thames discovery programme foreshore factsheet number two

causeways

A causeway is a slightly-raised permanent structure leading from the riverbank out onto the foreshore to allow access to river craft during low tide. They were often built as part of a network of causeways and Waterman's stairs as picking up and setting down points for passenger craft. They were often located next to public houses.

Examples of causeways: Chiswick Church causeway, showing masonry surface and timber revetment; Alderman’s Stairs and causeway, Tower Hamlets showing causeway and Waterman’s access stairs between warehouses; two views of an eroded causeway with access stair at Isleworth: the timber revetment is all that survives.

Form and materials: Causeways provided pedestrian or vehicle access to small river craft at times of lower tide when direct access could not be made from the bank or quay. Causeways are often associated with a breach in the river defences (or a Waterman's stair) which provided access to the causeway. The causeway was raised proud of the foreshore so that small, shallow-draughted vessels could be brought alongside and entered from the causeway without getting wet feet: the lower the tide, the further the walk along the causeway. Causeways usually consist of a narrow linear structure leading from the access point (normally a Waterman's Stair) into the river. The causeway is built directly onto the foreshore and consists of a hard surface, often of mortared masonry, brick, or gravel set on a bed of made ground; although medieval or Tudor causeways may have been built of timber and brushwood (possible example at Kew). The causeway surface was usually revetted by timber stakes and planks. The surface of the causeway may be damaged by river craft, scoured by the river or robbed for reuse. Once the integrity of the structure has been breached deterioration can be very fast. When the surface has been completely removed the remaining timbers can be confused with a small jetty. A pedestrian causeway is usually narrower than a jetty, and the timbers may be of smaller dimensions. Causeways are shown on 17th and 18th century maps of the river, as well as on later Ordnance Survey maps, where related features may also be shown such as wharehouses, wharves, jetties or ferries. Pedestrian causeways have been recorded at Chiswick, with vehicle causeways beneath Southwark and Blackfriars bridges. At Rattcliff a vehicle causeway is constructed of a gently sloping grid of timbers with a plank surface and is immediately adjacent to a pedestrian causeway. Vehicle causeways may be confused with slipways, but they may have served dual purpose.

Recording issues: How was the causeway constructed? What materials were used for construction? Is there any reused material? Any moulded or marked stones or dateable bricks? Is there any stratigraphy associated with the structure? Are there any signs of repairs or rebuilds? What is the latest material used to repair the causeway? Is there any damage to the causeway? Are there any threats to its survival? How was the causeway accessed? What are the nearest access points or river stairs? Is there an access alley or road? How far out into the river does the causeway extend? Has the causeway been extended? What is the height in relation to existing foreshore –is it partly buried, or standing proud? Can you tell its original height by looking at any revetting planks? How far does it extend into the river? What can this tell us about historic low tide levels? Associated structures: Waterman’s stairs? Bridges? Jetties or wharves? Mooring posts? Are there any buildings on shore that may be related? Public Houses? Wharehouses? Is there any evidence for the causeway on historic or Ordnance Survey maps? Or illustrations and drawings of the area? Can these be used to date the structure? Are there any related place-names or structures shown on maps? How does the causeway relate to property boundaries shown on historic maps?

Further information: Cohen, N, 2006 River Thames Foreshore: Church Causeway Chiswick W4, London Borough of Hounslow; an archaeological assessment and foreshore survey report, MoLAS unpublished client report Useful wiki page on waterman’s stairs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watermen's_Stairs See photos of causeways at the Thames Discovery Programme Flickr page: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thamesdiscovery/tags/causeway/
timber revetment

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4m

stone and granite sett surface

Detail of Chiswick Church causeway showing stone and brick surface with timber revetment

this factsheet has been generously funded by the Barbara Whatmore Trust © thames discovery programme 2010

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