Downloaded from gsabulletin.gsapubs.

org on January 20, 2011

Geological Society of America Bulletin
Tectonomagmatic evolution of Western Amazonia: Geochemical
characterization and zircon U-Pb geochronologic constraints from the
Peruvian Eastern Cordilleran granitoids
Aleksandar Miskovic, Richard A. Spikings, David M. Chew, Jan Kosler, Alexey Ulianov and Urs
Schaltegger
Geological Society of America Bulletin 2009;121;1298-1324
doi: 10.1130/B26488.1

Email alerting services

click www.gsapubs.org/cgi/alerts to receive free e-mail alerts when new
articles cite this article

Subscribe

click www.gsapubs.org/subscriptions/ to subscribe to Geological Society of
America Bulletin

Permission request

click http://www.geosociety.org/pubs/copyrt.htm#gsa to contact GSA

Copyright not claimed on content prepared wholly by U.S. government employees within scope of
their employment. Individual scientists are hereby granted permission, without fees or further
requests to GSA, to use a single figure, a single table, and/or a brief paragraph of text in subsequent
works and to make unlimited copies of items in GSA's journals for noncommercial use in classrooms
to further education and science. This file may not be posted to any Web site, but authors may post
the abstracts only of their articles on their own or their organization's Web site providing the posting
includes a reference to the article's full citation. GSA provides this and other forums for the
presentation of diverse opinions and positions by scientists worldwide, regardless of their race,
citizenship, gender, religion, or political viewpoint. Opinions presented in this publication do not reflect
official positions of the Society.

Notes

© 2009 Geological Society of America

Downloaded from gsabulletin.gsapubs.org on January 20, 2011

Tectonomagmatic evolution of Western Amazonia:
Geochemical characterization and zircon U-Pb geochronologic
constraints from the Peruvian Eastern Cordilleran granitoids
Aleksandar Mišković1,*,†, Richard A. Spikings1, David M. Chew2, Jan Košler3, Alexey Ulianov4, and Urs Schaltegger1
1

Department of Mineralogy, Earth Sciences Section, University of Geneva, 13 rue des Maraîchers, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland
Department of Geology, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2, Ireland
3
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N 5007 Bergen, Norway
4
Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography, University of Lausanne, BFSH 2, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
2

ABSTRACT
The results of a coupled, in situ laser
ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass
spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb study on
zircon and geochemical characterization of
the Eastern Cordilleran intrusives of Peru
reveal 1.15 Ga of intermittent magmatism
along central Western Amazonia, the Earth’s
oldest active open continental margin. The
eastern Peruvian batholiths are volumetrically dominated by plutonism related to
the assembly and breakup of Pangea during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition. A
Carboniferous-Permian (340–285 Ma) continental arc is identified along the regional
orogenic strike from the Ecuadorian border
(6°S) to the inferred inboard extension of
the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane in southern
Peru (14°S). Widespread crustal extension
and thinning, which affected western Gondwana throughout the Permian and Triassic
resulted in the intrusion of the late- to posttectonic La Merced–San Ramón-type anatectites dated between 275 and 220 Ma, while
the emplacement of the southern Cordillera
de Carabaya peraluminous granitoids in the
Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (220–190 Ma)
represents, temporally and regionally, a separate tectonomagmatic event likely related to
resuturing of the Arequipa-Antofalla block.
Volcano-plutonic complexes and stocks associated with the onset of the present Andean
cycle define a compositionally bimodal

*Current address: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue (54-1224), Cambridge,
Massachusetts 02139, USA.

E-mail: miskovic@mit.edu

alkaline suite and cluster between 180 and
170 Ma. A volumetrically minor intrusive
pulse of Oligocene age (ca. 30 Ma) is detected
near the southwestern Cordilleran border
with the Altiplano. Both post-Gondwanide
(30–170 Ma), and Precambrian plutonism
(691–1123 Ma) are restricted to isolated
occurrences spatially comprising less than
15% of the Eastern Cordillera intrusives.
Only one remnant of a Late Ordovician intrusive belt is recognized in the Cuzco batholith
(446.5 ± 9.7 Ma) indicating that the Famatinian arc system previously identified in Peru
along the north-central Eastern Cordillera
and the coastal Arequipa-Antofalla terrane
also existed inboard of this parautochthonous crustal fragment. Hitherto unknown
occurrences of late Mesoproterozoic and
middle Neoproterozoic granitoids from the
south-central cordilleran segment define
magmatic events at 691 ± 13 Ma, 751 ± 8 Ma,
985 ± 14 Ma, and 1071–1123 ± 23 Ma that
are broadly coeval with the Braziliano and
Grenville-Sunsás orogenies, respectively.
Our data suggest the existence of a continuous orogenic belt in excess of 3500 km along
Western Amazonia during the formation of
Rodinia, its “early” fragmentation prior to
690 Ma, and support a model of reaccretion
of the Paracas-Arequipa-Antofalla terrane to
western Gondwana in the Early Ordovician
with subsequent detachment of the Paracas
segment in form of the Mexican Oaxaquia
microcontinent in Middle Ordovician. A tectonomagmatic model involving slab detachment, followed by underplating of cratonic
margin by asthenospheric mantle is proposed
for the genesis of the volumetrically dominant
Late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic Peruvian
Cordilleran batholiths.

INTRODUCTION
Whereas the Cretaceous to recent Andean
orogenic cycle is well characterized (e.g.,
Ramos and Aleman, 2000), our knowledge of
the early Phanerozoic and Proterozoic evolution of the Andes becomes increasingly fragmentary with age due to paucity of exposed
lithologies. The problem is less pronounced
along the Peruvian segment of the orogen
where a lacuna in the ubiquitous Cenozoic volcanic cover is interpreted to have resulted from
the flat-slab subduction of the Nazca ridge during the Neogene (Jaillard et al., 2000). Batholiths of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru straddle
the tectonic boundary between the Western
Amazonian tectonic provinces of San Ignacio
(1.57–1.24 Ga) and Sunsás (1.19–0.92 Ga;
Cordani and Sato, 2000) and parautochthonous
to allochthonous crustal domains (1.9–1.8 Ga
Arequipa-Antofalla; 150 Ma Olmos-Amotape
terrane), thus providing a continuous record of
the nature and rate of crustal growth at a longlived cratonic margin. Despite its fortuitous
setting, however, the timing of magmatism in
the central Andes is relatively poorly understood with most of the geochronological work
to date relying heavily upon whole-rock Rb-Sr
and K-Ar techniques, both of which are known
to yield ambiguous dates due to low retention
temperatures and the possibility of isotopic
disturbance by subsequent thermal episodes
(Dodson, 1973). This is a particularly acute
problem in Peru when we consider ca. 150 Ma
of uninterrupted subduction during the last
Andean orogenic cycle (Benavides, 1999).
We use a combination of in situ U-Pb geochronology, major- and trace-element geochemical characterization of plutonic rocks along the
1400 km of the orogenic strike of the Eastern

GSA Bulletin; September/October 2009; v. 121; no. 9/10; p. 1298–1324; doi: 10.1130/B26488.1; 12 figures; 1 table; Data Repository item 2009052.

1298

For permission to copy, contact editing@geosociety.org
© 2009 Geological Society of America

2008. these are (1) Coastal forearc. 1996. with particular focus on the poorly understood breakup of Rodinia (Cordani et al. the Central Andes of Peru have been inferred to rest upon the westernmost Amazonian craton.1 Ga along the western Rodinia and Gondwanaland. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru Foreland Huancabamba deflection o Ventuari Rio Negro o 60 Maroni 10o C or o i dg e Pacific Ocean 600 km F Na zc aR 300 0 Co o 20 r di San Ignacio I -fo rd ld ill I be l e t l l Altiplano r a e ra e a o 50 W Central Amazon t The Peruvian Andes have been historically divided into six linear geological provinces striking parallel to the Pacific coast. and the absence of cratonic crust has been proposed west of the Eastern Andean Cordillera between 7°S and 14°S (Beckinsale et al. Its basement lithologies are predominantly comprised of the Paleozoic Marañón greenschist facies metasediments.95 Ga) that resulted from the collision of Laurentia with Amazonia (Fig. 2003. Li et al. and Mañazo complexes to the west and a 120.. 2008.. 1978. and (6) Foreland basin (Fig.Downloaded from gsabulletin. Ramos. 1985. and Scotland) that was subsequently detached from Laurentia and incorporated into the Grenville-Sunsás orogen (Dalziel et al. Together with the absence of inherited zircon ages in the Western Cordillera between Chimbote and Pisco (Mukasa. The tip of the Huancabamba deflection along the northwestern coast of Peru is dominated by the Amotape continental parautochthonous block and floored by oceanic crust where the intervening Lancones synclinorium separates the Amotape complex from the Loja-Olmos massif (Fig. located 90 km east of Huánuco in the central segment (Cardona et al...16-0. 2007). 1988. Spikings et al. Jaillard et al. Polliand et al. 1986). we can holistically test the current geodynamic scenarios for the evolution of the Amazonian shield.. 1.gsapubs. There is a general trend of increasing metamorphic grade to the south resulting in a transition from gray phyllites with subordinate graphitemica schist intercalations in the north to polydeformed paraschists and granulitic gneisses O-A s ru th n ea rn nd te -A Eas rn ste We Morphogeological Units 70 ub GEOLOGICAL SETTING 80o o 0 S Cordillera of Peru to construct a detailed chronologic framework.. the Huancabamba deflection and Arica bend. and identify tectonic regimes that shaped the central proto-Andean margin of Amazonia. A notable exception to the dominantly Proterozoic basement architecture of Peru is the isotopically juvenile root of the Lima segment of the Peruvian Coastal batholith.15 Ga FMB Chilenia Terrane 0. together with volumetrically subordinate plutons emplaced during the initiation of the modern Andean cycle of subduction in the Early Jurassic. middle Neoproterozoic Braziliano.2–0. although the exact relationship to Laurentia remains unclear. 2005).48-0. r Juruena Sunsás Brazilides Su ns ás c São Francisco Puna aulacogen Arica bend A-A Sierras Pampeanas 0. Greenland. the juvenile isotopic ratios have been explained as manifestation of a fundamental change in the age and nature of basement rock. 2008). 1983)... 2003. 2000)... Loewy et al. the timing of emplacement of the numerous batholiths that intrude the metasedimentary substrate and form a 1400-km-long intrusive chain between the two Andean oroclines. Its overall allochthonous character to cratonic South America was reconfirmed based on U-Pb zircon geochronology and Pb isotope systematics (Loewy et al. 2).48 Ga Olmos-Amotape 0. and the late Mesoproterozoic Sunsás orogens are located in south-central Peru and indicate the presence of a periodically reworked latest Mesoproterozoic crust. Ticlio. 1990.. 2004). Whereas U-Pb geochronology on detrital zircons from the Marañón transect between 6°S and 10°S effectively constrains the depositional age of the sedimentary protolith between the Early Ordovician and Carboniferous (Chew et al. Our data demonstrate the existence of a composite continental margin heavily dominated by three distinct intrusive pulses related to the assembly and breakup of Gondwana (middle Carboniferous to Late Triassic).. Modified after Tassinari and Macambira (1999). 1979) was initially thought to represent the apex of a Laurentian promontory (together with Labrador.. 1. (4) Eastern Cordillera.9 Ga Famatinia Mobile Belt 0.. Black triangles representing volcanic centers of the Northern and Central Volcanic Zone are superimposed on the six morphogeological belts of Peru. Mégard. Sadowski and Bettencourt. is poorly understood. (2) Western Cordillera. 2005). which formed parts of the long-lived Mesoproterozoic Sunsás orogen (1. making them the westernmost exposures of the Amazonia craton in South America. which underwent four successive stages of deformation (Bard et al.8-1. The parautochthonous granulitic basement of the southwestern Arequipa-Antofalla terrane (Shackleton et al. 2006). Fuck et al. Cordani and Sato (2000). 1. Petford et al. Meert and Torsvik. Macfarlane et al. The Peruvian Eastern Cordillera is a 1400-km-long belt straddling the east-verging thrust and fold belts of the Marañón. 1985. Regional Basement Despite lacking direct geochronological evidence. 200 km east of the confirmed limit of the Arequipa terrane and 225 km from the present-day coast. Ramos et al. Map of the central South American continent with the generalized major tectonic provinces and ages of their most recent tectonothermal episodes. Mourier et al. Jaillard et al. September/October 2009 1299 . Zeil. 1994). Geological Society of America Bulletin.to 250-km-wide zone of deformed Mesozoic and Tertiary foreland sedimentary rocks to the east (Fig. (5) Sub-Andean fold and thrust belt. 1974.. 1986.. 1996). Tosdal. By relating the secular changes in magma composition to the tectonomagmatic cycles of continental assembly and breakup over the past 1.53-0.. From west to east..36 Ga Arequipa-Antofalla 1. 1996. (2004).org on January 20.43 Ga CT Phanerozoic platform sediments SP Rio de la Plata Atlantic Ocean Figure 1. 2003. which does not yield Amazonian basement signatures (Mukasa and Tilton. Plutonic remnants belonging to the early Paleozoic Famatinian.46-0. and Loewy et al. 2000). (3) Puna-Altiplano.

. 1300 Geological Society of America Bulletin. DE ALLINCAPAC QUEROBAMBA (SUCRE) N Paleozoic basement (Marañon phyllites. paraschists) Neo/Mesoproterozoic granites A ABANCAY DEFLECTION SA Permo-Triassic granodiorites/ S-type granites-monzogranitoids Carbo-Permian rhyodacites/ I-type diorites . The cratonic edge east of the thickened Altiplano crust is suggested to lie along the Mitu Group (Gr. Geologic map of the Eastern Cordilleran plutonic belt of Peru illustrating the presently known extent of tectonic domains and locations of the sampled intrusives..org on January 20. PASCO LIV ile N SIRA OXA PAMPA RD Ch o 10 S 400 km 300 200 WESTERN AMAZONIA ga lla ua Trujillo 100 BO 8 oH Ri PATAZ o B Ucayali Basin FORELAND Figure 2. 2002). while the eastern limit of the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane is currently defined by 206Pb/ 204Pb isotopic contrast from the Neogene volcanic centers sampling the southern Peruvian crust (Mamani et al. 2005). The upper Rio Marañón of the northern Eastern Cordillera marks the inferred boundary between Western Amazonia and “craton-free” zone underlying much of the coastal Western Cordillera (Haeberlin.gsapubs.granitoids Ordovician. September/October 2009 . Geological cross section modified after Mégard (1967). WEDGE RA ANO SANTA ROSA LA 0 Cuzco CA ALTIPL CO 10 km PTP PAUCARTAMBO Transform CO RD . The E-W fault system subparallel to the Abancay deflection at the latitude of the Paracas Peninsula (14°S) bounds the A–A terrane from the north.) basin (Sempere et al.Early Silurian granitoids BRAZIL ALTIPLANO Sira Anticline EASTERN CORDILLERA THRUST-FOLD BELT ca IA A h nc ER e Tr ILL CR. 2011 Mišković et al. The NNE-striking tectonic lineament east of the Lancones basin in the NW coastal Peru demarcates the extent of the Loja-Olmos terranes (Litherland et al.AMOT APE Downloaded from gsabulletin. o 6 o 80 S O 78 o 76 o o 74 72 o o 70 W M OL FORELAND BALSAS 0 SITABAMBA Rí oM WE ara ER B HUANUCO n ñó ST ru Pe N CO LIMA o 12 S SAN RAMON TARMA TICLIO A CARRIZALES HUANCAYO Early Jurassic fold / quartz syenites HUANCAVELICA Late Triassic Carabaya granitoids Triassic Mitu Gr volcano-sediments PARACAS N NI S BA Tit i ca R Arequipa id ge A-A TERRANE Tarma San Ramon WESTERN CORDILLERA YA LIMBANI TH ca BA COASA I OL TH az Lima COASTAL ACCR. 2002). 1994)..

Kontak et al. These intrusives were emplaced subparallel to the Rio Marañón crustal lineament (Fig. who described arc magmatism in the context of an Eohercynian orogeny. which consequently affected both the volume and type of plutonism during the past 150 Ma. The genetically similar but younger pulse of Late Triassic. the western margin of Amazonia was again characterized by compressional tectonics due to global plate reorganization and the final amalgamation of Gondwana (Cawood and Buchan.. Sánchez.. or a gap left by removal of Oaxaquia microcontinent leaving behind a speculative Paracas terrane. Moreover. single grain. 1995. 1999).... 1985. in the Early Cambrian closed the Puna aulacogen (Ramos.0 Ga. the newly formed continental arc developed along the present-day Coastal (Western) Cordillera. thus leaving the Eastern Cordillera in a backarc position. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru Neoproterozoic Evolution Following a poorly defined. Mukasa and Henry. 2002). Bahlburg and Hervé. Haeberlin et al. and are currently the only local temporal constraints on the timing of Arequipa detachment (Loewy et al. syntectonic. and appear to have undergone a phase of regional uplift in the Early Pennsylvanian. 2007) as incipient magmatic responses to a collapsing orogen (Rapela et al. 1 and 2. 2007).. 1993. 1990) makes it the only volumetrically significant intrusive locality of the Andean cycle in the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera. respectively. Sempere et al. 300 Ma. associated with the regional orogenic type Au-Ag mineralization (Haeberlin. 1990). which developed along the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Pankhurst and Rapela. calc-alkaline Santa Rosa granitoids. Resumption of arc activity in the Early Mississippian was first recorded by Mégard et al. 2001). Together with the Marañón River lineament of north-central Peru.e. single-grain U-Pb zircon or 40Ar/39Ar dates. 1973.. Forsythe et al. The plutonism predated or was contemporaneous with synrift deposition of calc-alkaline. Adams and Miller. 2. Subsequent westerly shift of the spreading center is interpreted to have resulted in the generation of intervening oceanic crust between both the Arequipa-Antofalla and Pampean terranes and mainland Amazonia that was consumed by eastward subduction of proto-Pacific lithosphere during the Pampean orogeny in the Middle Cambrian (Rapela et al. 1999) reveals that the majority of the reported dates are based either on whole-rock Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic analyses of biotite and K-feldspar.. 1990. 1990). 2008). and coeval rhyodacitic pyroclastics (534–523 Ma.gsapubs. During the extensional phase. 1998). and no attempts were made at a regionally integrated survey. Previous Geochronology A compilation of radiometric ages from the Eastern Andes of Peru (Jacay et al. 1985. and was broadly coeval with mantle-derived Mitu Group alkali basalts and shoshonites of the Cuzco basin (Kontak et al. 2004)... but the arc activity was only recently documented with certainty in the Balsas-Callangate-Pataz auriferous province of the northern Eastern Cordillera. 1991). which is interpreted to represent the root of a continental arc (i. 1998). A recent.org on January 20. Permo-Triassic extension and deposition of the volcano-sedimentary Mitu Group. 1998). Kontak et al. With the onset of the modern Andean tectonic regime. Faja Eruptiva Occidental) resulting from eastward subduction of the proto-Pacific oceanic crust beneath western Gondwana (Ramos. eventually forming the epeiric Puncoviscana depocenter for thick marine sediments behind the parautochthonous Arequipa-Antofalla craton (Keppie and Bahlburg. including tectonothermal events associated with both strikeslip displacements and crustal shortening over the past 1. 1988. as well as the absence of Grenvillian terranes along the margin from the Arequipa massif to Chibcha terrane in Colombia has been interpreted as evidence for the development of a passive margin west of the Famatinian arc resulting from strike-slip detachment of the northern segment of the ArequipaAntofalla (i. Oaxaquia) block during either the Devonian (Mégard.. A conspicuous lack of magmatic activity during much of Late Silurian and Devonian in the central Andes.. Although no clear chronometric evidence of the Pampean orogen presently exists in Peru. These are interpreted to mark the presence of either an original embayment along the western Gondwanan margin (Chew et al. high-precision. and renewed easterly subduction of the proto–Pacific plate below the western South American margin in the Early Jurassic. Except for the easternmost porphyritic monzonite and granitoid stocks of the Miocene metallogenic belt along the central and northern Western Cordillera of Peru (Noble and McKee. Sempere et al. 2). (1971) and Dalmayrac et al. Late Permian to Early Jurassic lithospheric thinning in Peru and Bolivia resulted in emplacement of the central San Ramon–La Merced-type monzogranitoids.. 1984..Downloaded from gsabulletin.g. Phanerozoic Evolution Beginning in the Early Cambrian. based on 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of plutonic host rocks and ore deposits (Schreiber.. the diachronous rift-drift transition recorded in clastic platform sedimentary rocks at the latitude of the northern ArequipaAntofalla terrane suggests the end of an extensional regime by the Late Cambrian (Sempere.. 2004. Mišković et al. 2002). September/October 2009 1301 . 1989. 1999). Magmatism soon resumed in the Ordovician along the frontal Arequipa terrane giving rise to the coastal San Nicolás batholith (Fig. The collision of the Pampean terrane and reaccretion of the Arequipa-Antofalla crustal block against the Río de la Plata and Amazonian cratons. or U-Pb chronometry of bulk-zircon separates with relatively few. 2008). Dacitic dikes that crosscut layered amphibolites of the north Chilean segment of the ArequipaAntofalla block were dated at 635 Ma. Cawood et al. 2). followed by emplacement of the post-orogenic. 1997) or the Permo-Triassic extension (Haeberlin et al. 1995). U-Pb zircon geochronological survey of the San Nicolás intrusives (Loewy et al. post-Sunsás tectonic lull. volcanic arcs and rift-related magmatism. alternating passive margin sedimentation. previous work was mainly of local focus. associated with localized migmatization (Soler. peraluminous granitic plutonism occurred in a localized transpressional setting in the southern Cordillera de Carabaya.. Mitu Group bimodal volcanics and continent-derived sediments in transcurrent half grabens and pull-apart basins that opened along the western margin of the orogen (Figs. the paleo-suture between the Arequipa block and ancestral Amazonia constitutes a zone of crustal weakness that was inherited from the Sunsás-aged orogens and was periodically reactivated during the Phanerozoic (e. The apparent eastward transposition of the Ordovician igneous belt north of the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane in Peru is suggested by the presence of Latest Ordovician granodioritic gneisses within the Río Marañón valley east of Cajamarca (Fig. ca. the breakup of Rodinia in the middle Neoproterozoic led to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean by westward drift of Laurentia leaving the Arequipa craton attached to Amazonia (Bond et al. 2002). which collided with western Gondwana during the Famatinian cycle (Ramos.. 2). 2004). (1980). In summary. 2005). 2007).. has led to a composite magmatic belt displaying complex lateral and along-strike variations throughout the Peruvian cordilleras. 2004) yielded Ordovician intrusive ages between 468 and 440 Ma that are typical of the Famatinian orogenic cycle. The resultant Sierras Pampeanas orogeny of NW Argentina was accompanied by low-grade metamorphism and deformation of shallow marine sediments. A Geological Society of America Bulletin..e. a passive margin developed along the western proto-Gondwanan margin while rifting propagated northward into present Bolivia in the late Neoproterozoic times. the inferred Early Jurassic age for the peralkaline Allincapac volcano-plutonic complex in the Cordillera de Carabaya of southern Peru (Fig.

(E) a close-up photograph of the Allincapac complex nepheline syenite (13. There is widespread textural evidence supporting the coexistence and mingling of compositionally contrasting magmas (Fig. A feature unique to the northeastern margin of the Eastern Cordilleran intrusive belt is the ubiquitous presence of NWtrending bimodal dikes of the Permo-Triassic Mitu Group.. Northeastern Cordillera The northern sector was surveyed along two traverses covering: (1) the Balsas-Callangate plutons (6°S to 7°S). 1990.org on January 20. The youngest pre-Andean intrusives in the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera were identified in the southern segment of the Cordillera de Carabaya. Traverses varied in length between 70 and 250 km and spanned the total orogenic strike length of 1300 km (Fig.gsapubs. from north to south these are Carboniferous. and TalhuisCarrizal plutons (245 ± 11 Ma and 233 ± 10 Ma). (1978) and Dalmayrac et al. (1980). The plutonic rocks define a compositional spectrum from medium. separated in time and space. Emplacement of the east-central leucogranitoids was crudely constrained by bulk-zircon U-Pb dating of Lancelot et al. hornblende-bearing diorites.5°S) with arfvedsonite and biotite as the principal Fe-Mg phases. Field photographs illustrating the typical mineralogical and structural features of the Eastern Peruvian intrusives.2 Ma (hornblende). (C) a partially absorbed metasedimentary xenolith (restite) in the area of high-grade migmatization along the Chanchumayo River segment of the San Ramon–La Merced batholith. Contaya Formation meta-arenites and Ordovician to Devonian Vijus metabasalts. 2).to coarse-grained. (F) Coasa Batholith K-feldspar megacrystic leucogranites (14°S) displaying the classic “horse tooth” texture.3 Ma and 329 ± 10 Ma for the Balsas and Callangate monzogranitic plutons. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dating of the auriferous Pataz Batholith granodiorites by Haeberlin et al.4 Ma (biotite) and 319 ± 3. who reported K-Ar dates of 346. Intrusive activity in the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera was initially dated by Sánchez (1983. 3A). medium-grained bio- 1302 Figure 3. 1995). hornblende granodiorites. and Pataz intrusive complexes are emplaced subparallel to a NNWtrending fault zone associated with the upper Marañón River valley and locally intrude the Ordovician Marañón biotite schists and phyllites. (A) mingling of microdioritic and granodioritic magmas in the calc-alkaline Pataz Batholith (8°S).Downloaded from gsabulletin. September/October 2009 .2 ± 1. where S-type monzogranitoids yielded K-Ar (biotite and muscovite) and whole-rock Rb-Sr ages between 225 ± 15 Ma in the Coasa Batholith at 14°S. and K-Ar work on biotites by Soler (1991) from the Equiscocha (253 ± 11 Ma). 1999). between 7°S and 9°S. bounded by the Marañón River to the west and the Río Huallaga to the east. Central Eastern Cordillera The central intrusive belt. 2011 Mišković et al. and (2) the intrusive belt between the Pataz Batholith. (B) mineralogically monotonous monzogranite of the San Ramon pluton (11°S) cut by up to 1-m-thick aplite dikes. (1990).. and minor granites. with plateau ages ranging between 329. Clark et al. and Late Triassic belts (Petersen.7 ± 7. Callangate. tite. review of the available data indicates three main pulses of intrusive activity. (2004) confirmed the earlier 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Schreiber et al. Fragmented diorite dikes and mafic magma pulses intrude most of the granodioritic rocks and occur together with abundant microgranular enclaves as well as partially fused xenoliths of the Marañón Complex. The Balsas. Geological Society of America Bulletin. Kontak et al. 1990). Similar intrusive facies prevail across the belt at 8°S with the upper Huallaga River granitoids exhibiting variable proportions of amphibole and biotite. including the northern Altiplano. and the southernmost Limacpampa pluton was dated at 199 ± 10 Ma (15°S. through amphibole-rich tonalites into volumetrically dominant. San Ramon (246 ± 10 Ma). Permian to Triassic. La Merced (238 ± 10 Ma). (D) medium-grained Machu Picchu biotite granite (13°S). was sampled along four transects between the latitudes of 10°S and A B C D E F SAMPLING Five orthogonal and three margin-parallel sampling transects were conducted throughout the Eastern Cordillera of Peru between the latitudes of 6°S and 15°S.

htm or by request to editing@geosociety. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 2002). There is a gradual increase in the proportion of modal mica as well as the first appearance of muscovite in the granitoid assemblages southward of Paucartambo. but are instead interpreted as an inherited Mesoproterozoic component (Fig. thin rims mantle patched or sectorzoned xenocrystic cores that are characterized by moderate CL intensities. The centrally located San Gabán biotite granite displays numerous. the western Ayapata suite of the Coasa pluton (Fig. 3C).. September/October 2009 1303 . In 25% of the zircon population. In situ zircon U-Pb isotope data and whole-rock geochemistry of the Peruvian Eastern Cordilleran intrusives. n(grains) = 207). We have surveyed the discontinuously outcropping intrusive facies along a strike-parallel traverse over 8300 km2 starting from the northern Cuzco batholith. subhorizontal aplite and fine-grained monzonite dikes indiscriminately traverse the intrusive suites but are conspicuously absent from those that display strong structural fabrics. or sectors were analyzed by separate laser traverses. nepheline-bearing. n(grains) = 48). continental rifting (Sempere et al.Downloaded from gsabulletin. 275–360 Ma. Corfu et al. K-feldspar megacrystic. 440– 530 Ma. 3F). The NNWoriented. The results of individual U-Pb spot analyses are presented in the GSA Data Repository (Table DR11). Soler. The Oligocene zircons are long prisms displaying blurred primary 1 GSA Data Repository item 2009052. Progressively from north to south. 1997). 1991). n(grains) = 12). The resultant displacement of the intrusive belt and the Mitu graben by 200 km eastward at the latitude of 13°S.. and muscovite leucogranites. do not correspond to pluton crystallization ages. Early to Middle Jurassic (167–174 Ma. The central and southern Carabaya intrusive suite is predominantly composed of medium-grained to K-feldspar megacrystic. two-mica monzogranites (Fig. in between the two principal transform lineaments. The mineralogical trends across the orogenic strike. Of particular importance is the occurrence of peralkaline intrusives such as the Nevado de Allincapac volcano-plutonic complex covering 350 km2. Despite the textural heterogeneity that is locally manifested by widespread migmatization along the Rio Chanchumayo. 2). and into the southernmost segment represented by the Cordillera de Carabaya specifically. (2) Tarma–La Merced.to 5-cm-long mafic enclaves and mica-rich restites. the central intrusives of the Eastern Cordillera are bound inboard and outboard by contiguous. Carboniferous-Permian (ca. and 6X. All identified domains within texturally complex zircons such as cores. characteristic of a magmatic origin (photomicrograph insets in Figs. 1997). are characterized by an increase in the modal amount of amphibole accompanied by a decrease in K-feldspar and a larger proportion of microdioritic enclaves. together with subarkosic arenites during inferred Triassic synorogenic. Ages are shown in Table 1. oscillatory-zoned cores. 2. and peralkaline volcanic breccias that are intruded by the coarse-grained. these are (1) Oxapampa–Cerro de Pasco. Permian-Triassic (ca. doubly vergent. It is composed of porphyritic leucite. rims. Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (178–217. the intrusive facies of the central Cordilleran segment exhibit overall uniform silica enrichment compared to the northern Peruvian plutonic belt. nepheline phonolites. 650–770 Ma. yet frequently blurred or convoluted oscillatory growth zoning. (3) Satipo-Huancayo. Representative subsets were analyzed for trace-element content and were dated by the U-Pb method. middle Neoproterozoic– Cryogenian (ca. n(grains) = 9). 3B) that are emplaced into late Carboniferous metasediments of the Tarma-Copacabana Group. metasedimentary xenoliths (Fig. In contrast to the northern segment. Plots based on 476 concordant analyses are presented in Figure 5.org on January 20. which are locally strongly deformed. The zoned rims tend to discordantly overgrow CL-bright. 2006). 2). and a broadly defined Late Mesoproterozoic– early Neoproterozoic (Stenian-Tonian) age span between 960 and 1200 Ma (n(grains) = 25). U-Pb Geochronology The U-Pb ages from the intrusive rocks of the Eastern Peruvian Cordillera fall into more than six distinct groups. granodiorites. and (4) Huancavelica-Sucre (Fig. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru 14°S. from east to west. 1978.gsapubs. or the existence of a WNWoriented fabric found in the Talhuis pluton as well as in the Querobamba intrusive suite of the eastern Sucre region. n(grains) = 8). and subordinate amphibole-bearing granodiorites to leucogranites (Fig.. Miocene thrusts (Allmendinger et al. San Ramon–La Merced batholith is the type locality of Permo-Triassic plutonism in east-central Peru (Mégard. The interior granitoid facies of each plutonic body include mica-rich restites. Middle Jurassic–Oligocene The middle Cenozoic (Andean) ages clustering near 30 Ma were obtained from two granodiorites (SCAM-04 and 08) in the southcentral Huancavelica region of the Eastern Cordillera (Fig. It comprises an 80-km-long and in places 10-kmwide intrusive belt composed of characteristically pink-colored.. Kontak et al. known as the Abancay deflec- Zircon Characterization A total of 738 grains extracted from 60 intrusives were imaged and examined for morphology and internal textures. whereas the volumetrically minor biotite quartz monzonites occur along the margins of individual plutonic bodies and entrain ubiquitous.. 1990). with the geographical and temporal distribution presented in Figures 4 and 5. 95% of zircons exhibit well-developed. alkali feldspar granites (Fig. 6M. biotite. The Carabaya granitoids exhibit a sporadic magmatic fabric and are cut by sinuous and discontinuous biotite quartz diorite dikes that are themselves traversed by the host granitoids indicating synintrusive emplacement (Pitcher. occasionally containing cordierite and locally displaying intermediate to mafic facies (diorite to quartz diorite). Ordovician (ca. An additional 17 zircons. 5A). Southeastern Cordillera RESULTS An overall sinistral offset along the ENE-WSW–trending Patacancha-TamburcoPuyentimari transform fault system during Permo-Triassic rifting is considered responsible for a drastic change in strike of the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera (Carlotto et al. 220–270 Ma. The identified age populations are Oligocene (28–34 Ma. biotite-bearing. 2003). together with subordinate mafic microgranular enclaves. Recrystallization and abundant mineral inclusions or melt trails are observed in less than 8% of the imaged grains. medium-grained. 3E). n(grains) = 126). alkali feldspar syenite core (Fig.geosociety. with ages clustering around 1300 Ma but also extending to 1700 Ma.org/pubs/ ft2008. corresponds with the appearance of the thickened Altiplano crust to the west that is interpreted as a collage of lithospheric structural blocks that are stacked vertically along E-W–dipping. The NNE-striking. The traverse passes through the western margin of a poorly delineated intrusive belt near Paucartambo. 6S. transtensional grabens that accumulated interbedded Mitu Group bimodal volcanics (rhyodacitic pyroclastics and minor pillow basalts). via the central San Gabán pluton. 3. 3D) intruded into the Paleozoic basement phyllites that are equivalent to the Marañón basement in the northeastern Peruvian Cordillera. tion (Fig. partially fused. The Cusco and Paucartambo batholiths are composed of texturally homogeneous. In cathodoluminescence (CL) images.org. n(grains) = 24). The analyzed crystals are colorless and transparent ranging in size from 50 to 250 μm and with ratios of length to width between 1:1 and 3:1. is available at http://www. 6A).

3 260 4.9 227.0 11.4 7.6 284.1 13.8 18 309 – 8 – Strong Minor – – CAM-33 CAM-35 CAM-39 Oxapampa Oxapampa Rio Huachón 10.8 4.6 4.1 Granite 7 227.3 6.0 12 7.5 243.0 Alkali feldspar granite Granite Granite Alkali feldspar granite Granite Alkali feldspar granite Granite Granite Alkali feldspar granite Granite Granite Quartz monzonite Granite Granite Granodiorite Granodiorite Granodiorite 13 7 6 21 7 19 18 5 258.0 Monzodiorite 13 208.2 4.2 4.9 294 25 Minor – S.5 5.9 313 320.8 259.0 246.9 4.4 3.5 260.5 3.6 8.0 5.2 5.1 274 13 – Minor San Ramón San Ramón La Merced 11.0 7.2 8.8 12 216. San Gabán 13.4 313.3 11.3 4.5 301 291.4 5.4 244.3 4.3 CAM-41 COCA 362 COCA 362 COCA 358 SAM-17 SCAM-06 Rio Huachón Limbani-Carabaya COCA 302 SAM-22a COCA 262 COCA 269 COCA 298 CAM-11a CAM-12 CAM-15 CAM-03 CAM-26 CAM-30 CAM-49a CAM-52 CAM-54 CAM-54 CAM-55b CAM-57 NAM-02a SAM-09 SAM-12a CAM-04 CAM-04 AM-80 NAM-28a CAM-44a NAM-27a NAM-30 NAM-18 NAM-22 1304 14 8 2 253.2 313.0 10.4 3. Coasa–Carabaya 10.3 18 315.4 254. September/October 2009 .1 317.78 – – Common Pb Pb loss Moderate Minor 12. SUMMARY OF THE LA.4 402 278 11 28 Minor – – – Limbani-Carabaya 14.gsapubs.1 195 2.6 – – – – – Strong – Minor 11.2 13.0 309.2 11 17 8 223 265.ICP-MS IN SITU ZIRCON U-PB GEOCHRONOLOGY OF THE EASTERN PERUVIAN CORDILLERA PLUTONS (CUMULATIVE CONCORDIA AGES) Latitude Lithology n (analyses) Concordia age Inheritance ±(2σ) ±(2σ) (Ma) (Ma) °S 12.8 – – 497 351 – – 23 8 Strong Moderate – – – – – – Machu Picchu Parcamayo Parcamayo Central Pataz San Vincente– Amazonas Junin Balsas Gollón-Callangate West Balsas East Balsas 13.8 7.3 12.6 227.3 3.36 0.7 4.7 4. 2011 Mišković et al.2 11.6 10 8.4 293.7 3.5 – – Minor – Ayapata-Carabaya 13.7 10.4 4.3 5. Coasa–Carabaya 13.1 3.8 7.0 3.3 11.4 11.0 Granite Granite Quartz monzonite Alkali feldspar granite Granite Granite Granite Monzogabbro Tonalite 14 19 – 5 16 324.4 – 333.2 5.3 11.5 – 376 687 – – – 7 27 – – – – – – – Minor – Moderate – – 10.2 Granite – – – 468 23 – – Aricoma-Carabaya 14.1 13.7 13 17 9 238.4 Rhyolitic tuff Granite 8 8 226 257.8 – – 351 – – 25 Minor Minor – Minor – – CAM-45a NAM-05 SCAM-01 SCAM-02 SCAM-22 CAM-19a CAM-40 COCA 268 CAM-45c SAM-08 CAM-10 Paucartambo-Pasco SE Pataz Ayacucho Ayacucho Ayacucho Mariposa-Junin Rio Huachón C.7 13.2 207.0 3.2 6.8 19 11 2 172.7 Granite – – – 934 26 – – 8.9 6.7 11 – – – – – – Minor – – – – – 11 190.5 8.8 Granite Monzodiorite 12 7 191.5 Granodiorite 19 29.8 10.4 4.8 227.3 20 15 4.8 12.2 5.4 – 281 – 20 – – Minor – E.5 5.org on January 20.2 5.9 7.3 13.4 217.5 4.6 288 – – – – – 289 291 9 – – – – – 7 35 – – Strong Moderate Moderate Minor – – – Minor – – – Minor – – Paucartambo-Pasco Urubamba San Ramón 10.3 7.9 279 – 268 21 – 12 Moderate Strong – – – – CAM-16 CAM-24 Satipo Sacsacancha 11.7 8.0 – – 354 – 1303 – – 8 – 35 – – – – Minor – Minor – – – (Continued ) Geological Society of America Bulletin.7 304. Sample SCAM-04 SCAM-08 NAM-11a SAM-21 SAM-20 Locality ColcabambaHuancavelica ColcabambaHuancavelica Huayillas-Pataz Chillacori-Puno Chillacori-Puno TABLE 1.3 2.5 Granodiorite 15 31.4 10.64 94 7 Minor – 8.7 9.0 13.8 313.6 3.37 0.7 13.4 – 7.7 14.2 245 12 – Minor Santa Rosa–Puno ColcabambaHuancavelica Parcamayo 13.5 13 10 256.7 Alkali feldspar granite Granite Granite Granite Granite Granite 5 15 15 17 17 292 284 309.3 4.3 11.7 6.6 8.3 4.8 Granodiorite Granodiorite Granodiorite Granodiorite Granodiorite 9 17 15 17 17 303.9 184.8 238.3 – – Moderate Minor Huancayo Parihuanca Huachón Tingo Maria Upper Rio Huallaga valley Upper Rio Huallaga valley Nuevo Progresso Nuevo Progresso SE Pataz Urubamba 11.3 16 10 12 5 316.8 13.7 14.0 5.0 – 343 349 363 513 – 24 7 24 17 Strong Moderate Moderate Moderate – – – – Minor – 8. Coasa–Carabaya 14.Downloaded from gsabulletin.2 Tonalite Quartz syenite Alkali feldspar granite Granite Granite 18 10 255.8 Quartz syenite Nepheline syenite Nepheline monzosyenite Granite San Gabán E.5 250.1 296 – – 14 – – Minor – – – Strong 10.

2002).2 Alkali feldspar 10 446.0 Granite 8 1123 13 1200 38 – – Note: The concordia ages are calculated using the routines of Ludwig (2003) and following Th and U decay constants of Steiger and Jäger (1977). Baker et al. respectively. Late Triassic The Late Triassic ages were obtained from peraluminous.1 ± 3. zoning developed around rare planar cores.5°S (Figs. 1996. partially migmatized granitoids within the south-central segment of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru is constrained to the Permian and Triassic (223 ± 12 Ma to 284.) Sample Locality Latitude Lithology n (analyses) Concordia age Inheritance Pb loss ±(2σ) ±(2σ) Common Pb (Ma) (Ma) °S SAM-04a East Cusco batholith 13.5 Alkali feldspar 7 691 13 – – Minor – granite SCAM-18 Querobamba-Sucre 13. the Balsas granodiorite (NAM-22) at the latitude of 7°S retains a Mesoproterozoic age as old as 1303 ± 35 Ma.6 Ma). in situ U-Pb isotopic analyses reveal the minor to moderate presence of common Pb. 6G–6L). A unique feature of this zircon group is widespread evidence for post-magmatic.. record Neoproterozoic dates of 934 ± 26 and 687 ± 27 Ma. and two SiO2 undersaturated nepheline (monzo)syenitic intrusives of the southern Allincapac volcano-plutonic complex in the southernmost Cordillera de Carabaya (SAM-20. and SAM-22a show both minor Pb loss and the presence of elevated levels of common Pb. The CL-dark rims occasionally have sporadic bright domains that are subparallel to the growth zoning and are likely due to a combination of metamictization by U-induced radiation and localized recrystallization (Kempe et al.0 Ma from the Huallaga granite (CAM-54) was obtained on zircons that have clearly undergone a phase of metamorphic overprint.4 Alkali feldspar – – – 1668 28 – Moderate granite SCAM-17 Querobamba-Sucre 14. A 5 Ma lacuna at the MississippianPennsylvanian boundary separates two dominant magmatic pulses.7 8. 21) yielded Middle to Early Jurassic ages between 172.3 ± 2.. 2).gsapubs. The ages obtained straddle the Triassic-Jurassic boundary from 190. oscillatory growth zones..9 ± 2. Concordia ages from samples COCA 302. as a narrow suite of plutons and stocks that ultimately terminates with the outer Cuzco batholith at 13.org on January 20.9 Alkali feldspar 13 751. early Carboniferous intrusive episode progressively increases in number of concordant analyses from 350 to 325 Ma before a sharp decrease. Namely. both of the two zircon populations are devoid of xenocrystic cores. LA-ICP-MS—Laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. the diachronous nature of Carboniferous-Permian plutonism is confirmed by the progressively southward-younging trend from an average intrusive age of 314. uniformly low CL rims surround partially recrystallized cores and show widespread convoluted zoning. Whereas the zircons from the north exhibit well-preserved oscillatory growth zones within large and euhedral crystals. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru TABLE 1. 2000. 2002).4 Alkali feldspar 17 1071 23 1305 33 – Minor granite CAM-18 Mariposa-Junin 11. 6M–6R). respectively.3 Tonalite 18 985 14 1149 17 – – CAM-17 Satipo 11. from the central Peruvian district of Huánuco to the southernmost Cordillera de Carabaya (Aricoma pluton) (Fig.1 – – Minor Minor granite CAM-17 Satipo 11. The shorter.9 Ma near Cuzco (Fig. 298. CL-bright.3 Tonalite – – – 1226 18 – – CAM-18 Mariposa-Junin 11. Late Ordovician–Early Permian The Carboniferous to early Permian ages are recorded by the compositionally heterogeneous and regionally most extensive intrusive belt of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru. 4). 269. occasionally fragmented zircon prisms show mostly pristine to faintly blurred primary zoning around CL-bright cores. This array of plutons dominates the orogenic margin in its northern segment between the cities of Bolívar and Huánuco (6°S to 10°S) but also extends farther southward. 4). 2 and 3).5 Quartz monzonite 16 752 21 1011 34 Moderate Minor CAM-23 Carrizales 11. Nasdala et al. NAM-11a). solid-state recrystallization represented by ubiquitous blurring and occa- sionally convoluted zoning within otherwise euhedral prismatic crystals. and San Gabán plutons (Fig. namely the Coasa. Furthermore. Only one inherited zircon was identified with a U-Pb concordia age of 94 Ma.ICP-MS IN SITU ZIRCON U-PB GEOCHRONOLOGY OF THE EASTERN PERUVIAN CORDILLERA PLUTONS (CUMULATIVE CONCORDIA AGES) (CONT. SUMMARY OF THE LA. See Figure 2 for sample locations. xenocrystic cores defines an early Permian age interval between 274 and 281 Ma.5 to 216. 6D–6F). Zircon grain morphology is dominated by euhedral and fragmented prisms that have preserved primary.0 and 184–195 Ma. and 362). The Middle Jurassic grains were extracted from two geographically dispersed localities at the southern and northern extremes of the study area (Figs.8 ± 4. their southern equivalents from the peralkaline Allincapac suite take the form of irregularly truncated crystal fragments of larger zircon grains. 80% of the Permo-Triassic plutonism by area was emplaced within a geographically restricted belt between 10°S and 12°S with a peak in magmatic activity occurring from 240 to 260 Ma (Figs. Although encompassing more than 65 Ma and stretching over 800 km of orogenic strike. An age of 293.3 ± 5. 262.7 508 12 – – granite SAM-04a East Cusco batholith 13. as in the Late Triassic magmatic episode. while CAM-54 and CAM-04 granites of the central Río Huallaga valley (9°S) and Parcamayo district (11°S).5 Ma in the Pataz region to 299. as Geological Society of America Bulletin. Not surprisingly. Subhedral to euhedral.1 Ma (Figs. Half of the analyzed grains display CL-bright xenocrystic cores. Overall. with the dominant peak in the inherited age spectrum clustering between 288 and 296 Ma (Table 1). The pattern of decreasing crystallization ages from north to south roughly corresponds to a similar trend in the ages of inherited zircons.Downloaded from gsabulletin. Permo-Triassic The emplacement of voluminous. The inherited component from moderately to strongly recrystallized. 358. Ayapata. reemergence at 315 Ma. and final termination at 285 Ma (Figs. Here. 6B and 6C). which tend to be dissolved in Zr undersaturated magmas such as the host syenites (Watson. west of the PermoTriassic domain.2 Alkali feldspar – – – 1110 26 – Minor granite CAM-22 Carrizales 11.5 9. high–SiO2 (monzo)granites of the central and northern Cordillera de Carabaya. The concordia age recorded by a quartz syenite sample collected at the margin of the northern Cordilleran Pataz batholith (Huayillas. Exceptions to the dominant magmatic growth pattern are zircons from three granitoids of the southern Cordillera de Carabaya (COCA 268. September/October 2009 1305 .

the Neoproterozoic zircons from the Carrizales region comprise crystalline fragments and structureless xenocrystic cores where the primary oscillatory growth zones have been largely obliterated.AMOT APE Downloaded from gsabulletin.0 N-18 N-27a N-22 M 333.8 ± 3.4 3.7 5.2 C-49a C-33 256.2 3. paraschists) id ge A-A TERRANE Neo/Mesoproterozoic granites o ch en Tr N N SA S LA CO NI BO LIV TH LI IA HO T BA Figure 4.1071 23 315. Sample name abbreviations: N—NAM. pattern of growth within euhedral prisms.7 5. SC—SCAM.8 5.23 254.6 SC-1 Early Jurassic fold / quartz syenites S-8 S-22a 217.5 190.6 8.3 C-16 C41 250.3 N-5 304.2 259.7 COCA 298 Late Triassic Carabaya granitoids COCA269 S-20.0 C -45a.1 COCA 362 199. Regional distribution of the intrusive ages along the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera with the errors presented as 2σ.8 313.3 985 14.4 4.8 12 S C-30 260 18 324.21 446.Early Silurian granitoids N 227.11 C C-22. 6T and 6U). 1306 Neoproterozoic Aside from the parautochthonous ArequipaAntofalla basement rocks (Loewy et al.5 S-4a COCA 302 208. 691 ± 13.0 3. The Querobamba sample. Geological Society of America Bulletin.0 316. respectively. The emplacement of a quartz monzonite (CAM-22) and alkali feldspar granites (CAM-23) in the Carrizales and Querobamba (SCAM-18) plutons has been constrained to 752 ± 21. o 6 o 80 S O 78 o M OL320.4 S-17 Carbo-Permian rhyodacites/ 1123 13 184. Zircons exhibit minor to moderate presence of common lead and appear to have experienced only minor Pb loss.1 5.3.0 4.3 C-26 C24 o 752 21.0 ± 3. concordant Precambrian ages have been recovered along the central segment of the protoAndean margin of Amazonia from two disparate localities in the south-central Eastern Cordillera of Peru.granitoids 226 10 T 227.1.7 238.0 Hu R al io la ga ru Pe 172.2 0 100 200 300 400 km C-52 ile Ch 258.4 iti Ordovician.7 235. albeit somewhat blurred.6 6.4 C-40 303. and 751.3 5.4 C12 C19a C-4.7 ± 8.9 4.8 4.37 Ma and 31.6 7.4 216.6 10 S BRAZIL C -39 246.9 SC-22 Cuzco 243.9 C-44a C15 C-17.253. C—CAM. indicated by the presence of thin blurred rims mantling large.9 o 313.1 S-type granites-monzogranitoids 751.2 4. are not shown.6 SC-4 284 15 SC-8 S-12a SC-2 191. 6S).7 o o 74 309.227.5 5.0 3.5 4.3 4. A single. Morphologically.3 2.7 8.36 Ma.6 260.7 Ma is recorded by a marginal alkali feldspar granite (SAM-04a) of the eastern Cuzco batholith.9 2. September/October 2009 .8 4.7 8.4 4.0 5.4 6.5 S-9 257.5 9. however.5 ± 9.6 6.3 8 76 R ar ío añ ón AM-4-80 N.223 12 265.8 C-35 255.691 13 291.9 4. Isotopic analyses of CL-dark cores revealed a bimodal inheritance at 508 ± 12 Ma and 1110 ± 26 Ma (Fig.4.3 C-10. Two Oligocene ages for SCAM-04 and SCAM-08 of 29.0 4.4 4.0 5.5 7.gsapubs.4 5.1 Ma.4 5.5 3.8 309.1 I-type diorites . preserves the original.2 Trujillo N-2a 301.18 317.1 3.1 3. CL-bright xenocrystic cores.org on January 20.9 SC-18 COCA 262 COCA 268 Permo-Triassic granodiorites/ SC-17 COCA 358 207.3 244.3 292 20 SC-6 LIMA 284. 2011 Mišković et al.4 4.2 7. All of the Cambrian ages identified in the Eastern Cordillera are inherited zircons sampled by Pennsylvanian or Ordovician intrusions..c 238.1 ± 7.6 ca az ca ca Paleozoic basement R Arequipa (Marañon phyllites.5 7.2 N-11a C55b C-57 C-54 o o 72 70 W WESTERN AMAZONIAN TECTONIC PROVINCES 293. Late Ordovician concordia age of 446.5 4.5 313. 2004).4 ± 4. respectively (Figs.28a N -30 313.

66-1. 8B). 6V–6X).63-0.75 (0. The most diversified intrusive suite is comprised of the Ordovician samples. 10). Empty bins represent crystallization ages.96-92 Ga) orogeny 0. the Mesoproterozoic grains display ubiquitous dark rims and moderately to strongly recrystallized.91–0. In cathodoluminescence images. (1980).Downloaded from gsabulletin.77 Ga) (0.19 Ga) Pan-African Famatinian Aguapeí belt San Ignácio Meneches orogeny orogeny suite (0. and the metaluminous to peralkaline Early Jurassic Allincapac Group nephelinebearing (alkali feldspar) syenites (Fig. with a strong inherited component between 1150 and 1250 Ma. They span a wider compositional spectrum (60– 77 wt% SiO2) than the predominantly alkalicalcic.44-0. and the Late Triassic granitoids are all magnesian. black boxes correspond to the ages of inherited zircons. In terms of aluminum saturation (Maniar and Piccoli. volumetrically minor Oligocene stocks that show a metaluminous character (A/CNK = 0.. respectively.1. September/October 2009 1307 . (2) the Mariposa alkali feldspar granite (CAM-18) with a Mesoproterozoic age of 1071 ± 23 Ma and exhibiting bimodal inheritance recorded by xenocrystic cores at 1305 Ma and 1668 Ma. Peculiar features of both the Early Ordovician and Late Triassic granites are their anomalously high K2O/Na2O ratios. the Eastern Cordilleran plutons can be grouped into: (1) Neoproterozoic anorogenic and transitional late. minor-. calc-alkaline.org on January 20. emplaced at 1123 ± 13 Ma.65 0. Fig. Ordovician. which yields an age of 985 ± 14 Ma. CL-bright cores. 7).69 Ga) Andean cycle 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 206 Pb/ 238U age (Ma) 16 B n = 393 217 Bin width: 5 Ma Mean efficiency: 33. Fig. The calcic Oligocene quartz syenites together with the strongly alkalic and ferroan Early Jurassic nepheline syenites.95–1. The Early Jurassic Allincapac nepheline monzosyenites are the only sampled intrusives from the Eastern Peruvian Andes that are silica undersaturated and lack normative quartz. continental-arc related intrusives from the Carboniferous to Permian. Both of the Oligocene (Andean) samples are quartz syenites. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru 45 40 A Gondwanides 35 n = 476 278 Bin width: 20 Ma Mean efficiency: 68.98– 1.13). and alkalicalcic differentiation trends. 9).34 Ga) (1. Whole-rock Geochemistry and Tectonic Affinity Whole-rock. Late Mesoproterozoic Closely associated with the Neoproterozoic granitoids are partially foliated and compositionally more diverse late Mesoproterozoic to earliest Neoproterozoic intrusives. (B) blow-up of the volumetrically most dominant plutonism of Gondwanide age (350–160 Ma).7 % Frequency 30 25 20 Serra da Nova Brasilândia / Providência / Sunsás belts E.32 -1. the Carboniferous-Permian. while the Neoproterozoic intrusives plot within the alkali feldspar granite field. In the standard International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) classification of Streckeisen (1974). Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio and plagioclase composition during differentiation to tectonomagmatic settings of emplacement (Fig. (2) Cordilleran-type. Taken together with the cationic classification of de la Roche et al.5% 14 12 Frequency Carbo-Permian Gondwanides (Pangea assembly) Permo-Triassic Gondwanides (Pangea break-up) 10 Late Triassic (Cordillera de Carabaya) 8 Early Jurassic 6 (Andean back arc) 4 2 0 150 175 200 225 250 206 Pb/ 275 300 325 350 238 U age (Ma) Figure 5.07 . while the Permo-Triassic plutons together with three Neoproterozoic samples straddle the boundary between the granite and alkali-feldspar granite fields (Fig.gsapubs. with loosely defined inheritance clustering at 1200 Ma (Figs. 2001). 1989). Braziliano / PampeanLomas (1. which span the modal spectrum from quartz monzonites through granodiorites to alkali feldspar granites.97). the majority of the Carboniferous-Permian and half of the Late Triassic Cordillera de Carabaya plutonic rocks have modal mineralogies corresponding to granites.57 / 1. which relates changes in silica saturation. (A) cumulative Mesoproterozoic-Oligocene diagram. define endmember compositions on this modified alkalilime index of Peacock (1931. and (3) the Querobamba gran- ite (SCAM-17). the Eastern Peruvian granitoids are peraluminous to mildly metaluminous (A/CNK = 0. major-. Zircon 206Pb/ 238U age histograms summarizing the known intrusive episodes represented by the granitoids of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru.53 Ga) (Sunsás orogeny) (1. and Late Ordovician and late Mesoproterozoic Geological Society of America Bulletin. magnesian to ferroan Neoproterozoic and Permo-Triassic plutons (70–78 wt% SiO2.to post-orogenic granitoids of Permo-Triassic age. According to a recently proposed geochemical classification scheme for granitic rocks based on major-element chemistry (Frost et al. 8A). but transgress different boundaries between the calcic.42). The exceptions are the strongly peraluminous Late Triassic Carabaya suite (A/CNK = 0. These include: (1) the Satipo tonalite (CAM-17). and traceelement data are presented in Table DR2 (see footnote 1).52-1.

Cathodoluminescence (CL) images of zircon crystals illustrate the respective mineral domains analyzed. .gsapubs. MSWD—Mean square of weighted deviates. 2011 Mišković et al.F E 100 m 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ Figure 6 (on this and following three pages). September/October 2009 . Dashed lines correspond to the inherited zircon component. D 100 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ COCA-262 COCA-298 .org on January 20. C COCA-302 . 100 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ SAM-21 . 1308 Geological Society of America Bulletin.Downloaded from gsabulletin. Chronologically arranged concordia diagrams for selected samples from the Figure 4. SCAM-08 A NAM-11a B . 100 μm i ierror ellipses are 2σ E .

50 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ CAM-40 CAM-45c .gsapubs. I J CAM-35 .org on January 20.Downloaded from gsabulletin. 50 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ NAM-05 . September/October 2009 1309 . 100 μm 50 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ Figure 6 (continued). 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru CAM-11a . L K . G CAM-33 H . Geological Society of America Bulletin.

2011 Mišković et al. N M .org on January 20.gsapubs. . ierror ellipses are 2σ 100 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ I P CAM-03 O a NAM-30 . NAM-02a CAM-54 . 100 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ Figure 6 (continued). September/October 2009 . 1310 R Geological Society of America Bulletin.Downloaded from gsabulletin. 100 μm 100 μm 50 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ NAM-18 Q SAM-12a . .

W 100 μm 100 μm error ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ Figure 6 (continued). CAM-17 V 100 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ ierror ellipses are 2σ CAM-18 SCAM-17 . . 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru SAM-04a CAM-23 .Downloaded from gsabulletin.gsapubs. 100 μm X . S T ierror ellipses are 2σ 50 μm 100 μm 100 μm ierror ellipses are 2σ SCAM-18 . U .org on January 20. Geological Society of America Bulletin. September/October 2009 1311 .

peralkaline plutons forming the cores of alkaline volcanic complexes. to shed additional light on the evolution of the Peruvian segment of the western Gondwanan margin. late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic magmatic occurrences in the Peruvian Andes outside of the known extent of the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane. 4 and 11E). Modal Q (vol. ably higher Rb/Ba values than the rest of the Carboniferous-Permian plutonic belt (Figs. Slabs were digitally scanned and an image processing software JMicroVision created by Nicolás Roduit was used for calculating the modal surface areas that were projected into the ternary Qtz-Ab-Plag space. exhibit strong Ba/Th and Ba/Rb anomalies characteristic of anorogenic magmatism. Although limited to a few samples. Early Ordovician quartz monzonite. the peraluminous. the interpretation of their Precambrian evolution is fragmentary and often speculative. which yield a concordia age of 1123 ± 12 Ma and mantle extraction ages of 1200 Ma from inherited cores. Modal composition of the Eastern Peruvian Cordilleran intrusives plotted on the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) classification diagram (Streckeisen. Monzodiorite Neph.%) Figure 7. 10). 2). and ultimately link it to tectonic cycles affecting the western edge of the craton since the Mesoproterozoic. northern Balsas-Callangate pluton shows consider- Two granitoids (CAM-17 and 18) from the central Satipo-Mariposa transect (Fig. also exhibit extreme U enrichments. In contrast.-feldspar Syenite Qtz. 2011 Mišković et al. and (4) Early Jurassic within-plate. On a more local scale. this trend cannot be explained by simple fractional crystallization but likely reflects an increased proportion of K-bearing phases in the source. Early Jurassic. and exhibit cationic ratios that overlap those associated with continental arc settings (Fig. Syenite Neph. The most recent (Oligocene) intrusive pulse is uniquely LILE enriched. 1990).-feldspar Granite Late Ordovician Early Ordovician Neoproterozoic Mesoproterozoic Modal A (vol. The oceanic plagiogranite normalized. 11F. Nevertheless. Negative Nb-Ta anomalies are observed in both the late Mesoproterozoic plutons and within the Carboniferous-Permian suite but are also mildly present in the Late Ordovician and Oligocene intrusive rocks (Figs. trace-element signature of the contemporaneous quartz syenites from the northern Pataz region (Fig. 11).3–0. and usually located in backarc settings. high–SiO2. the early Mississippian. Blurred and partially convoluted zircon rims from the late Mesoproterozoic Querobamba granite (SCAM-17. Jurassic(N) E.Downloaded from gsabulletin. For example. 1986..%) Neph.. such time-dependent tectonomagmatic classification is somewhat complicated by the regional variability within coeval intrusive suites along the proto-Andean margin. and display an overall positive correlation between the extent of the large-ion lithophile to high fieldstrength element enrichment (LILE/HREE) 1312 and known episodes of subduction-related magmatism (Fig. 11B). we place the newly constructed geochronological framework for the Eastern Cordillera of Peru in a wider context of magmatism along the proto-Andean margin of Amazonia. characteristic of subduction-related intrusive suites.-bear Alk.. 11D.gsapubs. (3) Late Triassic syncollisional plutons and an Early Ordovician post-collisional intrusive. They are seen as reflecting a period of post-emplacement metamorphism coeval with both syntectonic orthogneisses from the eastern Bolivian Nova Brasilândia belt (U-Pb zircon Geological Society of America Bulletin. uniformly elevated HFS elements that are characteristic of rift. and 11G). DISCUSSION Due to protracted and sometimes overlapping orogenic episodes that shaped the central Andes. Monzosyenite Nepheline Syenite Modal F (vol. The metaluminous granite porphyries of the modern Andean orogenic cycle that were emplaced in the Oligocene are magnesian and calcic. Jurassic (S) L..-bear Monzonite Modal P (vol. and 11H). with mildly depressed Nb-Ta concentrations indicative of a contaminated I-type magma that was emplaced marginally inboard of the principal arc batholiths (Walawender et al. trace-element compositions of granitoids have long been used as first-order tectonic discriminators for granitoids (Harris et al. 11A.%) Oligocene (Andean) E. Fig. The 1071 ± 23 Ma and 1123 ± 13 Ma ages hence suggest an active segment of north-central Amazonia during the peak of the 1. 2) represent previously unrecognized. the Permo-Triassic.org on January 20. 1999). Barbarin. multi– trace-element plots (Pearce et al. Modal proportions were determined by staining 10 × 10 cm polished rock slabs for K-feldspar and plagioclase with Amaranth (C20HllN2Na3OlOS3) and Na-cobalt nitrite [Na3CO (NO2)6] respectively. Trace-element data from the Eastern Peruvian intrusives broadly corroborate tectonic regimes inferred from the major-element chemistry.-bear Syenite Qtz. Mesoproterozoic (Sunsás-Grenvillian) periods.or backarc-related plutonism displayed by the southern. in addition to the lack of a typical high LILE/HFSE trace-element pattern associated with subduction (Figs. calc-alkaline to alkali-calcic granitoids exhibit uniform Nb-Ta anomalies. 1984) for the Peruvian granitoids reveal a lack of heavy rareearth element (HREE) fractionation characteristic of a garnet-dominated source. September/October 2009 . Monzonite Qtz. and especially Neoproterozoic (monzo)granitoids. peralkaline nepheline syenites are markedly different from a mild subduction-zone. 2001).%) Neph.9 Ga Rondonia-Sunsás orogen. However. Although primarily dependent on the sources and crystallization history of the melt (Frost et al. Given that the ratio of Rb/Ba decreases with increasing whole-rock SiO2 content. 1974). and provide direct evidence for the existence of autochthonous South America within 150 km from the eastern limit of the Arequipa-Antofalla block (Fig. 6X) of the southwestern Peruvian Cordillera (Fig. 2). Triassic Granite Permo-Triassic Carbo-Permian Granodiorite Alk. 11E. 11F.

Shaded and stippled areas outline 95% of the analyses and the bold dashed line is the boundary between calc-alkaline and tholeiitic magmas as defied by Miyashiro et al.92 Ga collisional Sunsás province in eastern Bolivia (Boger et al.org on January 20. garnet-bearing charnockite from southeastern Peru that yielded an upper intercept U-Pb zircon age of 1140 ± 30 Ma (Dalmayrac et al. the SiO2 value where the modified Na2O + K2O − CaO index (MALI) equals 0 corresponds to the original alkali-lime index of Peacock. 1988). a contiguous orogenic belt must have existed for over 3500 km along the Amazonian margin during the assembly of Rodinia. and may temporally link the 1098 ± 9 Ma gneissic basement inliers of the eastern Colombian Andes (Garzón Massif. as well as the Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB). and 95 peraluminous leucogranites. Jurassic(N) Early Ordovician L. Hoffman. (1970).0 metamorphosed Arequipa-Antofalla basement (Martignole and Martelat. the Peruvian Mesoproterozoic intrusives represent the northern extension of the 1. Major-element chemistry of the Eastern Peruvian Cordillera intrusives plotted on the geochemical classification diagrams for granitoids of Frost et al. involving a continental collision with the Laurentian Llano belt. 2003) and ultimately. alkalicalcic.. calc-alkaline. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 12A. and a Río Pichari granulite-grade.Downloaded from gsabulletin.8 0.gsapubs. (B) Modified alkali-lime index of Peacock (1931) showing ranges for the alkalic. Consequently. I (n = 1155) and S-type granitoids (n = 720. For any given suite. 2006). 1996). Triassic Neoproterozoic Permo-Triassic Mesoproterozoic -8 50 60 70 80 SiO2 (wt%) ages of 1113 ± 56 Ma and 1110 ± 8 Ma. Sadowski and Bettencourt.7 Ferroan 0.5 S-type Lachlan FB Magnesian 0.. 2002).2–1.. A (n = 67). and Baltica between ca. Rizzotto.2’ bipyridine [(C5H4N)2] complex solution photometry. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru 1. 1080 and 970 (Fig. Restrepo-Pace et al. Sadowski. 1997) with the 1.6 Cordilleran I-type granitoids 0.4 12 A-type Lachlan FB B 8 Na2O+K2O–CaO Figure 8. (2001): (A) FeO number vs.0 A A-type Lachlan FB Peraluminous high-SiO2 granites Global A-type granitoids 0. 2005). Wholerock ferrous iron determined by 2. including Labrador. 1996.Jurassic(S) Late Ordovician E.9 Global A-type granitoids 4 Increasing f(H2O) in source Alkalic lcic Peraluminous high-SiO2 granites S-type Lachlan FB ca ali- Alk 0 Ca lc- a alk lin e -4 Calcic Cordilleran I-type granitoids Oligocene (Andean) Carbo-Permian E. Taken together. Landenberg and Collins. wt% SiO2 diagram showing the boundary between ferroan and magnesian plutons based on a global compilation of 175 A-type. 1999). 1991.2 Ga granulite-grade metamorphic basement of the Argentinean western Sierras Pampeanas (Casquet et al. the 1. Fe # (FeO/FeO+MgO) 0..10–0. and calcic rock series. September/October 2009 1313 . 344 Mesozoic Cordilleran I-type granitoids.

mostly metaluminous. Arequipa-Antofalla. A-type plutonism (Bonin. 615–570 Ma sensu stricto (Cawood et al. See Figures 7 and 8 for the symbol key. it gives credence to the recently proposed paleogeographic reconstructions where Western Amazonia. depending on pressure of formation. 800 Ma in the form of synrift.3 Ma).9 ± 4. and East Laurentia are juxtaposed within Rodinia (Loewy et al. Peralkaline rocks have Na + K>Al.. Baldo et al. 1993..9 1.. alkalic to alkali-calcic. The central Peruvian Carboniferous plutons also contain abundant inherited Late Ordovician and Late Cambrian zircons (446 Ma. 2006). 490–514 Ma). mark the northernmost and one of the oldest Neoproterozoic occurrences of the preBraziliano–aged anorogenic magmatism along the western margin of ancestral South America. 2001). and the central Cordilleran Pacococha quartz Geological Society of America Bulletin. middle Neoproterozoic magmatism was classified as anorogenic and attributed to a phase of extensional tectonics during the proto-Iapetus rifting of Rodinia. and a nephelinite-carbonatite body reported from a Grenville age terrane in the Sierra de Maz of the western Sierras Pampeanas (570 Ma. 2004). Fig. Casquet et al. 2001). ultrapotassic mafic dikes and HFSE-enriched alkaline lava flows underlying the intracontinental Puncovis- cana basin of northwestern Argentina (Omarini et al.0 Peralkaline 0. September/October 2009 . 1991. predates the Laurentia-Gondwana separation at ca.0 Excess H2O melting of mafic source / melting (semi)pelitic source 2. 1989). Other intrusives of similar ages have been identified in the northern segment of the parautochthonous Arequipa-Antofalla terrane of southern Peru. 4).5 0. magmatic cordierite. Intrusives with ASI<1. the nearby Balsas paragneiss (477. and presently. 10 and 11). The Peruvian granitoids. For weakly peraluminous rock additional Al-bearing in addition to feldspars may be Al-biotite. with the excess Na being accommodated in Fe-Mg silicates such as sodic amphiboles and jadeite. involving the separation of Australia and Eastern Antarctica from Western Laurentia and consequent opening of the paleo-Pacific (Panthalassic) ocean (Powell et al. Li et al.2 Al/(Ca+Na+K) 1. It appears that asynchronous northward separation of present-day Western Amazonia similarly took place along the Appalachian margin of then southern. however.0 are corundum normative and are termed peraluminous (Zen.4 1.Downloaded from gsabulletin. 2008).7 0. where the opening of the Iapetus Ocean is better constrained. the timing of emplacement of anorogenic intrusives in southwestern Amazonia suggests a protracted period of discrete.5 Figure 9.0 and Na + K<Al are labeled metaluminous and contain excess Ca usually accommodated by hornblende and Ca-rich augite but lack either muscovite or Fe-Mg pyroxene..9 ± 2. 1988). Water-saturated partial melts of a mafic source tend to be increasingly peraluminous with an increase in H2O content due to feldspar destabilization (Ellis and Thompson. Eastern Laurentia (Hartz and Torsvik. 3. 1986). Cawood et al. 1999)..4 Ma. which yields a Late Ordovician crystallization age of 446. western Sierras Pampeanas. Al/Na + K and Al/Ca + Na + K are defined as molecular ratios and take into account the presence of apatite so that rocks with ASI>1. and exhibit high LILE and HFSE abundances characteristic of anorogenic. but more strongly peraluminous granitoids are usually characterized by muscovite.5 Al/(Na+K) Peraluminous 2.5 1.org on January 20.5 Ma. Early Paleozoic (Famatinian) The extent of early Paleozoic plutonism within the Eastern Peruvian Andes in our study is limited to a single alkali feldspar granite (SAM-04a) from the eastern margin of the Cuzco batholith.6 0..8 0.gsapubs. Neoproterozoic (pre-Braziliano) Three middle Neoproterozoic A-type quartz monzonite and alkali feldspar granites from this study are the first identified outcrops of Neoproterozoic granitoid plutonism along the western margin of ancestral Amazonia. where zircons from syntectonic dacitic dikes that cut the gneissic basement yield lower concordia intercepts at 635 ± 5 Ma (Loewy et al. 2003). The 752–691 Ma.0 1. It complements the 765–680 Ma ages from the Appalachian Blue Ridge A-type granites and bimodal volcanics of Tollo et al. 2008). Taken cumulatively. Here..4 Ma).3 1. (2004). K-feldspar-bearing granitoids are found in spatially distinct localities proximal to the Sunsás-age plutonic rocks (Fig. These ages are broadly coeval with those from the Sitabamba granodioritic orthogneisses identified in the north-central segment of the Eastern Cordillera (445. Table 1). the distribution of the Peruvian intrusives places spatial constraints on the Laurentia–proto-Gondwana conjugate margin during the Neoproterozoic. with significant Mid-Cambrian inheritance (508 Ma. 2007. Middle Neo- 1314 proterozoic ages were also recorded by A-type orthogneisses intruded into basement of the Laurentian Precordillera (Cuyania) Terrane in northwestern Argentina (774 ± 6 Ma.1 1. Figs. Moreover.4 ± 1. This activity might have commenced as early as ca. 442. which results in crystallization of leucite and nepheline. north-migrating extensional events that might have heralded the incipient fragmentation of Rodinia and formation of the proto-Iapetus oceanic crust earlier in Neoproterozoic than the conventionally accepted 620–550 Ma rifting of the Iapetan margin of Laurentia (Hoffman. In particular. Aluminum saturation index (ASI) plot for the Eastern Cordillera plutons of Peru (Maniar and Piccoli. 12B). or prior to 725 Ma. 2011 Mišković et al. and garnet or Al2SiO5 polymorph.. This contention is further supported by recent paleomagnetic models and tectonic syntheses that invoke an “early” breakup of Western Rodinia by.. and overlaps with the initiation of Cawood’s (2005) rift-to-drift related sedimentary sequences along the Pacific margin of protoGondwana.0 Metaluminous 1. 2002.

interpreted by Ramos (2008) to represent a separate crustal block.. 2007).0 g/cm3 and a complete absence of zircon inheritance (Couch et al. Forsythe et al. however. This terrane would account for the Early Ordovician compressional event in northeastern Peru. 12C). 2006). Chew et al.2 ± 3. 11). The presence of any significant amount of sialic basement beneath the Peruvian Western Cordillera since at least the Middle Cretaceous. monzonite dated at 474. 2005. by relating the timing and spatial distribution of granitoid emplacement to metamorphism recorded in the basement lithologies. (2007). both north of the Arequipa (Contaya Formation. Although a detailed paleogeographic reconstruction is outside the scope of our study.. The 20 Ma magmatic gap in the Late Ordovician was characterized by turbiditic sedimentation within newly formed depocenters that were underlain by isotopically juvenile lower crust. 1999. de Haller et al. a new continental arc would have been established upon the mature and thickened Paracas-Arequipa-Antofalla crust at ca. the original west Gondwana (passive) metasedimentary sequences inboard of the present Arequipa terrane are probably only preserved as thrust slices flanking the inverted Triassic rift from Ayacucho to the northern Bolivian border.. as suggested by Chew et al.. the trench stepped in to the modern-day position along the Peruvian coastline and the Geological Society of America Bulletin. We interpret the Vijus Group calcalkaline andesites overlying the Maranon Complex metapelites in the northern Pataz region of the Eastern Cordillera (Haeberlin.. whereas the Latest Ordovician arc granitoids lay inboard throughout the Eastern Cordilleran of Peru up to 6°S. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru R2 = 6Ca + 2Mg +Al (millications) 1500 Continental arc Post-collisional uplift 1000 Peralkaline intrusives Late orogenic 500 Anorogenic Post-orogenic 0 0 1000 2000 3000 R1 = 4Si – 11[Na+K] – 2[Fe+Ti] (millications) Figure 10. To the south.. 2004). 473–464 Ma. (1980) multicationic R1–R2 diagram (after Batchelor and Bowden. 1988). Granitoids intruded into the western margin of Famatina. the Early Ordovician Peruvian margin experienced re-docking of the parautochthonous Paracas-ArequipaAntofalla terrane against the Gondwanan margin dominated by the proto–Arica bend (Fig. (1981) and Polliand et al. the Paracas terrane. and possibly simplifies the outline of the central Gondwanan paleo–Pacific margin that does not require an embayment north of the Paracas Peninsula. somewhat analogous to the Argentinean Puna (Ramos.. 2007). 2) sharply truncates the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane at 14°S (Dalmayrac et al. (2005) as 3. in response to subduction of the intervening Iapetus oceanic lithosphere during the approach of the Cuyania terrane farther south (Ramos. and behind the rotated Antofalla block (Puna turbidites. 12E). i. In our model.gsapubs. correspond to arc-derived granites of the San Nicolás batholith emplaced along the coastal Arequipa block and would have likely extended northward along the suspect Paracas terrane. 1997). “Young” Marañón. and following a reversal in subduction vectors.. Following the collision. a dominantly mafic underlying crust with average density of ca. We suggest that a major shift in plate motions that produced a rapid northward drift and clockwise rotation of the Antofalla segment during the Middle Ordovician (>12 cm/a. (2007).Downloaded from gsabulletin. 1990. the Paracas fault boundary (Fig. 2004). Keppie et al. The resuturing of Paracas-ArequipaAntofalla terrane closed the marginal basin that hosted the pre-Famatinian “Old Marañón” sediments of Chew et al.. The present-day location of Paracas terrane as the Oaxaquia-Acatlán microcontinent in Mexico is suggested on the basis of the early Paleozoic faunal and paleomagnetic correlations with Gondwanan of NW Argentina (Sánchez Zavala et al. 1988). the Pacococha quartz monzonite shows none (Fig.. effectively ceased arc activity. 1985). The northeastward transport might have occurred along a strikeslip fault system that is represented by the 600-km-long Río Marañón crustal lineament (Fig. 2002) as evidence for a Late Cambrian arc developing on a thinned forearc crust similar to the Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental of NW Argentina (Ramos. Its trace-element pattern is. September/October 2009 1315 . Symbols are the same as those in Figures 7. Combined with the refined ages for the emplacement of the arc-derived San Nicolás batholith between 473 ± 3 and 464 ± 4 Ma (Mukasa and Henry. In the terminal phase of the “Marañón” orogeny. Bahlburg and Hervé. Loewy et al.e. and impinged the Paracas-Arequipa-Antofalla block upon the south Eastern Cordillera due to the shape of the Arica orocline. 1981. 8.4 Ma (Chew et al. Dalmayrac et al. In Peru. this poorly understood time period deserves a closer tectonodynamic examination.. characteristic of late. 2002). Polliand et al. 12D).. 1993).to post-collisional. 1980.org on January 20. 2008). however. is refuted on the grounds of the isotopically extremely primitive intrusives of the Coastal Batholith and the Cordillera Blanca of Peru. 1980) with a lack of the Grenvillian basement ages to the north. Whereas the orthogneisses and the Cuzco alkali granite exhibit high LILE/HFSE ratios coupled with profound Nb-Ta anomalies.0 g/cm3 dense basaltic underplate. the early Paleozoic age data imply that the northern projection of the Famatinian arc system of NW Argentina extended along the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane. 3. Geotectonic discrimination plot for the Peruvian Eastern Cordilleran granitoid rocks based on de la Roche et al. Here a model is offered for the apparent early Paleozoic orogenic bifurcation. in response to westward jumping of the subduction zone over the newly accreted block (Fig. The resultant detachment of the Oaxaquia terrane left behind the (Paracas) mafic and isotopically primitive lower crustal substrate that has been modeled by Couch et al. and resulted in the emplacement of peridotite lenses as thrust slices within thermally overprinted Marañón metasediments (Haeberlin. calcalkaline suites akin to the Cordillera de Carabaya granitoids. and 9.

2011 Mišković et al.B E.H L. granite normalized. Ocean-ridge.E Carbo-Permian . 100 .C 100 Late Triassic .D Permo-Triassic 10 1 Rock/Ocean Ridge Granite 0. September/October 2009 .1 100 .A Oligocene (Andean) .1 .G Neoproterozoic . 1316 Geological Society of America Bulletin.1 100 . (1984).gsapubs. Carabaya (south) Pataz (north) 10 1 Rock/Ocean Ridge Granite 0. selected trace-element patterns for the Eastern Peruvian Cordillera intrusives through time. Normalizing values taken from Pearce et al.org on January 20. Jurassic Cordill.F Balsas-Callangate (north) Late Ordovician Early Ordovician 10 1 Rock/Ocean Ridge Granite 0.1 K RbBa Th Ta Nb Ce P Hf Zr SmTi Y Yb K RbBa Th Ta Nb Ce P Hf Zr SmTi Y Yb Figure 11. Mesoproterozoic 10 1 0.Rock/Ocean Ridge Granite Downloaded from gsabulletin.

12G). 1984). 2002).e. 11). this marked the onset of the panPacific Gondwanide Orogeny. 1999. high–SiO2 granites slightly inboard of the Carboniferous arc. low-temperature Toco tectonic event that folded the Sierra del Tigre turbidites in northern Chile (Bahlburg and Breitkreuz. et al. together with the U-Pb age of 219.1 ± 5. 12H).0 ± 3.1–312. 1992. 12F). The similarity between the width of the early Carboniferous belt (20–30 km) and modern arc plutonic tracts of central Chile and the Aleutians.. Xu et al.. but mature isotopic signatures and the presence of upper crustal xenoliths point to arc-derived magmas that extensively assimilated the basement country rocks (Macfarlane. According to 40Ar/39Ar ages from metamorphic micas (Cardona et al. in addition to revealing latitude-dependent compositional patterns (Fig. 5B). a 5 Ma gap in the Early Pennsylvanian is contemporaneous with the 310. 2) display extreme Rb/Ba ratios that cannot be explained by simple fractional crystallization in a haplogranitic system (Harris and Inger. except for the Early Cretaceous Amotape and Loja-Olmos terranes (Mourier. which marked the simultaneous collision between the South American segment of northern Gondwana. the termination of Carboniferous arc activity in Peru and formation of post-tectonic granites cannot be explained by the accretion of allochthonous crust in the earliest Permian (i. 1996. The beginning of the orogenesis in the Carboniferous. this last orogenic episode of the Early Phanerozoic along this segment of the proto-Andean margin may be only slightly younger than the 442 Ma emplacement age. 9. 1991. high–Th-Rb. Volumetrically rivaled only by the subsequent Permo-Triassic intrusive province of the central Eastern Cordillera (Fig.. rigid Amazonia could have easily propagated the paleo–stress field orthogonally to the Peruvian continental edge as it impacted southern North America at ca.0 Ma ages of high-grade metamorphism recorded by foliated garnet-biotite paraschists in the central Marañón complex of the Eastern Cordillera (600 °C and 11 kbar. Combined with a southward younging trend of intrusive ages where no plutonic rock older than 245 Ma outcrops south of 11. biotitebearing granodioritic and granitic batholiths over 1200 km of strike of the Eastern Cordillera (320.. the magmatic gap is therefore compatible with models of increased convergence rate (Ramos. 2005). 2006)..8 Ma at 6. 10. Chew et al. together with generally flat HREE profiles. 1999).. 1995) but likely reflect source parochialism. and initially accumulated synrift continental epiclastics and progressively more intercalated. Locally. Western Africa. argue for intrusions within a relatively thin crust (<40 km) that was underlain by a moderately steep. these granitoids feature an array of intrusive contacts indicative of the interplay between mafic and felsic melts (Fig. and ultimately the Triassic alkaline Mitu Group bimodal volcanics (Figs. Fig. An increased sample density due to better exposure allowed for identification of two separate pulses of magmatism from the Carboniferous to the Permian (Fig.. bimodal peralkaline ignimbrites to tholeiitic basalts up the stratigraphic column (Carlotto. The shift from the Carboniferous. 1988) that caused compression accompanied by shallowing of the subducted oceanic slab and an eventual pause in arc activity. 2005). and broadly overlaps with the timing of the high-pressure. 1991). 2007). The reasons for this are (1) absence of an identified exotic terrane west of the Marañón lineament in Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1993). Unlike the coeval Choiyoi Granite Province in the Frontal Cordillera of northern Chile. calc-alkaline. The northern 313– 320 Ma Balsas. 2006). in a similar fashion to what was recorded within the conjugate plate in mechanically twinned calcites 2100 km north from the Ouachita orogenic front (Craddock et al.2°S). et al. Callangate. terrane “X”). arc-derived granitoids to Permian post-tectonic. 1999). Chew et al. Our newly obtained age from the southern Santa Rosa rhyolitic tuff (SAM-17) of 226 ± 10 Ma.Downloaded from gsabulletin. 320 Ma.. The arc-derived granitoids in the northern Eastern Cordillera subsequently recorded a high-grade metamorphic event equivalent to mid-crustal conditions of 750 °C and 12. The sudden arrest of northward-moving Gondwana would increase plate coupling along the southwestern margin. and the Appalachian– Gulf Coast tract of Euramerica. this indicates that plutonism played an important role in controlling the pattern of crustal extension and rifting by thermally weakening the lithosphere along the Eastern Cordillera. 5B). no field evidence currently exists for the presence of exotic crustal fragments north of the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane. Middle Paleozoic (Gondwanide) Following the Devonian magmatic lull.. and 11) constitutes a classic magmatic succession associated with regions undergoing lithospheric thinning following extensional collapse (Jones. 2005).5°S. Patiño Douce and Beard. September/October 2009 1317 . Conspicuously. or alternatively it may be related to the Devonian Chanic orogeny that accompanied docking of Chilenia against Cuyania (Keppie and Ramos. as postulated by Mpodozis and Kay (1992).8 kbar (Chew et al. eastward-dipping subduction zone. and segments of the Pataz batholith (Fig. Haeberlin. 2005). a continental arc–derived intrusive belt formed along the Peruvian margin of Gondwana in the Early to Middle Mississippian (Fig. thus causing the Toco compression and resulting in the trenchward motion of the overlying plate that induced a temporary flat-slab geometry that was responsible for the cessation of magmatism (Kay and Abbruzzi. This increasing pelitic character of granitoid sources northward along the axis of the Eastern Cordillera is consistent with the changing basement sedimentary component from proximal psammites to deeper marine shales caused by tectonic subsidence of the Ordovician-Silurian basin (Gohrbandt. 1978). 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru arc reestablished along the length of the Eastern Cordillera from 7°S to 14°S (Fig. alkali feldspar granites without significant HFSE depletions. These depocenters consisted of a series of NW-SE–trending. Here.3 Ma at 13. 1988).9 ± 3. Because the continental crust is an excellent stress transmitter above its brittle-ductile transition (Lacombe.6 Ma from a Mitu rhyolite in the central Tarma province (Fig. as indicated by the Cuzco batholith sample and possibly comagmatic. suggests that rift-related volcanism in Peru during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition is generally younger than the bulk of the Permo-Triassic plutonism. 2007). was characterized by the synchronous emplacement of composite calc-alkaline hornblende. Furthermore. 2). faultcontrolled grabens. Southward. Their systematically depleted HFS elements. we address the entire Gondwanide cycle (350–190 Ma) as a genetically linked succession of magmatic flare-ups that can be related to discrete steps in the final agglomeration and initial breakup of the Pangea supercontinent. known as the Eohercynian phase in Peru (Mégard et al.7 ± 0. Although geochemical patterns from the Eastern Cordillera batholiths of Peru have recently been interpreted as evidence for a possible Late Pennsylvanian accretionary event (Mišković et al.9°S and 324. 1998). a terminal phase in the Neoproterozoic Terra Australis Orogen (Cawood.. high–LILE/HFSE. Turner et al.. calc-alkaline Ollantaytambo pyroclastic volcanics (Bahlburg et al. 2005). 1988)—a feature ascribed to maturing and deepening of an aborted rift.. Mitu Group mafic volcanism changes compositionally from tholeiites to phonolites and tephrites that crop out within the Putina Synclinorium (Laubacher et al.org on January 20. 2. during a period of well-documented extensional block tectonics and contemporaneous with the formation of the Mitu basins (Mégard..gsapubs. this time period corresponds precisely to the onset of the OuachitaAlleghenian orogeny (Rast. 1992. 1971). 3F). Coupled with the relatively short duration. The middle Permian to Late Triassic (Hercynian) stage of the Gondwanide orogeny in Peru saw the emplacement of partially magmatized and compositionally restricted. The peak of 60 Ma of magmatism occurred at 235–240 Ma (Fig. however..

Africa SL AM RN . Boundaries of autochthonous tectonic provinces modified after Cordani and Sato (2000) and Tassinari et al.e.VENTUARI) Plate vector SU AA BR SF BR SF P RP N ? N SL F RP PC AM RN Panthalassic Ocean F N SL AM RN Panthalassic Ocean RP L.15 Ga) Baltica PAA RN nvil Gre W. Mesoproterozoic (1. Ramos and Aleman (2000).E Middle Ordovician (465–480 Ma) E.C Neoproterozoic (0. combined with a lack of middle rare-earth element (MREE) depletions (i.5.77 Ga) SL SF SU PAA RP P le P Laurentia AM Laurentia Baltica Vijus arc Iapetus Ocean RN SU PAA Laurentia eanas Pamp Congo Proto-Iapetus Ocean SF P N .A . . 9 kbar) as indicated by the lack of significant Na enrichment (Na2O = 3.. Figure 12 (on this and following page).D BR SF OM N RP SL AM C PC OM P PAA PC PT OLD MARAÑÓN PAMPIA PARACAS-AREQUIPA PRECORDILLERA PATAGONIA RN RP SF SL SU RIO NEGRO PROV. Rapp and Watson.gsapubs. Sequence of tectonic events for Mesoproterozoic are adopted and modified after Hoffman (1991).e.71–0. (2000). Fig.a atin F rc Sedimentary platforms Ophiolitic lenses AM CENTRAL AMAZONIA Magmatism arc/rift-extension BR BRASILLIANO PROV.57–0.00–1. residual mineralogy (Sm/Yb <2. (3) decreasing Sr concentrations and larger Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0. Africa SU ? ? Late Cambrian (485–500 Ma) Iapetus Ocean W. implying a relatively dry. 1995). feldspar-dominated source region at low pressures.Downloaded from gsabulletin. (4) extensional relaxation following a collision is expected to affect the buttressing margin locally and cannot account for an episode of craton-wide plutonism along Panthalassan Geological Society of America Bulletin. C CHILENIA F FAMATINIA (MARONI.5. Iapetus Ocean RP F Congo . (2) no geochemical support for crustal thickening beyond 32 km (i. September/October 2009 . amphibole- rich residue). Ordovician–Silurian (420–445 Ma) Sitabamba Paracas Contaya turbidites OM am A -F PA icolas n Sa PC N E.08) with increasing SiO2 content.B L. Rheic Ocean Marañón lineament SL SU . garnet-bearing. RIO DE LA PLATA SÃO FRANCISCO SÃO LUIS SUNSAS ARC / PROV.org on January 20. and HREE fractionation in the Permo-Triassic granitoids that would both be characteristic of 1318 a deep-sourced.F Late Ordovician (450–460 Ma) Ocean RN W. 2011 Mišković et al. Iapetus Ocean Av alo Rheic nia Pacococha/ Balsas AM N BR SF P YM A SU -A OM P ia.. Figure 2. 11). Dashed areas encompass non-Gondwanan domains. and Ramos (2008). Schematic cartoon of the tectonic evolution of the present-day western proto-margin of the Amazonian craton.5–4.

This model also conflicts with the apparent normal crustal thicknesses.Downloaded from gsabulletin. An alternate hypothesis invoking slab shallowing has been proposed in several studies to explain the diminishing volume of the magmaproducing mantle wedge below the Chilean segment of the (proto)Andean margin in the Early Permian (Pankhurst et al. (3) the formation of post-tectonic granitoids preceded and overlapped with Triassic extension (Ramos and Kay.K SL RN AM SU BR SF BR SF c ar P RP C PT N A-A Fm PC PaleoPacific Ocean SU e at South Africa SL RN AM ol RP C. A tla Oce ntic an oc PT Early–Mid. (2) a lack of syndepositional deformation in the early Permian shallow marine mudstones of the Copacabana Group is incompatible with strong plate coupling as the angle of subduction falls below 10° (Dumitru et al. P PC PT . 1988). Veevers et al. 2002). and Neogene (Kay and Mpodozis. Africa Carabaya anatexis BR SF A -A C Panthalassic Ocean L. which is not expected if 60% of the continental mantle is displaced up to 600 km inland from the trench during a phase of shallow subduction (Kay and Abbruzzi. September/October 2009 1319 . Jurassic (190–220 Ma) BRASILLIANO PROV. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru . RIO DE LA PLATA SÃO FRANCISCO SÃO LUIS Ch SU N S slab roll-back & break off N BR C Iberia F OM P PAA PC PT RN RP SF SL SU Euramerica Euramerica Mitu Gr. Gutscher.org on January 20. Instead of a collisional event or a scenario that appeals to tectonic underplating. 1991). and fails to explain a number of other magmatic and sedimentary patterns in Peru during the Late Carboniferous–Early Permian: (1) a minimal inboard shift in the locus of magma production from the Carboniferous arc to the adjacent Permian-Triassic granitoid province.I BR SF AA n tio C (MARONI. CHILENIA FAMATINIA OLD MARAÑÓN PAMPIA PARACAS-AREQUIPA PRECORDILLERA PATAGONIA RIO NEGRO PROV..gsapubs.J Permian–Triassic (225–280 Ma) Africa SL RN AM Euramerica . Jurassic (160–180 Ma) Allincapac A-A P SUNSAS ARC / PROV. Triassic–E.VENTUARI) SL AM SU s at Fl P AM CENTRAL AMAZONIA Africa RN Panthalassic Ocean Sedimentary platforms Ouachita Alleg SL AM RN ian n he P South Africa Pacific Ocean PT PC N RP C South Africa PC N Figure 12 (continued). we favor a model similar to that proposed by Franzese and Spalletti (2001) for the pre-rift evolution of the Neuquén Basin in central Chile.. 1991.. 1994). America A- SU A Rheic Ocean BR SF c du ub RP PC N RP Africa Panthalassic C Ocean PT .. 2002).G . Gondwana between 200 and 300 Ma (Kay et al.H Mississippian (320–345 Ma) Ophiolitic lenses Pennsylvanian (310–315 Ma) Magmatism arc/rift-extension Plate vector N. We suggest that the transition from Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1989. 1996).

85% of the exposed Eastern Cordilleran batholiths were emplaced. Vos et al. Jurassic to Miocene (Andean) The transition to compressional tectonism along the western South American margin most likely occurred as a consequence of its westward drift away from the locus of the Karoo plume. as it reverted from flat to a “normal” angle of subduction of ~30° that prevailed through the Neogene (James and Sacks. The buoyancy contrast.. 1996). The reduced Nb-Ta anomalies of the Late Triassic granites relative to their Early Permian protoliths. are consistent with melting of an upper crustal. transtensional duplexes from Peru. the early Pan-African–Braziliano-aged anorogenic plutonism along Western Amazonia in eastern Peru (690–750 Ma) suggests an active proto–Iapetus margin along much of the western cratonic edge as it rifted from eastern Laurentia during the global breakup of Rodinia. 2007. where the Pampean and Famatinian arcs were long lived and extensive. Skjerlie et al. 2007). SiO2-undersaturated magmas of the Allincapac complex probably formed by small degrees of partial melting of the shallowest asthenospheric mantle below the thinned Mitu basin crust. 1995). and western Patagonia (157–153 Ma. This mechanism could account for progressively diminished volumes of emplaced arc magmas from 300 Ma to 285 Ma in Peru and agrees well with the 20–30 Ma delay necessary to trigger slab breakoff after the slowdown initiation (Wong et al. and fossiliferous volcano-carbonates of the Pelado Formation (190–170 Ma. 2005). Between the middle Carboniferous and Early Jurassic. Mantle advection locally provided a heat source for thermal doming and the development of the Cusco-Puno Swell outboard of the Eastern Peruvian Cordillera (Chavez et al. represented by the 280–270 Ma minimum in the 206Pb/238U zircon ages (Figs. 1984). respectively. 11). Operating in concert. Figs. arc-derived igneous protolith contaminated by a substantial metasedimentary component (Mišković et al.1 Ga. Arcay et al. (1986).org on January 20. The newly identified late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic granitoids of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru represent the westernmost extent of autochthonous Amazonia in the north-central Andes. It heralded the ultimate dispersal of Gondwana in the Cretaceous and was followed by the establishment of a continental arc that has intermittently characterized the modern Andean orogeny for the past 180 Ma. The systematic pattern of plotting inside the field of within-plate granites and post-tectonic granitoids on the genetic classification diagrams of Pearce et al. and markedly contrast not only with the coeval Huayillas quartz monzonites at 8°S. Sisson et al. the Early to Middle Jurassic plutons clearly illustrate dramatic differences in the composition of the post-Triassic crust below the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera (Figs.. 2007). This period saw the establishment of a 1400-km-long. Roperch and Carlier.Downloaded from gsabulletin. 1320 disappeared in the Middle Triassic when rifting eventually tapped the lower crustal magma sources and gave rise to the bimodal Mitu Group volcanics. 10–15 Ma required for the asthenospheric mantle to occupy a newly formed gap left by the detached slab. Although it remained a nonaccretionary margin during the Phanerozoic. and 11). yet largely overlapping Sr-Nd isotope systematics. their northern equivalents reflect higher degrees of interplay with a thicker crustal column under the Eastern Cordillera between 6°S and 12°S (high Rb/Nb. This explains the diachronous appearance of early Mitu-type. 2011 Mišković et al. the posttectonic granites appear to have formed during progressively larger degrees of dehydration melting of an amphibolitic lower crust. which was the locus of widespread crustal anatexis (Clark et al.... and the eventual cessation of arc activity due to slab steepening and eventual detachment. 1999). resulting in thermal weakening of the subducting slab below ~100 km depth (Gerya et al. 1992). Pankhurst et al. In combination with evidence from the Argentinean Puncoviscana magmatism. However. arc-related intrusive belt that was succeeded by equally voluminous Permo-Triassic. suggest a genetic scenario that is fundamentally different from Carboniferous arc magmatism. Fig.gsapubs.. Finally. further suggests a late orogenic to anorogenic granitoid suite (Fig. Rb = 100–400 ppm).... Although coeval and confined to the same segment of the arc architecture. via Bolivia to northern Chile and Argentina. They were emplaced between the peak and waning stages of the Grenville-Sunsás orogeny.. 2004).. 2000). the northern Antarctic peninsula (172–162 Ma). 8. 2002. CONCLUSIONS A U-Pb geochronological framework is constructed for granitoid intrusives along the Peruvian segment of the proto–Andean margin of Western Amazonia since 1. renewed convergent tectonism during the early Paleozoic did not result in any significant magmatic activity in Peru. 177 Ma Chala basalts (Romeuf et al. September/October 2009 .. post-tectonic granitoids. 7.. 1997. decompression melting generated basaltic magmas at the base of the lower crust. the youngest intrusives detected in our survey appear to be genetically linked to continually changing plate convergence angles since the Eocene. 2007).g. The quartz syenites of Colcabamba province belong to the “inner arc” of the late Incaic orogeny. and the anomalous enrichment in incompatible elements (Th = 20–50 ppm. which initially inhibited the rise of mafic melts. which in turn imposed a dextral strike-slip lithospheric wrenching along the west-central Gondwanan margin of Pangea. A relatively primitive isotopic signature of Permo-Triassic plutonism in Peru (εNd = –2 to +2. 2 and 12K). 2007). The highly HFSE-enriched. but also with all other plutonic rocks of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru. 1989). the majority of plutonic rocks emplaced along west-central Gondwana are directly related to the assembly and ultimate fragmentation of Pangea (180–330 Ma). Instead of wholesale assimilation of an isotopically mature upper crust by primitive (and wet) arc melts. After the ca. Contrasting with NW Argentina and Chile. 12J). the continental arc to post-tectonic magmatism is related to the early Permian counterclockwise block rotation observed by Rapalini (1998) in the forearc of the Argentinean Ventana fold belt. Hansen et al. The terminal phase of Mesozoic tectonism between 220 Ma and 190 Ma was characterized by thermal subsidence and formation of the post-rift Pucará Group limestones landward of the Cusco-Puno Swell (Rosas et al. 10). driven by heat and fluids supplied from basaltic underplates (e. however. together with the anatexis of the preheated and fertile uppermost crust beneath the Cordillera de Carabaya (Fig. This rock uplift is seen as a major late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic depositional hiatus east of the rift axis (Rakotosolofo et al. 2006). 5B and 12I). Mišković et al. silicic magmatic episodes in NE Patagonia (188–187 Ma).. recorded by progressively younging. Melting of previously hydrated arc crust might have been induced by hot asthenospheric mantle filling the gap left by the Nazca plate. Our age data indicate that backarc intrusives were emplaced in both the northern Pataz area (NAM-11a) and the southern Allincapac province (SAM-21. resulting in a vast region of extensive crustal melting from 260 to 200 Ma along the western Gondwana (Kay et al. (1984) and Harris et al. Development of strike-slip tectonics subparallel to the proto–Andean margin due to a change in plate vector kinematics would have been accompanied by a strong reduction in the orthogonal convergence vector. 1993.. Yet another shift in the overall stress regime during the Late Triassic heralded the onset of the modern Andean orogenic cycle that was initially characterized by backarc plutonism as the focus of arc activity shifted to the Western Cordillera. the northwestward-directed obliquity and concave shape of the oroclinal margin generated a concomitant north-to-south–directed rollback of the underlying plate.. Evidence for renewed Jurassic magmatic activity along coastal Peru comes from the southern ca.. Geological Society of America Bulletin.

therefore largely reducing the effect of 204Pb and Pb loss on the age calculation (Jackson et al.41 (Ludwig. These zircons were ground and polished to reveal internal surfaces. V.J. The evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau of the Central Andes: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. C. Although no common Pb correction was applied to the data. v. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Samples from the central Coasa. H..M. 233U. C.. 1980). and only the most stable segments were selected. J. pulse-counting mode with 1 point measured per peak for atomic masses of 202 (fly back). Ta. v. while probing polished grain surfaces along 20-μm-wide linear raster for 15–30 s on the peak transient signal. and variations in mass absorption (α coefficients and/or Compton scatter). J. Brook. R.. C. Paleozoic evolution of active margin basins in the southern Central Andes (northwestern Argentina and northern Chile): Journal of South American Earth Sciences.139. Santillana of the Compañía (CIA) Minera Poderosa for their continual logistical support during the 2004–2006 field seasons. 605–626. Concordia diagrams were generated by the Microsoft Excel–based tool.D. p. and their bearing on stratigraphic age and provenance: Kiel. REFERENCES CITED Adams. 249 (233U oxide). Dahlquist. R. J. v. Ga. The assembly consisted of a Perkin-Elmer ELAN 6100 quadrupole ICP mass spectrometer equipped with a dynamic reaction cell and coupled to a Lambda Physik 193 nm EXCIMER (ArF) laser that was fired at a frequency of 10 Hz delivering beam energies between 140 and 200 mJ. Freda. Data reduction included correction for gas blank.. Pankhurst... respectively. a graphical approach was employed whereby all data points plotting to the right of apparent common Pb discordia arrays in Tera-Wasserburg diagrams were interpreted as having lost radiogenic Pb and were rejected (<3% of the total of 770 analyses). We modified the protocol used to acquire trace-element data from fused disks by lowering the repetition rate and energy output to 5 Hz and 120 mJ.. Bard. The LA-ICP-MS REE data are accurate to within ±1% (La) or ±6% (Lu) on the basis of duplicate analyses.A.. v. 25.05.. doi: 10. The laser was operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz and constant beam diameter of 20 μm resulting in an energy density of ~5. Seijas and Ing. 253. and aspirated to the plasma in an Ar-He gas mixture through an Apex desolvation nebulizer and a T-piece tube attached to the back of the plasma torch.1016/j. Benavides. Beckinsale. C.3871. Limbani. Germany. 4. Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters: Chemical Geology. Košler et al. Pb. The trace-element accuracy by the XRF method is ±5%. p. Nb. Nb. densest mineral concentrate). Rb. doi: 10. C. F.. and Miller. 3035–3038.D. doi: 10.-P. and Bowden. Detrital zircon ages of the Puncoviscana Formation of NW Argentina.2.J. 1985. Ba.D. Furthermore. was fed to plasma via the T-piece tube by a separate line.. Arcay. 666–678. 206 and 207 (Pb). p. p. 1997.... 61–107. v. Zr.CO. Cobbing. Massimo Chiaradia provided many useful comments and advice on granitoid petrology that helped focus and clarify the ideas presented. p. P.. C. 68–69.D. 7. 209Bi and enriched 233U and 237Np (>99%) were used in the tracer solution. Ollantaytambo Formation and Umachiri beds: Journal of South American Earth Sciences. USA) and based on modified procedures of Norrish and Chappel (1967) and Reynolds (1967) was used for correction of nonlinear background. We are particularly thankful to Ing. p. Ti. heavy-liquid separation (diiodomethane. and U) and REE contents of previously dated zircon domains were also analyzed by the LA-ICP-MS technique at the University of Lausanne.1111/j.M.gsapubs. Dunstan et al. v. Th.. Wiedenbeck et al. Neoproterozoic A-type magmatism in the Western Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina): Evidence for Rodinia break-up along a proto-Iapetus rift?: Terra Nova. D. Geological Society of America Bulletin. and 238. 121–146. V. F.2007. doi: 10. and 254 to the intensities at masses 233. Atherton. inter-element interferences. 233 (U). 2005. 52–65. Hf.. Sanchez-Fernandez. Ta. and Cardenas.. in Skinner. R. Isoplot version 3. Michael Rhodes (University of Massachusetts... 253 (237Np oxide).. H. N.1365-3121.P. Giles..S. doi: 10. W. 237.J. 238 (U).tecto. The sample introduction system was modified to enable simultaneous nebulization of a tracer solution and laser ablation of the solid sample (Horn et al. W. M. great care was taken during the integration of time-resolved signals in LAMDATE.. An automated stage was used to produce a 100 μm linear raster. Mines and Metallurgy (INGEMMET) are thanked for the logistical support and expertise in the field. followed by a 150 s long measurement of U and Pb signals from zircon along with the continuous signal from the aspirated solution. Cr. Th.and trace-element concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) on pressed powder pellets using a Phillips PW 2400 sequential spectrometer equipped with a rhodium tube at the University of Lausanne. Magmatism at a plate edge: The Peruvian Andes: London.W.2006.001. 142. Victor Carlotto and José Macharé of the Peruvian National Institute of Geology. B. 171–188. 1991.1130/0016-7606(1997)109<0869:GEATTO> 2. Typical acquisitions consisted of a 30 s measurement of reference gas blank analytes (203Tl. v.. and 237Np). Dalmayrac. euhedral and inclusion-free grains between 50 and 200 μm in length were handpicked. APPENDIX Zircons were extracted from 58 selected samples ranging in weight between 1 and 5 kg following the conventional mineral separation procedures using gravimetric and magnetic methods including Wilfley table (sub-300 micron. E. H..R. 46. Helium. Rapela. They were subsequently carbon coated and imaged at the University of Lausanne scanning electron microscopy (SEM) facility using the CamScan MV 2300 scanning electron microanalyzer in the CL mode under the operating conditions of 15 kV of accelerating potential and 15–20 nA beam current.. 209Bi. M. Natural Tl (205Tl/203Tl = 2.. doi: 10. 177–202.00703. Blackie and Son. doi: 10. U–Pb age data from the Sunsas region of Eastern Bolivia: Evidence for the allochthonous origin of the Paragua Block: Precambrian Research. 1999. Tric. and Breitkreuz.. A review of the relationships between granitoid types. ρ>3.2005. Evidence of Early to Middle Ordovician arc volcanism in the Cordillera Oriental and Altiplano of southern Peru. Etchart... 1999. and instrument mass bias (Košler and Sylvester. 869–884. 1985.1016/j. 43–55. 2004). Cs... and Hervé. E. B. 2003). p. 1997. 2003).. LA-ICP-MS Zircon Geochemistry The selected trace-element (Sc. 441. p.. 2006. Sr.25. Y. Conte. in Pitcher. 48. E. T. v. Raw data were corrected for dead time of the electron multiplier and processed off line in a spreadsheet-based program (LAMDATE. Formation of oxides of U and Np was corrected by adding signal intensities at masses 249. Hf. Analyses of zircon reference material 91500 (1065 Ma.1016/0895-9811(91)90029-K. Baldo. 203 and 205 (Tl). R. 388–394. and the southernmost Limacpampa plutons were generously donated by Dr. Série D.W. 209 (Bi).M. B.A. A. Raetz. Co. and the off-line data reduction was conducted by LAMTRACE similarly to the fused-disk procedure. 18. R. Prior to isotopic analyses. L.32 g/cm2) and Frantz magnetic separation (>1 A). peakjumping.1... The trace-element data were acquired by averaging three 80–120 μm analyses per disk (sample) over time intervals of 40– 50 s on the peak transient signal and were repeatedly normalized to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) 612 standard glass.2006. Bahlburg.3. Orogenic evolution of the Peruvian Andes: The Andean cycle. 2002. and Ottolini. p.E. Barbarin..P.06. Extension et caractères des roches métamorphiques précambriennes du Pérou: Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. 2000).W. Baker. Taylor. Nonmagnetic.001. and Bousquet. Doin. 22.. 205 Tl. R. Bahlburg. Data were normalized to the highly doped NIST SRM 610 standard glass. v.. and 254 (238U oxide). and the ICP-MS values for Ba. D. Geology and ore deposits of the Central Andes: Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication. Marocco... the sample mounts were ultrasonically cleansed in a 5 vol% HNO3 solution for 30 min and wiped clean. Batchelor.. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Analytical Technique U-Pb dating of zircons was conducted using a Thermo-Finnigan Element2 sector field ICP-MS coupled to a New Wave UP-213 Nd YAG laser at Bergen University following the procedure of Košler et al. and U. Switzerland. Daniel Kontak and Professor Allan Clark of Queen’s University. Pb. R. respectively. eds.. 27–45. and a representative set of 20 grains per sample was mounted in 1-cmthick epoxy blocks. Ni. 109. ed... and Beckinsale. doi: 10. Casquet.1016/ S0024-4937(98)00085-1. The data were acquired in time-resolved.Downloaded from gsabulletin.. REE. V. Allmendinger. p. We have chosen to use Y. Jordan. 278. and Sc obtained by XRF. Geodynamic evolution and tectonostratigraphic terranes of northwestern Argentina and northern Chile: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1995) systematically bracketed every 15 zircon unknowns.56 J/cm2.. Rb.. and Fanning. 139–174. Off-line data reduction of time-resolved signals was performed on a Lotus 123 macro–based spreadsheet package (LAMTRACE) written by Simon Jackson of Macquarie University. p. The effect of halogens on Zr diffusion and zircon dissolution in hydrous metaluminous granitic melts: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 2007. Aricoma.J. H.1016/0009-2541(85)90034-8. p.. Fragments of the Li2B4O7 –diluted and fused glass disks were analyzed for additional trace elements by laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma– mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at the University of Lausanne. 139. Kay. 237 (Np). J.jsames..org on January 20. doi: 10.. Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron and K-Ar age determinations for the Coastal Batholith of Peru. Bahlburg. Sr. Boger. D. v. 1974. B. A.precamres.1146/ annurev...010. C. E.. p. v. Trace-Element Geochemistry Selected minor.09.x. 2006. A protocol developed by J.P. E. Australia. Galindo. laser-induced elemental fractionation of Pb and U. S.L. Fanning. S. This research was supported by the Fonds Nationale Suisse de la Recherché Scientifiques (FNS) grant awarded to Urs Schaltegger. Carlotto.. Bulk-Rock. p..1016/j. and Murra. Canada. and Moore. 2007.. M.. and Isacks. as the sample carrier gas. their origins and their geodynamic environments: Lithos. C. M... (2002). v. September/October 2009 1321 .earth. Cobbing. 20th Colloquium on Latin American Earth Sciences. 2002). and Mégard.M. Influence of the precollisional stage on subduction dynamics and the buried crust thermal state: Insights from numerical simulations: Tectonophysics.

H. doi: 10.. I. doi: 10.L.1016/S0895-9811(02)00002-0. A. 166–169. L. A comparative study of the metallogenetic and geochronological relationships in the northern part of the Central Andean tin belt. v. Geologic and geochronologic 1322 constraints on the metallogenic evolution of the Andes of southeastern Peru: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists. alteration. Peru: Geological and structural framework.. C. thesis]: France. p.gr.252. Géologie des Andes péruviennes. 697– 711.03.W. Pankhurst.. T. González-Casado.A. 281–301. Pearce.chemgeo..1130/ 0091-7613(1991)019<1145:ROTWCL>2. The absolute abundance and the atomic weight of a reference sample of thallium: Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards. Tectonic evolution of South America: Rio de Janeiro. 1998.1016/j.. and Marchal. 2004. Farrar. W. G. Barnes. 325–345. U.W. J.1029/92TC00619.lithos. Geology. Fuck.. A. and Rie. 22.CO. Wasteneys. eds.. and Kinny. Dalmayrac.P. Hartz.. R. doi: 10.. and Colombo. v. 91–121.Downloaded from gsabulletin..J. The application of laser ablationinductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to in situ U-Pb zircon geochronology: Chemical Geology. A deformed alkaline igneous rock–carbonatite complex from the western Sierras Pampeanas. Schaltegger. v.5011. p. 257–270. Corfu.earscirev. 3–10. 1999. doi: 10. Baldo. Monfret.2004. G.. Jaillard. Fontboté. J. Peru: Terre et Environnement. p. R. and Hoskin. Kontak..J. and Miller. Thomaz Filho. V.B. and Maresch. September/October 2009 . v. doi: 10.1016/j. Dasch.. Chiaradia. and Torsvik.C.12. E. J. 160. Schaltegger.. G. Paleozoic paleogeographic and depositional developments on the central proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana: Their importance to hydrocarbon accumulation: Journal of South American Earth Sciences.A. de la Roche. N... Carlotto.. E. Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic plutonism and related rifting in the Eastern Cordillera of Peru: Gottingen.B. D.. 12. 1999. J.CO. J. 73–112.. Cardenas. p.precamres. J.. González Casado...M.J.. and Jesinkey. 2002.1016/S1342937X(05)70976-X. Dunstan.. Geology and ore deposits of the Central Andes: Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication. Geological and structural setting. 226. geochronology. and Gahagan.1126/science.2.. F. T. doi: 10....E. 165. 2004.. doi: 10. Lavenu. v. Closure temperature in cooling geochronological and petrological systems: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. Résumé étendu. ORSTROM Collection Colloques et Séminaires.B. Bolivia and northernmost Chile. Hanchar. B. and Alvarado. and Inger. 703–726.. E.H. Casquet. doi: 10. 2000. and Sato. p.CO. p. Yuen. P..A. 259–274..A.J.3.. E.H.0. 219–236. Cordani. U/Pb detrital zircon geochronology and Nd isotopes from Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Maranon complex: Insights on the proto-Andean tectonic evolution of the eastern Peruvian Andes: V South American Symposium on Isotope Geology (Punta del Este. Collins. Craddock. Carboniferous orogenic gold deposits at Pataz. 12.017. p. 1145–1148. C. C. Cardona. M. eds.. Hansen. 1986. in Kulm. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating of Grenvillian metamorphism in Western Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina): Correlation with the Arequipa-Antofalla craton and constraints on the extent of the Precordillera Terrane: Gondwana Research. doi: 10.. D. 97.. Laubacher. v. W. and Frost.F. and Schobbenhaus. p.V. 2007. J. Spikings. A. 31st International Geological Congress.G. and Frank.. Haeberlin. 1993.-A. Late Triassic– Early Jurassic continental extension in southwestern Gondwana: Tectonic segmentation and pre-break-up rifting: Journal of South American Earth Sciences.D.A. B.1016/ j. D. B.. and Tindle.004. 167–173.P.. J. 182 p. paragenesis... Carlotto. I. 46–56. 67–81. G. and Marocco. 2000. in Janelidze.K. G. R..gsapubs. Gutjahr. 99. p. C. p. Terra Australis Orogen: Rodinia breakup and development of the Pacific and Iapetus margins of Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic: Earth-Science Reviews.. G. p.J. 2000. M. v. 4th International Symposium on Andean Geodynamics. v. 70... and Purdy.A. Laubacher. IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement) Editions. in Cordani.E. Sempere. M.G. Special Publication. v.2004. 6. U. p. T. Casquet. 2033–2048.. eds. v. p. doi: 10. and Campos Neto.2006. 2005.. Pedersen.L.. 1996.. Chew. P. Langridge.. Fanning...P. 2002.. 205–220.S.B. age. Ruiz. P. Y. R. 2004. 211. Carlier.. H. R.. M. 1–10. and Farrar.. 1986. R. 19..earscirev.. VI International Association on the Genesis of Ore Deposits (IAGOD) Symposium.M.. Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside-out?: Science. Griffin. L. 257–264. K. 501 p.C.A. D. 1520–1583. D. p.. Nutman. p.. E. Paleozoic Laurentia-Gondwana interaction and the origin of the Appalachian-Andean mountain system: Geological Society of America Bulletin.J. v.. Chavez. Germany.H. and Briceno-Guarupe. 29.J. Foster. R. doi: 10. Caractères généraux de l’évolution géologique des Andes péruviennes: Travaux et Documents de l’ORSTOM. 183–210. J.. v. and Belousova. v. Lower Paleozoic relative motion of the Arequipa block and Gondwana: Paleomagnetic evidence from Sierra de Almeida of Northern Chile: Tectonics. L.. D. van der Pluijm... A. Harris.. in Hanchar.. Milani.W. L. Dumitru. west Norwegian Caledonides: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology.A.W. 2003.V. A. in Coward. 1994. 40. and Tvalchralidze.M. doi: 10. Pearson. Rodinia descendants in South America: Precambrian Research.G.2008. K. 1990. 267–287. 252... Franzese. M.. in Skinner. Sandeman.... v.1409. P. Woodman. 524–529.J.. Eastern Andean Cordillera. P. 122. Leterrier. v. and Sacks. 1409– 1412. M. Schaltegger.P. C. 101–116. J. F.022. 1973. 36. Díaz-Martínez.D.2033. Peru. L.B. I. R. p. B.G. M..M.. 15. Rapela. 47–69.D. 2007. G. v. Cawood.T. McCausland. Dahlquist. Horn. v.. v.. W.. and Kominz. Eastern Andean Cordillera. 1–29...A. 1991.. P. 85. A. Fanning. 6th International Symposium on Andean Geodynamics (ISAG Barcelona). Rapela. and Dunning. E..06. Corfu.R... Skjerlie. Cawood. M.D. F. Precise elemental and isotope ratio determination by simultaneous solution nebulization and laser ablation-ICP-MS: Application to U-Pb geochronology: Chemical Geology. Arenas. R.1093/petrology/42. 316–335.A. 113. and Dumont. McBride.1016/0895-9811(92) 90046-2. Barra.06. V. L. p. 2008... Breakup of a supercontinent between 625 Ma and 555 Ma: New evidence and implications for continental histories: Earth and Planetary Science Letters.1016/0009-2541(80)90020-0. and Buchan.A. v. Cawood. 217–256.0. 1980. v. and Versical.. p. U-Pb geochronologic evidence for the evolution of the Gondwanan margin of the north-central Andes: Geological Society of America Bulletin.M..J. de Haller. 2006.1016/j. P.. Saint Malo. p.... P. 6. and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists.. and Marocco. 275–283. 82.. V.. Geochemical characteristics of collision-zone magmatism. v.org on January 20.04... v. p. p.. v. T. T. Université de Grenoble. 2002.. Košler. eds. and Hussong.. R. 106. Caracteres generales de la evolución geológica de los Andes Peruanos: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico del Perú. v. Cordani. Pankhurst. and Dahlquist.. M. T. P. B. A-type granites and related rocks: Evolution of a concept. J.R. Valencia. p. 2005. 358–362.C. Barnes. 2007..B.. 2006. M. Rudnick. I. Moritz. doi: 10. 2003. Davidson.... p.1016/S0895-9811(01) 00029-3. Frost.W.W. Dalziel. U.. p. A.. 1981.L.1016/ S0009-2541(99)00168-0.... 7.. doi: 10.A.. U. 249–279.. Gans.F. Subsolidus and partial melting reactions in the quartz-excess CaO+MgO+Al2 O3 +SiO2 +H2 O system under waterexcess and water-deficient conditions to 10 kb: Some implications for the origin of peraluminous melts from mafic rocks: Journal of Petrology. p.M.W. 1984.. D. L. p.. N. Jackson. v. D. p. 1988. 1980.011.J... v. 313 p.09. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Gutscher. Crustal melting in the lower parts of island arcs: An example from the Bremanger Granitoid Complex.. D. Regional shortening fabrics in eastern North America: Far-field stress transmission from the Appalachian-Ouachita orogenic belt: Tectonics.1130/ 0016-7606(2001)113<0443:OICFTL>2.V. F. R.H.. 1984. Mpodozis. Deciphering the tectonic evolution of the Peruvian segment of the Gondwanan margin: Paris.G. 143. D. p. doi: 10. N. Trace element modelling of pelite-derived granites: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. and geochemistry of the orogenic gold deposits at the Pataz province.. E.1016/ j. M... L. R. 69. Hoskin. 443–453.. C.. E.L.. Carlotto.2005..M. v.. Fallas transformates PermoTriásicas: La falla Patacancha-Tamburco (sur del Perú): Resúmenes XIII Congreso Peruano de Geología. and Thompson. L. p. C. and de la Rosa.F. Cenozoic formation of the central Andes: A geophysical perspective.1016/j.H. p. Brito Neves.. v. p. D. W.2.A.P. v.. Dodson. R. Grandclaude. 2006. v. and Carlotto. p. p. problems and prospects: Lithos.1. J.... 269–279. A geochemical classification of granitic rocks: Journal of Petrology. U. 119. E. Hérail.2004.O.J. S.. 2002. 110... SE Peru and NW Bolivia. doi: 10. ed. W. Whitehouse. 164. 2008. doi: 10. Harris. A. Collision tectonics: The Geological Society of London. and Spalletti... 1–25.1016/j. E. Jacay. C. 281–310. Clark. Hoffman. Mišković. Linking accretionary orogenesis with supercontinent assembly: EarthScience Reviews. Fontboté.A.1016/j. J. M. E.003.. v.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0255:BUDANP> 2. 243–252. Bonin. J. Whitsett. and Hf and Pb isotope data of the Raúl-Condestable iron oxide-copper-gold deposit: Central coast of Peru: Economic Geology. Couch. P. v.A.. 53. Baby.018. doi: 10. M. P. Dalla Salda. Pérou) [Ph. K. 469–500. Frank. Gerya.12. v.3. 255–258. 2001. U. Geological Society of America Bulletin. France): Paris. Structures of the continental margin in Peru and Chile.2. Gramch. doi: 10.M. and McDonough. Tectonic evolution of the Andes of Ecuador. and Rodríguez. Gohrbandt. Galindo. Cordani. C.. v.. M.O.A.C. Galindo. p. C. Crustal evolution of the South American platform based on Nd isotopic systematics on granitoid rocks: Episodes..D. Baltica upside down: A new plate tectonic model for Rodinia and the Iapetus Ocean: Geology.. H. D. Argentina: Evidence for late Neoproterozoic opening of the Clymene Ocean?: Precambrian Research. v. A......M.: Stuttgart. B.2. R. 159 p. J. A. C.. 1993. A. A. Huehn.. J. 2001. doi: 10.2007. Haeberlin. Baldo. C.Z. 1992.R.. doi: 10. p. and Cosca. p. p. and Sánchez.F..07. V.... 2007... R.J. Kontak.. 1980. 3rd International Symposium on Andean Geodynamics (ISAG. P.. Clark.11. v. Dalmayrac.. Dymond. R. Brito-Neves... and Archibald.J. 27. A classification of volcanic and plutonic rocks using R1–R2 diagram and major-element analyses and its relationships with current nomenclature: Chemical Geology.. eds. B. Boletín 12.1130/B26080.. Carlier.001. France. J. Atlas of zircon textures. 30.M. Forsythe.. 2001.A.L. James..H. U. 85. 101. A.A. E. 19. Extended abstracts. B. S.epsl.. Bond. C. 14. 1991.CO.L. D.. Thermomechanical modelling of slab detachment: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 1992.. and Mišković. C.precamres... doi: 10. D.. J. 42. J. Gil. M. Cárdenas. p. 108–126.A. IRD Editions (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement). 154. p.. and Jaillard. Ellis. J. B. P. Uruguay). p...1130/0016-7606(1994)106<0243:PLGIAT> 2. p.. v. v... Fontignie.B. Évolution andine et raccourcissement au niveau de Cusco (13°–16°S... Jackson.A. From Rodinia to Gondwana: A review of the available evidence from South America: Gondwana Research.1016/0012-821X(84) 90017-7. Arculus. v. 319–322. 9...J. Chew. A. Opening Iapetus: Constraints from the Laurentian margin in Newfoundland: Geological Society of America Bulletin. p.... Tintaya. and D’Agrella-Filho.... 208–211.S. J. doi: 10. doi: 10. Nickeson. Y.1029/92TC01106... 481–559. W. Nazca Plate: Crustal formation and Andean convergence: Geological Society of America Memoir.W.. doi: 10. 2011 Mišković et al.007. p. R. Andean subduction styles and their effect on thermal structure and interplate coupling: Journal of South American Earth Sciences. Ellis. Refrigeration of the western Cordilleran lithosphere during Laramide shallow-angle subduction: Geology. 2006. S. V...1007/ BF00310881.G.

.... K. K. p. Puncoviscana folded belt in northwestern Argentina: Testimony of Late Proterozoic Rodinia fragmentation and pre-Gondwana collisional episodes: International Journal of Earth Sciences.. Isoplot 3.W. and Chew. 71. Fornari. v. Paris)..W. 375.. p.. v. Gruner. and Petersen. p. ed. and Halliday. and Tomasi.. P... Meert. S. R. La chaîne hercynienne au Pérou et en Bolivie: Premiers résultats: Cahiers de l’ORSTOM. 635–643.. 7. v. 1971.D.. v... D. Episodic volcanism in Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula: Chronology of magmatism associated with the break-up of Gondwana: Journal of Petrology. Buge. K. 9. doi: 10. Martinez. S.. Davidson...1016/ j... T.A.. U/Pb radiochronology of two granitic plutons from the eastern Cordillera (Peru)—Extent of Permian magmatic activity and consequences: International Journal of Earth Sciences. 142. R. Li. 54–67.1016/ S0895-9811(02)00005-6.. 236–243. P.. Marcet. G...3. Clark. Ludwig.009.. doi: 10. Mégard. p. eds.. D.J. J. R..1144/ gsjgs. Tectonic discrimination of granitoids: Geological Society of America Bulletin. p.. 1989. J. P. and Kelley. 2005.. Crystallization and differentiation in abyssal tholeiites and gabbros from mid-oceanic ridges: Earth and Planetary Science Letters.M.. A. 99–120. Natapov. 361–365. Košler. 324– 328. Oligocene and Miocene continental sedimentation. 336. Cobbing. Late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic magmatism in the Cordillera de Carabaya. and Tilton. Blanc. série géologie 3. Kontak. T. Petford.1093/petrology/ 41.1525-1314. Schaltegger. 1999.1144/gsjgs.D.B. configuration and break-up history of Rodinia: A synthesis: Precambrian Research.. Pearce. D. doi: 10.. H..D. 464–467. Bonhomme. S. eds. in Zussman. in Pitcher. Marocco. v. P. The making and unmaking of a supercontinent: Rodinia revisited: Tectonophysics. Loewy. 27–39.. and Hoskin. 235–238. p. U. and Pfluger. P. G. and Vernikovsky. evidence from Chilean Frontal Cordilleran batholiths (28°S to 31°S): Geological Society of America Bulletin. U.D.. 2003. F. Noble and McKee.2. IRD Editions (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement.... 76–97.. D. p. Geological Society of America Bulletin. and Sruoga. I. Sigt. 37. The proto-Andean margin of Gondwana: The Geological Society of London. 225–238. Kay. ed.. B. J. Pankhurst. Kay.0055.5. J. Atherton. S. 21. W. M. and Carlier.. 7. 1996. tectonics..1093/petrology/37. Cobbing.. Peru. A. p. Martignole. 53.W. v.. 1999. 15–28. 36. Dehydrationmelting of biotite gneiss and quartz amphibolite from 3 to 15 kbar: Journal of Petrology. M.Downloaded from gsabulletin.M.. 17th Annual Goldschmidt Conference. A.CO. and Henry. and Rapela.0: A geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel: Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication 4. doi: 10. Peacock. and Tindle.W. v. and Jemielita. Litherland. 2000. Fitzsimons.1. R. doi: 10. v.. 67.J. v. J.J. Cathodoluminescence in geosciences: Berlin...A. Paris). K. 9. and SeydouxGuillaume.1016/0895-9811 (96)00028-4. P. X-ray fluorescence spectrography.1130/0016-7606(1992)104 <0999:LPTTEO>2. 1. Assembly. P. Barbin. v..W. southeastern Peru: Geochronology and petrochemistry: Journal of South American Earth Sciences. J. 1988. Magmatism at a plate edge: The Peruvian Andes: London. p.. The Guayape-Papalutla fault system: A continuous Cretaceous structure from southern Mexico to the Chortís block? Tectonic implications: Comment: Geology.W..W..R. E. and Baadsgaard.1130/ 0016-7606(1986)97<241:ZUAOSI>2. J.1016/ j. 139–143. 36–44. 160. M. R. v. H. Mégard. A. p. 327–341. M. v. Étude géologique d’une transversale des Andes au niveau du Pérou Central [Ph..D. O.1130/B25226. 104. 605–625.021. p.J.. and Košler. C. in Pitcher. F. 5 p. Rapid magma production rates. eds. A.. 2003. A.. Lacombe..M..x. v. Riley. V.D.. Magmatism as a probe to the Neogene shallowing of the Nazca plate beneath the modern Chilean flat-slab: Journal of South American Earth Sciences.. 143–177. Collins.1016/0895-9811(90)90004-K.N. and Strong.D. Keppie. doi: 10. p. A. 121–140. Norway). D. Springer.. Y. A. Perú. C. Fanning. J. Blanc. 55–64. doi: 10.. 86–99.1. and Kay. p. Eastern Australia: Journal of Petrology.J.D. M.gsapubs. 25. J. Marocco. 101. 7. E.145. v. Connelly. L.K. 264 p. and Torsvik. in Skinner. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Crochet. The Miocene metallogenic belt of central and northern Peru. T.. C. F. in Hanchar.1. 415–455....1016/0895-9811(88) 90001-6. D.H. Z.J. D. M.M.. E. Gotze. A. L. 1978.. Mpodozis.CO. 1985. doi: 10. Karlstrom... M. and Keppie.1046/j.04. 213–230.J. Laurentia-Gondwana connections before Pangea: Geological Society of America.. doi: 10.. 310 p. Clark.. Bogdanova. Laubacher. K. Aspden. Miyashiro. 267–276.. 97. 145–170. and Beckinsale. J. and S-type magmatism in the southeastern Andes of Peru (Crucero Basin): Geodynamic implications: Journal of South American Earth Sciences. N.P. 2003. B. M.1130/ 0016-7606(1989)101<0635:TDOG>2.. and Beckinsale. Kempe..J. M. S. B. Zircon U-Pb ages of super-units in the Coastal Batholith. p. Mpodozis. D. J. doi: 10. 241–254. 29. 1999.C. Kennedy. R. Schaltegger. Archibald..J.. 36.D.L. C. V.. V. and Bahlburg. 336. 123–133. 85. Special Paper. 1986...A.. J. Classification of igneous rock series: Journal of Geology. p. V. 15. p.. W. Jaillard. p.1130/G24949C. Relevance of cathodoluminescence for interpretation of U-Pb zircon ages (with an example of application to a study of zircons from the Saxonian Granulite complex.D. Geology and ore deposits of the Central Andes: Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication.. R.A. A. Rey. Special Publication.605.. C. A. v. Kronz. Hartmann. v.08. R. De Waele.precamres. Abstract 672. Lancelot.E. v.... Landenberger.E. Tosdal. 1985. Commentaire d’une coupe schématique a travers les Andes centrales du Pérou: Revue de Géographie Physique et de Géologie Dynamique.1007/s005310050247. U.1016/S0009-2541 (02)00152-3. Feist..1016/0040-1951(96)00032-7. Wörner. 999–1014. and Renaud. 171–187. Blackie and Son.M. V. in Pagel..1130/0091-7613(1989)017<0324:LPTJSM> 2. Carboniferous plutonism along the Eastern Peruvian Cordillera: Implications for the Late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic Gondwanan tectonics: Barcelona. doi: 10. Mukasa. p. Kontak. Pb isotope systematics as a guide to crustal involvement in the generation of the Coastal Batholith.P. Interrogating a paleo-cratonic margin—The Peruvian Cordillera Oriental batholiths: Cologne.. B. Maniar. v. Laubacher.. F. 2004. 1999. and Sylvester.M. 259.. doi: 10...-E.2003. p. p. Mourier.. 1999.. C. LaurentiaGondwana connections before Pangea: Geological Society of America. 267–279..M.. M. F.. 1988.A. and Paredes. Laubacher.3..J. v. Sebrier. Noblet. p. v.. Special Paper... L. in Ramos. 109–153. Keppie.B.2.CO. v. v. Geology and ore deposits of the Central Andes: Society of Economic Geologists.X. 17. Special Publication. p...G. v.. Geologic and isotopic constraints on the age and origin of auriferous-quartz veins in the Parcoy mining district. 6th International Symposium on Andean Geodynamics. S..A. p.. 2007. and Keppie.. E. M.-P. Keppie. The San Nicolás batholith of coastal Peru: Early Palaeozoic continental arc or continental rift magmatism?: The Geological Society of London. 1973.1.. 6th International Symposium on Andean Geodynamics. 88. p. 153–193. Hole.J. doi: 10... Norrish.0. and Collins..2006. J. Thrane.. 1990. Magmatism at a plate edge: The Peruvian Andes: London.. Blackie and Son.. September/October 2009 1323 ..J.. Dalziel.. in Ramos.. 1990..A.L. p. 2007. Fuck. Earth Sciences. Geology and ore deposits of the Central Andes: Society of Economic Geologists.O. underplating and remelting in the Andes: Isotopic evidence from northerncentral Peru (9–11 °S): Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 1992. doi: 10. Late Paleozoic to Triassic evolution of the Gondwana margin. S. IRD Editions (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement. and Martelat. Special Publication.R.. J. p. 1967. 1989.. v.. A. ed. p. A GIS-based isotope map of the Central Andes (13°S–28°S) and implication for ore formation: Barcelona. ed. Pankhurst. 1984. 79. H... doi: 10. 1991.P. v. and Dalziel. F. Tambareau.A. Seilacher. A.CO. Lefranc. and Cassard. Connelly.. Pisarevsky. v. M. P. J.B.. Pataz. J. 1994.E. Vidal. Pankhurst. 2005. A. doi: 10. J.. S. G. p. R. 508–511..M.. eds.0027. Macfarlane.N... Sureda.R.. 1996. 69–78.H.. Odyssey of terranes in the Iapetus and Rheic Oceans during the Paleozoic. N. LeHuray...P. 39–57. M. v. p.. p. E. Mamani. and Piccoli. v.F. and Ramos. in Skinner. 1998. Petersen. and Beard... Hanchar. Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks: Journal of Petrology..2007..3. and Chappel. M.. and Taquet. p. U. 2002.00417. A..-M..A..-Y. 116. R. J. Magmatic evidence for Neogene lithospheric evolution of the central Andean “flat-slab” between 30°S and 32°S: Tectonophysics. Loewy. Étude géologique des Andes du Pérou central: Contribution à l’étude géologique des Andes: Mémoires de l’ORSTOM. 1990.F.. p. Ramos...A. E. Lead isotopic provinces of the central Andes inferred from ores and crustal rocks: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists. 261–288. 2002. H. J. Isotope evidence for the origin of Andean granites: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Mukasa.M... 1999. G. Northern Peru: Newsletters on Stratigraphy. p. 191. J. Academic Press. 2003. I. Wirth.org on January 20. Farrar. 71 p.. Jacobs. Ohnenstetter.J.. K... eds.jsg. Harris. doi: 10. 2011 U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the proto-Andean granitoids of Peru Jones. 11. and Ewing.J.. p. B.. v. Mégard. D. J. R. Palaeozoic continental margin tectonics in southern Armorica: Journal of the Geological Society..V. Hirsch. Kay. 1970. doi: 10.. Puno.N. 1857–1880. 956–983.W. v. Mišković. Mišković. Ernst. S.S.148.A. Nasdala.J. I. p. Paredes.. G. eds. V.H. B. 1978.S. Physical methods in determinative mineralogy: New York. v. Pease.147.M.L. Puncoviscana Formation of northwestern and central Argentina: Passive margin or foreland basin deposits?. B. 2008.. Late Paleozoic to Jurassic silicic magmatism at the Gondwanaland margin: Analogy to the Middle Proterozoic in North America?: Geology. Patiño Douce. p. doi: 10... Cappetta.P. v. 3.. and Brook. 41.G.. Lengauer. Regional-scale Grenvillian-age UHT metamorphism in the MollendoCamana Block (basement of the Peruvian Andes): Journal of Metamorphic Geology. Supplement. The rift associated Permo-Triassic magmatism of the Eastern Cordillera: A precursor to the Andean orogeny. Moullade... 7.. C. Comparison of paleostress magnitudes from calcite twins with contemporary stress magnitudes and frictional sliding criteria in the continental crust: Mechanical implications: Journal of Structural Geology. 2008. G... v. p.. p. J. Mukasa.. in Skinner. P.. 1988. doi: 10. V. and Wolf... S.2.. p. 2000. 147. Mégard.1.. M.. B. 1996. Atherton.R. Dalmayrac. p.. 1931. E.. Derivation of A-type granites from a dehydrated charnockitic lower crust: Evidence from the Chaelundi Complex. v.. J. C... doi: 10. 161–214. Atherton. D. 707–738. Laubacher. P. 1995. 148. p. 2003. R.B. Pons..2. 169–197. Eastern Laurentia in Rodinia: Constraints from whole-rock Pb and U/Pb geochronology: Tectonophysics. doi: 10. J. 147.J. v. U. R. v. C.. and Mpodozis. v. Macfarlane. v. The metamorphic belts of Ecuador: British Geological Survey: Overseas Memoir.D. S..1016/S0040-1951 (03)00338-X. A. Omarini.W. thesis]: Université de Montpellier. v.. Gladkochub. 39. D.. v. 1967. Peru: Implications for magmatic and tectonic processes: Geological Society of America Bulletin. A. Bengtson. Nasdala. Farrar. J.. G...A. An orphaned basement block: The Arequipa-Antofalla basement of the central Andean margin of South America: Geological Society of America Bulletin.1016/S00401951(03)00342-1. W. p.S. T. and Gower. Germany. 179–210. v.M. Lu. P. Annealing radiation damage and the recovery of cathodoluminescence: Chemical Geology. 383 p. Magmatic and metallogenic evolution of the Central Andes. doi: 10. C. 19. G.. J. S. Present trends and the future of zircon in geochronology: laser ablation ICPMS. 86. S.1016/ 0012-821X(69)90050-8. 335–345. The Upper Cretaceous–Lower Tertiary marine to continental transition in the Bagua basin.. and Abbruzzi. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.. U. 375.S. p. Shido.

V. M. A. Carlotto.1007/BF01046539. Structure. Powell. 71. géochimie et géochimie isotopique des roches intrusives sur un transect des Andes du Pérou Central. 56. an exotic block to Gondwana: Review of a historical success and the present problems: Gondwana Research. J. v. 1992. southern Peru: Implication for Pangaea palaeogeography: Tectonophysics..08.1029/92JB01291. 1–24. Slab detachment in continental collision zones: An analysis of controlling parameters: Geophysical Research Letters. J. R. and Smith. 213–227. Platt.2..12. Carta Geológica Nacional. McCormick. 1999. M.2. Chapman and Hall. v. Roddick.R.3. L. R.. 1999.. Late Proterozoic-early Paleozoic of South America: A collisional history: Episodes. R.. Jacay. p.P.S.: London. 1983.03..C.G. K.. thesis]: Université de Paris VI. Xu. E. p.. and Tankard. doi: 10.1111/ j.. 29.A. 889– 892..1130/ 0091-7613(1998)026<0707:EEOTPA>2. Gastel. G.W. eastern China: SHRIMP zircon U–Pb dating and geochemistry: Chemical Geology. L. Fontboté. 287 p. 63. Petroleum basins of South America: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir.1751-908X.E. 2006. doi: 10.J. and Rankin.Downloaded from gsabulletin. Bartholomew. v.1146/ annurev. 1996. p. p. Sánchez. and Cárdenas. 365–378.1130/0091-7613(1993)021<0889:PCOTOT> 2. Soler. J.S. Rioja. Fornari.J. R. Rizzotto. p. Bierlein.1016/j.M. M..A..1995.. p. Conaghan. 1974.A. in Harmon.. p. v. Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie.. J. and Kay. G.233–17. P. 1979. A. D. p. p. eds. Boletín Serie A.L. P. Soler.. p.W. D.1016/j.. T. C. 2005. p... v. M. v.. p.1016/S0040-1951 (01)00211-6.W. Triassic rifting and associated basalts in the Cuyo basin....2003. p. and Welsink.2005..P. A. K. 153–181.. U.C. and Lochmann. Cárdenas. 245–259. 1997.. Dehydration melting of metabasalt at 8–32 kbar: Implications for continental growth and crust-mantle recycling: Journal of Petrology. A. F.F. C. C.CO. Paleomagnetism of Mesozoic rocks from the central Andes of southern Peru— Importance of rotations in the development of the Bolivian orocline: Journal of Geophysical Research... R.. 22. K. Rapela.C. U. A crucial role for slab break-off in the generation of major mineral deposits: Insights from central and eastern Australia: Mineralium Deposita. 1–18.. v.B.earth. Tectonic evolution of the Andes. Ratajeski.L.1016/ 0301-9268(95)00026-7. and Palma. 11.. 1991. 2011 Mišković et al. Thermochronology of allochthonous terranes in Ecuador: Unravelling the accretionary and post-accretionary history of the Northern Andes: Tectonophysics. and Jiménez.J. Tectonic evolution of South America: Rio de Janeiro. Rakotosolofo.. metamorphism and geochronology of the Arequipa Massif of coastal Peru: Journal of the Geological Society. Tollo. 336.. western Bolivia and northern Chile: Tectonics. F. 1998.. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.M. Ma. v..1016/S0012-821X(97)00091-5. v.1144/gsjgs. ed. 2002. in Miller. 413. G..tecto. Rast. v. 1998. 207–230.. and Carlier.A. 94..x... M. Ton. Tectonic evolution of South America: 31st International Geological Congress. 1009–1026. R. p. doi: 10. 235 p... Andean magmatism and its tectonic setting: Geological Society of America.. Wernicke.M. v.J. v.1007/ s00410-004-0632-9.. 1011–1036. central Peru: Journal of South American Earth Sciences.1144/gsjgs.. Turner. A. The basement of the Central Andes: The Arequipa and related terranes: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Dissolution. J.. A. C. and Handler. M.. doi: 10. Eastman.. v. Saavedra. and Watson. and Cosca. R..V.jsames.. v. S. Streckeisen.B. R. v. A.N. 2095–2098. Coward.. Permian-Triassic Pangean basins and foldbelts along the Panthalassan margin of Gondwana: Geological Society of America Memoir 184. J. E-an.1016/S1342-937X(05)70894-7. Sempere. V. J.. 1988.A. and Ruffet.. Ramos. Kay. F.M. 85. 1999. 1984.M. 16. 515–522.1029/97GL01939. 2004. p. eds. paragenesis. Geología de los cuadrángulos de Bagua Grande..A. p. doi: 10.. A. The Amazon craton. Cortés.L. v..1016/j. Petrologia e Ambiente Tectônico do Grupo Nova Brasilândia-Rondônia [Master’s thesis]: Porto Alegre.043... 2nd ed. Sempere. New York. Tassinari. 17. doi: 10. doi: 10.. V. 14-h. 174–182..R. W. The nature and origin of granite. Early evolution of the Proto-Andean margin of South America: Geology.M. doi: 10. Hankins. p. doi: 10. Fontboté. J. 2005.M. doi: 10. 1996. 2004. Implications géodynamiques et metallogeniques [Ph..C.249.. R. 31st International Geological Congress. p. 427–441. Origin and evolution of the zoned La Posta-type plutons. P.. 707–710.M. 1990. 150. Winkler. doi: 10. Classification and nomenclature of plutonic rocks recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences subcommission on the systematics of igneous rocks: International Journal of Earth Sciences. 136. and Shaw.S. 155. Veevers. 3–38. in Tankard... Tosdal.. p.A. M. Madras. Thomaz Filho. Gehrels.3.P.031207. doi: 10. P.W. 22. Estimation of mass absorption coefficient: The American Mineralogist. Geowissenschaftliches Lateinamerika-Kolloquium: Teil I. v. 2008. The nature and origin of Cordilleran magmatism: Geological Society of America Memoir 174. R. p.. 21–51. 14.C. Formation of intra-arc volcanosedimentary basins in the western flank of the central Peruvian Andes during Late Cretaceous oblique subduction: Field evidence and constraints from U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes: International Journal of Earth Sciences. 136 p. Schaltegger. Wong. M. W.C... Zeil.1093/petrology/40. Geochronology and Nd isotopic data of Grenville-age rocks in the Colombian Andes: New constraints for Late Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic paleocontinental reconstructions of the Americas: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 1994. J. Pétrographie. P.1016/j.G. Cuyania. 211–226.1. 387 p.. p.. B.C. v. Milani. Sánchez.chemgeo. E. V. 1996. Jaillard. in Veevers...155. 1988. v... W. M. D. Schreiber...124304.1011. 36. p. Weinheim. Pitcher. Milani.. p. p. K..G.J. 62..gsapubs. doi: 10.. 42.W. W.. B.M.0105.. Néraudeau. Ramos. Walawender. A. eds.M. 1967. p. R.. Von Quadt.. doi: 10. p. and Lafon. SE Spain: Journal of Petrology. p.X. J. and Powel. V.P... 1999. Nuevo datos K-Ar en algunas rocas del Perú: Boletín de la Sociedad Geológical del Perú. 114. p.K. W.. v. p. v. G. 1324 Roperch. and Ye.B. P. Jumbilla..J. v. v. M. 1069–1072. U. E. p..M. Frank. Palaeomagnetic results from the Early Permian Copacabana Group. Zen. J.A. A. 1995. 1997. 2002. Carlotto. 1991. doi: 10. Li.A. doi: 10. 12-h.. M.. Hughes. 2007.J.018. 1993.A.J.1029/95TC03248. Cowan. 1993. F. and physicochemistry of gold quartz veins hosted by plutonic rocks in the Pataz region: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists. S. southern and Baja California... 13-g.J. and Johnston. doi: 10. 287–299. A. trace element and REE analyses: Geostandards Newsletter. Contribution à l’étude du magmatisme associe aux zones de subduction. L. 19. 11–171. S. 113–137. p. 1995. p..1007/s00126-007-0137-3.. 238–259..10.W.. C.. Bettencourt. doi: 10. 58. Corfu. J. Meier. 773–786. O.. 36.tb00147. S. 195–220. Special Paper. E. Three nature zircon standards for U-Th-Pb. geological models and implications for isotopic inheritance: Geological Society of America Special Paper 315.. Ries. 13-h. Baldo. 2007. A. S.1007/ s00531-005-0464-5. 43–56. T. 1995.. Spikings. Vos. Leimebamba y Bolívar (hojas 12-g. M. V. Geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton: Episodes. 950 p. Ramos.2007. A. M. Syntectonic magnetization of the mid-Palaeozoic Sierra Grande Formation: Further constraints on the tectonic evolution of Patagonia: Journal of the Geological Society. J. N.. v. Sánchez Zavala.. Pankhurst.J. v. 15. p.D. and Cobbold. Shackleton. N. 148. Tassinari. 7. and Campos Neto. and Glazner.. 1983.P.. C. H. Schreiber.M. Tait. M. The Alleghenian orogeny in eastern North America: The Geological Society of London. The fit between Amazonia.. and Rapela.. 2000. R. Sisson.G. in Cordani.. 2000.. and Fontboté. v. and Spiegel. Clinkenbeard.M. R.Y.G. 128. v.. 21. 1–23.W.. Z. Wiedenbeck. Ramos. and Rosenfeld. W. v. 635–685.. September/October 2009 . 40.. 41–95. Rosas.. Middle Jurassic volcanism in the Northern and Central Andes: Revisita Geológica de Chile. 24. 1995. eds. v.. J.A.tecto. 827–842. 345. J.B. Suarez. p. doi: 10.B. N..P. v. Paleozoic terranes of the Central Argentine-Chilean Andes: Tectonics. J.. D.C.2007. M.. G. Magmatism associated with orogenic collapse of the Betic-Alboran Domain.. N.. Patiño Douce. 105–114...S.136.R.. doi: 10. Special Publication. Watson.J. La Lima und Buldibuyo): Heidelberger Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen.. central Argentina.. Rapp. R..E.S. McElhinny. v. Mesoproterozoic tectonic correlations between eastern Laurentia and the western border of the Amazon Craton: Precambrian Research. G. H.1016/S1342-937X(05)71081-9.. Soler. Restrepo-Pace. 1328–1347. Aleinikoff. 24. V..007. in Anderson. Neoproterozoic A-type granitoids of the central and southern Appalachians: Intraplate magmatism associated with episodic rifting of the Rodinian supercontinent: Precambrian Research. 1997. in Cordani. D..P. 240. Paleomagnetic constraints on timing of the Neoproterozoic breakup of Rodinia and the Cambrian formation of Gondwana: Geology.. p. Kelly. 399. Lu-Hf.. Casquet. Early cretaceous granitoids and their implications for the collapse of the Dabie orogen.. Romeuf. Melbourne..A. Late Permian– Middle Jurassic lithospheric thinning in Peru and Bolivia. p. and Campos Neto. 5.. Geologic setting. M.... and Galindo. and its bearing on Andean tectonics: Tectonophysics. Polliand.. D. v.CO. A. Zur Genese von Goldquarzgängen der Pataz-Region im Rahmen der geologischen Entwicklung der Ostkordillere Nordperus (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Distrikte Parcoy. and Park. Thomaz Filho. Sadowski. Wardlaw. Centeno García.. P. p. v. E.. and Aleman. v. p. Allmendinger. eds... 2007.precamres.P.. Griffin. Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico.J. and Macambira. McDonnell. C. J. A. C..002. Skjerlie. 97. 13-i. 855–880. Phase relations of peraluminous granitic rocks and their petrogenetic implications: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.R. doi: 10.. U.L... J.36.. Macambira. 26. L...E. E. v.. Baltica and Laurentia during the Mesoproterozoic assemblage of the supercontinent Rodinia: Gondwana Research.023. doi: 10.P. Rosas. Jordan.H. Geraldes. 1986. v.D.. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes. p. and Heithersay. S. doi: 10. and Ortega Gutiérrez. Lonya Grande. 891–931.. doi: 10. v. H. Review of Paleozoic stratigraphy of México and its role in the Gondwana-Laurentia connections: Geological Society of America Special Paper.. p. and Nowell. p. E.. Ramos. v. 101–107.. C. p. 15-h): Lima. 1995. eastern Peninsular Ranges Batholith. E. 5.S.G. G.02.. George. Phanerozoic evolution of Bolivia and adjacent regions.0195. S. 635–661.M. Sadowski.. 193–202. Allé.6. Aguirre. Gunn. and Wortel..J. 246–254.. C. v.. Féraud. Arispe.1029/ TC005i006p00855. Powell.. G.J.. J. 1989. 195–214. 231–242. Fluid absent melting of a layered crustal protolith: Implications for the generation of anatectic granites: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology.org on January 20.. Chachapoyas. MANUSCRIPT RECEIVED 17 JUNE 2008 REVISED MANUSCRIPT RECEIVED 10 NOVEMBER 2008 MANUSCRIPT ACCEPTED 12 NOVEMBER 2008 Printed in the USA Geological Society of America Bulletin. Carlier. v. W. p.. T. C. Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of the Mesozoic Pucará Basin. Rapalini.. S. Meert.. 197–217. Ruiz. Oberli.. R. Reynolds. 2004. M.. doi: 10. I.. Mpodozis. V. J.W.J... 1990. 2005. eds.S.McA. P. Das präkambrische Basement der Anden: Ein Überblick. 168–174 Ramos. Voluminous granitic magma from common basaltic sources: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. S.E. Tokyo. growth and survival of zircons during crustal fusion: Kinetic principles.1016/j. 265. P. and Bettencourt. 76..2. M. Rio de Janeiro. Pearson. T. G.