also led the War on Poverty to include the Job Corps. The Job corps tried to teach the poor valuabe work skills, work experience, and start the education of the young people. Project Head Start helped preschoolers into grade school, and Upward Bound helped high school families from low income families. The War on Poverty was not taken well by the mayors of cities because it bypassed them and changed the city without their consent, also, women and children who lived under female headed families remained poor. 13. Medicare/Medicaid- It ensured the elderly against medical and hospital bills 14. Great Society- was a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the U.S on the initiative of President Johnson. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. 15. Warren Court- refers to the Supreme Court between 1953 and 1969, when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice. Mapp V. Ohio- was a case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts. Gideon V. Wainwright- In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attorneys. Escobedo V. Illinois- It decreed that the accused had a right to counsel during interrogation and the right to remain silent. Miranda V. Arizona- Police had to inform criminal suspects that had certain rights and that any statements could be used against them. Baker V. Carr- Established the rule of one person, one vote must prevail, at both state and national levels. Yates V. U.S- Ruled that the First Amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, unless it posed a "clear and present danger". Engel V. Vitale- determined that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and require its recitation in public schools. Griswold V. Connecticut- Ruled that a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives by married couples violated a marital right of privacy 16. Sit-ins -On February 1, 1960, four black students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College (A&T) , a historically black college, sat at a segregated lunch counter in the Greensboro, North Carolina, Woolworth's store. In the following days, hundreds of other students joined in the protest, sparking widespread sit-ins and boycotts for civil rights. 17. Freedom Riders were blacks who rode interstate buses to test the Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia. The Freedom Rides provoked violent reactions which drew national attention to the blatant disregard for the law by local governments who arrested the freedom riders. 18. SNCC, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, played a major role in coordinating nonviolent protests such as sit-ins, boycotts and marches. It was a big organizer of the Greensboro sit-ins and the freedom rides. 19. SCLC, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, was founded by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. with the help of 60 other black ministers and leaders in 1957. Its campaigns and projects include, Citizenship Schools, Albany Movement, Birmingham campaign, March on Washington, St. Augustine Protests, Selma Voting Rights Campaign and March to Montgomery, Grenada Freedom Movement, Chicago Freedom Movement,

and the Poor People's Campaign 20. James Meredith was the first black student to enter the University of Mississippi in 1962. After being denied twice, the NAACP filed a suit against the school claiming that he was only denied because of his skin color. After winning the case, Meredith attended the school which inspired violent riots. 21. Medgar Evers was the NAACP s first field secretary in Mississippi. Because of his involvement in boycotts and help in desegregating the University of Mississippi, he was assassinated in 1963. 22. Birmingham, Alabama gained the nick name Bombingham because of the multitude of bombings against blacks. 23. Letter From a Birmingham Jail was written by MLK in 1963 while being imprisoned for organizing a nonviolent protest. In the letter he defended his nonviolent actions in response to a statement made by eight Alabama clergymen that the case for civil rights should be won in the courts, not the streets. 24. The 1963 march on Washington was a political rally that was organized by a group of civil rights, labor, and religious organizations. This was when MLK gave his famous I Have a Dream speech. 25. The Mississippi Freedom Summer was an attempt by the COFO and the SNCC to register as many black voters as possible in the summer of 1964. 26. In 1965, Selma, Alabama became a focus of civil rights. After being denied voting rights and after over 3,000 arrests, blacks organized a march to protest. Six blocks in, local sheriffs and state troopers drove them back with tear gas and billy clubs. Two days later MLK gained the court s protection to march from Selma to Montgomery with over 25000 people. 27. The Long Hot Summers were the hot summers in the south during the civil rights movement when protesting and violence was at their highest. 28. Watts 1965- In the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles in 1965 there was a 6 day riot in which 34 people were killed, 2,032 injured, and 3,952 arrested. It was a reaction to the longstanding police brutality of the LAPD and other racial injustices suffered in the city. 29. Malcolm X - African-American and human rights activist. Imprisoned for various small crime in Boston and New York. While in prison joined The Nation of Islam. Conflicts with Elijah Muhammad cause Malcolm to leave The Nation of Islam. Prominent speaker and spokes person. Assassinated in New York while giving a speech. 30. Black Power Political slogan or fraise. Emphasized racial pride and creation of black government institutions. Used by black separatist radicals, advocating spate institutions and advancement of black rights. 31. Stokely Carmichael - African American civil rights activist. Became leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Popularized the term black power as prime minister of the Black Panthers 32. Black Panthers African American left wing revolutionary organization, moving forward the black power movement. Against black racism. 33. Civil Rights Act 1968 Expanded Civil Rights Act of 1964. Main reason was to allow for federal enforcement of the act instead of just private. 34. White Backlash Civil rights movement caused increased black rights, meaning increased completion for jobs. The extra competition felt by the whites caused anger and backlash. White backlash is used to describe Wallace s rejection of the civil rights act. 35. MLK Assassination Assassinated on April, 4 1968 at age 39 by James Earl Ray. Was shot the evening after his I ve been to the mountain top speech at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis. JFK gave a speech honering MLK. Caused riots throughout the united states. 1. Vietcong communist army organization of southern Vietnam and Cambodia. Fought American army during the Vietnam War. 2. Ngo Dinh Diem First President of South Vietnam. As endorsed by the US for his anti-communist beliefs 3. Ho Chi Minh Communist, president of Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Led the Viet minh independence movement defeating the French union and establishing the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. 4. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964, A joint revolution of congress. A response to a naval attack on the USS Maddox. The resolution gave president Johnson the power to use traditional military force without actually

declaring war. 5. Rolling Thunder a series of bombardments by the US on the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Had four main objectives.; destroy morale, persuade north Vietnam to stop its communist support, destroy transportation systems, stop flow of men and supplies into south Vietnam. 19. Roe v. Wade- (1973) a landmark case decided by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion, is one of the most controversial and politically significant cases in U.S. Supreme Court history. The Court held that a woman's right to an abortion is determined by her current trimester of pregnancy. 21. Eugene Joseph "Gene" McCarthy- (March 29, 1916 December 10, 2005) was an American politician, poet, and a long-time member of the United States Congress from Minnesota. In the 1968 presidential election, McCarthy was the first candidate to challenge incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson for the Democratic nomination for president of the United States, running on an anti-Vietnam War platform. The unexpected vote total he achieved in the New Hampshire primary led Johnson to withdraw from the race, and lured Robert F. Kennedy into the contest. He would unsuccessfully seek the presidency five times altogether. 22. RFK- From 1961 to 1964, he was the U.S. Attorney General. Following his brother, John's assassination on November 22, 1963, Kennedy continued to serve as Attorney General under President Lyndon B. Johnson for nine months. In September 1964, Kennedy resigned to seek the U.S. Senate seat from New York, which he won in November. Within a few years, he publicly split with Johnson over the Vietnam War. In March 1968, Kennedy began a campaign for the presidency and was a front-running candidate of the Democratic Party. In the California presidential primary on June 4, Kennedy defeated Eugene McCarthy, a fellow U.S. Senator from Minnesota. Following a brief victory speech delivered just past midnight on June 5 at The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, Kennedy was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan. 23. George Wallace- Wallace ran for President in the 1968 election as the American Independent Party candidate. He hoped to force the House of Representatives to decide the election by receiving enough electoral votes, presumably giving him the role of a power broker. Wallace hoped that southern states could use their clout to end federal efforts at desegregation. His platform contained generous increases for beneficiaries of Social Security and Medicare. 24. Herbert Humphrey- served under President Lyndon B. Johnson as the 38th Vice President of the United States. He was a founder of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party and Americans for Democratic Action. 25. Richard Nixon- united states president from 1969-1974. He successfully negotiated retraction of troops from Vietnam through the Nixon Doctrine. Also during his administration our government created economic programs through the Economic Stabilization Act. 26. Democratic convention, 1968 election- held during a year of violence, political turbulence, and civil unrest, particularly riots in more than 100 cities following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4. The convention also followed the assassination of Democratic presidential hopeful Senator Robert F. Kennedy, who had been shot on June 5. 27. 1968 as a watershed - much of the change was due to the social change for rights especially when Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated. 28. Nixon Doctrine- put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. He stated that the United States henceforth expected its allies to take care of their own military defense, but that the U.S. would aid in defense as requested. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies. 29. Vietnamization- policy of the Richard M. Nixon administration, to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops. This referred to U.S. combat troops specifically in the ground combat role, but did not reject combat by U.S. air forces, as well as the support to South Vietnam, consistent with the policies of U.S. foreign military assistance organizations. 30. Kent State- gained international attention on May 4, 1970 when an Ohio Army National Guard unit fired at students during an anti-war protest on campus, killing four and wounding nine. The Guard had been called into Kent after several protests in and around campus had become violent, including the rioting of

downtown Kent and the burning of the ROTC building. The main cause of the protests was the United States' invasion of Cambodia during the Vietnam War. The shootings caused an immediate closure of the campus with students and faculty given just 60 minutes to pack belongings. 31. Pentagon papers- was a top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. Commissioned by United States Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in 1967, the study was completed in 1968. The papers were first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of the New York Times in 1971. 32. War Powers Act 1973- The War Powers Resolution of 1973 was a United States Congress joint resolution providing that the President can send U.S. armed forces into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or if the United States is already under attack or serious threat. 33. Détente- Détente is the easing of strained relations in a political situation. The term is used in reference to the general easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States, a thawing at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War. 34. Henry Kissinger- Kissinger served as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State under President Richard Nixon, and continued as Secretary of State under Nixon's successor Gerald Ford. A proponent of Realpolitik, Kissinger played a dominant role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. In that period, he extended the policy of détente. This policy led to a significant relaxation in U.S.-Soviet tensions and played a crucial role in 1971 talks with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. The talks concluded with a rapprochement between the United States and the People's Republic of China, and the formation of a new strategic anti-Soviet Sino-American alignment. He was awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to establish a ceasefire and US withdrawal from Vietnam. The ceasefire, however, was not durable. Kissinger favored the maintenance of friendly diplomatic relationships with right-wing military dictatorships in the Southern Cone and elsewhere in Latin America. 35. Nixon and China- Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to the People's Republic of China was an important step in formally normalizing relations between the United States and the PRC. It marked the first time a U.S. president had visited the PRC, who at that time considered the U.S. one of its most formidable foes. 36. Oil embargo- The 1973 oil crisis started in October 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or Egypt, Syria and Tunisia proclaimed an oil embargo in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military during the Yom Kippur war; it lasted until March 1974. 37. New Federalism -is a political philosophy of devolution, or of transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government to the states. The primary objective of New Federalism, unlike that of the eighteenth-century political philosophy of Federalism, is the restoration to the states of some of the autonomy and power which they lost to the federal government as a consequence of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal and federal civil rights laws of the 1960s. 38. Southern strategy- refers to a Republican Party method of winning Southern states in the latter decades of the 20th century and first decade of the 21st century by exploiting opposition among the once segregationist South to the cultural upheaval of New Left, Vietnam protests, the hippie culture, gun control, abortion and to desegregation and the Civil Rights and Women's movements. 39. Stagflation- occurs when a country's inflation rate is high and unemployment rate is high. It is an economic condition in which inflation and economic stagnation are occurring simultaneously and have remained unchecked for a significant period of time. 40. Silent majority- is an unspecified large majority of people in a country or group who do not express their opinions publicly. The term was popularized (though not first used) by U.S. President Richard Nixon in a November 3, 1969 speech, where it referred to those Americans who did not join in the large demonstrations against the Vietnam War at the time, who did not join in the counterculture, and who did not enthusiastically participate in public discourse or the media. 41. Watergate- was a political scandal in the United States in the 1970s, resulting from the break-in into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. Effects of the scandal ultimately led to the resignation of the United States President Richard Nixon on August 9, 1974. It also resulted in the indictment and conviction of several Nixon administration officials.

44. César Chavez -was a Mexican American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW).

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