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You are on page 1of 52

Design

of Control Systems

Dept. of Electrical Engineering

National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India

bidyadhar@nitrkl.ac.in

Time Response

steady-state responses

of Control Systems

Second Order System

TransientResponseSpecifications

The response for a unit step input of an underdamped second order system

Rise Time

Peak Time

It follows

frequency damped oscillations

Maximum Overshoot

The maximum overshoot Mp occurs at the peak time

Thus from equation

percent overshoot

Settling Time Ts

Delay Time

We define the delay time by the following approximate formula:

Example

Example

Transient-response analysis

with MATLAB.

Introduction

The practical procedure for plotting time response

curves of systems higher than second-order is

through computer simulation.

In this part, computational approach to the

transient-response analysis with MATLAB is

presented through various examples.

A linear system can be represented either:

In state-variable form:

with the values of the matrices F, G, H and the constant J.

Or

By its transfer function:

Either in numerator-denominator polynomial form,

Or in pole-zero form

Or in partial expansion form

Form

Consider a linear system described by:

1

0

0

F

G

0 0.05

0.001

H 0 1

J 0

defined in State-Variable form

F = [0 1;0 -0.05];

G = [0;0.001];

H = [0 1];

J = 0;

step(F,G,H,J)

response (with Time (sec) and

Amplitude labels on x- and y-axis

respectively, and Step response

title )

Note: time vector is automatically

determined when t is not explicitly

included in the step command.

State-Variable form

F = [0 1;0 -0.05];

G = [0;0.001];

H = [0 1];

J = 0;

sys = ss(F, 50*G, H, J);

step(sys)

matrices

% generates plot of 50-step

response vs t

Note: State-variable form is also

called state-space form

for a system defined in State-Variable form

F = [0 1;0 -0.05];

G = [0;0.001];

H = [0 1];

J = 0;

sys = ss(F, G, H, J);

t = 0:0.2:100;

y=step(sys,t);

plot(t,y)

matrices

% setup time vector ( dt = 0.2 sec)

% plots unit step response versus

time ranging from 0 to 100 sec

(with x- and y-labels)

State-Variable form

F = [0 1;0 -0.05];

G = [0;0.001];

H = [0 1];

J = 0;

sys = ss(F, G, H, J);

impulse(sys)

matrices

% generates plot of impulse response

(with labels & title)

Note: an alternative use of impulse

command is:

impulse(F,G,H,J)

Consider a linear system such as:

x 10 x 5 x

x(0) 2, x (0) 1

In state-variable form, it is described by:

1

0

0

F

G

10 5

0

H 1 0

J 0

x

X

x

2

X(t 0)

1

defined in State-Variable form

F = [0 1;-10 -5];

G = [0;0];

H = [1 0];

J = 0;

t = 0:0.5:3;

y=initial(F,G,H,J,[2;1],t);

plot(t,y)

matrices

% computes initial condition

response

% generates plot of response

Note: Initial conditions are

defined between [ ].

numerator-denominator form

Consider a linear system whose the transfer

function is:

N ( s)

G( s)

D( s )

Function defined in num/den polynomial form

25

G ( s) 2

s 4s 25

num = [0 0 25];

den = [1 4 25];

step(num,den)

% defines numerator

% defines denominator

% generates plot of unit-step

response (with labels and title)

Function defined in num/den polynomial form

Y( s )

1

G( s ) 2

X( s )

s 0.2s 1

1

50

50

1

Y( s ) 2

2

s 0.2s 1 s

s

0.2

s 1 s

Gnew ( s )

num = [0 0 50];

den = [1 0.2 1];

step(num,den)

unit step

% defines numerator

% defines denominator

% generates plot of 50-step

response (with labels and title)

Functions defined by

1

G( s) 2

, 0, 0.2, 0.4,,1

s 2s 1

t = 0:0.2:10;

zeta = [0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1];

for n = 1:6;

num = [0 0 1];

den = [1 2*zeta(n) 1];

[y(1:51,n),x, t] = step(num,den,t);

end

plot(t,y)

% defines zeta,

numerator and

denominator

the n unit-step

responses (on same

graph)

Functions defined by

1

G( s) 2

, 0, 0.2, 0.4,,1

s 2s 1

t = 0:0.2:10;

zeta = [0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1];

for n = 1:6;

num = [0 0 1];

den = [1 2*zeta(n) 1];

[y(1:51,n),x, t] = step(num,den,t);

end

mesh(t,zeta,y)

% defines zeta,

numerator and

denominator

the n unit-step

responses (on same

graph)

defined by its Transfer Function

1

1

G(s) 2

3 2

s s 1 s s s s

num = [0 0 0 1];

den = [1 1 1 0];

step(num,den)

% defines numerator

% defines denominator

% generates plot of unit-step

response (with x- and y-labels)

Function defined in num/den polynomial form

1

G( s) 2

s 0.2s 1

num = [0 0 1];

den = [1 0.2 1];

sys=tf(num,den);

impulse(sys)

% defines numerator

% defines denominator

% defines system by its transfer

function

% generates plot of impulse response

Note: an alternative use of impulse

command is:

impulse(num,den)

Response

Y( s )

1

G( s ) 2

X( s )

s 0.2s 1

1

s

1

Y( s ) 2

1 2

s 0.2s 1

s

0.2

s 1 s

Gnew ( s )

num = [0 1 0];

den = [1 0.2 1];

step(num,den)

unit step

% defines denominator

% generates plot of impulse

response (with x- and y-labels)

2nd order system

Consider a standard second order system:

G( s ) 2

2

s 2 0 s 0

2

0

damping

ratio

natural

undamped

frequency

Order System

w0 = 5;

damping_ratio = 0.4;

[num0,den] = ord2(w0,damping_ratio);

num = 5^2*num0;

printsys(num,den,s)

% defines natural

undamped frequency

% defines damping ratio

% defines numerator

% prints num/den as a

ratio of s-polynomials

num/den =

25

s 2 4s 25

Consider a linear system whose the transfer

function is:

( s z1 )(s z2 ) ( s zm )

G( s)

( s p1 )(s p2 ) ( s pn )

Function defined in pole-zero form

( s 2)( s 4)

G( s) 2

( s s)( s 3)

num = conv([1 2],[1 4]);

den = conv([1 1 0],[1 3]);

step(num,den)

% defines pole ratios

% plots unit-step response

Expansion Form

Consider a linear system whose the transfer

function is:

Kn

K1

K2

G( s)

s p1 s p2

s pn

Function defined in partial expansion form

8 3 3 2 1/ 6

G( s)

s

s 1 s 3

r = [8/3 -3/2 -1/6];

p = [0 -1 -3];

K = [] ;

[num,den] = residue(r,p,K)

step(num,den)

% defines residues

% defines poles

% define additive constant

% convert partial expansion

form to polynomial form

% plots unit-step response

Note: to see ratio use

printsys(num,den,s)

Convertion

Transfer function:

[num,den] = ss2tf(F,G,H,J)

In num-den polynomial

form

[z,p,k]=tf2zp(num,den)

[z,p,k] = ss2zp(F,G,H,J)

In zero-pole form

[r,p,K]=residue(num,den)

State-variable form

Convertion

Transfer function:

[F,G,H,J] = tf2ss(num,den)

In num-den polynomial

form

[num,den]=zp2tf(z,p,k)

[F,G,H,J] = zp2ss(z,p,k)

In zero-pole form

[num,den]=residue(r,p,K)

State-variable form

Cosmetic

symbols,

title (Step-response);

grid;

% draws a grid between ticks

sys = ;

% defines system by

t = 0:0.2:100;

y = step(sys,t);

plot (t,y);

xlabel(t (sec));

ylabel(response)

% computes step response

% plots step response

% writes label t (sec) on x-axis.

% writes label response on y-axis.

text(3.4, -0.06, Y111);

text(4.1,1.86,\zeta);

gtext(blabla)

coordinates x=3.4, y=-0.06.

% writes at x=4.1, y=1.86

% waits until the cursor is

positioned (using the mouse) at

the desired position in the screen

and then writes on the plot at the

cursors location the text

enclosed in simple quotes.

Note: any number of gtext

command can be used in a plot.

25

G ( s) 2

s 6s 25

num = [0 0 25];

den = [1 6 25];

t = 0:0.5:5;

y = step(num,den,t);

plot(t,y,o,t,1,-);

% defines numerator

% defines denominator

% defines time vector

% computes unit-step response

% plot of unit step response y and

unit step input 1 using oooo and

---- symbols respectively.

25

G ( s) 2

s 6s 25

num = [0 0 25];

den = [1 6 25];

t = 0:0.5:5;

y = step(num,den,t);

plot(t,y,x,t,y,-);

% defines numerator

% defines denominator

% defines time vector

% computes step response

% plot of unit step response y

using -x-x-x-x- symbols

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