Entanglement Entropy in integrable models
Francesco Ravanini
Collaboration with
Davide Bianchini, Elisa Ercolessi, Fabio Franchini, Paul Pearce
arXiv:0905.4000, 1008.3892, 1201.6367, 1205.6426, 1301.6758
& work in progress
Seoul, 17 dic 2013
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Outline
Introduction: Von Neumann and Renyi entropies as a measure
of Entanglement
Entanglement entropy in 1+1 dim CFT
Entanglement entropy in 1D lattice spin chains: the Corner
Transfer Matrix (CTM) method
XYZ chain exact Entanglement entropy
Entanglement entropy in bipartite sineGordon
Entanglement entropy in spin chains related to ABF and FB
models
Hamiltonians of ABFFB chains from an algebraic point of
view
Conclusions
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Introduction
Entanglement: fundamental quantum property
Dierent reasons for interest:
Quantum Information
Quantum Phase Transitions
Condensed matter physics
Integrable models
Black holes
Quantum computers
universality
nonlocal correlators
new playground
Information paradox & Quantum Gravity
NON LOCALITY intrinsic in Quantum Mechanics?
EPR paradox: uncompleteness of QM or nonlocality?
Bell inequalities local hidden variables exist only if a
certain correlation
P<2
Clauser Friedmann & Aspect
experiments P > 2 =
possible nonlocality of QM
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Quantum systems and subsystems
Quantum system with unique pure ground state 0i composed
of two subsystems, A and B.
If a state has wavefunction
iAB = iA iB
Separable = No entanglement
(i.e. measurements on B do not aect A state)
If instead
iAB =
with d
> 1 =
d
X
j =1
j j iA j iB
Entangled (measurements of B do aect A
state)
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Entanglement and density matrix
Dene
reduced density matrix for subsystem A
A = TrB
Quantum entropy (Von Neumann) of Entanglement (EEntropy)
SA
= TrA (A log A ) = SB
[Bennett, Bernstein, Popescu, Schumacher 1996]
For a separable state SA
maximal
= SA
Area law
= 0,
for a maximally entangled state it is
is a measure of Entanglement
[Srednicki 1993]
SA
Area( A)
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Renyi Entropy
Rnyi Entropy
S
1
1
log
TrA A
Introduced by hungarian mathematician Rnyi in probability theory
It reduces to Von Neumann for
Contains higher momenta and for
reduced density matrix
the spectrum of the
can be read
link with replica trick la Calabrese Cardy
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Entanglement entorpy in CFT
[Holzhey, Larsen, Wilczek 1994  Calabrese, Cardy 2004]
S (`)
'
c
3
log
`
a
+U
c = central charge of CFT, U = nonuniversal constant,
a = UVcuto
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Entanglement entopy in CFT: generalizations
Finite temperature T
SA
c
3
log
= 1 ,
innite size
`
sinh
a
+U
(
`
`
Finite size L
SA
c
3
log
sin
+ U = SB
Open systems: same formulae with dierent U
U
2
=boundary
entropy
= log g
[Aeck, Ludwig 1991]
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
c `
3
3 log a
Entanglement in a Spin Chain
Hamiltonian
H
N
X
k =1
Consider the ground state with
Hk ,k +1
= 0ih0
Block of spins in the space interval [1, `] is subsystem A
The rest of the ground state is subsystem B
Entanglement of a block of spins in the space interval
[1, `]
of `
with the rest of the ground state as a function
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
EEntropy and Universality
Powers of
easily accessible in CFT (replica trick)
S (`)
1
1
TrA (A )
= scaling dimension of the operator responsible for the correction
[Calabrese, Cardy 20042010]
h
nonuniversal
S (`)
}
{
h
+ c0 + b (`)` + ...
{z
}

z
log `
Conjectured
6
Close to criticality
c
6
a 1
1
and
log
[Calabrese, Cardy, Peschel 2010]
F. Ravanini
}
x
+ C0 + B
EE in Integrable Models
{
+ ...
Corner Transfer Matrix
CTM is a very useful tool
A
s ,s 0
[Baxter (1972)]
XY
wi
and analogously B , C , D with 90 rotations.
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Partition function and CTM
Now we can build up the whole lattice by using the 4 CTM's
Partition function
Z=
0 B
0
00 C
00
000 D
000
= Tr(ABCD )
,
0 ,
00 ,
000
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Reduced density matrix and CTM
Now suppose to divide the spins in two subsystems A:
A = (1 , ..., p )
= (
A ,
B )
and B:
B = (p+1 , ..., L ),
i.e.
Reduced density matrix of subsystem A
A (
A ,
A0 ) =
h
A ,
B 0ih0
A0 ,
B i = TrB h
A 0ih0
A0 i
A = (ABCD ) ,0
F. Ravanini
1
1
log TrA A
EE in Integrable Models
XYZ model
Hamiltonian
HXYZ
N
X
(Jx kx kx +1 + Jy ky ky +1 + Jz kz kz +1 )
k =1
commutes with transfer matrix of 8vertex model
Useful parametrization
Jy
Jx
+ k 2 sn2 (i ; k )
1 k 2 sn2 (i ; k )
<k <1
and 0
F. Ravanini
Jz
Jx
cn(i ; k ) dn(i ; k )
1 k 2 sn2 (i ; k )
I (k 0 )
EE in Integrable Models
Diagonalization of CTM
One can prove that, in XYZ, A
=C
and B
= D.
In the thermodynamic limit the following formula holds for the
diagonalized CTM
[Baxter (1977)]
A = ABCD = (AB ) =
where
1
0
0
x
...
= I
(k )
= e I (k ) = e
depends on the XYZ parameters through elliptic
functions and I (k ) is the elliptic integral of 1st kind of
modulus k
= e HCTM
where
HCTM =
HCTM
is a operator with integer spectrum
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
...
Diagonalization of CTM
One can prove that, in XYZ, A
=C
and B
= D.
In the thermodynamic limit the following formula holds for the
diagonalized CTM
[Baxter (1977)]
A = ABCD = (AB ) =
where
1
0
0
x
...
= I
(k )
= e I (k ) = e
depends on the XYZ parameters through elliptic
functions and I (k ) is the elliptic integral of 1st kind of
modulus k
= e HCTM
where
HCTM =
HCTM
is a operator with integer spectrum
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
...
Entanglement entropy of XYZ model
The trace of the reduced density matrix
Y
Z = TrA =
(1 + x j )
and
j =1
SA
=
log Z
+ log Z
leads to the nal formula for Von Neumann
SA
X
=
(1 + e j )
j =1
and for Rnyi entropy (q
+ e j )
j =1
x =nome)
log(1
X
2j
log(1 + q ) +
1
j =1
1
1
log(1
+ q 2j )
j =1
that can also be written in theta function terms
S
22 (0, q )
4 (0, q )3 (0, q )
+
log
=
log
6(1 )
3 (0, q )4 (0, q )
22 (0, q )
1
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Phase diagram of XYZ model
Approaching criticality the
SA
[Calabese  Cardy (2004)] formula holds
=
c
6
log
+ cost.
everywhere but at the E1,2 points
Jy
uconstant line
lconstant line
C2
E2
Jz
E1
F. Ravanini
C1
EE in Integrable Models
Isoentropic lines
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Link with Ising characters
Z(x ) =
Y
(1 + x j ) = x Ising
1,2 (i /)
1
12
j =1
and
Ising
1,2 (i /)
i
Tr = h
Ising
(
i
/)
1,2
Critical XXZ line: approached for x
1.
Use modular
transformation to get this limit x
Tr
Similar to
not c
=1
=2
1
2
=e
Ising
Ising
1,1 (i /) 2,1 (i /)
h
i
Ising
Ising
1,1 (i /) 2,1 (i /)
[Calabrese, Cardy, Peschel (2011)] but with c = 12
(!):
HCTM
characters,
is the hamiltonian of a free fermion
property of many integrable models
F. Ravanini
[Peschel (2010)]
EE in Integrable Models
The sineGordon limit
Scaling limit of the XYZ model:
lattice spacing a
while
mass gap kept constant
M
= 8
sin
/
`
where
2
1
8
1974]
= arccos (Jz )
sineGordon theory
`2
Jy2
1 Jz2
1
[Johnson, Krinsky, McCoy 1973  Luther
Jz is connected to the parameter
Jy scales in the scaling limit a
F. Ravanini
of sineGordon
Jy
EE in Integrable Models
Entanglement in bipartite SG
Exact entanglement entropy of a bipartite XYZ model in the
sineGordon limit
SsG
or, taking
SsG
1
6
k ) 3 ln 2
r
12
1 + Jz
arctan
1 Jz
Jz = cos 1
8
=
ln(1
ln 2
+ O (1/ ln(a))
ln
1
Ma
h
i
sin 1
8
1
+ O (1/ ln(a))
+ ln
6
1
8
2
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Minimal models + 13
Continuum limit of ABF models on square lattice. CTM
diagonalization is given and the calculation of
straightforward
[Franchini, De Luca (2012)]
Can be generalized to FB nonunitary models
Ercolessi, FR, Pearce, work in progress]
[Bianchini,
Renyi entropy
1
1
TrA A
1
1
log Z
log Z1
expression very complicated in terms of theta functions, but
expanding:
+ 1 ce
12
F. Ravanini
log
+ U + A ()
EE in Integrable Models
Open problems
Taking p , p
in
Mp , p 0
but with their ratio xed, one
accesses EEntropy for logCFT and their ocritical lattice
realizations (percolations,...)
[Pearce, Seaton (2011)]
Is ce the correct leading coecient predicition from CFT?
ctheorem like arguments do not work for nonunitary cases.
One has to compute 4pt correlators with twist elds
hT T i
instead of
hT T i
to compute with replica trick. Progresses have been done
[Sierra et al. (2013)]
What is the interpretation of EEntropy in nonunitary
theories?
The answer is yes, but... what was the question?
[W. Allen]:
We know the 2D classical lattice model, we can compute
formally S , but what is the quantum Hamiltonian we are
dealing with?
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Open problems
Taking p , p
in
Mp , p 0
but with their ratio xed, one
accesses EEntropy for logCFT and their ocritical lattice
realizations (percolations,...)
[Pearce, Seaton (2011)]
Is ce the correct leading coecient predicition from CFT?
ctheorem like arguments do not work for nonunitary cases.
One has to compute 4pt correlators with twist elds
hT T i
instead of
hT T i
to compute with replica trick. Progresses have been done
[Sierra et al. (2013)]
What is the interpretation of EEntropy in nonunitary
theories?
The answer is yes, but... what was the question?
[W. Allen]:
We know the 2D classical lattice model, we can compute
formally S , but what is the quantum Hamiltonian we are
dealing with?
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Open problems
Taking p , p
in
Mp , p 0
but with their ratio xed, one
accesses EEntropy for logCFT and their ocritical lattice
realizations (percolations,...)
[Pearce, Seaton (2011)]
Is ce the correct leading coecient predicition from CFT?
ctheorem like arguments do not work for nonunitary cases.
One has to compute 4pt correlators with twist elds
hT T i
instead of
hT T i
to compute with replica trick. Progresses have been done
[Sierra et al. (2013)]
What is the interpretation of EEntropy in nonunitary
theories?
The answer is yes, but... what was the question?
[W. Allen]:
We know the 2D classical lattice model, we can compute
formally S , but what is the quantum Hamiltonian we are
dealing with?
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Open problems
Taking p , p
in
Mp , p 0
but with their ratio xed, one
accesses EEntropy for logCFT and their ocritical lattice
realizations (percolations,...)
[Pearce, Seaton (2011)]
Is ce the correct leading coecient predicition from CFT?
ctheorem like arguments do not work for nonunitary cases.
One has to compute 4pt correlators with twist elds
hT T i
instead of
hT T i
to compute with replica trick. Progresses have been done
[Sierra et al. (2013)]
What is the interpretation of EEntropy in nonunitary
theories?
The answer is yes, but... what was the question?
[W. Allen]:
We know the 2D classical lattice model, we can compute
formally S , but what is the quantum Hamiltonian we are
dealing with?
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Quantum critical hamiltonian
Uq (sl (2))
At criticality
invariant XXZ model
(1988)  Pasquier, Saleur (1990)]
H
= J
N
1
X
n=1
(nx nx+1 +ny ny+1 +
[Alcaraz, Barber, Batchelor
1
+ q 1 z z
q q
z)
n n+1 )+
(1z N
2
Can be rewritten in terms of TemperleyLieb operators
= J
N
1
X
n =1
en
= (q +q 1 )en
en en1 en
F. Ravanini
= en
en
en em
= em en
EE in Integrable Models
if n m 
>1
Quantum ocritical hamiltonian
What happens ocriticality? Exercise done so far for the r
=4
case. Try to write the hamiltonian using tile operators Fn and
exploit tile algebra to show that
= J
N
1
X
n =1
Fn
with
Fn Fn+1 Fn
where
= Fn
(F2n )2 = 1 F2n
1 = 2 = (q + q 1 )
(F2n+1 )2 = 2 F2n+1
at the critical point t
It resembles TLalgebra, but with
algebras?)
F. Ravanini
= 0.
two parameters (= elliptic
EE in Integrable Models
Summary
Von Neumann and Rnyi EEntropies are crucial tools to study
entanglement in quantum systems. In integrable models, they
can be calculated using integrable techniques.
Corner Transfer Matrix technique allows the exact calculation
of bipartite EEntropy in spin chains. Having the exact formula
at hand, one can test some of the open issues about
entanglement in these models.
A suitable scaling limit yields the sineGordon model and
Eentropy can be calculated for its bipartition. It is the rst
calculation of this kind for an interacting eld theory.
An integrable way to compute nite size EEntropy is to be
developed. It would complement the present knowledge by
new precious information.
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models
Conclusions
Entanglement entropy is a new way to approach interesting
problems in theoretical physics and it should be better
understood in (integrable) QFT, as it seems crucial in the
solution of challenging paradoxes, like the information loss in
black holes.
It also stimulates progresses in mathematics, in the best
tradition of the integrability approach.
Thank you!!!
F. Ravanini
EE in Integrable Models