Getting Started with VIP

© 2001, 2002 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 159673 R2003.4

© 2001, 2002 Landmark Graphics Corporation
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Getting Started with VIP

Contents
About This Manual ...........................................................................................................
Purpose................................................................................................................................
Organization........................................................................................................................
Related Documentation.......................................................................................................
Data Studio-CORE and VIP-CORE Reference Manual ..............................................
Data Studio-EXEC and VIP-EXECUTIVE Reference Manual ..................................
VIP Technical Reference Manual ................................................................................
GRIDGENR User’s Guide ...........................................................................................
VIP Data Studio User’s Guide .....................................................................................
SimResults On-line Help and PLOTVIEW User’s Guide ...........................................
3DVIEW/2DVIEW User’s Guide ...............................................................................
DESKTOP-PVT User’s Guide ....................................................................................
DESKTOP-PVT Keyword Reference Manual ............................................................
Job Submittal User’s Guide .........................................................................................
VIP Convert User’s Guide ...........................................................................................
Useful Textbooks ................................................................................................................

Overview ...............................................................................................................................
What Is VIP?.......................................................................................................................
The VIP Simulator ..............................................................................................................
The Initialization Module (VIP-CORE) ......................................................................
The Simulation Module (VIP-EXEC) .........................................................................
The DESKTOP-VIP Software ............................................................................................
What is DESKTOP-VIP? .............................................................................................
Simulation Pre-Processors .....................................................................................
Simulator Post-Processors .....................................................................................
How DESKTOP-VIP Aids Reservoir Simulation .......................................................
The DESKTOP-VIP Directory Structure ...........................................................................

File Naming Conventions ................................................................................................
Introduction.........................................................................................................................
VIP Casefiles ......................................................................................................................
Initialization Casefiles ........................................................................................................
An Example ........................................................................................................................
VIP-CORE Output Files .....................................................................................................
VIP-EXEC Output Files .....................................................................................................
Well Names.........................................................................................................................
Understanding the WDB File ......................................................................................
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Example of Well Conversion .......................................................................................
Notes ......................................................................................................................

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Starting and Using DESKTOP-VIP ............................................................................

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Introduction.........................................................................................................................
Starting DESKTOP-VIP .....................................................................................................
Understanding How DESKTOP-VIP Works......................................................................
Desktop User Interface Conventions ...........................................................................
Working with Sessions ................................................................................................
Save a Session ........................................................................................................
Add a Session .........................................................................................................
Working with Studies and Cases .................................................................................
Classes of Cases .....................................................................................................
Open A Study and Case .........................................................................................
Close a Study and Case ..........................................................................................
Create a Study and/or Case ....................................................................................
Using Example Files ....................................................................................................
Using DESKTOP-VIP .................................................................................................
VDB Files ....................................................................................................................
Converting VDBs to the New Format ...................................................................
Rules Associated with vdb Files and Cases ...........................................................
A Pictorial VDB Example .....................................................................................
Database Locking ..................................................................................................
Getting Help........................................................................................................................
Viewing the Online Help .............................................................................................

The Initial Reservoir Model ...........................................................................................
Introduction.........................................................................................................................
Understanding the Initialization Data .................................................................................
Scalar Data ...................................................................................................................
Fluid and Rock Properties ............................................................................................
Arrays ...........................................................................................................................
Initial Conditions .........................................................................................................
Creating the Initialization Data...........................................................................................
Using Keywords for Model Input ................................................................................
Using Data Studio-CORE ............................................................................................
Using GRIDGENR/ARRAY to Configure the Model and Calculate Data .................
Understanding the GRIDGENR Interface .............................................................
Digitizing with GRIDGENR .................................................................................
Compiling the Final Data....................................................................................................
Shorthand Conventions For Entering Repeated Values By Hand .........................
Modifications (MOD) ............................................................................................
Overreads (OVER) ................................................................................................
Value Overread (VOVER) .....................................................................................
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Multiple (MULT) ...................................................................................................
Summary of Common CORE Utility Data .........................................................................
Running the VIP-CORE Initialization ................................................................................
Checking the Status of a VIP-CORE Run ..........................................................................
Analyzing the Results .........................................................................................................

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Reservoir Simulation ........................................................................................................

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Understanding Simulation Data..........................................................................................
Using VIP Data Studio for Simulation Input......................................................................
Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data.........................................................................
Time-Dependent Data ..................................................................................................
Well Data .....................................................................................................................
Shorthand Conventions ..........................................................................................
Simulation Control .......................................................................................................
Timestep Control .........................................................................................................
Selecting What You Want Printed ...............................................................................
OUTPUT Card .......................................................................................................
PRINT Card ...........................................................................................................
Well Status ...................................................................................................................
VIP Job Submission............................................................................................................
Checking the Status of a VIP-EXEC Run ..........................................................................
Restarting the Simulation....................................................................................................
Writing a Restart File ...................................................................................................
WREST Card .........................................................................................................
WLASTR Card ......................................................................................................
Where to Restart From .................................................................................................

Parallel Computing ........................................................................................................... 103
PARALLEL-VIP - Quick Guide ........................................................................................ 103
Parallel Grid Designation ............................................................................................. 103
Parallel Grid Naming and Numbering Conventions .................................................... 107
.................................................................................................................................................. 107

Analyzing the Output ....................................................................................................... 109
Introduction.........................................................................................................................
Viewing and Analyzing Data .......................................................................................
Output Files ..................................................................................................................
Using 3DVIEW...................................................................................................................
Model Manipulations with Mouse ..........................................................................
SimResults and PLOTVIEW ..............................................................................................
PLOTVIEW Control Panel ..........................................................................................
PLOTVIEW Quick Tutorial ........................................................................................
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Add a Plot ..............................................................................................................
View/Edit Trace Parameters ..................................................................................
Use the Pop-Up Menus ..........................................................................................
Use the Attribute Panels ........................................................................................
Add Windows and Make Them Listen ..................................................................
Add Multiple Traces ..............................................................................................
Close a Display ......................................................................................................
VIP Convert ........................................................................................................................

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Appendix A: Input Data Templates ............................................................................ 123
Input Template to VIP-CORE ............................................................................................ 123
Input Template to VIP-EXEC............................................................................................. 127

Appendix B: Eclipse-to-VIP Conversion ................................................................... 133
Introduction........................................................................................................................
Using E2V...........................................................................................................................
Setting the Properties ...................................................................................................
Standard Options ....................................................................................................
Advanced Options ..................................................................................................
Applying Selections ...............................................................................................
Defining the Conversion Files .....................................................................................
Eclipse File to be Converted ..................................................................................
VIP File to be Created ...........................................................................................
Converting to VIP ........................................................................................................
Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................
Conversion Issues in VIP-CORE .................................................................................
Conversion Issues in VIP-EXEC .................................................................................

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Index ....................................................................................................................................... 147

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About This Manual
Purpose
This manual is a comprehensive introductory manual designed to lead
users through the steps required to prepare data for the VIP simulator,
run VIP and analyze output from VIP.

Audience
This manual is a good place to start for VIP users with all experience
levels. Some chapters are oriented towards new users who may need
help in preparing data for VIP. Other chapters are designed to help both
new and experienced users in carrying out a series of simulation runs
and gathering the appropriate output files for post-processing.

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Organization
The information in this manual is arranged in a logical manner for
maximum ease-of-use. The following chapters are included:

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Overview. A general description of the VIP software modules.

Filenaming Conventions. Discusses the various types of files
used for input or produced as output from VIP.

Starting and Using DESKTOP-VIP. An explanation of the
DESKTOP-VIP interface, including how to start it, how to use it,
and the different utilities available with it.

The Initial Reservoir Model. How to create a reservoir model
that describes the physical characteristics of the reservoir and
calculates the initial state of the reservoir fluids including the
fluids in place.

Reservoir Simulation. How to create a time dependent model of
the reservoir development and how to make the reservoir simulator
model the evolution of the field.

Parallel Computing. How to setup a run for PARALLEL-VIP
and a quick guide to creating a parallel run.

Analyzing the Output. Using DESKTOP-VIP to analyze the
graphical output produced by VIP.

Appendix A: Input Data Templates. Provides examples of both
VIP-CORE and VIP-EXEC input data, that can be used as
templates for your own simulations.

Appendix B: Setting Up the System. Provides installation and
configuration information for setting up DESKTOP-VIP.

Appendix C: E2V User’s Guide. Provides complete details on
how to use the E2V data conversion utility to convert Eclipse data
files to VIP.

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Related Documentation
The following documents provide more information about VIP and
related products.

Data Studio-CORE and VIP-CORE Reference Manual
VIP-CORE® is the initialization module of the VIP-EXECUTIVE®
family of simulators. It is used to calculate the initial reservoir
conditions to be used by several simulation modules, including VIPCOMP®, VIP-ENCORE®, VIP-DUAL®, VIP-LGR, VIPPOLYMER®, VIP-THERMTM and PARALLEL-VIP. For example,
VIP-ENCORE and VIP-DUAL could be combined to simulate a dualporosity, dual-permeability, “black-oil” reservoir. If VIP-COMP were
included in the same program, the user could convert to a fully
compositional version of the dual-porosity, dual-permeability model
simply by substituting the compositional specific data for the black-oil
specific data.
VIP-CORE will only accept data for those modules which have been
purchased. They are listed on the first page of the computer output in
the title box.
There are two ways to create the initialization file for VIP-CORE:

Using the CORE portion of the Data Studio application to generate
the file automatically.

Creating or modifying a text file using a text editor.

The documentation for entering the initialization data for VIP-COMP,
VIP-ENCORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-LGR, VIP-POLYMER, VIPTHERM and PARALLEL-VIP is all included in the documentation
package. The majority of the data required for all four of these options
is identical since VIP-ENCORE is a special subset of the more
generalized VIP-COMP, and VIP-DUAL is only used in conjunction
with either VIP-ENCORE or VIP-COMP.
Data Studio-CORE documentation describes the GUI-driven interface
for creating the initialization file. Since the software translates your
entries into the proper format and traps for common input errors, this
document places less emphasis on formatting and input rules.

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The VIP-CORE Reference Manual describes the initialization file rules
and format requirements in detail. Where the data differs between VIPCOMP, VIP-ENCORE, and VIP-THERM or additional data is required
for VIP-DUAL, VIP-POLYMER, or VIP-THERM, the model to which
the described data applies is enclosed in parentheses after the section
heading.

Data Studio-EXEC and VIP-EXECUTIVE Reference Manual
VIP-COMP®, VIP-ENCORE®, VIP-DUAL®, VIP-POLYMER®, VIPLGR, VIP-THERM® and PARALLEL-VIP are the simulation modules
of the VIP-EXECUTIVE® Family of simulators. The VIP-COMP, VIPENCORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-LGR, VIP-POLYMER, and VIP-THERM
modules are all conveniently “packaged” within a single program
library which we call VIP-EXECUTIVE. When VIP-DUAL is
executed, it is used in conjunction with either VIP-COMP or VIPENCORE. For example, VIP-CORE, VIP-ENCORE and VIP-DUAL
may be combined to provide a modeling capability for a fractured
“black-oil” reservoir. If VIP-COMP replaces VIP-ENCORE, the user
could convert to a fully compositional version of the fractured reservoir
model simply by substituting the compositional specific data for the
black-oil specific data. All of these modules contain one or more of our
newest solution algorithms: BLITZ, CBLITZ and PCBLITZ.
Only the particular modules purchased are activated. These are listed
on the first page of computer output in the title box.
There are two ways to create the initialization file for VIP-CORE:

Using the EXEC portion of the Data Studio application to generate
the file automatically.

Creating or modifying a text file using a text editor.

The documentation for VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-DUAL,VIPLGR, VIP-POLYMER, VIP-THERM and PARALLEL-VIP are
included in this Reference Manual. The major features are applicable to
all of the modules; therefore, the majority of the data required for all
four of these modules is identical.
Data Studio-EXEC documentation describes the GUI-driven interface
for creating the initialization file. Since the software translates your
entries into the proper format and traps for common input errors, this
document places less emphasis on formatting and input rules.

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The VIP-EXECUTIVE Reference Manual describes the initialization
file rules and format requirements in detail. Where data differs between
VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, and VIP-THERM or additional data is
required for VIP-DUAL, VIP-POLYMER, or VIP-THERM, the model
to which the described data applies is enclosed in parentheses after the
section heading.

VIP Technical Reference Manual
This document provides detailed technical and application information
on the VIP-EXECUTIVE® simulation software package; i.e., the
initialization module VIP-CORE® and the simulation modules VIPENCORE®, VIP-DUAL®, VIP-LGR, VIP-POLYMER™ and
PARALLEL-VIP. It is written for VIP-EXECUTIVE® users who wish
to know more about the underlying calculations performed by the
simulator and want to understand better how data are being processed.
The Technical Reference provides detailed information on the
formulation, governing equations, implementation, and proper use of
all major features and options in VIP-EXECUTIVE. The Technical
Reference is complemented by the VIP-CORE and VIP-EXECUTIVE
Reference Manuals, which contain full descriptions of the input
keywords for the VIP-EXECUTIVE features and options.
The VIP-EXECUTIVE Technical Reference is updated regularly to
reflect changes in VIP-EXECUTIVE.
This information is confidential, describing proprietary features of the
VIP-EXECUTIVE software. The manual is distributed to a specific
individual. That individual must neither lend nor give this document to
another individual under any circumstances. When the document is no
longer needed by the individual, the document must be returned to
Landmark. In addition, this document should be stored in a secured
location within the work environment.

GRIDGENR User’s Guide
The Landmark Grid Generator (GRIDGENR) is a computer
application that helps you describe the three-dimensional structure and
properties of a hydrocarbon reservoir, then compile the data into a
format that can be used to drive reservoir simulation models. In
particular, you can do the following:

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Compile reservoir map data taken from other sources, including:
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Depth or thickness contours.
Porosity, permeability, and saturation contours.
Fault paths for sealing or conductive faults.
Location of producing and injecting wells.

Edit these map elements and add text annotation, as desired.

Define and edit a grid structure that can be used to subdivide the
reservoir into three-dimensional gridblocks for computer modeling
purposes.

Refine portions of the grid for more detailed modeling.

Calculate values for each defined property at each gridblock,
based on the mapped contours.

Create data arrays containing the calculated values, which can be
used for input to reservoir simulators.

Print the maps on a printer or plotter.

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VIP Data Studio User’s Guide
VIP Data Studio provides the capability to prepare initialization data
input files for VIP-CORE and simulation data input files and observed
data files (history matching) for VIP-EXEC. In particular, you can use
the product to:

Define the initial grid, arrays, fluid properties, and equilibrium
data needed to run an initialization (CORE).

Import well production history or other types of data from other
sources (EXEC).

Generate certain types of data automatically, such as a list of run
dates or bottom-hole pressure tables (EXEC).

Automatically build the simulation records needed to run a
reservoir simulation using the VIP-EXEC reservoir simulator
(EXEC).

SimResults On-line Help and PLOTVIEW User’s Guide
SimResults and PLOTVIEW are graphics utilities designed for plotting
well production curves from a VIP reservoir simulation and comparing
the results to historical values or other simulation case studies of the
same data. In particular, you can do the following:

View color-coded plots of simulation data in a graphical display.

Overlay multiple curves on the same display for side-by-side
comparison.

Create multiple displays containing different combinations of
plotted data.

View the individual data points in a plot.

Control the visual attributes of plotted traces, graph titles and
legends, or graph axis annotation and produce hardcopy of plot
displays for use in reports or presentations.

SimResults is a new, native-PC application that allows for RFT plots,
batch plotting, and .grf formats. SimResults+ (license required)
provides advanced options such as viewing Eclipse data.

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3DVIEW/2DVIEW User’s Guide
3DVIEW and 2DVIEW are intuitive visually-driven programs that are
fairly simple to learn. 2DVIEW is the two-dimensional visualization
package that is an integral part of the DESKTOP-VIP product suite.
3DVIEW is the enhanced three-dimensional reservoir visualization
package that is available through special purchase from Landmark.
Both programs include a special Grid Calculator that can be used to
compute new properties and display them in the model. The manual
can be used for extended study by users learning the software or for
quick reference by those who already understand its basic operation.
Throughout the manual, example screens from the program are
included, together with descriptions on how these examples can be
reproduced.

DESKTOP-PVT User’s Guide
DESKTOP-PVT™ is an interactive phase behavior program designed
to simulate the behavior of hydrocarbon fluid mixtures subjected to any
variety of laboratory procedures. The fluids may be either liquid or
vapor, and may undergo phase changes during the simulated
experiments. DESKTOP-PVT is designed to be user friendly through
employing an event-driven interface with pull-down menus and pop-up
windows.
DESKTOP-PVT allows the user to enter data directly on screen or
import data from an existing batch-type input file. It is easy to assign
fluid properties and experimental conditions in DESKTOP-PVT. An
extensive data bank of fluid properties and default values for laboratory
procedures is built into DESKTOP-PVT. Only minimum data entry is
required to complete a simulation. In addition, DESKTOP-PVT
provides tools to create, save, and retrieve files containing input data
and results interactively. The graphical and tabular simulation results
can be viewed interactively on screen or sent to hardcopy devices.
DESKTOP-PVT also provides a batch mode option which can be
employed when interactive simulation is not feasible.
DESKTOP-PVT can be used, in a purely predictive mode, to generate
PVT properties where laboratory data is limited, or it can be used to
develop a mathematical model that agrees with experimental data. In
the latter case, the mathematical model of the fluid system can be used
in a compositional reservoir simulator such as VIP-COMP to analyze
oil and gas production characteristics. In addition, the tabular data
necessary to define fluid behavior in VIP-ENCORE may be generated
by DESKTOP-PVT.
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DESKTOP-PVT Keyword Reference Manual
DESKTOP-PVT® is used to simulate the behavior of fluid mixtures
when they are subjected to any of a variety of laboratory procedures.
The fluids may be either liquid or vapor and may undergo phase
changes during the simulated experiments.
The program can be used in a purely predictive mode to generate PVT
properties where laboratory data is limited, or it can be used to develop
a mathematical model that agrees with experimental data. In the latter
case, the mathematical model of the fluid system can then be used in a
compositional simulator such as VIP-COMP® to analyze oil and gas
production characteristics. In addition, the tabular data necessary to
define fluid behavior in VIP-ENCORE may also be generated by
DESKTOP-PVT.
To aid in development of a fluid model that matches experimental data,
a nonlinear regression package is provided as an integral part of
DESKTOP-PVT. This facilitates the adjustment of unknown or
uncertain parameters that affect fluid behavior.

Job Submittal User’s Guide
You can submit simulation jobs:

locally or remotely

serial or parallel execution (with appropriate licensing).

from Windows 2000 to Windows 2000 or from Windows 2000 to
UNIX/Linux

This document provides details for submitting your job based on the
configuration you have set up. This document also provides details for
using the job monitor.

VIP Convert User’s Guide
You can import and export map and plot data in various formats to and
from the VDB. This document provides details for using the VIP
Convert conversion utility.

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Useful Textbooks
If reservoir simulation is a relatively new area for you, you may want to
begin with textbooks rather than jumping right into VIP. These books
can provide a more general knowledge of simulation, such as the
underlying physical mechanisms of porous-medium flow, or the
approximations made in order to model them. Some books which are
highly recommended in the simulation area are:

Dake, Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering (Elsevier, 1978)

Aziz and Settari, Petroleum Reservoir Simulation (Applied
Science Publishers Ltd., 1979)

Muskat, Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous Media
(J.W. Edward Inc. 1946)

Mattax and Dalton, Reservoir Simulation, SPE Monograph
Volume 13 (Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc., 1990).

Peaceman, Fundamentals of Numerical Reservoir Simulation
(Elsevier, 1977)

There have also been many “classic” papers written on the subject of
reservoir engineering in the past several decades. Some of these papers
are listed below:

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Coats, Use and Misuse of Reservoir Simulation Models (JPT, Nov.
1969).

Odeh, Reservoir Simulation -- What Is It? (JPT, Nov. 1969).

Coats, Reservoir Simulation: State of the Art (JPT, Aug. 1982).

Killough, Reservoir Simulation With History-Dependent
Saturation Functions (JPT, Oct. 1975).

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Overview
What Is VIP?
The VIP product line is a group of software products designed to
simulate the flow of fluids in underground hydrocarbon reservoirs. In
particular, VIP products let you:

Define the structure and topography of the reservoir.

Divide the reservoir into modeling units called gridblocks.

Specify the properties of each gridblock in the reservoir.

Model a variety of recovery processes including:









Primary depletion
Water floods
Miscible and immiscible gas injection
Gas cycling
Hot water and steam floods
Oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs
Polymer floods
Tracer tests
Water or gas coning
Infill drilling

VIP-EXECUTIVE is the registered name given to Landmark’s
reservoir simulator. This name describes the simulator in its entirety,
including the initialization module and simulation module. It has a
black oil capability, compositional capability, dual porosity, local grid
refinement, polymer capabilities, and thermal capabilities. The name
for the entire simulator is often truncated in VIP, thus both VIPEXECUTIVE and VIP are used to refer to the simulator as a whole.

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Overview: What Is VIP?

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The VIP Simulator
The VIP simulator includes two separate modules: one used to set up
an initial state for reservoir models, and another to perform timedependent studies.

The Initialization Module (VIP-CORE)
The initialization module — called VIP-CORE or just CORE —
calculates initial reservoir conditions which are used by the simulation
module. The initial state is based on a complete description of:

Reservoir structure and topography.

Reservoir rock properties and initial saturations.

Fluid properties and equilibrium data.

The reservoir being studied may be initialized to capillary-gravity
equilibrium or to a non-equilibrium state. Once the initial state is
calculated, the resulting data values serve as a starting point for a more
detailed, time-dependent study.

The Simulation Module (VIP-EXEC)
The simulation module — called VIP-EXEC or just EXEC — is used
to perform the time-dependent calculations required to simulate
ongoing operation of the reservoir. VIP-EXEC simulates changes in
reservoir pressures and saturations over time, subject to the operating
constraints of the wells. For added flexibility, VIP-EXEC is structured
as a number of separately licensed modules that allows the user to
perform specialized studies:

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VIP-ENCORE® is a black oil simulator which can be used for
conventional black oil simulation and for multi-component
systems with PVT properties that are described by pressuredependent K-values. It can be used to model gas condensates and
volatile oils more rigorously than conventional black oil
simulators, which model the immiscible flow of water, oil and gas
by treating oil at reservoir conditions as a mixture of stock tank oil
and dissolved gas. As a rule, conventional black oil models cannot
handle a volatile oil component like VIP-ENCORE does.

Overview: The VIP Simulator

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Getting Started with VIP

VIP-COMP is an n-component, equation-of-state, compositional
simulator that takes into account the fact that fluid properties and
phase behavior can vary strongly with fluid composition. Fluid
properties and phase equilibrium are governed by a generalized
cubic equation of state including the Peng-Robinson equation and
various versions of the Redlich-Kwong equation. Both oil and gas
are treated as mixtures containing an arbitrary number of
hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon components. Special techniques
are implemented to provide stability and efficiency of solution for
near-critical oil and gas fluid systems.

PARALLEL-VIP provides the capability to simulate over
multiple processors simultaneously. This feature allows the user to
simulate existing models faster or to perform simulations of
extremely large models ranging to more than one million
gridblocks. The model currently supports almost all of the features
of VIP-ENCORE, VIP-COMP, VIP-DUAL, and VIP-LGR.
However, the following simulator options/features are not
available in parallel:







R2003.4

Therm
Polymer
Tracers
Boundary Flux Options
Pattern Well Average Pressure Option
Pattern Element Option
Water tracking
Hydrocarbon tracking

VIP-THERM models hot water and steam injection processes.
VIP-THERM is an extension of the fully implicit formulation of
VIP-COMP to include an energy balance, an equilibrium
constraint for the water component, and temperature-dependency
of all important properties. Two phase behavior models are
available: 1) the n-component compositional equation of state
model which VIP-THERM shares with VIP-COMP or 2) the dead
oil model in which oil is treated as a single non-volatile
component.

VIP-LGR improves the resolution and detail of a reservoir study
without a large amount of extra computer CPU time or memory.
The LGR option minimizes the number of gridblocks, and
therefore the CPU time required to perform detailed simulation in
a full field model by allowing the grid to be selectively refined in
areas where more grid definition is required. It has applications in
the modeling of:
Overview: The VIP Simulator

3

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark





4

Coning effects in fieldwide models
Horizontal wells
Interference between multiple reservoirs in a common basin
Unconfined pattern elements
Delineation of faults

VIP-DUAL simulates the performance of reservoirs that are
naturally fractured, heterogeneous, or highly stratified. The dualporosity option allows fluid flow in the fracture system, only, and
can employ very rigorous treatment of the matrix fracture fluid
exchange. The full dual-porosity, dual-permeability formulation
allows VIP-EXEC to simulate flow in both fractures and matrix
rock as well as the exchange of fluids between these regions.

VIP-POLYMER supports polymer studies performed using VIPENCORE, VIP-COMP or VIP-DUAL. It can simulate water
thickening in the presence of polymer, polymer adsorption on
reservoir rock, reduction of water relative permeability due to
formation plugging, the effects of inaccessible pore volume, and
non-Newtonian shear effects for polymer injectors.

Overview: The VIP Simulator

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

The DESKTOP-VIP Software
The VIP modules discussed above were originally designed to run from
keyword input. All data required for the simulations had to be typed in
manually and arranged in a carefully structured format so that it could
be recognized by the simulators. In addition, the simulators could only
run on large, mainframe computers. These limitations made reservoir
simulation studies rather time-consuming and expensive.
DESKTOP-VIP was created to solve these problems by providing a
way to run simulations on small but powerful desktop computers and
by providing a user interface that makes it easier to build and analyze
simulation models.

What is DESKTOP-VIP?
DESKTOP-VIP may include all of the VIP-CORE and VIP-EXEC
reservoir simulation modules mentioned earlier (depending on the
licenses purchased for individual sites), but in addition offers several
other helpful components.

PreProcessors

PostProcessors

Simulators

DESKTOP-VIP Components
Simulation Pre-Processors
DESKTOP-VIP gives you direct access to several different
applications that you can use to compile and process data needed for

R2003.4

Overview: The DESKTOP-VIP Software

5

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

the reservoir simulation modules. These are explained in more detail
below.
GRIDGENR
ARRAY

Helps process geological data, calculate grids, and create data
arrays. Can be used to digitize or import contour maps or grids of
reservoir properties, simulation grids and well locations on a
layer-by-layer basis.

DESKTOPPVT

Helps users characterize reservoir fluid properties based on
laboratory tests. Simulates laboratory PVT experiments and
enables equation-of-state parameters to be tuned automatically
for compositional simulation using a powerful regression
technique.

VIP Data
Studio

A preprocessor to VIP-CORE and VIP-EXEC. Provides a way to
import, review, and edit initialization and production history data
and generate the initialization and recurrent data files for VIP
automatically, as well as observed data files for use with the
plotting software.

E2V

Elcipse to VIP data file converter.

Simulator Post-Processors
DESKTOP-VIP also gives you access to various applications you can
use to compile and process data needed for the reservoir simulation
modules. These are explained in more detail below

6

3DVIEW

Provides 3D interactive visualization of reservoir simulation
results using zoom, pan, and slice techniques. Evolution of
reservoir attributes can be studied and saturations displayed
using a ternary display.

2DVIEW and
SimResults+

2DVIEW Is a 2 dimensional subset of 3DVIEW that allows
interactive visualization of areal slices or cross sections of
reservoir simulation models. SimResults+ (license required)
allows you to create 2D maps.

PLOTVIEW
and
SimResults

Graphic utilities designed for plotting production curves and
comparing results to historical values or other simulation studies.

GridCalc

Allows users to calculate new properties for simulation data,
based on previously calculated properties.

VIP Convert

Allows you to export map and production data from the VDB file
and import post processing files generated by VIP, Eclipse or
Rescue.

Overview: The DESKTOP-VIP Software

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

DESKTOP-VIP also includes tools which help submit simulator runs
and check their status.
Using DESKTOP-VIP On a Network
This manual focuses on use of VIP on workstation platforms where both pre- and
post-processing and the actual simulation runs are performed on the same
computer. However, various elements of DESKTOP-VIP can be run on separate
computers linked by an Ethernet network where pre- and post- processing occur
locally but reservoir simulation is directed to a separate compute server.

How DESKTOP-VIP Aids Reservoir Simulation
The following diagram depicts the typical work flow involved in
reservoir simulation and how each DESKTOP-VIP component can be
used to assist it.

USER WORKFLOW

Data Analysis & Pre-Processing

Initialization

DESKTOP-VIP
APPLICATIONS
Data Studio - CORE
GRIDGENR,
DESKTOP-PVT,
3DVIEW
2DVIEW

VIP-CORE

History
Matching
Definition of Recurrent Data

Simulation

Post-Processing & Data Analysis

Data Studio - EXEC

VIP-EXEC

SIMRESULTS, PLOTVIEW
3DVIEW, 2DVIEW
SIMRESULTS+

VIP User Workflow and Related DESKTOP-VIP Modules

R2003.4

Overview: The DESKTOP-VIP Software

7

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

The following diagram provides more detail on some of the
preprocessing and postprocessing steps involved in reservoir
initialization.
INITIALIZATION DATA

Define
Equilibrium
Data

Define
Petrophysical
Properties

DESKTOP-PVT

GRIDGENR

Enter
Phase Behavior
Data

Digitize Maps &
Create
Simulation Grid

Quick Analysis
3DVIEW,
2DVIEW

Input
Data File
(ASCII)

VIP-CORE

Initialize
Simulation
Model

3DVIEW, 2DVIEW
SIMRESULTS+

Analysis

Restart
File

VIP Initialization Workflow

8

Overview: The DESKTOP-VIP Software

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

The following diagram provides more detail on some of the
preprocessing and postprocessing steps involved in reservoir
simulation.
RECURRENT DATA

Define
Wells &
Constraints

Work up
Historical
Production
Data

Define Well
Parameters
for
Predictions

Input Data
File
(ASCII)

Define Dates
for Changes
in Data

Define
Numerical
Solution
Parameters

Restart File
from CORE

VIP-EXEC

Run Simulation

3DVIEW
PLOTVIEW, 2DVIEW

Analysis

VIP Simulation Processing

R2003.4

Overview: The DESKTOP-VIP Software

9

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

The DESKTOP-VIP Directory Structure
When you load to the default path, the DESKTOP-VIP directory
structure is shown below. Each directory is described.

Landmark

VIP

dtvip

doc

help

sim

licmgr

lib

example

demo

Landmark. This is the top-level directory under which all
Landmark Graphics applications are stored.

10

exec

VIP. This is the top-level directory for VIP application
software.

doc. This directory contains a /help subdirectory that
contains the online help files.

dtvip. This directory contains the VIP software
subdirectories:

sim. This directory contains /vipcore and /vipexec
subdirectories that contain the simulator software
executables.

exec. This directory contains the software for the pre
and post processing applications.

licmgr. This directory contains a utility that will return
the FLEXlm machine ID.

Overview: The DESKTOP-VIP Directory Structure

R2003.4

Landmark

R2003.4

Getting Started with VIP

lib. This directory contains the \Critical_Patent
(parallel processing) software subdirectory. It also
contains subdirectories for various tcl files.

example. This directory contains the reservoir model
templates that can be accessed from the Examples
option on the main menu.

demo. This directory contains several small studies
(corner, offshore, spe916, lgr, etc.) with related pre and
post processing files. You can open these files within
DESKTOP-VIP to quickly ensure that the software is
installed properly.

Overview: The DESKTOP-VIP Directory Structure

11

Getting Started with VIP

12

Overview: The DESKTOP-VIP Directory Structure

Landmark

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

File Naming Conventions
Introduction
DESKTOP-VIP uses certain file naming conventions and filetypes for
each step in a simulation. These conventions help you in identifying
files which are the result of certain procedures. The following diagram
illustrates the flow of files through DESKTOP-VIP.

ZMap

.DAT

Third Party .gtf
OpenWorks

GRIDGENR

Production Data
Perforations

.gdb
.dat
DTPVT

.tab
.dbf

.eos

.cor
.lgr
.fml

ARRAY

.wij, .fpf
DATA STUDIO

.obs
i.dat
CORE

r.dat
EXEC

i.rst

i.out
GRIDCALC
REGCALC

.history

Production
Profile

r.out
SIMRESULTS+
3DVIEW
PLOTVIEW

VDB

VIP CONVERT

R2003.4

File Naming Conventions: Introduction

13

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

VIP Casefiles
Since VIP simulations are performed in two steps, conventions have
been adopted to keep track of related runs. Once a casename is
assigned:

an i (for initialization) is appended to the name for files associated
with the CORE run (i.e., <casename>i.dat)

an r (for recurrent) is appended to the name for files associated
with the EXEC run. (i.e., <casename>r.dat)
VIP Associated File Types
File Description

Extension

ASCII data deck

.dat

ASCII output

.out

plot file

.plt

map file

.map

vdb file

.vdb

restart file

.rst

Initialization Casefiles
Initialization data is stored in two binary database files and various
ascii text files. All information for the simulator initialization is passed
to VIP-CORE in the ascii file <casename>i.dat. GRIDGENR’s
information is stored in <casename>.gdb and <casename>.vdb.
Initialization Casefiles and Associated File Types

14

File Description

Extension

Grid database file

.gdb

Array database file

.vdb

Array data for input to CORE

.cor

Grid dimension file for input to CORE

.lgr

VIP-CORE input file

i.dat

File Naming Conventions: VIP Casefiles

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

An Example
If the simulation case is named run1, then the following filenames may
be generated:
Program Filenames & Conventions
Program

Result

Filename

Convention

GRIDGENR

grid database

run1.gdb

nothing
appended

array database

run1.vdb

nothing
appended

generated output

run1.wdb

nothing
appended

grid definition

run1.lgr

nothing
appended

grid definition

run1.cor

nothing
appended

well locations

run1.wij

nothing
appended

well perforations

run1.fpf

nothing
appended

CORE

input

run1i.dat

“i” appended

CORE

output

run1i.out

“i” appended

CORE

map

run1i_lgr.map

“i” appended

CORE

restart

run1i.rst

“i” appended

EXEC

input

run1r.dat

“r” appended

EXEC

output

run1r.out

“r” appended

EXEC

plot

run1r.plt

“r” appended

EXEC

map

run1r_lgr.map

“r” appended

EXEC

restart

run1r.rst

“r” appended

Array Data

R2003.4

File Naming Conventions: An Example

15

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

VIP-CORE Output Files
The assignment of files to the appropriate unit numbers and the saving
of these files are handled by the DESKTOP-VIP interface. These files
are shown the following table.
VIP-CORE Output Files (File names based on model name case1)
Output File

Keyword

Unit #

Form./
Unform.

Description

VIP Print
(case1i.out)

PRINT

6

formatted

This file contains the entire printed output of the
initialization. First, the input data is echoed and
processed. Then, any input errors are identified and
printed. If no errors occurred, the results of the
initialization will be written including all
information requested by the PRINT card.

2

unformatted

This file contains records of the reservoir properties
at initial conditions. A VIP-EXEC run reads this file
and starts the simulation from time = 0.

Restart
(case1i.rst)
Erp
(case1i.pep)

ERP

10

unformatted

This file contains initialization data for computing
pseudo functions.

Corner Point File
(case1.cpft)

PRINT
CORNER
FILE

12

formatted

This file contains coordinates of all the corner
points of the grid blocks for use with 3DVIEW.

Coefficients File
(case1i.coef)

PRINT

13

formatted

This file contains sufficient coefficients to
completely define the reservoir structure. For a
single porosity model it contains MDEPTH, PV,
TX, TY, TZ and fault connections.

Process ID File
(case1.tts)

ID

15

formatted

This file contains the process id number.

Steam Table
(asciistm.dat)

THERM

16

formatted

This file contains steam table data requiring no user
input.

Water Table
(asciiwat.dat)

THERM

17

formatted

This file contains water table data requiring no user
input.

Map File
(case1i_lgr.map)

MAP

27

formatted or
unformatted

This file contains the initialization grid array maps
for subsequent graphical post-processing.

DUAL Pseudos
(case1i.pseudo)

PSEUDO
PRINT

28

formatted

This file contains the internally generated (VIPDUAL) pseudo capillary pressures used in matrixfracture flow.

72

formatted

COEFS
FILE

NOVDB

Data for Statistical
Program
(case1i.stat)
EOSINT Option

16

EOSINT

73-77

File Naming Conventions: VIP-CORE Output Files

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

VIP-EXEC Output Files
The assignment of files to the appropriate unit numbers and the saving
of these files are handled by the DESKTOP-VIP interface. These files
are shown in the following table.
VIP-EXEC Output Files (File names based on model name case1)
Output File

Keyword

Unit #

Form./
Unform.

Description

VIP Print
(case1r.out)

PRINT

6

formatted

This file contains the entire printed output of
the simulation. First, the input data is echoed
and processed. Then, any input errors are
identified and printed. If no errors occurred,
the results of the simulation will be written
including all information requested by the
PRINT and OUTPUT cards.

Restart
(case1r.rst)

WREST/
WLASTR

2

unformatted

This file contains records of the reservoir
properties at initial conditions and userrequested simulation times. A VIP-EXEC
run reads this file and starts the simulation
from the user-requested time.

Erp
(case1r.pep)

WERP

10

unformatted

This file contains simulation data for
computing pseudo functions.

Plot
(case1r.plt)

WPLOT

11

formatted or

This file contains production/injection data
for subsequent graphical post-processing.

Well
Summary
(case1r.well)

PRINT
WLSUM

unformatted
13

formatted

This file contains the well production and
injection summaries detailed by layer.

Targeting
Message File

14

formatted

This file contains messages related to well
management targeting.

Timestep
Information File

15

formatted

This file is used by the program for run-time
monitoring and for end-of-run reports.

FLUX
(case1r.flux)

WFLUX

16

formatted

This file contains boundary flux data which
can be used for input into a subsequent
simulation model (output mode and not input
mode) or the input boundary fluxes (input
mode). Flux boundaries must be defined
using the FLUX keyword in VIP-CORE.

Track
(case1r.tckrep)

WTRACK/
TFORM

17

formatted or
unformatted

This file contains fluid tracking results which
can then be used as input for the TRACKER
program.

R2003.4

File Naming Conventions: VIP-EXEC Output Files

17

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

VIP-EXEC Output Files (File names based on model name case1) (Continued)
Output File

Keyword

Unit #

Form./
Unform.

Description

RFT
(case1r.rft)

PRINT

18

formatted

This file contains the well RFT report which
details gridblock information for each layer.
If the PRINT RFT keyword is specified
rather than PRINT RFTFILE, this report will
be written to the VIP Print File.

Compositional
Plot
(case1_cr.plt)

WCPLOT

26

formatted or
unformatted

This file contains compositional production/
injection data for subsequent graphical postprocessing.

Map File
(case1r_lgr.map)

WMAP

27

formatted or
unformatted

This file contains the simulation grid array
maps for subsequent graphical postprocessing.

Buildup

BUILDUP

29

formatted

This file contains corrected buildup pressure
for specified wells as calculated by
Peaceman equations.

Stone Pseudos File
(case1r.pgp)

WERP

31

binary

This file contains additional information for
generating pseudo functions.

Tracked Output by

OPRSYS/

37

Pressure

WTRACK

formatted or
unformatted

This file contains output of produced tracked
fluid compositions by pressure system. This
output can be obtained for predictive well
management cases only.

RFTFILE

Pressure by
Well
(case1r.bprep)

System (case1r.track)
Tracer
(case1r.trace)

WTRACE

38

formatted

This file contains TRACER option output
data.

Well History
(case1r.wpi)

PRINT
WLHIS

40

formatted

This file contains well production and
injection histories.

Facility
Utilization
(case1r.facut)

PRINT
FACUTL

57

formatted

This file contains a summary of facility
utilization for all well management entitles
with specified targets. The summary includes
specified target and actual production.

FLUX
(case1r.flux2)

WFLUX

61

formatted

This file contains boundary flux data which
can be used for input into a subsequent
simulation model (when both input mode and
output mode are active).

Well
(case1r.wfile)

WFILE

71

formatted

This file contains well information such as
well locations, cumulative production/
injection, and average saturation weighted
pressures.

18

File Naming Conventions: VIP-EXEC Output Files

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

VIP-EXEC Output Files (File names based on model name case1) (Continued)
Output File

Keyword

Unit #

Form./
Unform.

Description

Spreadsheet
Summary Files
(case1r_field.sss)
(case1r_area.sss)
(case1r_flow.sss)
(case1r_gather.sss)
(case1r_well.sss)
(case1r_region.sss)

PRINT
SSSUM

72-77

formatted

These files contain spreadsheet summaries
for field, area, flow station, gathering center,
well and region, respectively.

Timestep
Summary (case1r.tss)

OUTPUT

iprtss (6)

formatted

This report contains summary information
for all timesteps at the end of the run,
including rates, cumulative quantities, wateroil and gas-oil ratios, and average reservoir
pressure. If the IPRTSS keyword is used, this
report can be redirected to a separate file (a
recommended unit number for iprtss is 80).
During the simulation run unit 15 is used as
temporary storage for timestep summary
output variables.

TSSUM
TSSDAT/
IPRTSS

R2003.4

File Naming Conventions: VIP-EXEC Output Files

19

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

Well Names
In previous versions of DESKTOP-VIP, all VIP applications limited
well names to a maximum of eight characters, with no blank spaces or
special characters. This restriction made it difficult to use well data
from other Landmark applications in VIP because the well names
would not match. VIP users had to manually translate between
common well names used in Landmark applications and VIP well
names.
To eliminate this requirement, the latest versions of DESKTOP-VIP
(1998.2 and later) contain a new cross reference table creation and look
up scheme used whenever you import or export well data.

Understanding the WDB File
The automatic conversion is handled using a well database file (*.wdb)
which stores the cross-referenced filenames:

When well data is imported into VIP from other Landmark
applications, VIP creates a set of compatible well names and stores
them in a WDB file for cross referencing. The VIP applications
that support this feature are GeoLink, GRIDGENR and VIP Data
Studio.

When well data is exported from VIP, the reverse translation is
performed so that any well leaves VIP with the same name it had
originally. The VIP applications that provide this feature include
dbplot and VIP Convert.

The wdb file used to store this information is keyed off the open VIP
study name. For example, if the study is called study1.vdb then the well
database file will be study1.wdb. The wdb file was designed with the
ultimate goal of translating data between OpenWorks and VIP. For this
reason, it supports three different types of OpenWorks well names.

20

File Naming Conventions: Well Names

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

Example of Well Conversion
The following example illustrates the well cross-referencing process,
showing the steps that a user might take, and the corresponding system
response:
1.

Open a study called testwdb.

2.

Open a case called testwdb.

3.

Start GRIDGENR.

4.

Import wells into GRIDGENR
As an example, import the file testwdb.gtf, shown below:

WELL
FLD_A_WXK0044
FLD_A_ICX0104
FLD_A_WDS0090
FLD_A_EUO0063
FLD_A_CFK0119
FLD_A_SQM0103
FLD_B_WXK0044
FLD_A_MPI0040
FLD_A_WXP0135
FLD_A_WQJ0052
FLD_A_MCU0068
FLD_A_ESK0064
FLD_A_LLW0101

5104.675
4653.931
211.4868
8242.188
7242.126
4790.344
6604.675
114.7461
2293.396
9411.011
1744.995
6910.706
2313.538

5921.745
3367.653
3096.886
5475.655
1377.983
413.4750
5921.745
7037.544
4672.050
3385.048
843.5440
3521.690
6903.648

Upon import, GRIDGENR will look for the file testwdb.wdb:

If this file is not present it will create it.

If it is present it will open it (In this example, GRIDGENR will
create the file testwdb.wdb)

For each well being imported GRIDGENR will look in the
testwdb.wdb file to see if an entry for this well has already been
defined.

R2003.4

If an entry has already been defined for the well being
imported, it will use the previously defined translation

File Naming Conventions: Well Names

21

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

If an entry has not been defined yet, the imported well name
will be used as a basis to create a unique VIP well name and an
entry will be added to the testwdb.wdb file. If the well name
being imported is a valid VIP well name then that name will be
retained, but an entry will still be added to the file.

In this example, the testwdb.wdb file is new, so no previous entries
have been defined. The GRIDGENR import process will perform
the translation to valid VIP well names and create entries in the
testwdb.wdb file.

22

File Naming Conventions: Well Names

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

The following illustration shows a screenshot of the GRIDGENR
application with the imported wells and the contents of the wdb
file.

* This is an application generated file, containing the translation
*
* This file is generated by the VIP application, DO NOT edit it.
# If you really want to edit this file, use TAB as field.
*
The field for each record is ordered as follows:
* (the number in parenthesis indicates the Max. size in that
*
*VIP Well(8)
OW UWI(26)
OW well_name(30)
*-------- -------------------------- -----------------------------_CFK0119
FLD_A_CFK0119
_ESK0064
FLD_A_ESK0064
_EUO0063
FLD_A_EUO0063
_FGH0131
FLD_A_FGH0131
_ICX0104
FLD_A_ICX0104
_LLW0101
FLD_A_LLW0101
_MCU0068
FLD_A_MCU0068
_MPI0040
FLD_A_MPI0040
_PKT0143
FLD_A_PKT0143
_SQM0103
FLD_A_SQM0103
_UIJ0105
FLD_A_UIJ0105
_WDS0090
FLD_A_WDS0090
_WQJ0052
FLD_A_WQJ0052

R2003.4

File Naming Conventions: Well Names

23

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

5.

Complete creation of the reservoir simulation grid and well
locations in GRIDGENR

6.

Upon exiting GRIDGENR, create the files testwdb.cor, testwdb.wij
and testwdb.fpf using ARRAY.
A copy of the created well IJ definition file is shown below:
WELL N NAME
1 _WXK0044
2 _ICX0104
3 _WDS0090
4 _EUO0063
5 _CFK0119
6 _SQM0103
7 _WXK0045
8 _MPI0040
9 _WXP0135
10 _WQJ0052
11 _MCU0068
12 _ESK0064
13 _LLW0101
14 _FGH0131
15 _PKT0143

IW
21
19
2
33
29
20
27
1
10
38
8
28
10
11
28

JW
5
12
12
6
17
19
5
2
8
11
18
11
2
14
1

GRID
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT

7.

Build the VIP-CORE data file, testwdbi.dat

8.

Run VIP-CORE.

9.

Start VIP Data Studio (VDS).

10. Import historical well data into VIP Data Studio.

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A copy of the AFS production history file used in this example is
shown below:
Name
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276
P276

Date
01/01/1981
01/01/1982
01/01/1983
01/01/1984
01/01/1985
01/01/1986
01/01/1987
01/01/1988
01/01/1989
01/01/1990
01/01/1991
01/01/1992
01/01/1993
01/01/1994

Scenario
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr
lgr$lgr

DataSource
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP
VIP

Oil
59.066
59.079
35.528
40.223
22.602
24.017
23.094
24.389
23.952
24.469
39.040
39.380
36.623
33.179

Water
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Gas
74.160
85.786
56.294
64.634
34.636
34.331
32.642
34.939
35.187
37.000
65.933
76.687
76.507
70.599

Winj
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Ginj
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Press
595.497
300.000
1179.883
823.106
2021.292
1985.674
2018.064
1910.839
1903.043
1809.179
548.121
300.000
300.000
365.417

Upon import VDS will look for the file testwdb.wdb,

If this file is not present, it will create it.

If it is present, it will open it.

For each well being imported VDS will look in the testwdb.wdb
file to see if an entry for this well has already been defined.

If an entry has been defined, it will use the previously defined
translation.

If an entry has not been defined, it will create a unique VIP
well name and add an entry to the testwdb.wdb file.

At this point, the testwdb.wdb file is present and contains valid
entries for all the wells. So in this case the VIP Data Studio import
process will use the existing entries in the wdb file to map the
imported well names into VIP well names:
11. Build the VIP-EXEC data file, testwdbr.dat.

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An example of this data file is shown below:
DATE 01 10 1989
QMAX _WXK0044 _ICX0104 _WDS0090 _EUO0063 _CFK0119 _SQM0103
1290.520 1364.380 1144.740 1500.000 1500.000 1331.230
QMAX _WXP0135 _WQJ0052 _MCU0068 _ESK0064 _LLW0101 _FGH0131
1313.220 1118.710 1708.930 2500.000 2486.010 2491.020
QMAX _UIJ0105
2063.390
WPLOT TNEXT
DATE 01 11 1989
QMAX _WXK0044 _ICX0104 _WDS0090 _EUO0063 _CFK0119 _SQM0103
1273.910 1343.740 1136.500 1500.000 1500.000 1315.300
QMAX _WXP0135 _WQJ0052 _MCU0068 _ESK0064 _LLW0101 _FGH0131
1294.210 1105.760 1716.850 2500.000 2497.990 2499.820 1845.820 1229.990

_WXK0045
1237.300
_PKT0143
1838.430

_MPI0040
924.900
_XMW0018
1225.490

_WXK0045 _MPI0040
1211.090 916.210
_PKT0143 _XMW0018

12. Run VIP-EXEC, turning on the AFS and Spreadsheet output
options on in the VIP Job Submittal File Options panel, as shown
below:

VIP Convert will look for the file testwdb.wdb. If this file is
present it will open it
For each well being exported VIP Convert will look in the
testwdb.wdb file to see if an entry for this well has already been
defined.

26

If an entry has been defined, it will use the previously defined
translation and export the results with the name of the well that
was originally imported.

File Naming Conventions: Well Names

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If an entry is not defined, it will export the well name as it
appears in VIP.

Notes

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The wdb file is only important if you are taking well data to or
from other Landmark applications.

If you copy a vdb file to a new name be sure to copy the wdb file
also.

The algorithm used to create unique well names involves
truncating characters from the left of the text string until a valid
VIP well name has been created. It then checks to insure that all
well names are unique and makes changes if necessary. In the
previous example, there were two wells, FLD_A_WXK0044 and
FLD_B_WXK0044. A simple truncation would have created two
wells with the same name. However, the algorithm changed the
second well to a different name to insure uniqueness.

File Naming Conventions: Well Names

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Starting and Using DESKTOP-VIP
Introduction
DESKTOP-VIP is an essential tool for new users that provides a simple
way to access most of the functions and options available for VIP.
Among other things, DESKTOP-VIP lets you:

Create new case studies or browse and edit existing case studies.

Assign or edit initialization data files.

Assign or edit recurrent simulation data files.

Submit the the VIP-CORE, VIP-EXEC and VIP-THERM
simulation runs.

Start other utilities and applications such as SimResults, 3DVIEW,
etc.

This chapter explains how to start DESKTOP-VIP, how to use it, and
how to recognize the files created by DESKTOP-VIP and other VIP
software modules. Before reading this chapter, you should understand
the concepts explained in Chapter 1.

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Starting DESKTOP-VIP
To start DESKTOP-VIP, use the following sequence:
1.

Select Programs -> Landmark VIP from the Start menu.
The following window appears:

DESKTOP-VIP Main Screen
Window Does Not Appear
If this window does not appear, check that the VIPJAVA environment variable is
set correctly to point to the Java executable that was installed with VIP.

When you open DESKTOP-VIP for the first time, your list of available
studies and cases will be empty as shown above. Once you have
opened studies and case swithin a session, they will open in the list by
default until you close them.

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Getting Started with VIP

Understanding How DESKTOP-VIP Works
The following illustration shows how DESKTOP-VIP provides an
easy-to-use central access point for all VIP applications and utilities.
Notice how the menus are arranged in order of functionality. You can
use the File menu to define or open a study, the Input menu to prepare
data for simulation, the Submit menu to run the simulation, and the
Output menu to analyze output. The DESKTOP-VIP menus are
described in more detail on the following pages.

GRIDGENR
(Build the Model)
JOB SUBMISSION
(Initialize the Model,
Run Simulation)

3DVIEW (View Results)

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Actions specific to the Desktop such as managing Studies and Cases
are described next.

Desktop User Interface Conventions
The VIP Desktop window consists of the elements shown below.
Menu Bar
Application Toolbar
Desktop Toolbar

Study Selection Drop-Down Menu
Case Selection Drop-Down Menu
Case Tree

These elements are described below:

Menu bar. Click on a word in the Menu bar using the left mouse
button, and a menu will appear. Select the desired option from the
menu by clicking on it with the mouse.

Application toolbar. Accessible VIP Applications can be started
by clicking the appropriate icon in the Application Toolbar.
Options are:
Icon

Application
Data Studio
GridGenr
Array

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Icon

Application
Desktop-PVT
Job Submittal
2DView
VIP SimResults
3DView
GridCalc
RegCalc
VIP Convert

Place your pointer over any icon to display a balloon help pop-up
describing its function.

DeskTop toolbar. Study and Case manipulation options can be
opened by clicking the appropriate icon on the Desktop toolbar.
Options are:
Icon

Option
Add a session
Save a session
Create a Study
Open a Study
Clear VDB lock
Defragment VDB
Close a Study
Edit a Case File
Delete a Case
Extract a Case

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Place your pointer over any icon to display a balloon help pop-up
describing its function.

Study and Case selection boxes. These boxes display the currently
selected Working Case. The drop-down menu can be used to select
a previously active Study and/or Case as shown below.
Click to open
menu

Study/Case tree. This is an interactive display of Study and Case
information for the current work session. Click the minus symbol
(-) beside a closed Study name to open it. Click the plus symbol
(+) beside an open Study name to close it.
Place your pointer over a Study name in the tree to display a
balloon help pop-up listing the full directory path as shown below.

The Working Case can be selected by double-clicking on its name
within the tree. This panel has an available right-click menu, with
many Study and Case manipulation options. These options are
described in detail in the next section.

Working with Sessions
You can save and open a group of Studies as a session.
Save a Session
With the group of Studies open on the Desktop, select the Save Session
option on the File menu or click the Save Session icon. Then enter a
path and file name in the Session File dialog box. The group of Studies
is saved as a session. The default path is the userid/VipOpts directory
on your local drive. The default session file name is <userid>.vs.
Add a Session
Select the Add Session option on the File menu or click the Add
Session icon. Then enter the path and file name in the Session File
dialog box. Studies in the selected session (.vs) file are appended to
your Desktop.

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Working with Studies and Cases
When you activate DESKTOP-VIP, all previously selected Cases are
open in the Study/Case Tree Panel.

VDB Data Indicators
Study/Case
selection list

Calculated (C)
Geologic/Grid (G)
Init (I)
EXEC (E)
Map (M)
Plot (P)
Observed (O)

(double-click
on Case to
select)
MB3 menu

Studies and Cases are displayed in the Study/Case Tree Panel using the
following conventions:
Study / VIP Database (VDB) Display
(VDB icon)
Case Display (Case

icon)

Normal font

Study

Italic font

Case

Bold font

Current Working Case

Italic font with a number displayed
before Name

Case is Queued

Indented icon and Case Name

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Signifies

Child Case is indented
below Parent Case.

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Classes of Cases
Cases within a vdb file can be of the following classes, or types, of
data:
Geo - Refers to data coming from GRIDGENR/Array prior to
upscaling. This class is only created when upscaling is performed.
Some applications refer to this class as Geo_Grid.
Calc - Refers to data coming from GRIDGENR/ARRAY after the
calculation of gridblock properties is performed.
Init - Refers to simulation initialization results
Recur - Refers to simulation time dependent results. The recurrent
class of data can contain map and/or plot information.
Open A Study and Case
Peform the following steps to open an existing Study and Case in the
Desktop:
1.

Select the option. Click the Open Study
icon in the DeskTop
toolbar or select the Study Options -> Open Study option on the
File menu. The Study File dialog box opens.

2.

Select the Study. Filter and select the Study within the dialog box
directory tree. Then click the Open button. The dialog box closes.

The selected Study displays in the Study/Case Tree Panel. All
associated Cases open beneath the Study.
Close a Study and Case
Click the Close Study
. icon on the DeskTop toolbar, select the
Study Options -> Close Study option on the File menu, or select the
Close Study option on the right mouse button menu.
The Study is removed from the Desktop.
Create a Study and/or Case
Perform the following steps to create a new Study and Case:

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1.

Select the option. Click the Create Study
. icon on the
DeskTop toolbar, select the Study Options -> Create Study
option on the File menu, or select the Create Study option on the
right mouse button menu. The Study File dialog box opens.

2.

Create the Study. Filter to the desired directory and enter a Study
name in the File Name entry field. Then click the Create button.
The dialog box closes.
The new Study displays in the Study/Case Tree Panel.

3.

Create the Case. With your pointer over the Study name in the
tree, select the Create Case option on the right mouse button
menu.
A new Case is added to the Study. The default Case name is the
Study name.
Double-click to highlight the Case name in the tree and select the
Rename Case option on the right mouse button menu if you want
to change the Case name. Your cursor is placed in the editable
Case name field.

Select Active Study and Case
Double-click on a Case name in the tree to make it the active Case.
The active Study and Case names display in the Working Study
and Working Case display fields as shown below.
Click to open
menu

Or you can click the menu to move between previously active
Studies and Cases.
Accessing Menu Options
A study must be opened before you can open a case and a case must be opened
before you can access most of the DESKTOP-VIP menus.

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Using Example Files
The Examples option on the Desktop main menu provides templates
for i.dat, r.dat, and other files for typical reservoir models and new
features. The user interface is shown below.
reservoir models

menu options

selected i.dat or r.dat template

The options tree is organized by reservoir model type. When you click
on a higher-level directory, a descrption of the reservoir model or new
feature displays in the panel.
When you click on a template file, it displays in the panel for browsing.
The Copy option on the right mouse button menu opens a dialog box to
let you copy the template to your working directory for modification
into a new model.

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Using DESKTOP-VIP
If you are a new user of DESKTOP-VIP, you will probably be in one of
the following situations:

You are involved in a new reservoir study, and have a lot of data
from various sources which you must use to generate a reservoir
model.
If your data includes geologic maps of properties such as depth,
thickness, porosity, and permeability, you may start by entering
this data into GRIDGENR which would then construct the “array”
data for your initialization input. For the recurrent data, you may
use VIP Data Studio.

You are given an existing model and asked to perform specific
sensitivities using various parameters (or history match the model)
and analyze the results.
In this case, you will first want to get familiar with the model by
looking up the features used in the data set in the VIP-CORE and
VIP-EXECUTIVE Reference Manuals. Then, be sure to study the
keyword definitions which you will be using to modify certain
parameters in the model. Compare the results of different runs
using the output and graphical techniques described in subsequent
sections in this manual.

The first thing you need to do when starting to work with DESKTOPVIP is to define a study. This could be the name of the project or
reservoir you are working on.

VDB Files
VIP uses a data storage system known as the vdb (VIP Database) to
store calculated simulation input, observed data and simulation results.
Study data is stored in multiple files located under a hierarchical
directory tree.
The top-level directory name is the Study name with a ".vdb"
extension. There is a main control file (main.xml) within this top-level
directory which lists the simulation and observation case names. It can

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be viewed in Internet Explorer by double-clicking the file icon. An
example control file is shown below. All other files are binary.

Each case has a separate directory under the top-level directory. The
Case directories contain sub-directories for each class of data that has
been created.
Maximum File Size
The maximum size for any single file within the directory tree is 2.0 gigabytes.

Converting VDBs to the New Format
The VDB database structure described above offers several advantages
over the previous format, including speed of access, stablity, and
allowable file size.
You can open and use VDBs in the previous format. When you save the
VDB, it will be saved in its existing (single-file) format. To convert a
VDB to the new format, type the following at the command line in the
directory where the VDB resides (or inlcude the path to the directory in
the command):
vdbconverter oldFormat_name.vdb newFormat_name.vdb
Enter the following at the command line to access conversion help:
vdbconverter –h
Note that the help facility also provides instructions for converting
backward from the new to the old format, should you ever need to do
so.

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Rules Associated with vdb Files and Cases
Maximum file size
Note that the maximum .size for each separate file within the directory tree is is 2.0
gigabytes.

1.

vdb files names must be alphanumeric, and can be no longer than
61 characters in length. The first character must not be numeric.
They are case sensitive; i.e. sensitive to differences in
capitalization. They cannot contain any blanks, quotes, brackets,
or other punctuation marks. The underscore character _ is allowed.

Examples of valid vdb file names - The following vdb file
names are valid:
Run1.vdb
run1.vdb
vip_run1_start.vdb

Examples of invalid vdb file names - The following vdb file
names are invalid:
Steves run.vdb
Steves;run.vdb
*.vdb

2.

Cases are groups of data within a vdb file. Each Case name
contained within a vdb file must be unique. There can be multiple
instances of the same types of data within the same vdb file, as
long as the names are unique.
Rules for naming cases within a vdb file are similar to the rules
that allow to vdb file names themselves. Case names must be
alphanumeric, and must start with a letter [a-z] or [A-Z]. They are
case sensitive. They cannot contain any blanks, quotes, brackets,
or other punctuation marks. The underscore character _ is allowed.
Case names cannot be longer than 20 characters.

The following case names are valid:
Run1
run1
vip_run1_start

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The following case names are invalid:

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1run
Steves run
Steves;run
Case Management

The fact that you can store multiple types of classes and multiple
classes of the same types means that vdb files can be used for some
level of case management to organize your simulation studies. The
following example show a few different ways to organize data within
one or more vdb files.
VDB Not a History Archive
The VDB is not a good vehicle for archiving historical data. It provides only Case
names and the classes of data contained in the Case. It does not allow for a detailed
description of the Case.

Scenario: Lets consider a reservoir study in which you start with a
GRIDGENR file reschar.gdb, that contains the reservoir
characterization and gridblock definition, and continue through a series
of simulations. The simulations consist of evaluating the following
production options:
1.

Run1 - All wells operated as oil producers

2.

Run2 - All existing wells operated as oil producers, 5 new water
injectors defined and put into operation at the initial time.

3.

Run3 - All existing wells operated as oil producers, 5 new water
injectors defined and put into operation after 5 years.

4.

Run4 - Restart of Run1 where some of the producers are converted
to water injectors after 5 years.

There are many ways to handle these different cases. For example:
You can model the ARRAY calculation and each simulation case in a
separate vdb file, as shown in the following table:

42

Vdb file

Contents

Calc.vdb

Reschar[CALC]

Run1.vdb

Run1[INIT,RECUR]
Run4[RECUR]

Run2.vdb

Run2[INIT,RECUR]

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Vdb file

Contents

Run3.vdb

Run3[INIT,RECUR]

Run1.vdb above contains two cases, Run1 and Run4. Run4 is a child of
Run1 because it shares the initialization and part of the recurrent data
from Run1.
There are also a number of different ways that you can model
everything using a single vdb file, as shown in the following table:
Vdb file

Contents

All1.vdb

Run1[CALC,INIT,RECUR]
Run2[RECUR]
Run3[RECUR]
Run4[RECUR]

All2.vdb

Reschar[CALC]
Initial[INIT]
Run1[RECUR]
Run4[RECUR]
Run2[RECUR]
Run3[RECUR]

In All1.vdb above, there are four cases, Run1, Run2, Run3 and
Run4. Run2 and Run3 are considered children of Run 1 because
they take the initialization data from it. Run4 is also a child of
Run1, but it shares its initialization and part its recurrent data.
By simply looking at the case list you cannot determine whether a
run shares recurrent data.
In All2.vdb above, there are six cases, reschar, Initial, Run1, Run2,
Run3 and Run4. Run1, Run2 and Run3 are considered children of
Initial because they take their initialization from it. Run4 is a child
of Run1 because it shares recurrent data with it.
Different combinations of case classes can exist within a single vdb
file. Most are valid, but some are not, as described below. Remember
that the ARRAY pre-processor and the simulators write the case data
and results to the vdb file and the post processors access these results
through these files. Cases that are children of other cases can only
contain recurrent data.
Examples of Valid Classes and Combinations:

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Just Calc (Created with Array, without upscaling)

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Calc and Geo (Created with Array with upscaling)

Just Init (Created from VIP-CORE or from dbmap with the results
of just the initialization)

Init and Recur (Created from VIP-CORE and EXEC or from
dbmap and dbplot using the results from CORE and EXEC)

Examples of Invalid Classes and Combinations:

Recur without Init (You can theoretically create this situation by
opening a new case prior to running exec. However, you will not
be able to access the simulation results in 3DVIEW because the
reservoir structural information, sometimes referred to as the
CORP data, is stored in the Init Class of data.)

Geo without Calc (You should never run into this situation, as it
should be impossible to create. The Geo class of data is created by
Array as part of the upscaling process. Therefore, should always
be a Calc class associated with the Geo class.)

A Pictorial VDB Example
The following is a hypothetical illustration of a DESKTOP-VIP
workflow that results in the saving of calculated, initialization and
simulation data. Here are typical steps you might follow:

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1.

Start DESKTOP-VIP

2.

Choose File > Study Options > Create Study to create a new
study called history by entering the name in the dialog box. The
study name displays in the list as shown below.

3.

Click the right mouse button over the study name and select the
Create Case option from the drop-down menu. The case is
created with the default study name. Note the Rename option that
lets you change the default case name.

4.

Double-click on the case name to select it as the active case.

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5.

Create a reservoir gridblock model using GRIDGENR
(history.gdb) and calculate the gridblock attributes using ARRAY.

6.

Notice that the history case now contains calculated data from
ARRAY, as indicated by "C".

7.

Lets say you now run a VIP-CORE initialization with the history
project and history case open. This means that the case called
history now contains calculated data, as well as initialization data.
Then you import a geomodel from Z-Map using the GridGenr
application. The case also now contains Geologic data.

8.

Finally, lets say you now run a VIP-EXEC simulation with the
history project and history case open. You now see an "R" in the
recurrent class field. As you continue, other classes are populated
as denoted by the letter in the corresponding field.

Database Locking
It is possible for many applications to write to and read from the vdb
file. In order to insure the stability of the vdb file, VIP allows only one
application to write to a vdb file at a time. This is accomplished using a
locking file mechanism; before an application can write to a vdb file it
checks to see if a lock file is present.
If there is no lock file present:

46

The application will create one (with the .lck filetype appended to
the vdb file name). This will guarantee that no other applications
can try to write the vdb file at the same time.

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The lock file will be automatically removed by the application
after it terminates normally.

If such a file is present:

The application will check to see if the lock file is associated with
a process that is still running.

If the application cannot verify that the process is no longer
running then it will abort.

The reason we check to see if the process is still running is that it is
possible for a lck file to remain if the application has terminated
abnormally. In such a case the user must remove the lck file
manually from the operating system (using the UNIX rm
command or using Windows Explorer, depending on your
system).

BEFORE you attempt to remove a lck file, you need to be sure
that the process that created it has finished. If you are working
within a network environment, you should check other
machines besides the local one; it is possible for other
computers to also write to the same vdb file.

If you remove a lck file while the application that created it is
still running, then there is a very high likelihood that you will
corrupt the vdb file.

Applications that write to a vdb file are:

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ARRAY

GRIDCALC

VIP-CORE

VIP-EXEC

VIP CONVERT

Starting and Using DESKTOP-VIP: Understanding How DESKTOP-VIP Works

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Getting Help
Help (on-line documentation) is available for different DESKTOP-VIP
applications. Help can be accessed by pulling down the Help menu on
the DESKTOP-VIP main window, then selecting the application that
you want to read more about.

Help Menu in DESKTOP-VIP

Viewing the Online Help
VIP Help is now displayed using a special application called Adobe
Acrobat. This application has its own set of controls that you can use to
view an outline of the help document, page through the document,
search for specific information, and zoom in and out on any page. The
following illustration shows a typical help window in Adobe Acrobat.

Clickable outline

Adobe Acrobat Window

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Starting and Using DESKTOP-VIP: Getting Help

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The following diagram shows the most common Adobe Acrobat
window controls. Individual versions of Acrobat may not have all the
controls shown here:
Show/hide
outline
window

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Manual
page
adjust

Zoom

First/last
next/previous
pagination

Page
size
controls

Find

Starting and Using DESKTOP-VIP: Getting Help

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Getting Started with VIP

The Initial Reservoir Model
Introduction
The first step in using VIP is to prepare the initial data, run an
initialization (VIP-CORE), and analyze the results. The initial data
includes all data needed to accurately describe the physical
characteristics of the reservoir. VIP-CORE uses this data to build an
initial state which prepares the reservoir model for simulation. The
following types of data may be needed to describe the initial state:

Rock and fluid properties such as saturation tables, oil fluid
properties, etc.

Gridblock structure of the reservoir for use in entering, calculating,
and reporting data.

Data arrays listing the porosity, permeability, and other values at
each reservoir gridblock.

Additional “Scalar” data including physical property constants and
equilibrium data.

All these data must be prepared in a structured keyword format that
VIP recognizes. However, there are several VIP applications that help
you prepare the keyword data. This chapter explains the types of data
required, the tools available to help you prepare the data, and the steps
needed to prepare, execute, and analyze the initial run.

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Understanding the Initialization Data
The first step is to give VIP sufficient information to describe the initial
state of the reservoir (initialization).
This information is presented to VIP in the form of a data file. The
format of each VIP data set is discussed in this chapter and the next.
These data files are ASCII files that may be created directly using a text
editor or automatically using the preprocessing tools in DESKTOPVIP.

Scalar Data
Scalar data is a broad category that may include any of the following
elements:

Type of simulator to run (black-oil, compositional, etc.)

Run titles

User preferences with regard to:











Gridblock dimensions for Cartesian or radial grids

Physical property constants including:




52

Metric units
Cross-sectional studies
Relative permeability output
Vertical equilibrium tracking
Dual porosity/permeability modeling
Fault modeling
Nonequilibrium initialization
Metric pressure units
Lines of output per page
Three phase relative permeability model
Initialization Map output
Printing of data arrays

Stock tank water density
Water formation volume factor (VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE)
Water viscosity (VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE)
Water compressibility (VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE)
Rock compressibility

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Reservoir temperature
Standard temperature and pressure

Equilibrium table data including:


Initial reservoir pressure/depth
Water-oil or gas-oil capillary pressure/depth
Initial saturation pressure

Fluid and Rock Properties
Hydrocarbon fluid properties can be specified in four ways.

They can be defined as simple pressure-dependent functions
(Black-Oil), with tabulated values of saturation pressure,
formation volume factor, solubility and viscosity for the oil and
gas phases (VIP-ENCORE).

They can be defined as pressure dependent K-values and z factors
(K-value), in a table similar to that which is calculated internally
from black-oil data (VIP-ENCORE).

In VIP-THERM, hydrocarbon may be defined as a single nonvolatile “dead” oil component with density, enthalpy and viscosity
represented analytically or by tables.

Alternatively, equation of state (EOS) parameters can be specified
for use in characterizing the fluids - this is the fully compositional
mode (VIP-COMP or VIP-THERM).

Since all runs except thermal dead oil are “compositional” (a black-oil
fluid is treated as a two component K-value fluid) it is possible to
specify separator conditions which materially affect the relationship
between reservoir and surface phase volumes. In fact, volume in place
calculations will not match field data unless correct separator data is
provided, or the data entered is modified appropriately.
Tables of saturation dependent properties of the rock such as relative
permeability and capillary pressure are required for each phase. These
quantities are usually entered from core analysis reports after averaging
and smoothing, if necessary.
For an oil-water gas system, relative permeability and capillary
pressure data are entered as pairs of two-phase oil-water and gas-oil
tables. Different rock properties may be applied to different areas of the
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reservoir by assigning different rock types, or generic tables may be
used and the table and points varied spatially.

Arrays
Some reservoir properties — such as permeability and porosity — may
vary continuously across the reservoir. To describe these variations
accurately, you divide the reservoir into a series of gridblocks and then
specify a value for each gridblock. For example, the illustration below
shows a three-dimensional gridblock structure, with each producing
zone represented by a single layer of gridblocks.
y
x
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5

z

Gridblock
Reservoir Model

How Reservoirs Are Divided Into Gridblocks
Once you have defined such a gridblock structure, you can specify a
value for each gridblock that will be used in model calculations. For
example, the following illustration shows porosity values for all the
gridblocks in a single layer of the reservoir. The row-column format
shown below is called a data array and corresponds exactly to the rows
and columns in the grid structure. These data need to be entered in a
specific order.
Porosity for
0.160 0.163
0.214 0.200
0.160 0.168
0.214 0.201
0.160 0.172
0.215 0.201
(etc.)

plane
0.174
0.192
0.180
0.192
0.183
0.191

Z 1
0.190
0.182
0.192
0.190
0.195
0.187

0.200
0.180
0.205
0.187
0.208
0.194

0.217
0.180
0.219
0.188
0.220
0.196

0.231
0.184
0.234
0.192
0.236
0.201

0.245
0.193
0.249
0.196
0.257
0.207

0.240
0.199
0.255
0.201
0.260
0.212

0.231
0.200
0.235
0.204
0.238
0.214

Typical Data Array
VIP-CORE requires you to enter variable reservoir data in arrays like
the one shown above. Instead of calculating all the array data manually
and then typing it in, VIP provides tools you can use to automatically
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import, digitize, and calculate data taken from other sources such as
geological models and maps (see “Using GRIDGENR/ARRAY to
Configure the Model and Calculate Data” on page 58).

Initial Conditions
Before the run may begin, it is necessary for VIP to know the pressure
in each gridblock and the contents of its pore volume. This data can be
entered directly (water and gas saturations, and block pressures) or
determined from an equilibration calculation, for which the user has to
enter the fluid contact depths plus the pressure at any one depth. A
mathematical formulation based on the hydrostatics of fluids in porous
media is used to initialize the model; this distributes fluids so that the
gravity head difference and capillary pressure between phases are
equal.
Once the initial state of the model has been completely defined, a
restart file is written for use by the simulation module. As with all
restart files, this contains a snapshot of the model at an instant in time,
(in this case at time = 0),with all information required to advance the
simulation in time.

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Creating the Initialization Data
VIP provides several ways that you can build the initial model, as
discussed on the following pages.

Using Keywords for Model Input
All data prepared for the VIP-CORE module must be in a structured
keyword format like the one shown below:
INIT
TITLE1
SPE COMPARISON PROBLEM #1
TITLE2
EXAMPLE DATASET
DATE 1 1 80
C -------------------------------------------------------------C OUTPUT CONTROLS
C -------------------------------------------------------------MAP P SO SW SG
C PRINT NONE
C -------------------------------------------------------------C MODEL DIMENSIONS
C -------------------------------------------------------------NX NY NZ NCOMP
10 10 3 2
C -------------------------------------------------------------C CONSTANT PROPERTIES
C -------------------------------------------------------------DWB BWI VW CW CR TRES TS PS
.997 1.0265 .31 3E-6 3E-6 200 60 14.7
C -------------------------------------------------------------C INITIALIZATION DATA
C -------------------------------------------------------------IEQUIL PINIT DEPTH PCWOC WOC PCGOC GOC BP
1 4800 8400 0. 8450 0. 8320 4014.7
C -------------------------------------------------------------C PVT DATA -- ALLOW GAS TO GO INTO SOLUTION.
C -------------------------------------------------------------BOTAB
DOR WTRO
.7868 210
PSAT RS BO BG GR VO VG
9014.7 2984 2.357 .386 .792 .203 .0470
5014.7 1618 1.827 .649 .792 .449 .0309

Sample of VIP-CORE Keyword Input
If desired, you can type all of these keywords in manually using any
ASCII text editor (such as Wordpad). The VIP-CORE Reference

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Manual contains complete details on the format required. A template of
the most frequently used keywords is included in Appendix A.
However, constructing a VIP-CORE data set from scratch can be a long
and laborious task — especially for array data. To save time, you may
consider using some of the automated tools described next. Even if you
use these tools, you can still fine-tune the data manually by using a text
editor to modify the keywords.

Using Data Studio-CORE
The Data Studio application lets you create a basic initialization file
within a GUI-driven interface. It facilitates the building of rock and
fluid property tables, arrays and other information needed for the
initialization file. The panel for building the black-oil PVT table is
shown below.

Dynamic plot
readout

Current contents of i.dat file

Editable plot of PVT table or
correlation curve data

You can also use a wizard to create an initialization file with the basic
mandatory information.
At any point, you can display the initialization file you are creating in
the bottom pane of the screen as shown above.

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When the file is generated, a message box shows you a file summary
and details any errors you have within the file.

Data OK
Error
Open Options
branch to view
error description

The Data Studio-CORE interface includes most VIP-CORE options but
not all of the advanced options available within CORE. But it provides
a panel through which you can add keywords to the file or include
external files.

Using GRIDGENR/ARRAY to Configure the Model and Calculate Data
GRIDGENR and ARRAY are separate applications that are especially
useful in preparing VIP-CORE array data.
Using GRIDGENR, you can:

Import contours, faults, wells, and grids from mapping software or
geological models (via GeoLink).

Digitize contours, faults, or well locations from paper maps.

Draw a grid structure on top of the map data that will be used to
construct reservoir gridblocks.

Using ARRAY, you can:

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Use the data to create the VIP-CORE input data arrays.

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Specify parameters associated with this calculation.

Write the data arrays in the correct keyword format.

You can merge the final data arrays produced by ARRAY with other
keyword data to produce a final keyword data file for input to VIPCORE.

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Understanding the GRIDGENR Interface
When you start GRIDGENR from the Input menu in DESKTOP VIP,
the GRIDGENR control panel and main window appear as shown
below.
Main Window

Control Panel

The GRIDGENR Interface
The GRIDGENR control panel and main window are described in
more detail below:

60

Control Panel. The control panel lets you select the property,
producing zone, modes, and reference points for digitizing. A
Context button lets you reset the GRIDGENR interface to work on
contours, faults, grids, or wells.

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Main Window. The main window contains several menus that
provide all of the digitizing and calculation options, as listed
below:
Menu Name

Purpose

File

Open new or existing grid files; save changes to the current file;
save the current file under a different name; import/export grids
and contours; exit GRIDGENR.

Edit

Add, copy, modify, or remove map elements (grids/contours/faults/
wells/text). Options on this menu change to match the Context
setting on the Control Panel.

Inquire

View specific data values for grids, contours, and wells; measure
distances; view coordinates.

Screen

Zoom in and out; pan; restore; redraw; modify display.

Calculate

Use finished grids and contours to create an array table for input to
reservoir simulators.

Options

Set screen display options and tolerances.

For more information about GRIDGENR, please see the GRIDGENR
User’s Guide.
Digitizing with GRIDGENR
The following types of data can be digitized in GRIDGENR.

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Structural data. Information about the vertical location of the top
of structure (TOS), bottom of structure (BOS), and gross thickness
of each layer. Net thickness maps can also be digitized. If net
thickness is omitted, it is set equal to the gross thickness.

Rock properties. Porosity and permeability in principle reservoir
directions. This data is required for the simulator, but it can be
entered outside of GRIDGENR through manual editing of the
keyword data file. Net-to-gross (NTG) ratios can also be digitized.

Saturation data. Residual saturations and mobile saturations can
also be digitized.

Faults. Faults are simply discontinuities in whatever property
being considered. They make most sense as structural
discontinuities, but they can exist for any type of contour.
GRIDGENR support three types of faults: conductive, sealing, and
display only.

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Wells. Well locations can be digitized. This information can be
written out to a file and used for VIP-EXEC simulations discussed
in the next chapter.

Grids. You can create uniform, curvilinear, or local refinement
grids that describe the corner points of each gridblock in the
reservoir.

If GRIDGENR is used, then the only required data is enough
information to calculate the top and bottom of each simulation layer.
By default, layers within GRIDGENR are assumed to be contiguous
however, vertically discontiguous layers can also be treated.

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Compiling the Final Data
For some models, you may use all of the tools mentioned earlier. For
example, you may use Data Studio and GRIDGENR to generate some
data automatically, and an ASCII editor to create keyword input for
other types of data not provided by Data Studio or GRIDGENR (as
listed in the VIP-CORE Reference Guide). When you are finished
creating and generating all the desired initialization array data, you
must prepare the final files for input to VIP-CORE.
Among the data for VIP-CORE which must be entered manually in
keyword format. These features include:

Definition of separators.

Definition of phase behavior properties for any other type of input
such as Black-oil Tables, K-values and equations of state (EOS).

Array modifiers and overreads.

Many CORE utility data options mentioned in the VIP-CORE
Reference Guide.

This section discusses shorthand conventions for repeated data entry,
array modifiers, and presents a list of commonly used CORE Utility
data.
Shorthand Conventions For Entering Repeated Values By Hand
When entering data by hand N repeated values can be entered using the
notation N*value. For example, if a constant porosity of 0.3 is entered
on a gridblock by gridblock basis for a model with 9 gridblocks it could
be entered as:
POR
0.3

0.3

VALUE
0.3 0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Equivalently, the same data could be entered as:
POR
9*0.3

VALUE

There is no space between the 9, the * and the 0.3

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This shorthand notation can also be used for repeated numbers
embedded within longer strings of numbers. For example, the
following data entry
POR
0.1

0.2

VALUE
0.2 0.3

0.25

0.25

4*0.25

0.2

0.25

0.25

0.2

can be represented as
POR
0.1

VALUE
2*0.2 0.3

The same shorthand notation can also be used for entering data in well
data in EXEC.
Modifications (MOD)
The Modification (MOD) record can be placed after array data, if
necessary, to modify it:
Format:
MOD
i1

i2

j1

j2

k1

k2

#v

(# can be +,-,/,*,=)

Example:
POR CON
0.20
MOD
1
2
1

3

1

1

*0.5

For all gridblocks in the range i=1 to 2, j=1 to 3, k=1 to 1 this will
multiply all porosity values by 0.5
Overreads (OVER)
Overreads can be used to modify convective flow and thermal
transmissibilities, pore volume, and ISAT data.
Format:

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OVER array(s)
i1 i2 j1 j2

k1

k2

#v

(#v) ...

(# can be +,-,/,*,=)

Example:
OVER
1 1

TX
1

TY
3

1

2

=0.001

*.1

This means that for all gridblocks in the range x=1 to 1, j= 1 to 3, k=1
to 2, all the x direction transmissibilities will be set to 0.001, and all the
y direction transmissibilities will be multiplied by 0.1.
Value Overread (VOVER)
The VOVER record modifies convective flow and thermal
transmissibilities, pore volume, and ISAT. It is very similar to the
OVER record except a value must be supplied for each gridblock and
must come after all array data.
Format:
VOVER array
i1 i2 j1 j2

k1

k2

operator

(operator can be ADD, SUB, MULT, DIV, or EQ.)

Values for (i2-i1+i)*(j2-j1+1)*(k2-k1+1) gridblocks must be supplied.
Example:
VOVER
TX
1 1 1
3
1
3*0.001 3*0.2

2

MULT

For x direction transmissibilities in the ordered range i=1 to 1 j=1 to 3,
k= 1 to 2 this will have the effect of multiplying the first 3 values by
0.001 and multiplying the last three values by 0.2.
Multiple (MULT)
The MULT record operates on convective flow and thermal
transmissibilities for standard and non-standard connections and must
come after input arrays and before any input fault data.
Format:
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MULT array [STD,NONSTD,ALL] [MINUS,PLUS] operator
i1 i2 j1 j2 k1 k2 value

(operator can be ADD, SUB, DIV, MULT, EQUAL.)

Example:
MULT TX
1 1 1

ALL
3

MINUS
1
2

MULT
0.001

All gridblocks in the range i=1 to 1 j=1 to 3, k= 1 to 2 will have their
transmissibilities with blocks connected in the negative x direction
multiplied by 0.001. This will effect both standard and non-standard
(fault) connections.

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Summary of Common CORE Utility Data
The following table is a summary of commonly used VIP-CORE utility
data options. For complete details, see the VIP-CORE Reference Guide.
Card Name

Function

DIM

Change default dimensions.

TITLE

Descriptive information.

DATE

Specify initial date.

Required.

END

End of file marker.

Required.

MAP

Specify creation of MAP file, its format,
and data selection.

Needed for map output
for post-processing.

METRIC

Cause all data to be read and printed in
metric units.

Must come before
constants.

CROSS

Cause arrays to be printed by crosssection.

GASWATER

Invoke 2-phase gas-water option.

VIP-ENCORE only.

WATEROIL

Invoke 2-phase oil-water option.

VIP-ENCORE only.

TWOPT

Invoke 2-point upstream weighting.

IMPES only (see manual
instructions).

NINEPT

Invoke 9-point finite

See Manual for
restrictions.

difference.

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Notes

END2P

Invoke 2-point scaling of relative
permeabilities.

STONEn

Stone’s 3-phase oil relative permeability.

Default is Stone2.

PCHYSW

Invoke/ define parameters for water-oil
capillary pressure hysteresis.

VIP-COMP or VIPENCORE

PCHYSG

Invoke/define parameters for gas-oil
capillary pressure hysteresis.

VIP-COMP or VIPENCORE

RPHYSO

Invoke oil relative permeability
hysteresis.

VIP-COMP or VIPENCORE

RPHYSG

Invoke gas relative permeability
hysteresis.

VIP-COMP or VIPENCORE

JFUNC

Use Leverett J-Function scaling to
compute capillary pressures.

J entered instead of Pc in
tables.

COMPACT

Invoke compaction option.

FRZPCW

Freeze water-oil capillary pressure at its
initial value.

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Card Name

Function

FRZPCG

Freeze gas-oil capillary pressure at its
initial value.

NONEQ

Invoke non-equilibrium initialization.

GBC

Invoke gridblock center initialization
algorithm.

INTSAT

Invoke integrated saturation initialization
algorithm.

VAITS

Invoke volume averaged integrated
saturation initialization algorithm.

PINCHOUT

Causes program to automatically generate
nonstandard gridblock connections across
pinchouts.

FAULTS

Invoke fault modeling options.

FLOW360

Complete the circle for 360 degree radial
grids.

VEWO

Invoke water-oil vertical equilibrium.

VIP-COMP or VIPENCORE

VEGO

Invoke gas-oil vertical equilibrium.

VIP-COMP or VIPENCORE

GIBBS

Invoke Gibbs energy minimization
algorithm.

VIP-COMP only.

IFT

Invoke and specify parameters for near
critical fluid property adjustments.

VIP-COMP only;
PCHOR must be
specified.

FLASH

Specify flash calculation method.

VIP-COMP only

CRINIT

Invoke super critical initialization.

VIP-COMP only

CORTOL

Specify tolerance associated with corner
point grid and fault connections.

CORCHK

Specify amount of error checking for
corner point grid

The Initial Reservoir Model: Summary of Common CORE Utility Data

Notes

Might be needed with
pinchouts.

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Running the VIP-CORE Initialization
Once you have built an input data set for VIP-CORE you can run
CORE to perform the actual initialization and analyze the results. See
“VIP Job Submission” on page 97 for discussion of the VIP Job
Submission panel.

VIP Job Submission Panel

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Checking the Status of a VIP-CORE Run
When a VIP-CORE run has started, you can click the Job Status tab on
the Job Submission panel to monitor the ongoing status of the job as it
runs and view/plot the output. You can also reload, view, and plot
status files from previous submissions.

Progress Monitor
Job Status Window for VIP-CORE Simulation
During initialization, many options on the Job Status panel are not
active. For example, the Progress Monitor (shown above) displays only
the final status message for an initialization run.

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Analyzing the Results
As VIP-CORE runs, it creates a report containing error messages and
initialization data. This report is stored in an output file with the same
name as the study, but with the extension i.out. For example:
case5i.out

The following illustration shows a small part of such a report.|

REGION NUMBER
REGION NAME

**************************************************************************************
*
*
*
*
*
INITIAL FLUIDS IN PLACE
*
*
*
*
*
*
VIP-ENCORE SAMPLE DATA
CREATED: 12/17/2001
*
*
*
*
VIP-CORE *
**************************************************************************************
REGION
REGION
REGION
REGION
REGION
TOTAL
-----------------------------1
2
3
4
5
LAYER1
LAYER2
LAYER3
LAYER4
LAYER5

AVERAGE PRESSURE, PSIA
---------------------WEIGHTED BY HC PV AT DATUM
WEIGHTED BY TOTAL PV AT DATUM
WEIGHTED BY HC PV
WEIGHTED BY TOTAL PV
FLUIDS IN PLACE
--------------TOTAL PORE VOLUME
HC PORE VOLUME
TOTAL OIL
CONDENSATE IN F.G.
TOTAL GAS
FREE GAS
WATER
RESERVOIR OIL
RESERVOIR GAS
RESERVOIR WATER
MOBILE RES OIL
MOBILE RES GAS
MOBILE RES WATER
AVG OIL SATURATION
AVG GAS SATURATION
AVG WTR SATURATION

(MRB )
(MRB )
(MSTB )
(MSTB )
(MMSCF)
(MMSCF)
(MSTB )
(MRB )
(MMRCF)
(MRB )
(MRB )
(MMRCF)
(MRB )
(FPV )
(FPV )
(FPV )

AVERAGE COMPOSITIONS
-------------------LIGHT
HEAVY
TOTAL MOLES

2656.4
2656.7
2630.2
2632.0

2655.5
2654.6
2638.8
2645.4

2655.3
2654.3
2642.2
2649.8

2655.1
2653.9
2646.3
2653.7

2654.5
2652.4
2653.5
2662.0

2655.6
2654.7
2638.9
2645.8

20758.
12069.
9475.
0.
3856.
0.
8601.
12069.
0.
8689.
12069.
0.
3250.
.581437
0.
.418563

30026.
15325.
12031.
0.
4897.
0.
14554.
15325.
0.
14702.
15325.
0.
6835.
.510377
0.
.489623

6312.
3007.
2361.
0.
961.
0.
3272.
3007.
0.
3305.
2624.
0.
1651.
.476415
0.
.523585

17040.
7768.
6099.
0.
2482.
0.
9179.
7768.
0.
9272.
7768.
0.
4807.
.455881
0.
.544119

8488.
2796.
2196.
0.
894.
0.
5635.
2796.
0.
5692.
2796.
0.
3468.
.329426
0.
.670574

82624.
40965.
32161.
0.
13089.
0.
41242.
40965.
0.
41658.
40582.
0.
20011.
.495807
0.
.504193

.4250
.5750
26913672.

.4250
.5750
34175473.

.4250
.5750
6705941.

.4250
.5750
17324991.

.4250
.5750
6236813.

.4250
.5750
91356890.

**** PLOT FILE INITIALIZED ****
RUN TERMINATED AT END OF INPUT DATA
RESTART RECORDS WERE WRITTEN FOR VIP-EXEC
LGR (ARRAY) LENGTH =
12559 INTEGERS
TOTAL (ARRAY) LENGTH = 270519 WORDS

Example of Data from an Initialization Report
The initialization report contains a wide variety of information that
represents the reservoir model as it will look at the beginning of the

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first simulation run. Typical data may include any or all of the
following:

Names of other output files used for simulation restart, map data,
plot data, and grid corner point data.

Default and user-specified dimensions such as number of
gridblocks, local grid refinement, regions, fault connections, etc.

Card images of the data, showing the exact data that was input to
the initialization module.

Constant values used in the initialization, such as temperatures,
water density and viscosity, rock compressibility, etc.

Program options selected, such as water tracking, dual porosity,
etc.

Various tables showing water/gas saturations, three-phase oil
relative permeability, initial pressures, etc.

Black-oil PVT data.

Separator input data and separator properties.

Nonstandard gridblock connections.

Initial fluids in place, including average pressures and average
composition in each region of the reservoir (see previous
illustration).

Job statistics, including total number of gridblocks in each
direction, total active gridblocks, fault connections, royalty
information, and job run times.

You must check this file carefully to make sure that the reservoir model
has been configured without any major errors and that all reservoir
parameters are to your liking. The following procedure is
recommended:

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1.

The output file opens automatically when the run is complete.
Alternately, click the right mouse button in the Progress Monitor
section of the panel and select the output file (*.out) from the drop
down menu.

The output file opens in the default text editor.

VIP-CORE Output

R2003.4

2.

Use the text editor’s built-in Search or Find feature to locate error
messages by searching for key words such as “ERROR,”
“WARNING,” “WILL NOT INITIALIZE,” or “TERMINATING.”

3.

If you see any error messages, look at the surrounding data to
determine what went wrong. Correct the input data file and rerun
the initialization, if necessary.
The Initial Reservoir Model: Analyzing the Results

73

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4.

If there are no major errors, check the Initial Fluids in Place
section of the report. Determine whether the fluids in place were
what you expected.

5.

For best results, use 2DVIEW or 3DVIEW to view the map files
and thoroughly check the initial pressures, saturations,
transmissibilities, pore volumes, fault connections, and other key
data.

6.

If you see any problems with the data, determine the source of the
error, correct it, and rerun the initialization. When you are satisfied
with the initialization results, you are ready to begin using the
model for simulation.

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Getting Started with VIP

Reservoir Simulation
Introduction
After you have completed a successful initialization run, you are ready
to begin using the reservoir model for simulation. A reservoir
simulation is a time-dependent study of reservoir operation that
simulates well production and injection, as well as the movement of
fluids through the reservoir itself. To simulate reservoir performance,
you need to specify:

Where and when wells are drilled.

When they come on stream.

The flow rates at which they produce or inject.

When they are shut in.

The simulation itself is performed by the VIP-EXEC module based on
this type of time-dependent data. This chapter explains how to prepare
data for the simulation run, how to execute the simulation run, and how
to analyze the results.

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Understanding Simulation Data
The types of data that can be entered into VIP-EXEC are:

Dates for new data, changed data, and output

Numerical control parameters

Well definitions and constraints

Well model parameters and hydraulics parameters

Well management system hierarchy

Production/injection targets

To be usable for simulation purposes, the data must be in a keyword
format such as the one shown below. A template of the most frequently
used keywords is included in Appendix A. DESKTOP-VIP provides
tools that will help you get the data into the proper keyword format.
RUN
DIM NWMAX NPRFMX NPRFTOT
35
7
100
RESTART
0
START
C
C SIMULATOR CONTROL
DT
-1.0 1.0 90.0 500.00 0.0800 0.0500 0.1000
ITNLIM 1 5 500.00 0.0800 0.0500 0.1000
TOLD
0.5 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
TOLR
.001
.001
REL TOL
IMPSTAB ON
C
BLITZ
C
C OUTPUT CONTROL
C PRINT ITER 1
C PRINT WELLS WLLYR REGION FIELD TIME
OUTPUT P SW SG SHFTOG TSSUM HCPVTS
WPLOT TIME
WMAP TIME
C
C WELL DATA
WELL N NAME
I
J IGC
1 J1
5
5 1
2 J2
5
6 1
3 J3
6
7 1
(etc.)

Sample of VIP-EXEC Keyword Input
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Getting Started with VIP

Using VIP Data Studio for Simulation Input
VIP Data Studio is a special application designed to help you create
simulation data input files and observed data files for use with
Landmark’s VIP-EXECUTIVE family of reservoir simulation
products. Data Studio does not actually produce a reservoir simulation.
Instead, it is used as a preprocessor for the data that goes into the
reservoir simulation.

When used in tandem with VIP-EXEC, the data prepared in VIP Data
Studio can help you simulate the behavior of a reservoir over time, as
well as perform history matching studies that compare “observed”
production data to the simulation data produced by the reservoir model.
In particular, you can:

R2003.4

Import well production history data, well name/location data, and
well perforation data for use in your reservoir model

Reservoir Simulation: Using VIP Data Studio for Simulation Input

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Generate certain types of data automatically, such as a list of well
constraints to be applied on specific days during the simulation

Generate observed data files for use with plotting software.

Automatically build the simulation records needed to run a VIPEXEC simulation, and then edit the records before saving them.

The Data Studio application offers a "wizard" interface to help you
import productino data from ASCII files with different common format
conventions.
For More Information
Refer to the VIP Data Studio User Guide.

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Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data
An ASCII data set describing the time dependent reservoir simulation
data may be constructed using a text editor. Free format keywords can
be used to describe the well locations, operating conditions, constraints,
etc.
For More Information

These keywords are described in detail in the VIP-EXEC
Reference Manual. A template of the most frequently used
keywords is given in Appendix A.

Time-Dependent Data
Data for the VIP-EXEC can change with time. It is entered in time
blocks as shown in the following conceptual data deck. The keywords
that trigger the changing of data are DATE and/or TIME. DATE and
TIME records can be used interchangeably in the EXEC data deck. A
DATE record refers to an absolute day, month and year. TIME records
are in units of days and are referenced relative to the base date specified
in the CORE data deck.
The required data are minimal:
RESTART

(specifies restart number)

START

(signals the beginning of time dependent data)

At least one DATE or TIME record
STOP

(tells simulator to stop)

END

(end of data)

The required data records are listed schematically in the table below.
However, since the purpose of an EXEC simulation is to predict the
performance of a reservoir, it will also be necessary to define wells,

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define output type and frequency, etc.
C
C Conceptual EXEC Data Deck
C
Start the EXEC run at timestep 0
RESTART
0
Data entered here is in effect from the starting simulation time until
it is replaced at a later time.
START
DATE date1
Data entered here will take effect when the simulation reaches DATE1.
This data can replace any previously entered data.
DATE date2
Data entered here will take effect when the simulation reaches DATE2.
This data will replace any previously entered data.
DATE date3
Data
This
C
DATE
C
Stop
C
STOP
END

entered here will take effect when the simulation reaches DATE3.
data can replace any previously entered data.
date4
the simulation at DATE4

Method of Entering Time Dependent Data
Properties, such as rates, that are entered into the simulator should be
the appropriate averages over the duration of each DATE block. If rapid
changes in data take place, then more frequent DATE records may need
to be entered. The frequency of DATE records may be important when
trying to history match field data. If DATE records are entered too
frequently, the simulator performance can be affected because the
timestep size can become limited by the DATE records. Likewise, if
too few DATE's are entered, the averages may not correctly mimic the
actual variations over time. Engineering and simulation judgement may
be required when determining the frequency of TIME and DATE
records.

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Well Data
To completely define a well, the following data must be input:

Well Number (Name is optional)

Well Location

Well type

Well perforation data

Well maximum rate constraint

Optionally, if you want the well to observe a bottom hole pressure
(BHP) constraint then BHP and well index information must also be
specified.
Shorthand Conventions
Several types of data apply to wells. When the various types of specific
well data are input, the record identifying the type of data also includes
the list of wells for which the data are being entered. The list of wells
can consist of a series of names and/or numbers separated by spaces.
A shorthand notation for entering a consecutive number of wells in the
well list is n1 -n2, where n1 is the number of the first well in the list
and n2 is the number of the last well in the list.

There must be at least one blank space between n1 and the hyphen.

No spaces are allowed between the hyphen and n2.

Repeated values can be indicated for most data using the shorthand
N*value where N is the integer. This has the same effect as repeating
the value N times.
For example:
QMAX
5*1000

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

5*2500

will define maximum rate constraints of 1000 bbl/day for the wells
numbered 1 - 5 and 2500 bbl/day for wells 6 -10. Another way of
entering the same data using the shorthand notation for the well list is

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QMAX

1 -10

5*1000

5*2500

Data for multiple wells does not have to be entered on the same record.
Data entries can be broken up with as little as one piece of data per
record. The previous data could be entered as
QMAX

1

1000
QMAX 2
1000
QMAX 3
1000
etc.

Simulation Control
In VIP-EXEC, we advance the solution in time while honoring the
timing of changes to data input and obtaining output at selected points.
As long as the correct answer is produced, the scheme employed should
minimize work performed (as measured by the CPU time consumed).
There are trade-offs between speed and solution quality and, while the
default settings will give good performance for most problems, it may
be necessary for the user to adjust them in some cases. Three levels of
control exist; timestep control, non-linear iteration parameters and
iterative solver parameters (if appropriate). The monitoring and
adjustment of performance at each of these levels is described in the
Simulator Performance chapter.

Timestep Control
VIP-EXECUTIVE moves the reservoir model through a succession of
time points. The interval of time between points is called the
‘timestep’. Within each timestep, the simulator performs ‘outer
iterations’, that is, Newton iterations to determine the change in
pressures and saturations that occur over the timestep. In some cases,
‘inner iterations’ are performed within each outer iteration to determine
the change in reservoir variables between successive Newton steps
(iterative solution of the matrix).
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VIP-EXECUTIVE can select its own timesteps. They are constrained
only by the maximum changes in reservoir variables, or by gridblock
throughput limitations when the IMPES formulation is used. Timestep
size is altered automatically to hit exactly the times or dates on TIME
or DATE cards. Under automatic timestep control, maximum pressure,
saturations, vapor fraction, and total composition changes may be
exceeded slightly to save the work required to repeat the timestep.
Timesteps are controlled by VIP cards; DT, TCUT, and IMPSTAB,
which are described in detail in the user manual.

Selecting What You Want Printed
Despite advances in post-processing, the VIP print file is still
traditionally the most important source of diagnostic information about
a VIP run. However, careful selection of output is necessary to avoid
the generation of needlessly large output files.
The VIP-EXEC output is cyclic, reflecting the time intervals being
processed, and production, injection and in-place reports are repeated,
with timestep information, at each new time level. It is straightforward
and a great deal of user control is provided.
However, VIP only writes most output that has specifically been
requested in the input data file. Thus, it is important to understand the
keywords that are needed to obtain the different types of output and to
which file the requested information will be written.
It is important to distinguish between timesteps and the time intervals
between data changes and/or output requests (which are marked by
DATE and TIME cards), since they are often confused. A timestep is
the time period over which VIP updates the solution to the underlying
equations of the model. Typical values of the timestep vary from
minutes or hours for high-rate well test simulations to a month or more
for full-field simulations. A simulation run will generally have many
more timesteps than report times. VIP automatically ensures that the
ends of appropriate timesteps coincide with TIME or DATE cards,
without making any timesteps too long or too short.
With the exception of the timestep summary line (which is not under
user control), VIP does not provide any printed output unless it is
specifically requested. The output to be provided is controlled by two
cards; the OUTPUT card controls content, such as which arrays to
print, while the PRINT card controls frequency, or when to print the
output.
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OUTPUT Card
Only one OUTPUT card can be active at any given time; thus reading a
second one will wipe out the information provided by the first - they
are not cumulative. The OUTPUT card is primarily for specifying
arrays to be printed, but also includes keywords to control output of
certain summary reports. It also controls output volume units (via shift
keywords), pressure averaging (HCPV weighting instead of PV
weighting) and convergence failure debug printout. Usually, only one
OUTPUT card will be needed in a run.
As an example, the following OUTPUT card will cause the P, SW, SG
and VISO arrays to be printed when a PRINT ARRAYS command is
activated, and a convergence report will be issued if a timestep fails to
converge.
C OUTPUT CARD
OUTPUT P SW SG VISO CNVFAIL

PRINT Card
In contrast to the OUTPUT card, multiple PRINT cards will usually be
specified, sometimes in every recurrent data group. Each item specified
on a PRINT card can be output at a different frequency. PRINT cards
are consequently cumulative and order dependent.
The last string on a PRINT card specifies the frequency of output in
one of three possible ways; TIME will cause output at every
subsequent TIME or DATE card, TNEXT will cause output at the next
TIME or DATE card and an integer n will cause output with a
frequency of every nth timestep from that point onwards. Note that a
frequency can be specified in addition to TIME or TNEXT, but TIME
and TNEXT are mutually exclusive. OUTPUT can be turned off by not
specifying TIME, TNEXT or an integer on a PRINT card. The
following examples illustrate use of the PRINT card.
C
C PRINT WELL, REGION AND ARRAY OUTPUT AT EACH DATE
C AND TIME CARD
C
PRINT WELLS REGIONS ARRAYS TIME
C
C PRINT ITERATION SUMMARIES EVERY 10TH TIMESTEP
C
PRINT ITER 10
C
C PRINT SEPARATOR DATA AT THE NEXT TIME OR DATE
CARD ONLY
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Getting Started with VIP
C
PRINT SEP TNEXT
C
TIME 40
C
C TURN OFF REGION OUTPUT
C
PRINT REGIONS
C
TIME 80

Examples of the various types of printed VIP output follow:

********************************************************************************************************************************
* DETAILED ITERATION SUMMARY, TIMESTEP
24
SIZE 10.6
FROM 262.401
DAYS
REASON: TIME/DATE CARD
*
********************************************************************************************************************************
OUTER
ITN
1
2
3

RWMAX
(I,J,K)
1337.
( 12 18
1636.
( 6 9
-28.38
( 6 12

RHCMAX
(I,J,K)
.3001E+05
2) ( 25 7 3)
-81.93
2) ( 15 19 2)
-1.419
2) ( 29 23 2)

DPMAX
(I,J,K)

DSWMAX
(I,J,K)

-7.843
.1787E-01
( 1 1 7) ( 11 16 3)
1.124
.1089E-02
( 26 7 7) ( 6 9 2)
-.6427E-01
.7079E-04
( 29 9 3) ( 6 11 2)

DVMAX
(I,J,K)
.3638E-01
( 24 8 2)
-.8657E-03
( 26 7 7)
.7424E-04
( 28 9 3)

DZMAX
(I,J,K)

RWSUM

.8650E-02
.3147E+05
( 24 8 2)
-.1636E-03
1.636
( 26 7 7)
.1718E-04 -.2209E-03
( 28 9 3)

RHCSUM

INNER
ITN

DAMPING
FACTOR

-.1758E+06

4

1.00000

-4.118

4

1.00000

6

1.00000

.2807E-02

Detailed Iteration Summary

**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
TIME
STEP
SUMMARY
*
**************************************************************************************
TIME STEP
PRODUCTION
------------ -----------------------OIL
GAS
WATER
NO.
DAYS
MSTB/D MMSCF/D STB/D
---- ------- -------- ------- ------6 183.643 57.0000 92.1670 1.72174
7 186.263 57.0000 92.1670 8.66352
8 189.087 57.0000 92.1670 11.4917
9 192.250 57.0000 92.1670 13.5319
10 196.012 57.0000 92.1670 15.1824
11 200.761 57.0000 92.1670 16.6434
12 204.911 57.0000 92.1670 18.0354
13 209.378 57.0000 92.1670 19.0300
14 214.419 57.0000 92.1670 19.9289
15 218.701 57.0000 92.1670 20.7928
16 222.574 57.0000 92.1670 21.4469
17 226.212 57.0000 92.1670 21.9853
18 229.715 57.0000 92.1670 22.4519
19 233.177 57.0000 92.1670 22.8707
20 236.625 57.0000 92.1670 23.2592
21 240.593 57.0000 92.1670 23.6247
22 250.405 57.0000 92.1670 24.0208
23 262.401 57.0000 92.1670 24.8871

INJECTION
AVG MASS BALANCES MAX SATN CHANGE
--------------- HCPV ------------- --------------GAS
WATER
PRES
H/C
WATER I J K DSMAX
MMSCF/D STB/D
PSIA
------- ------- ------ ------ ------ -- -- -- -----55.3002 31500. 5295. 1.E-10 2.E-11 27 5 2 .030G
55.3002 31500. 5292. 1.E-10 3.E-11 27 5 2 .028G
55.3002 31500. 5289. 1.E-10 2.E-11 27 5 2 .028G
55.3002 31500. 5286. 1.E-10 3.E-11 27 5 2 .027G
55.3002 31500. 5284. 8.E-10 7.E-11 27 5 2 .026G
55.3002 31500. 5281. 6.E-10 7.E-11 27 5 2 .038G
55.3002 31500. 5278. 5.E-10 7.E-11 27 5 2 .032G
55.3002 31500. 5275. 5.E-10 7.E-11 27 10 2 .027G
55.3002 31500. 5273. 4.E-10 7.E-11 27 10 2 .037G
55.3002 31500. 5271. 4.E-10 7.E-11 27 10 2 .035G
55.3002 31500. 5269. 3.E-10 7.E-11 27 10 2 .035G
55.3002 31500. 5267. 3.E-10 7.E-11 27 10 2 .035G
55.3002 31500. 5265. 3.E-10 7.E-11 27 10 2 .035G
55.3002 31500. 5263. 3.E-10 6.E-11 27 10 2 .036G
55.3002 31500. 5262. 3.E-10 4.E-11 27 10 2 .032G
55.3002 31500. 5260. 3.E-10 4.E-11 27 10 2 .015G
55.3002 31500. 5255. 3.E-10 4.E-11 27 10 2 .031G
55.3002 31500. 5250. 2.E-10 5.E-11 25 7 3 .033O

MAX COMP CHANGE MAX PRES CHANGE TIME ITN
--------------- --------------- STEP --I J K DZMAX I J K DPMAX CUTS
-27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
24

-- -- ------ -- -- -- ------ ---- --5 2 .0148 27 6 3 80.17
1
5
5 2 -.0117 31 5 3 23.46
0
3
5 2 -.0110 18 12 1 -14.12
0
3
5 2 .0103 18 13 1 -11.15
0
3
5 2 .0096 32 6 5 10.91
0
2
5 2 -.0137 32 6 5 12.56
0
3
5 2 -.0111 32 6 5
9.80
0
3
10 2 .0108 32 6 5
9.21
0
3
10 2 -.0142 32 6 5
8.89
0
3
10 2 .0133 24 7 2
6.83
0
3
10 2 .0127 19 7 3
5.62
0
3
10 2 .0124 19 7 3
4.77
0
3
10 2 -.0120 19 7 3
4.15
0
3
10 2 .0119 28 5 3
3.80
0
2
10 2 -.0103 28 5 3
3.33
0
2
10 2 .0048 4 1 3 -3.46
0
3
10 2 -.0098 8 1 5 -7.98
0
3
8 2 .0109 1 1 7 -9.29
0
3

Time Step Summary

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**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
SEPARATOR
REPORT
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************
************
BATTERY = 6
************

(DEFAULT SEPARATOR FOR PVT REGION

1)

---------STOCK TANK
----------

STOCK
STOCK
STOCK
STOCK
STOCK
STOCK
STOCK
STOCK
STOCK
STOCK

TANK
TANK
TANK
TANK
TANK
TANK
TANK
TANK
TANK
TANK

PRESSURE
=
TEMPERATURE
=
LIQUID RATE
=
VAPOR RATE
=
VENT GAS RATE =
TOTAL GAS RATE=
GAS-OIL RATIO =
OIL-GAS RATIO =
LIQ. DENSITY =
GAS GRAVITY
=

14.70
60.00
90250.00
145836.17
.00
145836.17
1615.91
618.85
.7870
.7920

PSIA
DEG F
STB/DAY
MCF/DAY
MCF/DAY
MCF/DAY
SCF/STB
BBLS/MMSCF
GM/CC
(AIR=1.)

COMPOSITIONS
------------------------------------------------COMPONENT
FEED
LIQUID
VAPOR
VENT
-----------------------LIGHT
HEAVY

.75384
.24616

.01111
.98889

.99445
.00555

.00000
.00000

Separator Report

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Getting Started with VIP
**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
REGION
SUMMARY
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************
TOTAL
-----

AVERAGE PRESSURE, PSIA
---------------------WEIGHTED BY HC PV AT DATUM
WEIGHTED BY TOTAL PV AT DATUM
WEIGHTED BY HC PV
WEIGHTED BY TOTAL PV
FLUIDS IN PLACE
--------------TOTAL PORE VOLUME
HC PORE VOLUME
TOTAL OIL
CONDENSATE IN F.G.
TOTAL GAS
FREE GAS
WATER
RESERVOIR OIL
RESERVOIR GAS
RESERVOIR WATER
AVG OIL SATURATION
AVG GAS SATURATION
AVG WTR SATURATION
LIGHT
HEAVY
TOTAL MOLES
CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION
--------------------TOTAL OIL
TOTAL GAS
WATER
LIGHT
HEAVY
TOTAL MOLES
CUMULATIVE INJECTION
-------------------TOTAL GAS
WATER
LIGHT
HEAVY
TOTAL MOLES
NET INFLUX
---------TOTAL OIL
TOTAL GAS
WATER
WATER - AQUIFER
LIGHT
HEAVY
TOTAL MOLES

4885.2
4711.6
5180.7
5385.3

(MRB )
(MRB )
(MSTB )
(MSTB )
(MMSCF)
(MMSCF)
(MSTB )
(MRB )
(MMRCF)
(MRB )
(FPV )
(FPV )
(FPV )

7505696.
2324893.
1260020.
2.7756
2083633.
45270.47
4983660.
2296575.
158.9949
5180802.
.305978
.003773
.690249
.7580
.2420
7227793551.

(MSTB )
(MMSCF)
(MSTB )

13890.90
22459.90
6.5818
.7540
.2460
78335884.

(MMSCF)
(MSTB )

13142.30
8280.000
.9944
.0056
34627286.

(MSTB )
(MMSCF)
(MSTB )
(MSTB )

.000413
.000685
-.000969
0.
2.
1.
2.

Region Summary

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**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
WELL
PERFORATION
SUMMARY
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************
WELL
DAILY
PRODUCTION
------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------PERF LOCATION
GOR WATER
------------OIL
GAS
WATER
SCF/ CUT
NO.
NAME
GC# I
J LAYER UNIT STATUS STB/D
MSCF/D
STB/D
STB FRAC.
---- -------- --- --- --- ----- ---- ------ -------- -------- -------- ----- ----1 J1
1 12
3
1
0
ON
1417.47 2292.00
.26869 1617 .000
12
3
2
0
ON
5587.74 9035.18 1.43913 1617 .000
12
3
3
0
ON
2494.79 4033.98 5.23217 1617 .002
-------- -------- -------- ----- ----9500.00
15361. 6.93999 1617 .001

DAILY INJECTION
PRESSURES, PSIA
----------------- ------------------GRID
BOTTOM
GAS
WATER
BLOCK
HOLE
MSCF/D
STB/D
/DATUM
-------- -------- ------------ -----5013 / 4747
4960
5025 / 4746
4973
5037 / 4746
4985
-----4694

2 J2

1

12
12
12

6
6
6

1
2
3

0
0
0

ON
ON
ON

1573.23 2543.86
.24209 1617 .000
5462.48 8832.63 1.24688 1617 .000
2464.29 3984.67 5.25759 1617 .002
-------- -------- -------- ----- ----9500.00
15361. 6.74655 1617 .001

5013 / 4742
5028 / 4742
5040 / 4742

4965
4980
4993
-----4694

3 J3

1

13
13
13

8
8
8

1
2
3

0
0
0

ON
ON
ON

1572.94 2529.53
.25651 1608 .000
5397.66 8710.53 1.17399 1614 .000
2529.40 4089.95 4.15837 1617 .002
-------- -------- -------- ----- ----9500.00
15330. 5.58886 1614 .001

4986 / 4731
5002 / 4732
5015 / 4733

4940
4955
4968
-----4685

Well Layer Summary

88

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP
**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
PRODUCTION
WELL
SUMMARY
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************

WELL
-------------------------------PERF LOCATION
------------NO.
NAME
I
J LAYER STAT
---- -------- --- --- ----- ---*** GC # 1
1 J1
12
3 1- 3 QMAX
2 J2
12
6 1- 3 QMAX
3 J3
13
8 1- 3 QMAX
4 J4
14 12 1- 3 QMAX
5 J5
16 11 1- 3 QMAX
6 J6
19 13 1- 3 QMAX
7 J7
16 14 1- 3 QMAX
8 J8
20 17 1- 3 QMAX
9 J9
22 16 2- 7 QMAX
10 J10
31 16 3- 7 QMAX
11 J11
27 20 3- 7 QMAX
*** GATHERING

DAILY
PRODUCTION
CUMULATIVE
PRODUCTION
-------------------------------- ----------------------GOR WATER
OIL
GAS
WATER
OIL
GAS
WATER SCF/ CUT
MSTB/D MMCF/D STB/D STB FRAC. MMSTB
BSCF
MSTB
------ ------ ------ ----- ----- ------- ------- -------

PRESSURES, PSIA
GAS
LIFT
----------------- ---------------------GRID
BHP
THP
LIFT
CUM
BLOCK
RATE LIFT GAS LIFT
DATUM DATUM
MMCF/D
BSCF STATUS
----- ----- ----- ------ -------- -----4747.
4742.
4733.
4732.
4728.
4742.
4731.
4748.
4805.
4987.
4873.

CENTER

TOTALS

9.5000
9.5000
9.5000
9.5000
9.5000
9.5000
9.5000
9.5000
4.7500
4.7500
4.7500
-----90.25

15.36
15.36
15.33
15.36
15.33
15.33
15.36
15.36
7.6806
7.6806
7.6806
-----145.84

6.9400 1617 .001 1.48295
6.7466 1617 .001 1.48295
5.5889 1614 .001 1.74800
6.7443 1617 .001 1.74800
7.5247 1613 .001 1.74800
7.1375 1614 .001 1.74800
6.6872 1617 .001 .87400
6.6296 1617 .001 1.74800
2.3981 1617 .001 .43700
.2360 1617 .000 .43700
2.2636 1617 .000 .43700
------ ----- ----- ------58.90 1616 .001 13.8909

2.39788 .66522
2.39788 .67189
2.82607 .76953
2.82645 .86775
2.82599 .94073
2.82612 .90229
1.41323 .54683
2.82645 .85086
.70661 .17731
.70661 .02217
.70661 .16716
------- ------22.4599 6.58177

4695.
4694.
4686.
4690.
4682.
4694.
4689.
4701.
4782.
4907.
4820.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
------ -------0.
0.

CENTER

TOTALS

------ ------ ------ ----- ----- ------- ------- ------0.
0.
0.
0
0.
0.
0.
0.

------ -------0.
0.

====== ====== ====== ===== ===== ======= ======= =======

====== ========

*** GC # 2
*** GATHERING

**

FLOW

STATION

TOTALS

90.25 145.84

58.90

1616

.001 13.8909 22.4599 6.58177

0.

0.

**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
INJECTION
WELL
SUMMARY
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************
WELL
-------------------------------PERF LOCATION
------------NO.
NAME
I
J LAYER STAT
---- -------- --- --- ----- ---*** GC # 1
30 J30

27

*** GATHERING

CENTER

*** GC
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

# 2
J20
J21
J22
J23
J24
J25
J26

*** GATHERING

4
6
9
14
21
26
31

**

FLOW

CENTER

STATION

6

3- 5 QMAX
TOTALS

4
9
14
19
23
25
23

5555555-

7
7
7
7
7
7
7

TOTALS

TOTALS

QMAX
QMAX
QMAX
QMAX
QMAX
QMAX
QMAX

DAILY INJECTION
--------------------

CUMULATIVE INJECTION
--------------------

PRESSURES, PSIA
----------------------GRID
BOTTOM TUBING
BLOCK
HOLE
HEAD
DATUM
DATUM
------- ------ ------

GAS
MSCF/D
---------

WATER
STB/D
---------

GAS
MMSCF
---------

WATER
MSTB
---------

87502.
--------87502.

0.
--------0.

13142.30
--------13142.30

0.
--------0.

5292.

5383.

0.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
--------0.

4500.00
4500.00
4500.00
4500.00
13500.
13500.
13500.
--------58500.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
--------0.

828.0000
828.0000
828.0000
828.0000
1656.000
1656.000
1656.000
--------8280.000

4605.
4593.
4589.
4592.
4692.
4730.
5036.

4634.
4622.
4617.
4620.
4783.
4841.
5166.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

=========

=========

=========

=========

87502.

58500.

13142.30

8280.000

Well Reports

R2003.4

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

89

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
WELL
RFT
REPORT
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************
WELL
DAILY PRODUCTION/INJECTION PRES, PSIA
GRIDBLOCK PROPERTIES
---------------------------------------------- -------------------------- ------------ -----------------------------------------NORMALIZED
GB LOCATION
GRID
MOBILE MOBILE
VERTICAL ------------OIL
GAS
WATER
BLOCK
DEPTH
OIL
GAS
WATER
OIL
WATER
NO.
NAME
GC# TYPE
?
I
J LAYER STB/D
MSCF/D
STB/D
/DATUM
FT
SAT’N SAT’N SAT’N SAT’N SAT’N
---- -------- --- ---- -------- --- --- ----- -------- -------- -------- ------------ ------- ------ ------ ------ ------ -----1 J1
1 PROD
YES
12
3
1 1417.47 2292.00
.26869 5013 / 4747 9700.7 .7798 .0002 .2201 .9996 .0001
12
3
2 5587.74 9035.18 1.43913 5025 / 4746 9750.3 .7799 .0000 .2201 .9998 .0001
12
3
3 2494.79 4033.98 5.23217 5037 / 4746 9798.1 .7790 .0000 .2210 .9983 .0012
12
3
5
0.
0.
0. 5141 / 4823 9905.3 .7798 .0000 .2202 .9996 .0003
12
3
6
0.
0.
0. 5168 / 4825 10004.8 .7798 .0000 .2202 .9996 .0003
12
3
7
0.
0.
0. 5201 / 4827 10123.5 .7797 .0000 .2203 .9995 .0004
2 J2

1 PROD

YES

12
12
12
12
12
12

6
6
6
6
6
6

1
2
3
5
6
7

1573.23
5462.48
2464.29
0.
0.
0.

2543.86
8832.63
3984.67
0.
0.
0.

.24209
1.24688
5.25759
0.
0.
0.

5013
5028
5040
5152
5178
5210

/
/
/
/
/
/

4742 9722.7
4742 9779.0
4742 9829.9
4824 9942.0
4825 10045.1
4825 10168.5

.7798
.7799
.7790
.7798
.7798
.7797

.0001
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000

.2201
.2201
.2210
.2202
.2202
.2203

.9997
.9998
.9983
.9996
.9996
.9995

.0001
.0001
.0013
.0003
.0003
.0004

3 J3

1 PROD

YES

13
13
13
13
13
13

8
8
8
8
8
8

1
2
3
5
6
7

1572.94
5397.66
2529.40
0.
0.
0.

2529.53
8710.53
4089.95
0.
0.
0.

.25651
1.17399
4.15837
0.
0.
0.

4986
5002
5015
5134
5166
5201

/
/
/
/
/
/

4731 9656.4
4732 9715.2
4732 9767.7
4822 9882.3
4827 9987.1
4830 10112.3

.7769
.7785
.7793
.7798
.7798
.7797

.0030
.0014
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000

.2201
.2201
.2207
.2202
.2202
.2203

.9947
.9975
.9987
.9996
.9996
.9995

.0001
.0001
.0010
.0003
.0003
.0003

RFT Report

90

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
FIELD
PRODUCTION
SUMMARY
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************

***

*

GATHERING CENTER
----------------------WELLS
-----------NO. NAME TOTAL ACTIVE
--- ------ ----- -----1
17
11
2
0
0
----- -----FS TOTALS
17
11

DAILY PRODUCTION
----------------------------------------GOR WATER
OIL
GAS
WATER
SCF/ CUT
STB/D
MSCF/D
STB/D
STB FRAC.
--------- --------- --------- ----- ----90250.
145836.
58.90 1615 .001
0.
0.
0.
0
0.
--------- --------- --------- ----- ----90250.
145836.
58.90 1615 .001

CUMULATIVE
PRODUCTION
-----------------------------OIL
GAS
WATER
MSTB
MMSCF
MSTB
--------- ---------- --------13890.90
22459.90
6.5818
0.
0.
0.
--------- ---------- --------13890.90
22459.90
6.5818

GAS
LIFT
-----------------------LIFT
CUM
LIFT
RATE
LIFT GAS
WELLS MSCF/D
MMSCF
----- -------- --------0
0.
0.
0
0.
0.
----- -------- --------0
0.
0.

===== ======
===== ======

========= ========= ========= ===== =====
========= ========= ========= ===== =====

========= ========== =========
========= ========== =========

===== ======== =========
===== ======== =========

FIELD

TOTALS

17

11

90250.

145836.

58.90

1615

.001

13890.90

22459.90

6.5818

0

0.

0.

**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
FIELD
GAS
HANDLING
SUMMARY
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************
GATHERING CENTER
DAILY RATE
---------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------SHRINKAGE
FUEL
GAS LIFT
SALES
MAKEUP GAS AVAIL
MAKEUP
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
FOR REINJ FOR FUEL
NO. NAME
MSCF/D
MSCF/D
MSCF/D
MSCF/D
MSCF/D
MSCF/D
MSCF/D
--- -------------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------1
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
145836.
0.
2
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
--------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------***
FS TOTALS
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
145836.
0.

CUMULATIVE GAS
--------------------------------------SHRINKAGE
FUEL
SALES
MAKEUP
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
MMSCF
MMSCF
MMSCF
MMSCF
--------- --------- --------- --------0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
--------- --------- --------- --------0.
0.
0.
0.

========= ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= =========
========= ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= =========

========= ========= ========= =========
========= ========= ========= =========

*

FIELD

TOTALS

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

145836.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

**************************************************************************************
*
VIP-EXEC
FIELD
INJECTION
SUMMARY
*
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************

***

FLOW STATION

GATHERING CENTER
------------------------WELLS
-----------NO.
NAME
TOTAL ACTIVE
--- ------ ----- -----1
1
1
2
7
7
----- -----TOTALS
8
8
===== ======
===== ======

***

FIELD

TOTALS

8

8

DAILY
INJECTION
---------------------

CUMULATIVE INJECTION
---------------------

GAS
MSCF/D
--------87502.
0.
--------87502.

WATER
STB/D
--------0.
58500.
--------58500.

GAS
MMSCF
--------13142.30
0.
--------13142.30

WATER
MSTB
--------0.
8280.00
--------8280.00

=========
=========

=========
=========

=========
=========

=========
=========

87502.

58500.

13142.30

8280.00

Field Reports

R2003.4

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

91

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

**************************************************************************************
*
*
*
PRESSURE, PSIA
*
*
*
* OFFSHORE EUROPE DEMONSTRATION MODEL
*
* FINE GRID MODEL
*
*
*
*
VIP-EXEC *
**************************************************************************************
* DAY/MO/YR:
1/ 9/83
P
TIME:
365.0 DAYS *
**************************************************************************************

K =

I
J
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

1

2

5261.4
5271.1
5282.8
5295.0
5307.8
5321.5
5336.4
5349.1
5354.8
5359.8
5366.1
5373.8
5382.2
5389.7
5396.5
5404.0
5405.9
5412.6
5419.2
5426.4
5433.7
5440.9
5448.2
5455.4
5465.0
5475.7
5497.2

5228.7
5235.4
5243.4
5254.4
5267.8
5281.7
5294.5
5306.2
5313.8
5321.9
5330.9
5340.6
5350.9
5363.3
5364.7
5374.5
5382.4
5390.0
5398.0
5407.0
5416.2
5424.8
5433.4
5442.0
5454.0
5468.8
5497.3

3
5197.7
5205.6
5214.4
5223.7
5234.1
5244.6
5249.6
5257.5
5267.3
5278.7
5290.2
5302.5
5300.5
5317.3
5331.2
5340.2
5349.3
5359.0
5369.5
5381.2
5392.6
5403.9
5414.7
5424.2
5437.5
5489.5
5497.3

4
5170.1
5182.6
5192.9
5203.8
5215.4
5218.4
5222.8
5228.0
5235.4
5243.9
5254.6
5261.0
5276.4
5288.8
5300.6
5311.9
5322.7
5333.7
5345.3
5357.8
5371.4
5386.3
5400.6
5412.2
5424.7
5490.2
5496.9

5
5145.9
5166.3
5181.3
5192.7
5201.4
5204.1
5208.3
5214.7
5221.9
5229.0
5229.0
5243.1
5253.5
5266.0
5278.6
5291.1
5303.5
5316.1
5329.0
5342.4
5357.2
5372.9
5388.6
5402.5
5413.8
5485.5
5494.9

1

6
5120.6
5145.8
5167.2
5180.3
5185.4
5189.0
5195.0
5202.5
5210.8
5217.4
5208.5
5220.5
5233.6
5244.3
5256.5
5269.8
5283.3
5297.3
5312.0
5327.3
5343.1
5359.1
5375.3
5390.5
5403.2
5478.3
5491.3

7
5096.5
5122.4
5147.0
5162.7
5166.7
5175.1
5181.8
5189.5
5196.8
5166.8
5181.3
5197.2
5212.3
5225.2
5238.8
5249.6
5264.1
5279.5
5296.0
5313.2
5329.9
5346.0
5362.4
5377.8
5458.6
5472.2
5486.9

8
5075.0
5100.4
5125.0
5140.2
5135.0
5152.9
5165.3
5174.5
5182.6
5143.1
5158.2
5173.8
5189.1
5205.0
5218.8
5234.0
5246.7
5263.7
5281.8
5300.4
5318.3
5334.9
5351.0
5366.2
5450.5
5464.8
5479.8

9
5058.5
5082.1
5105.4
5120.6
5094.7
5121.6
5140.0
5151.0
5107.1
5119.2
5136.2
5152.6
5168.0
5183.4
5200.3
5215.9
5233.4
5248.3
5267.5
5287.0
5306.3
5323.5
5337.9
5423.1
5439.0
5454.5
5470.7

10
5043.3
5061.7
5080.6
5037.6
5062.5
5089.1
5109.1
5122.5
5078.7
5097.9
5116.0
5132.1
5147.9
5163.5
5180.0
5198.4
5215.9
5235.8
5252.1
5271.9
5290.5
5307.0
5321.9
5409.9
5426.3
5444.0
5462.2

Array Summary

92

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

**************************************************************************************
*
*
*
SIMULATION STATISTICS
*
*
*
* OFFSHORE EUROPE DEMONSTRATION MODEL
*
* FINE GRID MODEL
*
*
*
*
VIP-EXEC *
**************************************************************************************

TOTAL GRIDS
:
TOTAL GRIDBLOCKS :
ACTIVE GRIDBLOCKS :

SIMULATOR
VERSION
INITIALIZATION LAST UPDATE
LAST CHANGE SET NAME
REVISION NUMBER
SIMULATION
LAST UPDATE
LAST CHANGE SET NAME
REVISION NUMBER
FORMULATION
EQUATION SOLUTION METHOD

VIP-ENCORE
v32r0
95/02/17
base_cse
0
95/02/17
bpfix01
0
IMPES
BLITZ

NX:

7

32

1
6048
4924

NY:

27

COMPONENTS
:
GRID CONNECTIONS :
FAULT CONNECTIONS :

NZ:
2
0
1076

WELLS
:
PERFORATIONS :

30
78

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS
---------------------CURRENT RUN
----------365.000
37
114
503
2
0
.0002968
.0002416

TIME SIMULATED (DAYS)
NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL TIMESTEPS
NUMBER OF OUTER ITERATIONS
NUMBER OF INNER ITERATIONS
NUMBER OF UNACCEPTED TIMESTEPS
NUMBER OF CONVERGENCE FAILURES
CPU SECONDS / ACTIVE GRIDBLOCK TIMESTEP
CPU SECONDS / TOTAL GRIDBLOCK TIMESTEP

CUMULATIVE
---------365.000
37
114
503
2
0
.0002968
.0002416

CPU TIME SUMMARY BY PROGRAM SECTION
-----------------------------------

INPUT PROCESSING
SIMULATION
PVT PROPERTIES
ROCK PROPERTIES
WELL MANAGEMENT
EQUATION SETUP
LINEAR SOLVER
VARIABLE UPDATE
OUTPUT PROCESSING
OVERHEAD
TOTAL

CURRENT RUN
CPU TIME
% OF TOTAL
-------------------0: 0: 2.78
5.14

CUMULATIVE
CPU TIME
% OF TOTAL
-------------------0: 0: 2.78
5.14

0: 0: 1.91
0: 0: 3.03
0: 0: 0.42
0: 0:22.37
0: 0:11.57
0: 0: 7.75
0: 0: 3.94
0: 0: 0.30
----------0: 0:54.07

0: 0: 1.91
0: 0: 3.03
0: 0: 0.42
0: 0:22.37
0: 0:11.57
0: 0: 7.75
0: 0: 3.94
0: 0: 0.30
----------0: 0:54.07

3.53
5.60
.78
41.37
21.40
14.33
7.29
.55
---------100.00

3.53
5.60
.78
41.37
21.40
14.33
7.29
.55
---------100.00

Job Statistics Summary

R2003.4

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

93

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

**************************************************************************************
*
*
*
VIP-EXEC
TIMESTEP
SUMMARY
*
*
*
* OFFSHORE EUROPE DEMONSTRATION MODEL
*
* FINE GRID MODEL
*
*
*
*
VIP-EXEC *
**************************************************************************************
TIMESTEP
DAILY
PRODUCTION
------------ -------------------------------------OIL
GAS
WATER
GOR WATER
SCF/ CUT
NO.
DAYS
MSTB/D
MMSCF/D
STB/D
STB FRAC.
---- ------- -------- -------- -------- ----- ----1 1.0000 1.90000 3.07223
0. 1616
0.
2 6.0000 1.90000 3.07223
.01834 1616
0.
3 31.000 1.90000 3.07223
.02910 1616
0.
4 91.000 1.90000 3.07223
.04225 1616
0.
5 181.00 1.90000 3.07223
.05870 1616
0.
6 183.64
57.00
92.17 1.72174 1616
0.
7 186.26
57.00
92.17 8.66352 1616
0.
8 189.09
57.00
92.17
11.49 1616
0.
9 192.25
57.00
92.17
13.53 1616
0.
10 196.01
57.00
92.17
15.18 1616
0.
11 200.76
57.00
92.17
16.64 1616
0.
12 204.91
57.00
92.17
18.04 1616
0.
13 209.38
57.00
92.17
19.03 1616
0.
14 214.42
57.00
92.17
19.93 1616
0.
15 218.70
57.00
92.17
20.79 1616
0.
16 222.57
57.00
92.17
21.45 1616
0.
17 226.21
57.00
92.17
21.99 1616
0.
18 229.71
57.00
92.17
22.45 1616
0.
19 233.18
57.00
92.17
22.87 1616
0.
20 236.62
57.00
92.17
23.26 1616
0.
21 240.59
57.00
92.17
23.62 1616
0.
22 250.41
57.00
92.17
24.02 1616
0.
23 262.40
57.00
92.17
24.89 1616
0.
24 273.00
57.00
92.17
25.84 1616
0.
25 278.00
90.25
145.93
36.97 1616
0.
26 288.93
90.25
145.93
42.23 1616
0.
27 298.70
90.25
145.93
46.30 1616 .001
28 308.64
90.25
145.93
48.83 1616 .001
29 319.21
90.25
145.93
50.91 1616 .001
30 322.60
90.25
145.93
52.85 1616 .001
31 325.94
90.25
145.93
53.45 1616 .001
32 329.94
90.25
145.93
54.02 1616 .001
33 335.16
90.25
145.93
54.66 1616 .001
34 342.64
90.25
145.92
55.46 1616 .001
35 353.17
90.25
145.91
56.53 1616 .001
36 359.67
90.25
145.87
58.00 1616 .001
37 365.00
90.25
145.84
58.90 1615 .001

CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION
DAILY INJECTION
CUM. INJECTION
-------------------------- ----------------- ----------------OIL
GAS
WATER
GAS
WATER
GAS
WATER
MMSTB
-------.00190
.01140
.05890
.17290
.34390
.49455
.64389
.80489
.98514
1.19958
1.47030
1.70684
1.96147
2.24880
2.49288
2.71363
2.92099
3.12063
3.31801
3.51452
3.74070
4.30000
4.98378
5.58790
6.03915
7.02549
7.90770
8.80466
9.75869
10.06444
10.36567
10.72643
11.19801
11.87320
12.82288
13.41029
13.89090

AVG
PRES

TIME ITN
STEP --CUTS

BSCF
MSTB
MMSCF/D
STB/D
BSCF
MSTB
PSIA
-------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- ------ ---- --.00307
0.
0.
0.
0.
0. 5308.
0
2
.01843
.00009
0.
0.
0.
0. 5307.
0
2
.09524
.00082
0.
0.
0.
0. 5306.
0
3
.27957
.00335
0.
0.
0.
0. 5303.
0
3
.55607
.00864
0.
0.
0.
0. 5299.
0
3
.79967
.01319
55.30
31500.
.14615 83.25250 5295.
1
5
1.04114
.03589
55.30
31500.
.29104
165.78 5292.
0
3
1.30147
.06835
55.30
31500.
.44724
254.76 5289.
0
3
1.59294
.11114
55.30
31500.
.62212
354.37 5286.
0
3
1.93967
.16825
55.30
31500.
.83016
472.87 5284.
0
2
2.37742
.24730
55.30
31500. 1.09280
622.48 5281.
0
3
2.75990
.32215
55.30
31500. 1.32229
753.20 5278.
0
3
3.17163
.40716
55.30
31500. 1.56933
893.92 5275.
0
3
3.63622
.50761
55.30
31500. 1.84809 1052.71 5273.
0
3
4.03090
.59665
55.30
31500. 2.08490 1187.60 5271.
0
3
4.38784
.67971
55.30
31500. 2.29906 1309.59 5269.
0
3
4.72314
.75969
55.30
31500. 2.50024 1424.18 5267.
0
3
5.04595
.83833
55.30
31500. 2.69392 1534.51 5265.
0
3
5.36510
.91753
55.30
31500. 2.88542 1643.59 5263.
0
2
5.68285
.99771
55.30
31500. 3.07607 1752.19 5262.
0
2
6.04858 1.09146
55.30
31500. 3.29550 1877.18 5260.
0
3
6.95295 1.32716
55.30
31500. 3.83813 2186.27 5255.
0
3
8.05859 1.62570
55.30
31500. 4.50151 2564.14 5250.
0
3
9.03543 1.89953
55.30
31500. 5.08762 2898.00 5245.
0
3
9.76509 2.08436
87.56
58500. 5.52541 3190.50 5239.
0
4
11.35996 2.54586
87.56
58500. 6.48233 3829.84 5230.
0
4
12.78647 2.99848
87.56
58500. 7.33824 4401.69 5222.
0
6
14.23681 3.48377
87.56
58500. 8.20844 4983.10 5215.
0
2
15.77945 4.02190
87.56
58500. 9.13403 5601.50 5209.
0
3
16.27383 4.20094
87.56
58500. 9.43066 5799.69 5206.
1
2
16.76092 4.37936
87.56
58500. 9.72291 5994.95 5204.
0
2
17.34426 4.59529
87.56
58500. 10.07291 6228.79 5202.
0
2
18.10677 4.88092
87.56
58500. 10.53042 6534.47 5198.
0
2
19.19845 5.29583
87.55
58500. 11.18543 6972.13 5194.
0
2
20.73384 5.89063
87.55
58500. 12.10666 7587.71 5188.
0
2
21.68328 6.26813
87.52
58500. 12.67632 7968.47 5184.
0
2
22.45990 6.58177
87.50
58500. 13.14230 8280.00 5181.
0
3

Timestep Summary Report

94

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

**************************************************************************************
*
*
*
VIP-EXEC
TIMESTEP
SIZE
SUMMARY
*
*
*
* OFFSHORE EUROPE DEMONSTRATION MODEL
*
* FINE GRID MODEL
*
*
*
*
VIP-EXEC *
**************************************************************************************
TIMESTEP NO.

TIMESTEP SIZE (DAYS)

FROM (DAYS)

-----------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

-------------------1.0000
5.0000
25.0000
60.0000
90.0000
2.6429
2.6200
2.8246
3.1623
3.7620
4.7495
4.1499
4.4672
5.0408
4.2823
3.8727
3.6379
3.5025
3.4628
3.4475
3.9681
9.8123
11.9960
10.5987
5.0000
10.9290
9.7752
9.9385
10.5710
3.3878
3.3378
3.9973
5.2252
7.4813
10.5228
6.5087
5.3253

-------------------.0000
1/ 9/1982
1.0000
2/ 9/1982
6.000
7/ 9/1982
31.000
2/10/1982
91.00
1/12/1982
181.00
1/ 3/1983
183.64
3/ 3/1983
186.26
6/ 3/1983
189.09
9/ 3/1983
192.25
12/ 3/1983
196.01
16/ 3/1983
200.76
20/ 3/1983
204.91
24/ 3/1983
209.38
29/ 3/1983
214.42
3/ 4/1983
218.70
7/ 4/1983
222.57
11/ 4/1983
226.21
15/ 4/1983
229.71
18/ 4/1983
233.18
22/ 4/1983
236.62
25/ 4/1983
240.59
29/ 4/1983
250.41
9/ 5/1983
262.40
21/ 5/1983
273.00
1/ 6/1983
278.00
6/ 6/1983
288.93
16/ 6/1983
298.70
26/ 6/1983
308.64
6/ 7/1983
319.21
17/ 7/1983
322.60
20/ 7/1983
325.94
23/ 7/1983
329.94
27/ 7/1983
335.16
2/ 8/1983
342.64
9/ 8/1983
353.17
20/ 8/1983
359.67
26/ 8/1983

TO (DAYS)
-------------------1.0000
2/ 9/1982
6.0000
7/ 9/1982
31.000
2/10/1982
91.000
1/12/1982
181.00
1/ 3/1983
183.64
3/ 3/1983
186.26
6/ 3/1983
189.09
9/ 3/1983
192.25
12/ 3/1983
196.01
16/ 3/1983
200.76
20/ 3/1983
204.91
24/ 3/1983
209.38
29/ 3/1983
214.42
3/ 4/1983
218.70
7/ 4/1983
222.57
11/ 4/1983
226.21
15/ 4/1983
229.71
18/ 4/1983
233.18
22/ 4/1983
236.62
25/ 4/1983
240.59
29/ 4/1983
250.41
9/ 5/1983
262.40
21/ 5/1983
273.00
1/ 6/1983
278.00
6/ 6/1983
288.93
16/ 6/1983
298.70
26/ 6/1983
308.64
6/ 7/1983
319.21
17/ 7/1983
322.60
20/ 7/1983
325.94
23/ 7/1983
329.94
27/ 7/1983
335.16
2/ 8/1983
342.64
9/ 8/1983
353.17
20/ 8/1983
359.67
26/ 8/1983
365.00
1/ 9/1983

REASON FOR TIMESTEP SIZE
-----------------------SPECIFIED
MAX INCREASE
MAX INCREASE
TIME/DATE CARD
TIME/DATE CARD
MAX VAPOR/SG VIOLATION
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
TIME/DATE CARD
SPECIFIED
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG VIOLATION
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
*MAX VAPOR/SG CHANGE
TIME/DATE CARD

Timestep Size Summary

Well Status
The status of a well is indicated by a four-character word in the well
report (see Figure ). The possible production well status messages and
their meanings follow:

R2003.4

QMAX

well is producing at the maximum specified rate.

PLIM

well is pressure limited (BHP or THP)

TARG

well is constrained by a target.

GMAX

well is constrained by the LIMIT option on the GLIMIT
card.

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

95

Getting Started with VIP

96

Landmark

WMAX

well is constrained by the LIMIT option on the WLIMIT
card.

DPMX

well is limited by the DPBHMX constraint.

STTO

all perforations are defined with status OFF.

NPRF

no perforations are defined for this well.

WMGT

well has no production due to the predictive well
management (PWM) algorithm.

OTAR

well is constrained by an oil target (PWM).

GTAR

well is constrained by a gas target (PWM).

WTAR

well is constrained by a water target (PWM).

SI P

well is shut in due to inability to flow at pressure
constraint.

SI M

well is shut in due to no mobility of producing phase.

SI Q

well is shut in due to minimum rate constraint violation.

SI T

well is shut in due to failure in THP algorithm
calculations.

SI L

well is shut in due to excessive liquid-gas ratio for gas
producer on THP.

SI G

well is shut in due to GLIMIT or PRFWRK constraint
violation.

SI W

well is shut in due to WLIMIT or PRFWRK constraint
violation.

SI O

well is shut in due to gas-lift performance curve
problems.

GINJ

well currently is a gas injector.

WINJ

well currently is a water injector.

Reservoir Simulation: Using Keywords to Enter Simulation Data

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

VIP Job Submission
Once you have built an input data set for VIP-CORE and/or VIP-EXEC
you can run them by choosing Submit/VIP Submit from the
DESKTOP-VIP main menu.
Study/Case Must Be Open
You must open a new/existing study and case before you can submit a VIP
simulation using DESKTOP-VIP. Without a study/case, the VIP Submit option is
grayed out.

This release of VIP uses a single consolidated panel that can handle:

R2003.4

Initialization cases, restart cases, and cases that combine both
initialization and restarts

Isothermal black-oil, compositional, or thermal simulations

Remote submissions from Windows 2000 to Windows 2000, or
from Windows 2000 to UNIX or Linux

Serial simulation submissions to local or remote hosts

Parallel simulation submissions to local or remote hosts

Reservoir Simulation: VIP Job Submission

97

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

It is very important that you submit jobs with the proper settings for
your configuration and simulation file storage conventions.
For More Information
Refer to the Job Submittal User’s Guide.

98

Reservoir Simulation: VIP Job Submission

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

Checking the Status of a VIP-EXEC Run
The Job Status panel shows the dynamic status of the job as it runs.
This window lets you monitor the job and view output. The following
illustration shows how the Job Status window looks during a VIPEXEC simulation.

Job Status Window (for VIP-EXEC Simulation)
For More Information
Refer to the Job Submittal chapter of the Job Submittal and Data
Conversion User’s Guide.

R2003.4

Reservoir Simulation: Checking the Status of a VIP-EXEC Run

99

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

Restarting the Simulation
All recurrent data runs made with the VIP simulation module are in fact
“restart runs”. A run made from initial conditions (time = 0) simply
uses a restart written by VIP-CORE. This section describes in detail
how to create and use restart files written by VIP-EXEC.

Writing a Restart File
In order to extend a simulation case beyond the end of the current run,
or to restart from some intermediate point within a run, you must
ensure that a restart file is created and saved. This is accomplished in
the simulation module using the keyword WREST and specifying a
frequency of output.
The information written to the restart file is a complete record of the
model at the restart time and provides everything needed to continue a
run. In fact, a restart data set for VIP could contain nothing more than
RESTART, START, a DATE or TIME card and an end card:
C
C EXAMPLE OF A MINIMUM RECURRENT DATA DECK
C
RESTART 75
START
DATE 1 1 1997
END

which would continue the run with all the controls (rates, limits,
timestep parameters, etc.) in effect when the restart file was written at
timestep number 75.
The frequency for writing restarts is entirely under user control and can
range anywhere from every timestep, to once at the end of the run, or
not at all. In general, the number of restarts written should be
minimized (because they can be very large), but they should be written
often enough to allow a run to be continued in the event of a system or
program crash.
Each restart record is identified by the timestep number at which it was
written and by the corresponding simulation date/time, which are used
to select that record for restart. Records are numbered from zero
upwards, with timestep number zero being written at time zero by the
initialization module.

100

Reservoir Simulation: Restarting the Simulation

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

WREST Card
The WREST card is used to control the writing of restart records. In the
following example restart records are written at user-specified times
only.
C
C THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF WRITING RESTARTS
C
WREST TNEXT
TIME 10
TIME 20
TIME 30
TIME 40
WREST TNEXT
TIME 50

Restart records will be written at 10 and 50 days, but the timestep
number can only be determined from the run output. The records stored
on a restart file can be determined by processing the file - all records
will be reported if the requested record is not found.
WLASTR Card
WLASTR card provides the user with a recovery mechanism for jobs
that terminate abnormally due to run time errors or time limits, etc. It
supplements the restart records written as a result of the WREST card.
Each time a restart record is written, if the previous restart record was a
temporary one (written by WLASTR card), it is first removed before
the current restart record is written. This feature enables the users to
control the size of the restart file.

Where to Restart From
The RESTART statement in your simulation data set contains
information to tell VIP at which point to restart the new run. There are
four options that can be used to specify this point; namely TIME,
DATE, and timestep number and LAST. These can be used
interchangeably and completely independent of whether TIME or
DATE cards were used to specify the time intervals.
To continue the run made with the example data set above, the
RESTART card would look like the following:
RESTART TIME 50

R2003.4

Reservoir Simulation: Restarting the Simulation

101

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

The simulator would skip over the restart information at 10 days, and
read in the restart record at 50 days.
Since a majority of simulation studies control the time intervals
through the use of calendar dates, it is very convenient to specify the
restart point with the DATE option, without having to know either the
timestep number or the cumulative time to that point. In this case, the
RESTART card should look like the following:
RESTART DATE 28 2 1990

Consider the example of a restart record written at timestep number 75.
The RESTART card could look like the following:
RESTART 75

102

Reservoir Simulation: Restarting the Simulation

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

Parallel Computing
PARALLEL-VIP - Quick Guide
Parallel-VIP is available on Windows 2000 as well as all supported UNIX
platforms. However, the following simulator options/features are not available in
parallel:







Therm
Polymer
Tracers
Boundary Flux Options
Pattern Well Average Pressure Option
Pattern Element Option
Water tracking
Hydrocarbon tracking

Running Parallel on Windows
If you are running Parallel-VIP on a Windows machine, you must have Genias paTent
software installed. Refer to the current Release Notes for installation instructions.

Parallel Grid Designation
The goal of parallel grid designation is to divide the original global grid into
pieces which can be distributed among the available processors (see Figure 1).
Allowable ‘pieces’ or what will be called parallel grids are the root grid and any
LGR grids. The user may designate parallel grids simply by specifying a number
of LGRs through GRIDGENR or with keywords in VIP-CORE. Alternatively, an
automatic decomposition of the original grid(s) may be requested in which the
program creates new LGRs which honor the desired decomposition boundaries.
Existing LGRs can themselves be split into multiple parallel grids by automatic
decomposition.

R2003.4

Parallel Computing: PARALLEL-VIP - Quick Guide

103

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

Design Guidelines/Rules - SS = Strongly SuggestedR = Required.
Keyword Syntax (Automatic Decomposition)
DECOMP
gridname1
(X
npx1
(Y
npy1
(Z
npz1
(gridname2
.

npx2
npy2
npz2

ndx ndy ndz
npx3
...
npxn)
npy3
...
npyn)
npz3
...
npzn)
ndx ndy ndz)

ENDDEC

NOTE:

(i) gridname is grid to be decomposed. Root or an LGR grid.
(ii) ndx is number of parallel grids x-direction.
(iii) X,Y,Z Optional non-default Parallel gridblock numbers; npx1
is number of grid blocks in the X-direction in first parallel grid.

Insert the above lines in VIP-CORE after the LGR definition if any exists, or
after Grid dimensions if there is no LGR.

DECOMP is not required; root and any LGR grids are considered
parallel grids.

Create twice as many Parallel grids as processors to be used (SS).

Parallel grids should have roughly the same number of gridblocks
(SS).

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows a simple decomposition (solid lines on right). The result is 9 new
LGR grids plus the 3 original LGR grids for a total of 12 parallel grids and the
original root grid.

104

Parallel Computing: PARALLEL-VIP - Quick Guide

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

Example 1: Original Grid (18x15x1) With no LGRs
Method A
DECOMP
ROOT 4 4 1
ENDDEC

Method B
DECOMP
ROOT 4 4 1
X3 6 4 5
Y4 5 3 3
ENDDEC

Note: Thick lines show Parallel Grid

Original Grid

Method A

R2003.4

Specify Non-Default # of blocks per grid

Method B

Parallel Computing: PARALLEL-VIP - Quick Guide

105

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

Example 2: Original grid root grid (18x15x1) has an LGR description as shown:
LGR
CARTREF SECT1
4 8 4 8 1 1
5*3 5*3 1*3
ENDREF
CARTREF SECT2
12 15 10 12 1 1
4*3 3*3 1*3
ENDREF
ENDLGR
(Method A)
DECOMP
ROOT 4 4 1
X3 5 7 3
Y3 5 4 3
ENDDEC

Method A

(Method B)
DECOMP
ROOT 3 3 1
X 3 5 10
Y3 5 7
SECT1 2 2 1
SECT2 2 2 1
ENDDEC
Method B
NOTE:

106

The x and y specifications are required for Method A and B.

Parallel Computing: PARALLEL-VIP - Quick Guide

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

Parallel Grid Naming and Numbering Conventions

R2003.4

Decomposed grids will be automatically named D1, D2, D3, ...,
DN following the standard x,y,z ordering convention. (If an LGR
with the same name exists, then the program will skip to the next
available name.)

I,J numbering convention becomes relative to Parallel grid.

If an LGR grid is not decomposed, wells within its boundaries do
not need renumbering.

In order to submit a parallel, local job on different Windows
machines using Genias’ shared memory process (SMP), one drive
which contains the data files has to be shared by everyone.

For parallel distributed jobs across several nodes using a network,
all include files must be specified using the universal naming
convention for identifying locations across the network (UNC).
For example, on machine vipnt the path for c:\spe9\spe9.lgr
would be specified as \vipnt\c\spe9\spe9.lgr. If there are
spaces in the directory path, then double quotes are required. The
maximum size of any card in CORE or EXEC is 80 characters.

If you submit Parallel VIP jobs from the command prompt, the
environment variable “pwd” should be set to the current working
directory. This will allow proper execution should parallel debug
output be required.

The first machine on the parallel list must be the master node. The
master node is the machine identified on the Remote Options
Panel. For local parallel runs, all nodes are tyically the local
Desktop machine.

: PARALLEL-VIP - Quick Guide

107

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108

: PARALLEL-VIP - Quick Guide

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Analyzing the Output
Introduction
The Output section of DESKTOP-VIP allows you to run the output
post-processors 3DVIEW, 2DVIEW, and PLOTVIEW or SimResults,
run hardcopy post-processors and create basic X-Y Plots and prepare
simulator runs with multiple restarts for graphical display.

Viewing and Analyzing Data
The sub-menu choices in the Output Menu are: 3DVIEW, 2DVIEW,
PLOTVIEW, SimResults, GridCalc and VIP Convert. A description of
each menu item follows:

3DVIEW. 3DVIEW is a 3-dimensional visualization package for
displaying the results of a reservoir simulation.

2DVIEW. 2DVIEW is a 2-dimensional visualization package for
displaying the results of a reservoir simulation.

SimResults and PLOTVIEW. These are visualization packages
for producing plot displays of reservoir simulation results.

GridCalc. GridCalc is a utility program that works like a hand
held calculator and performs specialized calculation simulation
data.

VIP Convert. This utility is used to convert MAP, PLOT, and
Eclipse and Rescule data files to VIP database (VDB) format, or to
export various types of data from VDB files, including
GRIDGENR data, ZMAP data, and generic spreadsheet files.

Details about various prepare options are discussed later.

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Output Files
The simulator can create vdb files directly, or the novdb option can be
used to create map (.map) and plot (.plt) files. These files must be
prepared (turned into random access files) into .vdb files before they
can be used by the post-processors. If observed data is available, and it
is put into a specific ASCII format in a file (.obs), it can be loaded into
the vdb file for use with PLOTVIEW.
The vdb file generated by GRIDGENR/ARRAY is directly accessible
by 3DVIEW/2DVIEW as soon as the calculate step has been
performed. Thus the reservoir structure can be viewed in 3DVIEW/
2DVIEW prior to even initializing the reservoir mode in CORE.

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Using 3DVIEW
3DVIEW is a 3-dimensional visualization program for displaying and
animating the results of a reservoir simulation. Any attribute
associated with spatially varying reservoir properties (Array
information) can be displayed. The user interface is Motif. The
program consists of two control windows and one graphics window.

Model Manipulations with Mouse
The reservoir model in the graphics screen can be manipulated with the
following mouse buttons:

MB1: Zoom

MB2: Rotation

MB3: Translate

The following tables show the available options on the 3DVIEW
control panel and pull-down menus.
Summary of 3DVIEW Control Panel Buttons

R2003.4

Button

Purpose

Add Scene

Open multiple display windows.

Print

Control hardcopy parameters such as the type of file to be
generated, the name of the file, image height and width, etc.

Screen/Video
Definition

Capture and redisplay screen images as a slide show or “video”
sequence.

Animation

Control automatic rotation and timestep changes in the display
window.

Reset

Reset the current display window to the initial settings.

Outline Only

When on, the reservoir is displayed as an outline box, with no cells
or color coding. When off, the full view is available.

Broadcast

Simultaneous broadcast of changes to all active windows. Options
which can be broadcast include Timestep, Rotate, Zoom, Translate,
Projection, Scale, and Logical Clip.

Scenes

Control which scenes are active, displayed, and/or deleted.

Quit

Close all windows and exit the program.

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Summary of 3DVIEW Menu Options

112

Menu Name

Purpose

File

Open a different file in the same window or a new file in a new
window; clone the current view; print, deactivate, or close the current
scene.

Data

Select timestep and data for display; set data limits and clipping
parameters.

View-Point

Control reservoir orientation; zoom display in or out; move display;
control projection, scale and lighting of display.

Grid

Control grid clipping; display options; cross sections; expand/shrink
grid cells; active and displayed LGR; contouring; isosurfaces;
arbitrary cutting planes.

Spectrum

Position spectrum; scale spectrum; select/define new spectrum.

Display

Define components displayed during movement; define color
selections; create a legend display; select rendering options; select
printing options.

Wells

Control well display; define well colors; set well selection tolerance;
plot well production history.

Analyzing the Output: Using 3DVIEW

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Getting Started with VIP

SimResults and PLOTVIEW
Although SimResults and PLOTVIEW contain a wide array of plotting
features, it is fairly simple to start each program and begin working.
This section provides a quick tutorial on PLOTVIEW’s major features.
SimResults Tutorial
Select the Quick Start option on the SimResults Help menu for a turorial for
this application.

PLOTVIEW Control Panel
When you start PLOTVIEW, the first thing you see is a control panel
such as shown below. This lets you select data to be plotted and control
various features in the PLOTVIEW display window (discussed next).

Mode control buttons

Add/Edit panel

Other controls

Quit button

The PLOTVIEW Control Panel
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The major components of the control panel are listed below:

114

Add/Edit panel. This part of the control panel changes, depending
on whether you are in the Add or Edit mode. You can change
modes by clicking the Add or Edit button at the top of the panel.
The Add Panel lets you select and add new traces to a plot. The
Edit Panel lets you selectively modify or delete previously plotted
traces. The buttons in this part of the control panel let you specify
an item of data to be plotted or modified in the plot display
window.

Other controls. This part of the control panel never changes. It
provides buttons that let you control the behavior and appearance
of the plot display windows.
Button

Purpose

<< >>

Cycle forward/back through multiple items in a
series (e.g., view the same set of properties at each
well in the database).

New Plot

Open a new plot display window.

All Plot Broadcast

Apply (or do not apply) changes entered on the
control panel to all listening windows.

Toggle Menu/Tool Bar

Turn on/off the menu bar and tool bar in the
currently focused window.

Cycle Plot Focus

Switch the focus from one plot display window to
the next.

Screen Def...

Save and reload screen definition files that
represent a specific screen layout.

Print...

Lets you create hardcopy of all plots as they appear
on the screen.

Annotation Editor...

Opens the Annotation Editor panel, which lets you
add graphics or text to a plot.

Quit

Closes all display windows and the control panel,
then turns off the PLOTVIEW program.

Analyzing the Output: SimResults and PLOTVIEW

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Getting Started with VIP

PLOTVIEW Quick Tutorial
The following steps provide a quick tutorial that will take you through
some of the most commonly used steps in PLOTVIEW operation.
Procedures in the next chapter will provide much greater detail on each
aspect of PLOTVIEW operation. The following procedure is broken
into sections with headings to indicate the different components of the
tutorial.
Add a Plot

R2003.4

1.

Click the Add button at the top of the control panel.

2.

Click the Study button to open a database file. When the following
panel opens, double-click on the desired database filename to
select it. If you do not see a vdb filename, use the Filter line to
enter a pathname (ending with /*.vdb) and click the Filter button,
then double-click the desired filename.

3.

When you select a file from this panel, notice that PLOTVIEW
automatically selects a default Case, Class, Property, Item, and
Layer as indicated by the other parameters on the control panel. If
these are not the parameters you want plotted, you can click any of

Analyzing the Output: SimResults and PLOTVIEW

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these buttons to select the desired ones.

Data selection parameters

Editable option

4.

Select Well as the Class, so that you can view properties for
different wells.

5.

Click the Add Left or Add Right button to create the plot.
Either button causes PLOTVIEW to plot a trace with Y-axis
annotation stacked along the left or right edge of the graph
(depending on which button you pressed). The trace is plotted in a
new plot window (or the currently focused plot window, if one
already exists). The simulation data is connected by a line. If there
is any observed data for this property in the database, the observed
data appears as unconnected points on the display.

6.

Use the Property button to select several different properties.
After selecting each one, click the Add Left or Add Right buttons
to add a trace for that property to the plot window display.

View/Edit Trace Parameters
1.

116

Click the Edit button at the top of the control panel. This changes
the top half of the control panel to an Edit Panel so that you can
apply changes to the various data parameters or delete individual

Analyzing the Output: SimResults and PLOTVIEW

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Getting Started with VIP

traces.

2.

Click or drag the Trace slider at the top of the control panel to
“highlight” the various traces in the current window.
Notice that as you change the number on the Trace slider, the
corresponding trace lights up in the current window. Also, the
parameters (file/case/class/etc.) change to reflect the parameters of
the currently selected trace.

R2003.4

3.

Now press the double-arrow buttons on the control panel to
“cycle through” the various items. Since you selected Well as the
data class earlier in this tutorial, this step lets you consecutively
view the same properties at each well.

4.

Use the Trace slider again to highlight a specific trace, then click
the Delete Current Trace button to remove the currently
highlighted trace from the current display window. You can also
hold down MB3 over the trace to pop-up the Trace Menu and
select Delete.

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Use the Pop-Up Menus

118

1.

Hold down MB3 on any trace to see the Trace menu pop up.

2.

Select Inquire from the Trace menu. This displays the Trace Data
panel shown below (click OK to dismiss it).

3.

Press and hold MB3 on any axis annotation area to view the Axis
menu shown below.

4.

Select Notation/Integer then select Notation/Float from the Axis
menu. Notice how the axis annotation changes from an integer to a
decimal number.

Analyzing the Output: SimResults and PLOTVIEW

R2003.4

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Getting Started with VIP

5.

Select Precision/+0 twice on the Axis menu.
Notice how this adds zeros behind the decimal on the axis
notation.

6.

Select Precision/-0 twice.
Notice how this takes away the zeros.

Use the Attribute Panels
1.

Select both the Axis and Traces option from the Plots menu on the
menu bar in the current window. To do this, click open the Plots
menu then click Axis or Trace.

Notice that both panels are now open, showing all the attributes for
every axis and trace in the current display. Use the scroll bars to
view the entire table of values.

R2003.4

2.

Press and hold down MB3 in any column with the word color in
the heading and notice the list of available colors. Select any color,
then notice how it is applied to the display. You can also explicitly
type in a color (those that are listed and also many additional
colors).

3.

Try this with other cells in the panel.

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4.

Open other panels on the Plots menu and study them.

Add Windows and Make Them Listen
1.

Click the New Plot button on the control panel again. Notice that
this adds another empty window to the display.

2.

Click the Add button at the top of the main control panel, then
follow steps 4 through 6 to add traces to the new plot.

3.

Use the Listen button (far left on tool bar) in each selected
window to turn listening on or off. The selected windows are now
in Listening mode. Any changes on the Edit Panel when the All
Plot Broadcast button is on will be applied to all listening
windows.

Add Multiple Traces
1.

Once you have turned on listening in all windows, turn on the All
Plot Broadcast button on the control panel to broadcast to all
traces. Then select a new property and click the Add Left button
to add the same trace to both windows.

2.

Use the Property button on the control panel to change the
Property and now click the Add Right button.
Notice that the new property is added to both windows, plotted
against the right Y axis.

120

3.

Click inside the plot area of either display window to bring it into
focus. Notice that the entire plot area is circled with a red outline,
indicating it is the “focused” or “current” window.

4.

Click the Cycle Plot Focus button on the control panel, and notice
how each separate display comes to the front. The focus shifts
from one display to the next with each click of this button.

Analyzing the Output: SimResults and PLOTVIEW

R2003.4

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Getting Started with VIP

Close a Display
1.

Select Close from the File menu of the window to be closed. Or
use MB3 to popup the plot window in an empty part of the plot
window and select Close.
Notice that the window closes automatically.

2.

Click the Quit button at the bottom of the control panel to close all
windows and exit the program.

This tutorial has demonstrated the main features of the PLOTVIEW
software, but not all of them. Read the following chapters in this
manual to learn about all PLOTVIEW features in more detail.

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VIP Convert
VIP Convert is a tool used to facilitate the conversion of VIP database
files to and from different formats. In particular, you can:

Export map data as a text spreadsheet, or in GridGenr, Z-Map or
Rescue format. You can also export map data from a .VDB file to a
format that can be imported back to the VDB.

Export production data as a text spreadsheet (raw production
data), in Landmark AFS format (monthly/annual averages), or in a
format that can be imported to OpenWorks. You can also export
production plots from a VDB file to a format that can be imported
back to the VDB.

Import into a VIP database (.vdb file) VIP post processing map
and plot separator file data, and Rescue and Eclipse data.

The Conversion Utility window opens, as shown below.

122

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Appendix A: Input Data Templates
Input Template to VIP-CORE
The following example illustrates the most frequently used
initialization data input options. The chapter and section references
refer to the VIP-CORE Reference Manual.
C
C
C
C
C

INIT
-----------------------------------------------------------IDENTIFICATION DATA
-----------------------------------------------------------TITLE1
VIP-CORE BATCH DATA INPUT TEMPLATE
TITLE2
THIS LIST INCLUDES ONLY THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED OPTIONS

C
C
C
C
C
C
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C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C

************************************************************
INITIALIZATION DATA
CHAPTER 2
***********************************************************
-----------------------------------------------------------UTILITY DATA
SECTION 2.2
-----------------------------------------------------------DATE DY MO YEAR
-----------------------------------------------------------PRINT CONTROL
CHAPTER 3
-----------------------------------------------------------PRINT (ALL)(EQUIL)(COMP)(TABLES)(ARRAYS)(COEFS)(INFLUX)
(INIT)(FAULTS)(CORNER)(NONE)
NOTE: PRINT CARDS ARE NOT REQUIRED; THE DEFAULT IS PRINT ALL
----------------------------------------------------------GRID SYSTEM OPTIONS
SECTION 2.2.3
-----------------------------------------------------------NX(NR)
NY(NTHETA)
NZ
(RI)
NCOMP

C
NO.X-DIR
C
C
C

R2003.4

NO.Y-DIR

NO.Z-DIR

(INNER RADIUS)NO. OF

COMPONENTS
INCREMENTSINCREMENTS
INCREMENTS RI≠0
THE PREVIOUS 2 CARDS ARE REPLACED BY 1 DATA CARD
-----------------------------------------------------------

Appendix A: Input Data Templates: Input Template to VIP-CORE

123

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C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

PHYSICAL PROPERTY CONSTANTS
SECTION 2.2.4
-----------------------------------------------------------DWB
BWI
VW
CW
CR
TRES
TS
PS
WATER
WATER
WATER WATER ROCK
RES
STAND. STAND.
DENSITY
F.V.F.
VISC
COMPR COMPR TEMP
TEMP
PRESS
THE PREVIOUS 2 CARDS ARE REPLACED BY 1 DATA CARD
----------------------------------------------------------TABLES
CHAPTER 4
-----------------------------------------------------------TABLES
----------------------------------------------------------EQUILIBRIUM INITIALIZATION TABLE(S)
SECTION 4.1
-----------------------------------------------------------IEQUIL PINIT
DEPTH
PCWOC
WOC
PCGOC
GOC
PSAT

C

C
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C
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C

124

EQUIL
INIT
PRES
REGION PRES
REF
NUMBER DEPTH
AT WOC
THE PREVIOUS 3 CARDS ARE
REGION
NOTE:

CAP
WATER CAP
GAS
INIT
PRES
OIL
PRES
OIL
SATR’N
CONTACT AT GOC CONTACT PRES
REPLACED BY 1 DATA CARD FOR EACH

THERE ARE TWO INPUT OPTIONS FOR THIS TABLE: (A)
SATURATION PRESSURE CONSTANT BY REGIONS, (B)
SATURATION PRESSURE VARIES WITH DEPTH.

-----------------------------------------------------------WATER SATURATION TABLE(S)
SECTION 4.2
-----------------------------------------------------------SWT 1
SW
KRW
KROW
PCWO
SWR
0.0
KROCW
PCWOCW
.
.
.
.
SWRO
KRWRO
0.0
PCWORO
.
.
0.
.
SWMX
KRWMX
0.0
PCWOMN
NOTE:
IF ONLY PCWOCW AND PCWOMN ARE INPUT, THE MISSING
VALUES OF PCWO WILL BE GENERATED BY LINEAR
INTERPOLATION
-----------------------------------------------------------GAS SATURATION TABLE(S)
SECTION 4.2
-----------------------------------------------------------SGT 1
SG
KRG
KROG
PCGO
SGMN
0.0
KROCW
PCGOMN
.
0.
.
.
SGC
0.0
KROCG
PCGOCG
.
.
.
.
SGRO
KRGRO
0.0
PCGORO
.
.
0.
.
SGMX
KRGMX
0.0
PCGOMX
NOTE:

IF ONLY PCGOMN AND PCGOCW ARE INPUT, THE MISSING
VALUES OF PCGO WILL BE GENERATED BY LINEAR
INTERPOLATION

--------------------------------------------------------------PVT PROPERTY DATA
SECTION 4.3

Appendix A: Input Data Templates: Input Template to VIP-CORE

R2003.4

Landmark

Getting Started with VIP
C
C

C

C

C
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C

C
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C

C
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C

R2003.4

DENSITY AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT AT INITIAL SATURATION PRESSURE
--------------------------------------------------------------BOTAB 1
DOSGCC
WTOS
PSAT
DENSITY OF
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
INITIAL
SATURATED OIL OF SATURATED OIL
SATURATION PRESSURE
THE PREVIOUS 2 CARDS ARE REPLACED BY 1 DATA CARD
PSAT
RS
BO
BG(ZG)
GR
VO
VG
SATURATIONSOLUTION OIL
GAS
GAS
SATURATED GAS
PRESSURE GAS-OIL FORMATION FORMATION GRAVITY OIL
VISCOSITY
RATIO
VOLUME
(GAS
VISCOSITY
FACTOR
COMPRESSIBILITY)
VOLUME
FACTOR
THE PREVIOUS 7 CARDS ARE REPLACED BY AT LEAST 2 DATA CARDS
PSAT
SATURATION PRESSURE VALUES (AT LEAST 1 VALUE)
DP
BOFAC
VOFAC (BOFAC VOFAC). . . (BOFAC VOFAC)
RELATIVE
OIL
OIL
PRESSURE
FORMATION
VISCOSITY
(P - PSATI) VOLUME FACTOR
NOTES:

THE PREVIOUS 3 CARDS ARE REPLACED BY AT LEAST 1 DATA
CARD. A PAIR OF BOFAC, VOFAC VALUES MUST APPEAR FOR
EACH VALUE OF PSAT ON THE PSAT CARD.

SEPTEST
IBAT
:
SEPARATOR BATTERY NUMBER
PVTTABLE 1
:
PVT TABLE NUMBER
PSATF BOF
SATURATION PRESSURE
OIL FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR
P
T
GOR
BOSTG
GR
STAGE
STAGE
STAGE GAS STAGE OIL
STAGE GAS
PRESSURES TEMPERATURES OIL RATIOSVOLUME FACTORS GRAVITIES
REPLACE THE PREVIOUS 2 CARDS WITH 1 DATA CARD FOR EACH STAGE
-----------------------------------------------------------GRID DATA ARRAYS
CHAPTER 5
-----------------------------------------------------------ARRAYS
DX(DR)
INPUT OPTION
VALUES
DY(DTHETA)INPUT OPTION
VALUES
DZ
INPUT OPTION
VALUES
DEPTH
INPUT OPTION
VALUES
POR
INPUT OPTION
VALUES
KX(KR)
INPUT OPTION
VALUES
KY(KTHETA)INPUT OPTION
VALUES
KZ
INPUT OPTION
VALUES
NOTE:

ALTERNATIVELY, THE TRANSMISSIBILITIES TX, TY, AND
TZ; THE MDEPTH ARRAY; AND THE PV ARRAY MAY BE
ENTERED INSTEAD OF THE PRECEDING ARRAYS

Appendix A: Input Data Templates: Input Template to VIP-CORE

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NOTE:

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
THE FOLLOWING ARRAYS ARE REQUIRED FOR MULTIPLE TABLES
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
ISAT
IEQUIL

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126

THE INPUT OPTIONS ARE DESCRIBED IN CHAPTER 1

INPUT OPTION
VALUES
INPUT OPTION
VALUES

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
FAULT OPTION DATA (NOT REQ’D)
CHAPTER 6
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
TRANSMISSIBILITY/PORE VOLUME MODIFICATION OPTION DATA (NOT
REQ’D)
CHAPTER 7
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
REGION DATA (NOT REQ’D)
CHAPTER 8
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
INFLUX OPTION DATA (NOT REQ’D)
SECTION 9.1.1
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
STOP
END

Appendix A: Input Data Templates: Input Template to VIP-CORE

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Landmark

Getting Started with VIP

Input Template to VIP-EXEC
The following example illustrates the most frequently used simulator
data input options. The chapter and section references refer to the VIPEXECUTIVE Reference Manual.
C
******************************************************************
C
TIME DEPENDENT DATA
CHAPTER 2
C
******************************************************************
C
RUN
C
DIM PARAMETERS
SECTION 2.2.1.3
C
C NOTE:THE DIM CARD IS ONLY USED TO MODIFY THE DEFAULT PROGRAM
DIMENSIONS.
C
IMPLICIT
SECTION 2.2.2.1
C
C NOTE:IF THE IMPLICIT CARD IS NOT ENTERED IN A RUN STARTING FROM
INITIAL CONDITIONS, THE DEFAULT IS IMPES.
C
RESTART
(STARTING T.S.)(UNIT NO.)
SECTION 2.2.3.1
C
C NOTE:THE RESTART CARD IS ALWAYS REQUIRED. THE DEFAULT TIMESTEP
NUMBER IS ZERO.THE DEFAULT FORTRAN UNIT IS 3.
C
TITLE1
VIP-EXECUTIVE
BATCH DATA INPUT TEMPLATE
TITLE2
THIS LIST INCLUDED ONLY THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED OPTIONS
C
C NOTE: IF TITLE CARDS ARE NOT ENTERED, THE TITLE CONTAINED ON
THE RESTART RECORD WILL BE RETAINED.
C
START
C
C NOTE:THE START CARD IS REQUIRED. THE START CARD INDICATES THE
BEGINNING OF THE DATA TO BE INCLUDED IN THIS RUN. IT IS
MOVED DOWN IN THE DATA DECK AS APPROPRIATE FOR STARTING NEW
RESTART RUNS.
C
OUTPUT OPTION LIST
SECTION 6.1
PRINT OPTION LIST I/O FREQ
SECTION 6.3
C
C NOTE:THE PRECEDING TWO CARDS ARE REQUIRED TO GENERATE ARRAYS,
ITERATION SUMMARIES, WELL AND WELL MANAGEMENT LEVEL
SUMMARIES, REGION SUMMARIES, SEPARATOR SUMMARIES, AND
SIMULATION STATISTICS; IF THEY ARE OMITTED ONLY TIMESTEP
SUMMARIES AND END-OF-JOB SIMULATION STATISTICS WILL BE
PRINTED.
C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

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C
MATRIX SOLUTION OPTIONS
SECTION 7.2
C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
C
[METHOD] (PARAMETERS)
SECTION 7.2
C
C NOTE:A MATRIX SOLUTION METHOD MUST BE SPECIFIED IN EVERY RUN.
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
TIMESTEP CONTROL
SECTION 7.1
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
DT DT DTMIN DTMAX DPMAX DSMAX DVMAX DZMAX SECTION 2.6.1
C
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
WELL DATA
CHAPTER 3
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
SECTION 3.2.1
WELL N (NAME) I J (IGC) (IBAT)
WELL NO. NAME I LOC. J LOC. G.C.NO. BAT.NO.
C
REPEAT THE DATA CARD AS NECESSARY
C
PROD FLUID (UNIT) WELL LIST
SECTION 3.4.1
INJ FLUID (UNIT) (LEVEL) WELL LIST
SECTION 3.4.2
C
C NOTE:PROD AND/OR INJ CARDS ARE REQUIRED FOR EACH WELL IN THE
RESERVOIR MODEL
C
FPERF
SECTION 3.2.2
WELL
L
KH
W1
L1
KH1
X
L2
KH2
FPERF
SECTION 3.2.2
WELL
L
KH
SWMN
SWMX
SGMN
W2
L1
KH1
SWMN1 SWMX1
SGMN1
X
L2
KH2
SWMN2 SWMX2
SGMN2
X
L3
KH3
SWMN3 SWMX3
SGMN3
C
C NOTE:EACH WELL MUST BE INCLUDED IN A SET OF FPERF DATA
C
QMAX
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.5.1
C
BHP
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.6.4
BHP1 BHP2 . . . BHPN
WDAT1 WDAT2 . . . WDATN
THP
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.6.5
THP1 THP2 . . . THPN
C
C NOTE:A BHP OR THP VALUE MAY BE SPECIFIED FOR EACH WELL.
C
C
IF EITHER IS SPECIFIED A VALUE FOR WI, PI, OR RFLOW IS
REQUIRED.
C
IF THP IS SPECIFIED FOR AN INJECTOR A TUBE CARD AND A DIAM
CARD MUST BE DEFINED.
C
IF THP IS SPECIFIED FOR A PRODUCER AN ITUBE CARD AND BHPTAB

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DATA MUST BE DEFINED.
C
C
WI

WELL
WI1 WI2 . .
PI
WELL
GF1 GF2 . .
PI1 PI2 . .
RFLOW
WELL
RW1 RW2 . .
RB1 RB2 . .
SKIN1 SKIN2

LIST
. WIN
LIST
. GFN
. PIN
LIST
. RWN
. RBN
. . . SKINN

SECTION 3.6.1
SECTION 3.6.2

SECTION 3.6.3

C
C NOTE:A WI, PI, OR RFLOW VALUE IS REQUIRED IF THP OR BHP IS
DEFINED.
C
TUBE
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.11.1
TL1 TL2 . . . TLN
DZW1 DZW2 . . . DZWN
WDAT1 WDAT2 . . . WDATN
DIAM
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.11.2
DIAM1 DIAM2 . . . DIAMN
EPS1 EPS2 . . . EPSN
C
C NOTE:TUBE AND DIAM VALUES ARE REQUIRED ONLY IF THP IS SPECIFIED
FOR AN INJECTOR.
C
ITUBE
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.9.1
IBHP1 IBHP2 . . . IBHPN
DZW1 DZW2 . . . DZWN
WDAT1 WDAT2 . . . WDATN
BHPTAB - BHP TABLE
SECTION 3.9.2
C
C NOTE:ITUBE AND BHPTAB DATA ARE REQUIRED ONLY IF THP IS
SPECIFIED FOR A PRODUCER
C
C---------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER PHYSICAL PROPERTY DATA
SECTION 9.1
C----------------------------------------------------------------POLYMER
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER CONCENTRATION TABLE
SECTION 9.1.2
C----------------------------------------------------------------POLYT
ESALT
PERM
POR
C
THE ABOVE CARD IS FOLLOWED BY 1 DATA CARD
CP
VPO
CPADS
RK
POLYMER
VISCOSITY ATPOLYMER PERMEABILITY
CONCENTRATIONZERO SHEAR RATEADSORPTIONREDUCTION FACTOR
C
THE PREVIOUS 2 CARDS ARE REPLACED BY AT LEAST 2 DATA CARDS
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------POLYMER NON-NEWTONIAN VISCOSITY PARAMETERSSECTION 9.1.4
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
SHEAR
GAMMAC
GAMHF
POWN
C
THE ABOVE CARD IS FOLLOWED BY 1 DATA CARD
C

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C----------------------------------------------------------------POLYMER INACCESSIBLE PORE VOLUME
SECTION 9.1.5
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
EPHIP
EPHIP
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------CATION EXCHANGE PARAMETERS
SECTION 9.1.6
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
IONEX
QV
XKC
C
THE ABOVE CARD IS FOLLOWED BY 1 DATA CARD
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------EFFECTIVE SALINITY PARAMETERS
SECTION 9.1.7
C----------------------------------------------------------------CSEP
BETAP
CSE1
C
THE ABOVE CARD IS FOLLOWED BY 1 DATA CARD
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
SALINITY UNITS
SECTION 9.1.8
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
SUNITS
UNITS
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------INITIAL ION CONCENTRATIONS
SECTION 8.2.3
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
OVER
CLW
C
OVER OR VOVER CARDS ARE USED TO INITIALIZE THE ANION
CONCENTRATIONS
C
OVER
CAW
C
OVER OR VOVER CARDS ARE USED TO INITIALIZE THE CATION
CONCENTRATIONS
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER PROPERTIES REGION NUMBER
SECTION 8.2.3
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
OVER
IPOLYT
C
OVER OR VOVER CARDS ARE USED TO INITIALIZE THE IPOLYT ARRAY
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER INJECTION CONCENTRATION
SECTION 9.2.1
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
CPINJ WELL LIST
CPW1
CPW2
. . .
CPWN
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
ANION INJECTION CONCENTRATION
SECTION 9.2.2
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
CLINJ
WELL LIST
CLQ1
CLW2
. . .
CLWN

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C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
DIVALENT CATION INJECTION CONCENTRATION SECTION 9.2.3
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
CAINJ
WELL LIST
CAW1
CAW2
. . .
CAWN
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
TIME CARDS
SECTION 1.3.6 - 2.1.39
C----------------------------------------------------------------TIME (DATE)
STOP
END
C

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Appendix B: Eclipse-to-VIP Conversion
Introduction
E2V is a Windows application to assist in the conversion of Eclipse
data files into an equivalent VIP format. The program works by looking
at the entire Eclipse data file and mapping the Eclipse keywords and
associated arguments on to the VIP equivalents where possible.
Start the program by selecting E2V from the Input menu in
DESKTOP-VIP, or by running the program E2V.exe. The main window
opens as shown below:

Various buttons and menu options let you control the conversion of
Eclipse data to VIP. These are discussed in detail on the following
pages.

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Using E2V
Setting the Properties
Before you begin an Eclipse-to-VIP conversion, you may want to
review and set the preferences used in the conversion. To do this, select
Properties option on the Tool menu. You will see an E2V Translation
Options dialog box with two tabs in it, as discussed below.
Standard Options
The default set of options are grouped under the Standard tab, and
control the following:

134

Null Keywords. Include Eclipse keywords that are categorized as
having no (or a null) effect on the VIP simulation. An example of
such a keyword is the Eclipse DEBUG keyword which has no
effect on either the Eclipse or VIP simulation results. These
keywords are included as comment lines in the VIP file.

Include Comments. Any comment lines in the original Eclipse
data file will be included as comment lines in the VIP file. These
will be mapped onto the closest VIP equivalent section where
possible.

Create Include Files. It is possible to send array-based properties
to separate include files instead of to a single file. This can reduce
the size of the translated CORE file. This was always done for the

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CORP array for corner point systems. The name of the included
array is formed from the root case name plus the array name. You
can include all arrays in a single file by deactivating the Create
Include Files option on the Properties dialog box.

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Binary CORP File. The default is to produce a text VIP CORE
file, but this can be a very large file. This option produces a binary
CORP file which is typically 75% smaller than the equivalent text
version.

Right-handed Grids. Instructs E2V to place a RIGHTHANDED
keyword into the converted CORP file for grids that are right
handed instead of the default of left handed.

Solution Data Cards. Converts Eclipse Solution cards into
similar VIP timestep controls.

Preferred Production Phase. It is possible to specify a preferred
phase for all production wells in the VIP file. In Eclipse a well can
be specified with both oil and gas production limits and be under
BHP rate control. Since the VIP equivalent well only allows a
single production limit this option overrides the default selection
of the latter which uses the largest of the two limits. If Oil is
chosen as the preferred production phase then such wells would be
given an oil limit even if the gas limit was larger.

Well Data Control. You can specify none, wild card wells, or All
Wells. If wild card wells is selected, the data for wells specified
with wild cards in Eclipse will be converted into a minimal
number of lines of VIP data. If All Wells is selected, E2V will
attempt to compress all the well control data into as few lines as
possible.

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Advanced Options
There are several advanced facilities with can effect the contents of the
VIP mapped file. These are grouped under the Advanced tab.

136

Specials. Landmark continually enhance the facilities offered by
VIP and this option controls the translation of such facilities. It is
intended for Landmark internal use only since these facilities will
be only available in future releases of VIP.

Grid Optimization. This controls a powerful facility which
processes the data contained in the Eclipse GRID and EDIT
sections into a format that can be understood by VIP. One
advantage of this facility is that the resulting CORE file is small,
but it is difficult to make modifications to the resulting file since it
contains the grid described in terms of transmissibilities, cell
centre depths, pore volumes and faults. Basically this option
replaces the VIP CORE calculation of these quantities and can
take a considerable time to calculate. The resulting VIP CORE file
does initialize in a much shorter time since a large amount of
calculations are not required. It is recommended that this option is
used only by experienced users.

Kh calculation for wells. Eclipse allows the effects of geometry
to be included in the calculation of the connection factor between a
well perforation and corresponding grid block. In VIP the
direction is assumed to be Z and the quantities Kx, Ky and DZ are
always used. If E2V encounters a perforation in X or Y (using Ky,

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Kz, DY and Kx, Kz, DX respectively) then it calculates the value
used by Eclipse and writes this to the FPERF card as the Kh value.
The default is for this option to be enabled to allow the closest
match between Eclipse and VIP files.

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Maintain MLTFAULT. The default method of handling
MLTFAULT cards is to map these onto a set of transmissibility
modifier cards. This makes it easier to apply subsequent
modifications to the faults since the structure of the original
Eclipse definition is maintained. However, the VIP equivalent
representation can be considerably larger than that of Eclipse since
multiple fault multipliers on any one fault need to be represented
by the full definition of every fault connection instead of a single
line as in Eclipse. You can map each fault onto a single
transmissibility modifier card by deactivating the Maintain
MLTFAULT option on the Properties dialog box.

Maintain ACTNUM. The default method of handling the
ACTNUM arrays has been modified so that the PORO array is
maintained as the original definition plus a set of modifier cards.
The ACTNUM array is now translated into a multiplicative array
acting on the pore volume. This allows the structure of the original
Eclipse porosity and ACTNUM arrays to be maintained. You can
combine the porosity and ACTNUM arrays into a single POR
array by deactivating the Maintain ACTNUM option on the
Properties dialog box.

Datum depth correction. This option corrects the datum depth for
equilibration to be consistent with VIP. Specifically if the datum
depth is outside the oil zone, it will be properly adjusted to the
appropriate contact, with associated changes to the reference
pressure.

Map grid to UTM coords. This option enables the conversion of
the MAPAXES data into the corner point values for VIP,
preserving UTM coordinates.

Create Obs file.If the Eclipse run uses WCONHIST data, E2V
will produce a VIP observed data file.

Eclipse BHP default depth. This option produces VIP data that
defines the reference depth for BHP calculations to be the depth to
the top perforation of the well, consistent with the Eclipse default.
This will apply only for the wells that were defaulted in Eclipse. If
explicit reference depths were entered in Eclipse, these values will
be used in VIP.
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Extended black oil tables. This option produces PVT data for
VIP using the extended black oil format of possible, based upon
the Eclipse input method.

Array Repeat Limit. Both Eclipse and VIP support concatenation
of equal blocks of array data using the syntax "n*value". For
example 5*4 means five elements of value 4. The default value of
n is 1000 (this is also the upper limit), but this can be changed by
entering another value. A value of 1 disables repeat counts which
can make the comparison of array values between Eclipse and VIP
easier.

Applying Selections
When you are finished selecting conversion options, click the Apply
button to store the options. The options can be reset to the defaults by
pressing the Defaults button. If the Cancel button is pressed then the
last set of options will be retained.

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Defining the Conversion Files
Before converting from Eclipse-to-VIP, you must specify the files to be
converted and the resulting VIP file to be created.
Eclipse File to be Converted
The Browse button beside the Eclipse File to be Converted field lets
you select the Eclipse data file to be converted. This is the file that
Eclipse would use to control the simulation run. To select this file:
1.

Click the Browse button. The Choose Eclipse File to Load dialog
box opens:

2.

Double-click on the name of the file to be converted. If you do not
see the filename in this window, use the controls at the top of the
dialog box to locate the folder where it is stored.

3.

Click the Open button to close the file selection dialog box. The
selected file path/name displays in the Eclipse File to be
Converted field.

VIP File to be Created
The Browse button beside the VIP File to be Created field lets you
specify the VIP data file to be created from the converted Eclipse data.
The name that you specify will be used to create two output files,
<name>i.dat and <name>r.dat, where the former is for input to the VIP
CORE program and the latter is for input to the VIP EXEC program.
These file names adhere to the usual VIP naming convention for
selecting a case for input to VIP.

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To specify the output filename:
1.

Click the Browse button. The Choose VIP File to Save dialog box
opens:

2.

Type in the desired filename and click the Save button.

Converting to VIP
The Convert to VIP button starts the conversion process and can only
be selected after the Eclipse and VIP files have been chosen.
The translation procedure involves loading the entire Eclipse data set
including any INCLUDE files into memory then scanning through the
contents and process these into the VIP equivalents. Due to the
different implementation of some facilities in both programs it is not
always possible to map an Eclipse keyword and it’s associated data
onto a direct equivalent in VIP. In such cases the original Eclipse data is
included as a bracketed set of comments in the VIP data set. This
allows the rapid identification of these Eclipse keywords using an
editor. For details on conversion issues, see the Troubleshooting section
later in this document.
The Exit button stops the program.

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Troubleshooting
The following section presents some practical issues to consider when
converting a reservoir simulation model from Eclipse to VIP. Most
keywords in Eclipse can be translated into an equivalent keyword in
VIP. However, some keywords do not directly translate, so an attempt
is made in this section to highlight the most important of these.
Due to design differences between the simulators, there are also some
differences in default values and algorithms. The information in this
section is not intended to be exhaustive, but to serve as a reference to
aid in resolving data set conversion difficulties. The information is
organized alphabetically either by VIP keyword, Eclipse keyword, or
subject.

Conversion Issues in VIP-CORE
API. API tracking in Eclipse requires the 3 component black-oil option
in VIP.
BOTAB. VIP requires the Rs, BO, and VO data to be monotonically
decreasing and the VO data to be monotonically increasing, with
decreasing pressure. Eclipse does not impose these monotonicity
restrictions. E2V does not check for these conditions, but simply
converts the Eclipse data as specified. In addition, VIP requires an
entry in the BOTAB at pressure equal to standard pressure. If such an
entry is not provided in the Eclipse data set, then E2V extrapolates the
input data to calculate one for VIP. The user should check these
extrapolated values for consistency.
BRINE. The Eclipse water salinity option is not yet converted to VIP
format.
DWB. Water properties and rock properties in VIP are constant. If the
Eclipse data set has multiple PVTW tables or ROCK tables, E2V
averages the table properties to get the water and rock properties
entered on the DWB card.
Endpoint scaling. Eclipse defaults to two point relative permeability
endpoint scaling, while VIP defaults to three point scaling. For three
point relative permeability scaling, VIP scales relative permeability at a
fewer number of saturation endpoints than Eclipse. For water-oil
systems, water relative permeability cannot be scaled at maximum
water saturation (SWU) and oil relative permeability cannot be scaled
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at irreducible water saturation (SWR). For gas-oil systems, gas relative
permeability cannot be scaled at maximum gas saturation and oil
relative permeability cannot be scaled at irreducible gas saturation. The
relative permeability is taken from the saturation table for each of the
saturation endpoints identified above.
EOS. There are two formulations of the Peng-Robinson equation-ofstate. The original formulation calculates the omegaA parameter as a
single function of component acentric factor and temperature. The
omegaA calculation was later modified to use an alternative equation in
those cases where the component acentric factor is greater than 0.49.
The Eclipse default is the original formulation. The modified
formulation is requested with the PRCORR keyword in Eclipse. The
VIP Peng-Robinson default is the modified version. The original
formulation is requested with the PRORIG keyword in VIP. Significant
differences will occur if different Peng-Robinson formulations are
used.
Gas oil contact. VIP and Eclipse use the gas oil contact specification
data differently. Eclipse uses the specified GOC as a guide to calculate
initial conditions. If there is an inconsistency in initialization data
controls, either in composition or initial pressure, Eclipse allows the
adjustment of the location of the GOC. VIP strictly enforces the GOC.
Likewise, if there is inconsistency in initialization data controls, VIP
adjusts the initial pressure at reference depth to be consistent with the
saturation pressure at the GOC.
Hysteresis. There are differences between default settings between VIP
and Eclipse for the hysteresis options. The user should check be sure to
set the number of scanning curves to 1 for capillary pressure hysteresis
in VIP to be compatible with Eclipse. Note that the user must enter
secondary drainage curves for capillary pressure hysteresis in VIP.
IEQUIL. In some cases, Eclipse does not define initial conditions for
an equilibrium region. Since the data does not appear in the Eclipse
data set, E2V does not create the IEQUIL data in VIP. This is required
data for VIP, so the user will have to add this data to the converted data
set.
LGR. Local grid refinement data may not be converted properly into
VIP format, especially if each of the locally refined grids has corner
point data defined.
NEWTRAN. The NEWTRAN transmissibility calculation option in
Eclipse is equivalent to the NEWTRAN option in VIP. However, VIP
defaults to a more accurate harmonic integration based transmissibility
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calculation method, while Eclipse defaults to NEWTRAN for corner
point grids and OLDTRAN for Cartesian grids. To try to reproduce the
transmissibility calculation of Eclipse in VIP, NEWTRAN should be
entered in VIP. If a more accurate method is desired, allow VIP to
default by omitting NEWTRAN.
Non-equilibrium initialization. RS and API arrays can be entered in
Eclipse for non-equilibrium black-oil initializations. Non-equilibrium
black-oil initialization requires a PSAT versus depth table or PSAT-API
versus depth table, if variable API is modeled. Variable PSAT or API
by grid block is not possible in VIP.
Oil relative permeability. Three-phase oil relative permeability is
calculated using a saturation-weighted option by default in Eclipse.
VIP uses STONE2 as the default method for this calculation. The
KROINT keyword should be used in the VIP data set to approximate
the Eclipse method.
PCW/PCG. VIP does not have an equivalent of the PCW and PCG
arrays to allow multipliers for capillary pressure by grid block. This
Eclipse option can be emulated by defining the JFUNC option in the
utility data section and then using the VOVER option to replace the
JFUNC multipliers with the appropriate capillary pressure multipliers.
Note that one set of multipliers will be applied to both the water-oil and
gas-oil capillary pressures when using the VOVER JFUNC method.
Composition vs. depth. All composition vs. depth tables in VIP must
honor the specified GOC; that is, all compositions above the specified
depth must be dew points, and all compositions at or below the GOC
must be bubble points. Eclipse does not have this restriction and will
determine where the GOC is from the input compositions and their
calculated saturation pressure. When converting this data from Eclipse
to VIP, the user may have to adjust the GOC or enter equilibrium phase
compositions to allow the model to initialize. Initial fluids in place
must be validated between the two models to insure model agreement.
SGR/SGRO. VIP requires endpoint arrays to be entered in pairs; that
is, if the SGRO array in entered, then the SGR array must be entered as
well. Similarly, SWR and SWRO must both be entered if one of them is
entered. If the Eclipse data set uses only one of the two arrays, the
converted data set will produce an error when run in VIP. The user must
create an array for the missing property. This also applies to directional
property arrays.
SGU. The value of SGU must be less than 1-SWL in VIP. This
constraint is applied if saturation endpoint arrays are input or if
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saturation table values are used. For the case of table control, the last
gas saturation table entry, Sgu, must not exceed 1-Swc, where Swc is
the largest water saturation entry in the corresponding water saturation
function table where krw equals zero. Eclipse does not use this
constraint and E2V does not check for it in all cases.
Reservoir temperature. The user must specify reservoir temperature
on the DWB card in VIP. This value is not available from an Eclipse
100 data set, and E2V places a value of zero for reservoir temperature
in the VIP data set.
SWATINIT. The Eclipse option to use the SWATINIT array, along
with the PCW array, to initialize water saturation to non-equilibrium
conditions is not converted into VIP format. This conversion must be
done manually. Since Eclipse internally adjusts the SWATINIT data to
account for fluid contacts, significant work must be done outside of
E2V and VIP to convert this data to be equivalent to Eclipse. To insure
that an equivalent water saturation distribution is used in VIP, it is
advisable to extract the calculated initial water saturation array from
Eclipse output, rather than use the SWATINIT array.
Temperature variation. Composition and temperature can be defined
by array input for the compositional option of VIP as in Eclipse. A
composition-temperature versus depth table can also be used in VIP.

Conversion Issues in VIP-EXEC
Automatic drilling. The Eclipse QDRILL option is not available in
VIP.
BHP control. Wells that are specified on BHP control in Eclipse,
without rate specified, are converted to producers with no rate in VIP
and are treated as undrilled. The user should check to see that all such
wells are given a QMAX equal to a value large enough to force the well
on BHP control.
BHPTAB. E2V converts VFP data from Eclipse into BHPTAB data for
VIP. Earlier versions of VIP required a consistent use of constraints in
this table, such that QLIQ and GLR were acceptable along with QOIL
and GOR, but combinations such as QLIQ and GOR were not. E2V
issues a warning comment into the VIP data set concerning any
discrepancy of this sort. For VIP versions prior to 1998.2.0, the original
VFP data must be modified to allow a consistent set of constraints in
VIP.

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Crossflow. Eclipse models set crossflow as active, be default for each
well, while VIP models set crossflow as inactive, by default. E2V
creates XFON/XFOFF cards as required to match the Eclipse settings.
The use of the QMX option on the XFON card will disable crossflow in
a well until a non-zero rate is given to the well.
FPERF. VIP requires that a complete set of well perforation data be
entered for a well each time a set of FPERF data is entered. Eclipse
requires only the changes to well perforations to be entered. As a result,
the amount of VIP input data and Eclipse input data may differ
significantly in describing the same well perforation history.
Horizontal wells. The user should check that the KH value entered in
the FPERF data reflects the proper grid block geometry for horizontal
perforations. By default, VIP uses the grid block thickness in the KH
calculation. If the Eclipse model uses perforations in the X or Y
directions, then the FPERF data must contain the proper KH
calculation. For example, for an X direction perforation, Eclipse
calculates KH as DX*(KX*KZ).5, while the VIP default will be
DZ*(KX*KY).5. Similar differences occur for the RADB parameter in
VIP. E2V will calculate the correct Eclipse-equivalent values as an
option during conversion.
Injector mobility. The default methods for calculating mobility for
water and gas injectors are different between simulators. The Eclipse
default is total grid block mobility. The VIP default is endpoint
mobility. Injector mobility method is specified on WINJMOB and
GINJMOB cards of VIP.
RIGDEF. The data created by E2V for the RIGDEF card in VIP may
be incorrect. The user must convert any automatic workover data
manually.
Targeting. Forecast grouping and scale-back options are problematic
in data set conversion. Investigate the INJTAR option when trying to
model complex injection targeting schemes.
THP control. Wells that are specified on THP control in Eclipse,
without rate specified, are converted to producers with no rate in VIP
and are treated as undrilled. The user should check to see that all such
wells are given a QMAX equal to a value large enough to force the well
onto THP control.
Voidage injection. If injection based upon group voidage is specified
with the WCONINJ card in Eclipse, the resulting VIP data set should
be checked to insure that the FRES option is used for the injection well
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type and that the proper well management level is specified (e.g.
FIELD or GATHER).
Well definition. Wells with default rate specification in Eclipse may
not be completely translated into VIP format by E2V. A warning
message will appear in the VIP data set for these wells.
Well management. GRUPTREE control in Eclipse is translated into a
tree-like well management structure in VIP. The user should check this
data to be sure that it is the structure that is desired. In general, extra
well management entities may be added to balance the tree. Also, the
numbering of the well management entities may differ from the Eclipse
numbering.
WEFAC. The WEFAC option in Eclipse is translated into the
ONTIME keyword in VIP. Eclipse applies WEFAC only to the
cumulative injection and production, while VIP applies ONTIME to
both rates and cumulatives. As a result, a comparison of well rates
between VIP and Eclipse may show significant differences, while the
cumulatives match.
WLIFT. Artificial lift well control is not currently converted into VIP
format by E2V.
YINJ. An injection gas composition must be specified in VIP for all
gas injection wells, unless the well injects produced gas. This is true for
both compositional and black oil models.

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Index
Numerics
2DVIEW
description of 6
use in analyzing output 109
3DVIEW
description of 6
main menu 111
use in analyzing output 109
3DVIEW/2DVIEW User’s Guide
description of xiv

A
analyzing results 71
Array Summary Report 92

C
calc data 36
cases
data stored in 36
management of 42
naming conventions for 41
Closing Studies 36
conventions
for case names 41
for study names 41
conventions for entering simulation data 81
conventions for file naming 13
cor files 14
Creating new Studies and/or Cases 36

D
dat files 14
data
arrays 54
entering
repeated values 63
entering repeated values 81
fluid and rock properties 53
modifying 64
preparing array data with GRIDGENR 58
preparing initialization data with Data Studio 57
scalar 52
shorthand conventions 63
simulation (time-dependent) 75
time-dependent 79
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utility 67
VIP-CORE input template 123
VIP-EXEC input template 127
well data 81
data deck 14
DATE card 84
DESKTOP-PVT
description of 6
DESKTOP-PVT Keyword Reference Manual
description of xv
DESKTOP-PVT User’s Guide
description of xiv
DESKTOP-VIP
accessing Help 48
accessing modules 31
general guidelines 39
reservoir simulation workflow 7
starting 30
Desktop-VIP
saving and adding sessions 34
working with Studies and Cases 35

E
E2V utility 133
setting properties 134
Eclipse data
converting to VIP 133

F
field reports 91
file naming conventions 13, 41
files
using restart files 100

G
gdb files 14
geo data 36
GridCalc
description of 6
use in analyzing output 109
GRIDGENR
description of 6
digitizing data 61
general features of xi
main menu 60

Index

147

Getting Started with VIP

Landmark

preparing array data 58
GRIDGENR User’s Guide
description of xi
guidelines for using DESKTOP-VIP 39

N

H

O

Help
accessing 48

online help 48
Opening Studies and Cases 36
organization of this manual viii
out files 14
output
selecting 83
OUTPUT card 84
OVER card 64
overreads 64

I
i.dat files 14
init data 36
initialization
file naming conventions 14
output from 71
starting in VIP 69
workflow diagram 8
input data
for initialization 56
Iteration Summary Report 85

J
Job Statistics Summary 93
Job Status panel
during intialization 70
use during simulation 99
Job Submission panel
use for simulation 97

networks
using DESKTOP-VIP on (note) 7

P
PARALLEL-VIP
description of 3
quick guide 103
Plotting Software
use in analyzing output 109
PLOTVIEW
control panel summary 113
description of 6
overview of 113
quick tutorial 115
PLOTVIEW User’s Guide
description of xiii
plt files 14
PRINT cards 84

K
keyword format
for initialization 56
for simulation 79

L
LGR
description of 3
lgr files 14

M
manual organization viii
map files 14
MOD card 64
MULT card 65

148

Index

R
r.dat files 14
recurrent data 36
Region Summary report 87
related reading xvi
reports
examples 85
initialization report 71
output from initialization 71
printing 83
reservoir simulation workflow 7
RESTART card 101
restart files 14, 100
RFT Report 90
rst files 14

R2003.4

Landmark

S
Selecting the active Study and Case 37
Separator Report 86
shorthand conventions 81
for entering data 63
SimResults
accessing the tutorial 113
overview of 113
simulation
keywords used 79
restarting 100
running the job 97
workflow diagram 9
simulation control 82
study
naming conventions 41

T
templates
for VIP-CORE data 123
for VIP-EXEC data 127
textbooks related to these topics xvi
TIME card 84
Time Step Summary Report 85
time-dependent data 79
timestep control 82
Timestep Size Summary 95
Timestep Summary Report 94
TNEXT 84
troubleshooting
Eclipse conversions 141

V
valid case names 41
vdb files 14
general explanation 39
VIP Convert
general use of 109
how to use 122
VIP Data Studio
description of 6
product definition 77
VIP Data Studio User’s Guide
description of xiii
VIP Technical Reference Manual
general description of xi
VIP-COMP
description of 3
vipconv
how to use 122

R2003.4

Getting Started with VIP
VIP-CORE
casefile naming 14
description of 2
input data template 123
output files 16
restart file written by 100
utility data options 67
VIP-CORE Reference Manual
general description of ix
VIP-CORE run
analyzing results 71
VIP-DUAL
description of 4
VIP-ENCORE
description of 2
VIP-EXEC
description of 2
input data template 127
output files 17
restarting 100
VIP-EXEC Reference Manual
general description of x
VIP-POLYMER
description of 4
VIP-THERM
description of 3
VOVER card 65

W
wdb files 20
well data
input requirements 81
Well Layer Summary 88
well name cross-referencing 21
well names 20
Well Reports 89
wells
status reporting 95
WLASTR card 101
workflow 7
WREST card 101

Index

149

Landmark

R2003.4

Getting Started with VIP

Index

150