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Micro-Syllabus

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Information Technology

Institute of Science and Technology

Tribhuvan University

Course Title: Calculus and Analytical Geometry

Course no: MTH-104

Full Marks:

60+20+20

Credit hours: 3

Pass Marks: 24+8+8

Nature of course: Theory

Course Synopsis: Preliminary revisions of differentiation and integration; techniques of integration;

infinite series; vectors and analytical geometry in space (differential geometry); vector valued

functions; multivariable functions and partial derivatives.

Goal: This course aims at providing students with some advanced topics in undergraduate calculus

and fundamental concepts of partial differentiation and P.D.E. of second order. It is assumed that a

student who has Certificate Level papers in mathematics will be able to study this course.

Unit 1. Topics in Differential and Integral Calculus

1.1 Functions and graphs

Cartesian products, relations, graph of relations, definition of a function, domain and range of a

function, composite functions, one-to-one and onto functions, even and odd functions, piecewise

defined functions, graphs of functions, examples.

1.2 Extreme values of functions, graphing of derivatives

Limits: Formal definition of limits (one-sided and two-sided), verifications.

Theorem: A function ( ) has a limit as x approaches to c if and only if it has left-hand and right

hand limits there and these one sided limits are equal (without proof).

Continuity: Definitions of continuity at interior point, at end points and on intervals of domain

with examples.

Theorem (The Intermediate Value Theorem): Suppose ( ) is continuous on an interval I, and

a and b are any two points of I. Then, if yo is a number between ( ) and ( ), there exists a

number c between a and b such that ( )= yo (without proof).

Derivatives: Definitions (one-sided and two-sided) with examples of differentiable and nondifferentiable functions, instantaneous rate of change and geometrical meaning.

Theorem: A function has a derivative at a point if and only if it has left-hand and right-hand

derivatives there and they are equal (without proof).

Theorem: If has derivative at a point = c, then it is continuous at = c. Then converse does

not hold.

Proof of the Theorem.

Applications of derivatives: Definition of global and local minima and maxima, critical point.

Theorem (The Max-Min Theorem for Continuous Functions): If f is continuous at every point

of a closed interval I, then f assumes both an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum value

somewhere in I (without proof).

1

Counter examples: The requirements that the interval I be closed and f be continuous play key

role in the sense that the Theorem need not hold without them.

Theorem (The First Derivative Theorem for Local Extreme Values): If f has a local

maximum or minimum value at an interior point c, then f'(c) = 0 (without proof).

Definition of increasing and decreasing functions, examples.

Theorem: The First Derivative Test for increasing and decreasing functions (only statement).

The first derivative test for local extreme values (at critical points and at end points), definition of

concavity, the second derivative test for concavity, points of infection, the second derivative test

for local extreme values, graphing of ' and " (page231), related examples and exercises in

each test and graphing.

1.3 Mean value Theorems

] and

Theorem (Rolle's Theorem): Suppose y = f( ) is continuous on a closed interval [

differentiable at every point of its interior (a, b). If f(a) = f(b) = 0, then there is at least one number

c (a, b) such that f'(c) = 0 .

Proof of the Theorem, counter examples to show that the assumptions of the theorem are

essential, examples to illustrate the points the theorem yields.

Theorem (The Mean Value Theorem): suppose = ( ) is continuous on a closed interval

[

]and differentiable on the open interval(

). Then there is at least one point in (

) such

that

( )

( )

( )

Proof of the Theorem, examples to illustrate the points the theorem yields.

Corollary: Functions with zero derivatives are constant.

Corollary: Functions with the same derivative differ by a constant.

] and differentiable on (

Corollary: Suppose that is constant on [

). Then increases on

[

] if

). Likewise, decreases on [

] if

at each point of (

at each point of

(

).

Proofs of all corollaries and examples to illustrate the results.

1.4 Definite integrals, properties and application, Mean Value Theory for definite integrals

], the definite

Definite Integrals: Definition of Riemann sum for a function on the interval [

integral as a limit of Riemann sums.

Theorem: All continuous functions are integrable (only statement).

Examples to illustrate some discontinuous functions may be integrable, integration of a constant

function by definition.

]. The area of the region between the graph of

Definition: Let ( )

be continuous on [

( ) .

Examples related to the theorem.

Properties of definite integrals: Rules for definite integrals without proof (zero, order of

integration, constant multiplies, sums, differences, additivity, dominance), verification of each

property with examples.

and the x-axis is

Theorem (Mean Value Theorem for Definite Integrals): If

some point in [

] ( )

( )

is continuous on [

], then at

Applications: Integrals and total area, average value of an arbitrary continuous function with

examples.

1.5 Fundamental Theory of Integral Calculus and Application, Improper Integrals

Fundamental Theorems: Parts 1 and 2 (only statements), and verifications.

] then ( )

Theorem: If is continuous on [

( ) has a derivative at every point of

[

] and

Theorem: If

( )

( )

].

] and

is any antiderivative of

on[

],

( )

then ( )

( ).

Applications: Areas between the curves, integration with respect to and with respect to ,

( ) and

lengths of place curves

( ).

) and

Improper Integrals: Definitions 1-4 (page 613) where is continuous on [

) with examples in each case, convergence and divergence of improper

(

](

] and [

integrals.

], then

Definition: If becomes infinite at an interior point of [

( )

( )

Examples related to the definition. Integrals from

verifications of simple functions.

( )

to , convergence-divergence and

2.1 Infinite sequence and series of convergence and divergence

Definitions (infinite sequence, convergence and divergence of infinite sequence, bounded non

decreasing sequence and least upper bound, infinite series, sequence of partial sums,

convergence and divergence of the series), geometric series, telescoping series, the nth term

test for divergence, combining series (rules: sum, difference, constant multiple without

proofs), adding or deleting terms to a series, re-indexing, examples in each case.

Theorem (non-decreasing sequence theorem): A non-decreasing sequence of real numbers

converges if and only if it is bounded from above. If a non-decreasing sequence converges, it

converges to its least upper bounded (only statement)

2.2 Integral Test, Comparison Test, Ratio and Root Test

Theorem: A series

of nonnegative terms converges if and only if its partial sums are

bounded from above.

Integral Test: Divergence of the harmonic series

test of the series

comparison test for the series of nonnegative term (pages663) and the statement of limit

comparison test (page 665), related problems.

Ratio and Root Tests: Statements of the ratio test (page668) and nth root test (page671),

related problems.

2.3 Absolute and Conditional Convergence

Definitions (Alternating Series and Alternating Harmonic Series, absolutely convergent,

conditionally convergent), statement of Leibniz's Theorem 8 (page 673), the alternating

, proof of absolute convergence test

series test, convergence of the series ( )

(Theorem 10, page 676), statement of Theorem 11 (page 677), The Rearrangement

Theorem for absolutely convergence series, related problems in each case.

2.4 Power series, Taylor and Maclaurin Series, Convergence of Taylor Series

Power Series: Definition of power series about

and about

and examples,

statement of the convergence theorem for power series, the radius and interval of convergence

of power series, statements of the term-by-term differentiation and integration theorems,

examples.

Taylor and Maclaurin Series: Series representations, definitions of Taylor series, Maclaurin

series and Taylor polynomial generated by function , statement Taylor's Theorem, Taylor's

formula and Error Term, the Maclaurin series of the type ,

,

convergence of Taylor's series (statement of the Remainder Estimate Theorem, page 698),

related examples in each case.

Unit 3. Conic Section

3.1 Classifying conic sections by eccentricity

Definitions (circle, parabola, ellipse, hyperbola and related terms), examples to explain the

defined terms, equations and graphs of the conic sections defined above, classifying the

defined conic sections by eccentricity, related problems.

3.2 Plane curves, parametric and polar equations, integration in polar coordinates

( )

( ), examples:

Plane curves, parametric and polar equations: Definition

circle, semicircle, parabola (half and entire), ellipse, hyperbola, definition of polar coordinates

(pole, initial ray, polar pair ( ), negative values of ), polar equations for lines, circles,

ellipse, parabolas and hyperbolas, related problems.

Integration in polar coordinates: Area in the plane, area of the fan-shaped region between

the origin and the curve, areas enclosed by cardioid, limacon, area of the region

( )

( ), length of a curve, related problems.

Unit 4. Vectors and vectors Valued Functions

4.1 Vectors in the space

Vectors in the space, algebra of vectors in space, length, unit vectors, zero vector, distance

between two points, scalar product, derivation of dot product

,

laws of vector addition, cross product, perpendicular and parallel vectors, the associative and

as the area of a parallelogram,

examples.

4.2 Lines and planes in space

Vector equation for the line through a given point and parallel to a vector, standard

parameterization of the line through a point and parallel to a vector, the distance from a point

to a line in a space, equation for planes in space, plane through a point normal to n. A plane

determined by three points, intersection of a line and a plane, the distance from a point to a

plane, lines of intersection, related problems.

4.3 Cylinders and quadratic surfaces

Definition of cylinder, generating curve, and examples of cylinders, definition of quadratic

surface (ellipsoid, paraboloid).

4.4 Cylindrical and spherical coordinates

Definition of cylindrical coordinates, equations in (

) and (

) coordinates, definition

of spherical coordinates, equations in spherical and cylindrical coordinates, examples in both

cases.

4.5 Vector valued functions and space curves

Definitions (curve, path, position vector, composite functions, vector function, scalar

function), the curve Helix, definitions of limit, continuity and derivative, rules of

differentiation for vector valued functions (without proof), integrals of vector valued

functions, definite integrals, examples in each case.

4.6 Unit tangent vector, curvature and torsion and TNB system

Definitions (unit tangent vector, curvature, principal unit normal, radius of curvature, torsion,

TNB system), examples in each case.

Unit 5. Multiple Integrals

5.1 Double integrals in rectangular coordinates

Double integral formula over rectangles, properties of double integrals (without proof),

double integral as volumes, Fubini's Theorem for calculating double integrals (only

statements), finding limits of integration, related problems in each case.

5.2 Finding areas, moments and centers of mass

Areas of bounded regions in the plane (definition and examples), first and second moments

and center of mass (definition and examples), centroid of geometric figures, double integrals

in polar coordinates, limits of integration in polar coordinates, area in polar coordinates,

changing Cartesian integrals into polar integrals, related problems.

5.3 Triple integrals in rectangular coordinates and application

Definition of triple integrals, properties of triple integrals (without proof), volume of a region

in space, limit integration in triple integrals, mass and moment formulas for objects in space,

related problems in each case.

5.4 Substitutes in multiple integrals

Definition of Jacobian determinant, substitutions in double and triple integrals

(transformations and examples), related problems.

6.1 Functions, limits and continuity of two or more variables

Definitions (functions, limits, continuity of functions of two or more variables), examples in

each case.

6.2 Partial derivatives

Definition of partial derivatives with respect to all variables, calculation of partial derivatives,

second order partial derivatives, Eulers Theorem (without proof), examples for the

verification.

6.3 Differentiability, differentials, total differential coefficients.

Definition of differentiability, statement of the Increment Theorem for functions of two

variables.

Theorem: If a function f(x,y) is differentiable at (x0,y0) , then it is continuous at this point

(without proof).

Linearize a function of two variables, standard lines approximation, the error in the standard

linear approximation, predicting change with differentials, total differential coefficients, the

chain rule for functions of two and three variables, implicit differentiation, related problem.

6.4 Directional derivative and gradient vectors

Directional derivative in the plane (definition, geometrical interpretation, properties and

examples), definition of the gradient vector, related problems.

6.5 Extreme values

Definitions of local maxima and local minima, Theorem 7 (only statement), page 984, (first

derivative test for local extreme values), definitions and equations for tangent planes and

normal lines, definitions of critical point and saddle point, Theorem 8 (only statement), page

990, (Second derivative test for local extreme values), absolute maxima and minima on closed

bounded regions, summary of max-min tests, related problems.

6.6 Lagrange multipliers

Constrained maxima and minima, statement of orthogonal gradient, Theorem and its

corollary (page 1001), the method of Lagrangian multipliers with two constraints, related

problems.

Unit 7. Partial Differential Equations

7.1 Review of ordinary differential equations

Basic concepts and idea, geometrical meaning, separable odes, exact odes liner odes

(Chapter 1, Section 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6), ,linear differential equations of the second order

(Chapter 2, Sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.3), examples in each case.

7.2 Analysis of partial differential equations of the first order

Definition, origins of pdes, definitions of complete, general, singular and particular integrals,

related problems.

7.3 Linear pdes of the first order

Review of method of solution of differential equation dx/P = dy/Q = dz/R, the general

solution of the linear partial differential equation Pp + Qq = R (statement of Theorem2, page

50, I.N. Sneddon), geometrical meaning, problem (finding the general solutions of the linear

pdes).

6

Definition, origins, basic concepts of second order pdes, derivation of second order pdes,

related examples.

7.5 Solutions of general partial differential equations

Linear pdes with constant coefficients, definitions of complimentary and particular solutions,

definitions of reducible and irreducible equations, implementations of Theorems 1-9 by

solving related problems (page 97-102, I.N.Sneddon).

7.6 Wave equations and heat equations and their solutions

Basic concepts of wave and heat equations, boundary and initial conditions of heat and wave

equations, mathematical modeling of vibrating string, DAlemberts solutions of wave

equation, solution of heat equation by Fourier series, related examples (E.Kreyszig, Chapter

11, Section 11.1, 11.2, 11.4, 11.5).

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1. Theory and practice should be done side by side.

2. It is recommended to use either Mathematica or Maple or Matlab for implementation of

selected examples.

3. There should be FOUR hours for theory class and additional TWO hours for tutorial class

every week during the semester for this course.

Model Question Paper

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Information Technology

Institute of Science and Technology

Tribhuvan University

Semester First

Course Title: Calculus and Analytic Geometry

Course No: MTH104

Time: 3 hours

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own worlds as far as practicable.

Attempt all questions.

F.M.:80

P.M.: 32

1. Verify Rolls Theorem for the function y =

on [-1, 1] and find the corresponding point.

2

3/2

2. Find the length of the curve y = 1/3(x + 2) from x = 2 to x = 3.

3. Test the p series

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Find the spherical coordinate equation for x2 + y2 + z2 = 4.

Use double integral to find the area of a region bounded by y = x and y = x2 in the first quadrant.

Verify the Eulers theorem for mixed partial derivatives, w = x Siny + y Sinx + xy.

Use the chain rule to find the derivate of w = xy w.r.t. t along the path x = Cost, y = Sint.

Form a partial differential equation by eliminating the constants a and b form the surface (x a)2 + (y b)2 + z2 = c2.

Solve the partial differential equation p + q = x, where the symbols have their usual meanings.

Group B: (5 x 4 = 20)

11. State and prove the Mean Value Theorem for definite integral. Apply the theorem to calculate the average value of

f(x) = 4 x2 on [0 , 3].

12. Find the area of the region that lies inside the circle r = 1 and outside the Cardiod r = 1 Cos.

13. Find the curvatures and principal unit normal for the Helix r(t) = (aCost)i + (aSint)j + (bt)k, with a,b 0 and a2 + b2

0.

14. What do you mean by directional derivative in the plane ? Find the derivatives of f(x,y) = x ey + Cos(xy)at the point

(2,0) in the direction of the vector A = 3i 4j.

15. Find the particular integral of the equation

= 2y x2.

Group C: (5 x 8 = 40)

16. Graph the function y = x5/3 5x2/3.

17. Find the Taylors series and the Taylors polynomial generated by f(x) = eax and g(x) = xCosx at x = 0.

18. Evaluate the double integral

OR

2

Find the volume of the region D enclosed by z = x + 3y2 and z = 8 x2 y2.

19. Find the local minima, local maxima and saddle points of the function f(x,y) = 2xy 5x2 2y2 + 4x + 4y 4.

OR

Find the maximum and minimum of the function f(x,y) = 3x y + 6 subject to constraint x2 + y2 = 4 and explain its

geometry.

20. Show that the solution of the wave equation

= c2

8

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