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1.1 Introduction
The causes of power quality problems are generally complex and difficult
to detect when we integrate a wind turbine to the grid. Technically speaking,
the ideal AC line supply by the utility system should be a pure sine wave of
fundamental frequency (50/60Hz). We can therefore conclude that the lack of
quality power can cause loss of production, damage of equipment or appliances
or can even be detrimental to human health. It is therefore imperative that a
high standard of power quality is maintained. This project demonstrates that
the power electronic based power conditioning using custom power devices like
P-STATCOM can be effectively utilized to improve the quality of power supplied
to the customers. Power quality and reliability cost the industry large amounts
due to mainly sags and short-term interruptions. Distorted and unwanted
voltage wave forms, too. And the main concern for the consumers of electricity
was the reliability of supply. Here we define the reliability as the continuity of
supply. The problem of distribution lines is divided into two major categories.
First group is power quality, second is power reliability. First group consists of
harmonic distortions, impulses and swells. Second group consists of voltage
sags and outages. Voltage sags is much more serious and can cause a large
amount of damage. If exceeds a few cycle, motors, robots, servo drives and
machine tools cannot maintain control of process. Transmission lines are
exposed to the forces of nature. Furthermore, each transmission line has its
load ability limit that is often determined by either stability constraints or by
thermal limits or by the dielectric limits. Even though the power quality
problem is distribution side problem, transmission lines are often having an

impact on the quality of the power supplied. It is however to be noted that while
most problems associated with the transmission systems arise due to the
forces of nature or due to the interconnection of power

systems, individual

customers are responsible for more substantial fraction of the problems of
power distributions.
The main aim of the project is to design and test and test adevice which
mitigates most of the power quality problems discussed below thereby
eliminating the disadvantages due to conventional methods using Simulink.

1.2 Power quality

The contemporary container crane industry, like many other industry
segments, is often enamored by the bells and whistles, colorful diagnostic
displays, high speed performance, and levels of automation that can be
achieved. Although these features and their indirectly related computer based
enhancements are key issues to an efficient terminal operation, we must not
forget the foundation upon which we are building. Power quality is the mortar
which bonds the foundation blocks. Power quality also affects terminal
operating economics, crane reliability, our environment, and initial investment
in power distribution systems to support new crane installations. To quote the
utility company newsletter which accompanied the last monthly issue of my
home utility billing: ‘Using electricity wisely is a good environmental and
business practice which saves you money, reduces emissions from generating
plants, and conserves our natural resources.’ As we are all aware, container
crane performance requirements continue to increase at an astounding rate.
Next generation container cranes, already in the bidding process, will require

average power demands of 1500 to 2000 kW – almost double the total average
demand three years ago. The rapid increase in power demand levels, an
increase in container crane population, SCR converter crane drive retrofits and
the large AC and DC drives needed to power and control these cranes will
increase awareness of the power quality issue in the very near future.

For the purpose of this article, we shall define power quality problems as:
‘Any power problem that results in failure or misoperation of customer
equipment, manifests itself as an economic burden to the user, or produces
negative impacts on the environment.’
When applied to the container crane industry, the power issues which degrade
power quality include:
• Power Factor
• Harmonic Distortion
• Voltage Transients
• Voltage Sags or Dips
• Voltage Swells
The AC and DC variable speed drives utilized on board container cranes
are significant contributors to total harmonic current and voltage distortion.
Whereas SCR phase control creates the desirable average power factor, DC SCR
drives operate at less than this. In addition, line notching occurs when SCR’s
commutate, creating transient peak recovery voltages that can be 3 to 4 times
the nominal line voltage depending upon the system impedance and the size of
the drives. The frequency and severity of these power system disturbances
varies with the speed of the drive. Harmonic current injection by AC and DC

Unfortunately. power demands per crane increased.drives will be highest when the drives are operating at slow speeds. the power factor essentially remains constant. increasing to its maximum value when the SCR’s are phased on to produce rated or base speed. container cranes can spend considerable time at low speeds as the operator attempts to spot and land containers. Not until the crane Population multiplied. crane builders and electrical drive System vendors avoid the issue during competitive bidding for new cranes. and static power conversion became the way of life. and harmonic current injection was minimal. did power quality issues begin to emerge. Power factor will be lowest when DC drives are operating at slow speeds or during initial acceleration and deceleration periods. Low power factor loads can also affect the voltage stability which can ultimately result in detrimental effects on the life of sensitive electronic equipment or even intermittent malfunction. Above base speed. Rather than focus on Awareness and understanding of the potential issues. either because they are totally unaware of such issues or there was no economic Consequence if power quality was not addressed. Poor power factor places a greater kVA demand burden on the utility or engine-alternator power source. and high frequency harmonic voltages and currents are all significant sources of noise and disturbance to sensitive electronic equipment It has been our experience that end users often do not associate power quality problems with Container cranes. Power quality problem solutions are . Power factor was reasonable. Even as harmonic distortion and power Factor issues surfaced. Even today. no one was really prepared. Before the advent of solid-state power supplies. AC drive voltage chopping. Voltage transients created by DC drive SCR line notching. the power quality issue is intentionally or Unintentionally ignored.

they do represent a good return on investment. do not pay the utility billings. • Transient voltage surge suppression. it most likely will not be delivered. If this article accomplishes nothing else. if any. However.available. Power quality can be improved through: • Power factor correction. if power quality is not specified. we would hope to provide that awareness. In many cases. or consider it someone else’s concern. . • Special line notch filtering. the person specifying and/or buying a container crane may not be fully aware of the potential power quality issues. in most cases. • Proper earthing systems. those involved with specification and procurement of container cranes may not be cognizant of such issues. many of those specifications which do require power quality equipment do not properly define the criteria. • Harmonic filtering. As a result. Early in the process of preparing the crane specification: • Consult with the utility company to determine regulatory or contract requirements that must be satisfied. container crane specifications may not include definitive power quality criteria such as power factor correction and/or harmonic filtering. In most cases. Although the solutions are not free. Also.

• Evaluate the economics of power quality correction not only on the present situation.1 Wind power: Wind is abundant almost in any part of the world. The . Its existence in nature caused by uneven heating on the surface of the earth as well as the earth’s rotation means that the wind resources will always be available.• Consult with the electrical drive suppliers and determine the power quality profiles that can be expected based on the drive sizes and technologies proposed for the specific project. but consider the impact of future utility deregulation and the future development plans for the terminal. CHAPTER-2 WIND ENERGY 2.

conventional ways of generating electricity using non renewable resources such
as coal, natural gas, oil and so on, have great impacts on the environment as it
contributes vast quantities of carbon dioxide to the earth’s atmosphere which

turn will cause the temperature of the earth’s surface to increase, known

as the green house effect. Hence, with the advances in science and technology,
ways of generating electricity using renewable energy resources such as the
wind are developed. Nowadays, the cost of wind power that is connected to the
grid is as cheap as the cost of generating electricity using coal and oil. Thus,
the increasing popularity of green electricity means the demand of electricity
produced by using non renewable energy is also increased accordingly.

Fig 2.1 Formation of wind due to differential heating of land and sea
2.1.1 Features of wind power systems:
There are some distinctive energy end use features of wind power systems

Most wind power sites are in remote rural, island or marine areas.
Energy requirements in such places are distinctive and do not require
the high electrical power.


A power system with mixed quality supplies can be a good match with
total energy end use i.e. the supply of cheap variable voltage power for
heating and expensive fixed voltage electricity for lights and motors.


Rural grid systems are likely to be weak (low voltage 33 KV).
Interfacing a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) in weak grids is
difficult and detrimental to the workers’ safety.


There are always periods without wind. Thus, WECS must be linked
energy storage or parallel generating system if supplies are to be

Power from the Wind:
Kinetic energy from the wind is used to turn the generator inside the
wind turbine to produced electricity. There are several factors that contribute to
the efficiency of the wind turbine in extracting the power from the wind. Firstly,
the wind speed is one of the important factors in determining how much power
can be extracted from the wind. This is because the power produced from the
wind turbine is a function of the cubed of the wind speed. Thus, the wind
speed if doubled, the power produced will be increased by eight times the
original power. Then, location of the wind farm plays an important role in order
for the wind turbine to extract the most available power form the wind.
The next important factor of the wind turbine is the rotor blade. The rotor
blades length of the wind turbine is one of the important aspects of the wind
turbine since the power produced from the wind is also proportional to the
swept area of the rotor blades i.e. the square of the diameter of the swept area.
Hence, by doubling the diameter of the swept area, the power produced
will be four fold increased. It is required for the rotor blades to be strong and
light and durable . As the blade length increases, these qualities of the rotor

blades become more elusive. But with the recent advances in fiberglass and
carbon-fiber technology, the production of lightweight and strong rotor blades
between 20 to 30 meters long is possible. Wind turbines with the size of these
rotor blades are capable to produce up to 1 megawatt of power.The relationship
between the power produced by the wind source and the velocity of the wind
and the rotor blades swept diameter is shown below.




D2 V 3wind
8 d

The derivation to this formula can be looked up in [2]. It should be noted that
some books derived the formula in terms of the swept area of the rotor blades
(A) and the air density is denoted as .
Thus, in selecting wind turbine available in the market, the best and efficient
wind turbine is the one that can make the best use of the available kinetic
energy of the wind.
Wind power has the following advantages over the traditional power plants.

Improving price competitiveness,

Modular installation,

Rapid construction,

Complementary generation,

Improved system reliability, and


the term . different parts of the typical grid-connected wind turbine. The following figures show the general layout of a typical horizontal-axis wind turbine. the transmission system. Another type of horizontal axis wind turbine is called downwind rotors which has blades rotating in back of the tower. and the yaw and control system. only the upwind rotors are used in large-scale power generation and in this report. These are generally referred to as upwind rotors. and  Vertical-axis rotors.2 Wind Turbines: There are two types of wind turbine in relation to their rotor settings. only the horizontal-axis wind turbine will be discussed since the modeling of the wind driven electric generator is assumed to have the horizontal-axis rotor. In this report. the axis of rotation are parallel to the wind direction. . The main components of a wind turbine for electricity generation are the rotor. Nowadays. and crosssection view of a nacelle of a wind turbine. the generator. The horizontal-axis wind turbine is designed so that the blades rotate in front of the tower with respect to the wind direction i.horizontalaxis wind turbine refers to the upwind rotor arrangement.2. They are:  Horizontal-axis rotors.e.

2 Main Components of Horizontal-axis Wind Turbine .Fig 2.

2. gearbox.1 Tower: It is the most expensive element of the wind turbine system. If the natural frequency of the tower lies above the blade passing frequency. electrical switch boxes. When the . which can rotate or yaw according to wind direction. The design should consider the resonant frequencies of the tower do not coincide with induced frequencies from the rotor and methods to damp out if any. controller. The lattice or tubular types of towers are constructed with steel or concrete. The tower should be designed to withstand gravity and wind loads. 2. and generator are fixed on to or inside nacelle.2. are mounted on the tower.3 Cross-section of a Nacelle in A Grid-connected Wind Turbine The main components of a wind turbine can be classified as i) Tower ii) Rotor system iii)Generator iv) Yaw v) Control system and vi) Braking and transmission system 2. The tower has to be supported on a strong foundation in the ground.2 Rotor: The aerodynamic forces acting on a wind turbine rotor is explained by aerofoil theory. Cheaper and smaller towers may be supported by guy wires. it is called stif tower and if below is called soft tower. The major components such as rotor brake.Fig 2.

The angle.Fig 2. a pressure distribution is established around the symmetric aerofoil as shown in the fig.4 Zones of low and high-pressure Fig 2.5 Forces acting on the rotor blade Aero foil moves in a flow. When a blade is subjected to . which an aerofoil makes with the direction of airflow measured against the chord line is called the angle of attack  . A reference line from which measurements are made on an aerofoil section is referred to as chord line and the length is known as chord. The generation of lift force L on an aerofoil placed at an angle of attack  to an oncoming flow is a consequence of the distortion of the streamlines of the fluid passing above and below the aerofoil.

the pressure decreases towards the center of curvature of a streamline. This ratio can be varied along the length of the blade to optimize the turbine’s energy output at various wind speeds. The consequence is the reduction of pressure (suction) on the upper surface of the aerofoil compared to ambient pressure. It is observed that the lift at zero angle of attack is no longer zero and that the zero lift occurs at a small negative angle of attack of approximately 4 o . while on the lower side the pressure is positive or greater. The lift force. which is at the ¼ chord position on symmetrical aerofoil has at the ¼ chord position on cambered aerofoil and moves towards the trailing edge with increasing angle of attack. under . Cambered or asymmetrical aero foils have curved chord lines. drag force or both extract the energy from wind. the lift force can be 30 times greater than the drag force. Arching or cambering a flat plate will cause it to induce higher lift force for a given angle of attack and blades with a cambered plate profile work well. The pressure difference results in lift force responsible for rotation of the blades. The chord line is now defined as the straight line joining the ends of the camber line and  is measured from this chord line. For aerofoil to be aerodynamically efficient.unperturbed wind flow. The center of pressure. To attain a high efficiency of rotor in wind turbine design is for the blade to have a relatively high lift-to-drag ratio. The drag force D is the component that is in line with the direction of oncoming flow is shown in Fig (b). Cambered aerofoil is preferred to symmetrical aerofoil because they have higher lift/drag ratio for positive angles of attack. These forces are both proportional to the energy in the wind.

Generator is usually 95% efficient and transmission losses should be less than 10%. . usually cheaper and more efficient is to vary the electrical load on the turbine to control the rotational frequency. the use of aerofoil section is more effective. For low solidity turbines. the magnitude of the relative wind speed are the prime parameters responsible for the lift and drag forces. The distinctive features of wind/electricity generating systems are: (i) Wind turbine efficiency is greatest if rotational frequency varies to maintain constant tip speed ratio. the angle of attack. The useful work is produced by the torque where as the thrust will overturn the turbine.3 Generator: Electricity is an excellent energy vector to transmit the high quality mechanical power of a wind turbine. The characteristics of an aerofoil. There are already many designs of wind/ electricity systems including a wide range of generators. yet electricity generation is most efficient at constant or near constant frequency.the conditions experienced by high solidity. 2.2. These forces acting on the blades of a wind turbine rotor are transformed into a rotational torque and axial thrust force. since the end use requirements vary. This axial thrust should be resisted by the tower and foundations. An alternative method. multi bladed wind turbines. (ii) Mechanical control of turbine to maintain constant frequency increases complexity and expense. The frequency and voltage of transmission need not be standardized.

Thus. only small turbines of less than 2 m radius can be coupled directly to generators.(iii) The optimum rotational frequency of a turbine in a particular wind speed decreases with increase in radius in order to maintain constant tip speed ratio. The torque is applied to or removed from the shaft if the rotor speed is above or below synchronous. Thus. (iv) Gearboxes are relatively expensive and heavy. etc. Some design modifications are to be incorporated for induction generators considering the different operating regime of wind turbines and the need for high efficiency at part load. Variable speed generator: Electrical variable speed operation can be approached as: . To overcome this problem. Larger machines require a gearbox to increase the generator drive frequency. generator control is independent of turbine operation. The power flow direction in wires is the factor to be considered to differentiate between a synchronous generator and induction motor. generators with a large number of poles are being manufactured to operate at lower frequency. They require maintenance and can be noisy. The generators used with wind machines are i) Synchronous AC generator ii) Induction AC generator and iii) Variable speed generator Induction AC generator: They are identical to conventional industrial induction motors and are used on constant speed wind turbines. (v) The turbine can be coupled with the generator to provide an indirect drive through a mechanical accumulator (weight lifted by hydraulic pressure) or chemical storage (battery).

Yaw control is the arrangement in which the entire rotor is rotated horizontally or yawed out of the wind.2. Induction generators are often used in wind turbines and some micro hydro installations due to their ability to produce useful power at varying rotor speeds. 2. the turbine can be stopped with nacelle turned such that the rotor axis is at right angles to the wind direction. and the wind turbine controller. though it is apparently simple. One of the more difficult parts of a wind turbine designs is the yaw system. During normal operation of the system. the wind direction should be perpendicular to the swept area of the rotor. the nacelle is yawed to attain reduction in power during high winds. In some designs. which is usually mounted on the top of the nacelle sensing the relative wind direction. 2. Induction generators produce electrical power when their shaft is rotated faster than the synchronous frequency of the equivalent induction motor. In extremity.3 Induction generator: An induction generator is a type of electrical generator that is mechanically and electrically similar to a polyphase induction motor. The yaw drive is operated by a wind vane. Induction generators .  A restricted speed range may be achieved by converting only a fraction of the output power. the prediction of yaw loads is uncertain.loop control system. Especially in turbulent wind conditions.3 Yaw system: It turns the nacelle according to the actuator engaging on a gear ring at the top of the tower. All the output power of the wind turbine may be passed through the frequency converters to give a broad range of variable speed operation. The yaw drive is controlled by a slow closed.

They are also more rugged.are mechanically and electrically simpler than other generator types. requiring no brushes or commutators .

CHAPTER-3 FLEXIBLE AC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS (FACTS) 3. FACTS-devices provide a better adaptation to varying operational conditions and improve the usage of existing installations. • Power conditioning. A number of new types of devices are in the stage of being introduced in practice. • Reactive power compensation. for instance like upgrades or additions of substations and power lines. • Increase of transmission capability. • Power quality improvement. . • Stability improvement. got in the recent years a well known term for higher controllability in power systems by means of power electronic devices.1 Introduction Flexible AC Transmission Systems. called FACTS. Several FACTS-devices have been introduced for various applications worldwide. The basic applications of FACTS-devices are: • Power flow control. In most of the applications the controllability is used to avoid cost intensive or landscape requiring extensions of power systems. • Voltage control.

The devices work electrically as fast current. The power electronic allows very short reaction times down to far below one second. Figure shows the basic idea of FACTS for transmission systems. voltage or impedance controllers. The term 'static' means . Voltage and stability limits shall be shifted with the means of the several different FACTS devices. The overall starting points are network elements influencing the reactive power or the impedance of a part of the power system. This is one of the main differentiation factors from the conventional devices. For the FACTS side the taxonomy in terms of 'dynamic' and 'static' needs some explanation. The usage of lines for active power transmission should be ideally up to the thermal limits. It can be seen that with growing line length.1 shows a number of basic devices separated into the conventional ones and the FACTS-devices. Devices for high power levels have been made available in converters for high and even highest voltage levels. The term 'dynamic' is used to express the fast controllability of FACTS-devices provided by the power electronics. the opportunity for FACTS devices gets more and more important. The influence of FACTS-devices is achieved through switched or controlled shunt compensation.• Flicker mitigation. series compensation or phase shift control. Figure 3. • Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation and storages. The development of FACTS-devices has started with the growing capabilities of power electronic components.

inductance or capacitance together with transformers. The FACTS-devices contain these elements as well but use additional power electronic valves or converters to switch the elements in smaller steps or with switching patterns within a cycle of the alternating current.2 contains the conventional devices build out of fixed or mechanically switch able components like resistance.1 Overview of FACTS devices The left column in Figure 1. The left column of FACTS-devices uses Thyristor valves or converters. They have low losses because of their low switching frequency of once a . Fig 3.that the devices have no moving parts like mechanical switches to perform the dynamic controllability. Therefore most of the FACTS-devices can equally be static and dynamic. These valves or converters are well known since several years.

2 SHUNT DEVICES: The most used FACTS-device is the SVC or the version with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM. • Compensation of consumers and improvement of power quality especially with huge demand fluctuations like industrial machines. metal melting plants. • Keeping of contractual power exchanges with balanced reactive power. . railway or underground train systems. Therefore special designs of the converters are required to compensate this. Voltage Source Converters provide a free controllable voltage in magnitude and phase due to a pulse width modulation of the IGBTs or IGCTs. The main applications in transmission. High modulation frequencies allow to get low harmonics in the output signal and even to compensate disturbances coming from the network. These shunt devices are operating as reactive power compensators. the losses are increasing as well.cycle in the converters or the usage of the Thyristors to simply bridge impedances in the valves. The disadvantage is that with an increasing switching frequency. distribution and industrial networks are: • Reduction of unwanted reactive power flows and therefore reduced network losses. The right column of FACTS-devices contains more advanced technology of voltage source converters based today mainly on Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) or Insulated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). 3.

Railway or underground systems with huge load variations require SVCs or STATCOMs.2. Almost half of the SVC and more than half of the STATCOMs are used for industrial applications. To achieve effective voltage control . Applications of the SVC systems in transmission systems: a. To increase active power transfer capacity and transient stability margin b.• Compensation of Thyristor converters e. Industry as well as commercial and domestic groups of users require power quality. The result can be unacceptable voltage amplitude variations or even a voltage depression. nor are interruptions of industrial processes due to insufficient power quality. the reactive power balance in a grid varies as well. • Improvement of static or transient stability.g. at the extreme a voltage collapse.1 SVC: Electrical loads both generate and absorb reactive power. A rapidly operating Static Var Compensator (SVC) can continuously provide the reactive power required to control dynamic voltage oscillations under various system conditions and thereby improve the power system transmission and distribution stability. Flickering lamps are no longer accepted. To damp power oscillations c. 3. Since the transmitted load varies considerably from one hour to another. in conventional HVDC lines.

To reduce voltage variations and associated light flicker Installing an SVC at one or more suitable points in the network can increase transfer capability and reduce losses while maintaining a smooth voltage profile under different network conditions.In addition. To provide reactive power to ac–dc converters 4. To reduce temporary over voltages b. stack assemblies of series connected antiparallel Thyristors to provide controllability. In HVDC systems a. In addition an SVC can mitigate active power oscillations through voltage amplitude modulation. In arc furnaces a. The most important is the Thyristor valve. To damp sub synchronous resonances c. SVC installations consist of a number of building blocks. in traction systems a. i. To improve voltage regulation 3. To balance loads b. To damp power oscillations in interconnected power systems 2. SVCs are also used 1. To improve power factor c. in transmission systems a. Air core reactors and high voltage AC capacitors are the reactive power elements used together with the Thyristor .e.

valves.2 SVC building blocks and voltage / current characteristic In principle the SVC consists of Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC) and Thyristor Switched or Controlled Reactors (TSR / TCR). The coordinated control of a combination of these branches varies the reactive power as shown in Figure. The first commercial SVC was installed in 1972 for an electric arc furnace. 3. The step up connection of this equipment to the transmission voltage is achieved through a power transformer.2.2 STATCOM: . Fig 3. On transmission level the first SVC was used in 1979. Since then it is widely used and the most accepted FACTS-device.

a lower investment cost and lower operating and maintenance costs. The next step in STATCOM development is the combination with energy storages on the DC-side. A STATCOM is build with Thyristors with turn-off capability like GTO or today IGCT or with more and more IGBTs. This can be seen in the diagram for the maximum currents being independent of the voltage in comparison to the SVC. The STATCOM has a characteristic similar to the synchronous condenser. The static line between the current limitations has a certain steepness determining the control characteristic for the voltage. . The performance for power quality and balanced network operation can be improved much more with the combination of active and reactive power. but as an electronic device it has no inertia and is superior to the synchronous condenser in several ways. that even during most severe contingencies.In 1999 the first SVC with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM (STATic COMpensator) went into operation. the STATCOM keeps its full capability. such as better dynamics. In the distributed energy sector the usage of Voltage Source Converters for grid interconnection is common practice today. The advantage of a STATCOM is that the reactive power provision is independent from the actual voltage on the connection point. This means.

The STATCOM is a very fast acting.Fig 3. If Vs is smaller then Es then lagging or inductive VARS are produced. Vs. . (which is proportional to the dc bus voltage Vc) is larger than bus voltage. If the STATCOM voltage. Es. then leading or capacitive VARS are produced.3 STATCOM structure and voltage / current characteristic STATCOMs are based on Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC) topology and utilize either Gate-Turn-off Thyristors (GTO) or Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) devices. electronic equivalent of a synchronous condenser.

when the instantaneous real power is non-zero. Fig 3. Ideally it is possible to construct a device based on circulating instantaneous power which has no energy storage device (ie no dc capacitor). The maximum energy storage required for the STATCOM is much less than for a TCR/TSC type of SVC compensator of comparable rating. This is achieved by firing the GTO/diode switches in a manner that maintains the phase difference between the ac bus voltage ES and the STATCOM generated voltage VS.5 STATCOM Equivalent Circuit .4 6 Pulses STATCOM The three phases STATCOM makes use of the fact that on a three phase. and the instantaneous power entering a purely reactive device must be zero. fundamental frequency.Fig 3. A practical STATCOM requires some amount of energy storage to accommodate harmonic power and ac system unbalances. The reactive power in each phase is supplied by circulating the instantaneous real power between the phases. steady state basis.

This method can be extended to produce a 24 pulse and a 48 pulse STATCOM. Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) techniques.Several different control techniques can be used for the firing control of the STATCOM. As an alternative. dependent on the number of levels. can be used. Fundamental switching of the GTO/diode once per cycle can be used. and two secondary windings. 3. but will generally utilize more complex transformer topologies. The 6 Pulse STATCOM using fundamental switching will of course produce the 6 N1 harmonics. This approach will minimize switching losses. This staircase voltage can be controlled to eliminate harmonics. a complete elimination of 5th and 7th harmonic current using series connection of star/star and star/delta transformers and a quasi 12 pulse method with a single star-star transformer. These methods include the basic 12 pulse configuration with parallel star / delta transformer connections. thus eliminating harmonics even further. There are a variety of methods to decrease the harmonics. using control of firing angle to produce a 30phase  shift between the two 6 pulse bridges. This approach allows for simpler transformer topologies at the expense of higher switching losses.3 SERIES DEVICES: . which turn on and off the GTO or IGBT switch more than once per cycle. Another possible approach for harmonic cancellation is a multi-level configuration which allows for more than one switching element per level and therefore more than one switching in each bridge arm. The ac voltage derived has a staircase effect.

Firstly it increases damping when large electrical systems are interconnected. power flow adjustments. • Improvement of system damping resp.1 TCSC: Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) address specific dynamical problems in transmission systems. a phenomenon that involves an interaction between large thermal generating units and series compensated transmission systems. • Reduction of voltage fluctuations within defined limits during changing power transmissions. damping of oscillations. The main applications are: • Reduction of series voltage decline in magnitude and angle over a power line. 3.3. and allows for rapid readjustment of line power flow in . Secondly it can overcome the problem of Sub Synchronous Resonance (SSR). • Limitation of short circuit currents in networks or substations.Series devices have been further developed from fixed or mechanically switched compensations to the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) or even Voltage Source Converter based devices. which permits increased loading of existing transmission lines. The TCSC's high speed switching capability provides a mechanism for controlling line power flow. • Avoidance of loop flows resp.

the TCSC resembles the conventional series capacitor. This permits higher levels of compensation in networks where interactions with turbine-generator torsional vibrations or with other control or measuring systems are of concern. From a principal technology point of view. including the Thyristor valve that is used to control the behavior of the main capacitor bank.5-2 Hz) power oscillations which often arise between areas in a large interconnected power network.response to various contingencies. .  Damping of electromechanical (0. ADVANTAGES  Continuous control of desired compensation level  Direct smooth control of power flow within the network  Improved capacitor bank protection  Local mitigation of sub synchronous resonance (SSR). Figure shows the principle setup of a TCSC and its operational diagram. These oscillations are due to the dynamics of inter area power transfer and often exhibit poor damping when the aggregate power tranfer over a corridor is high relative to the transmission strength. The firing angle and the thermal limits of the Thyristors determine the boundaries of the operational diagram. Likewise the control and protection is located on ground potential together with other auxiliary systems. The TCSC also can regulate steady-state power flow within its rating limits. All the power equipment is located on an isolated steel platform.

1 DYNAMIC POWER FLOW CONTROLLER A new device in the area of power flow control is the Dynamic Power Flow Controller (DFC). The Dynamic Flow Controller consists of the following components: • A standard phase shifting transformer with tap-changer (PST) • series-connected Thyristor Switched Capacitors and Reactors (TSC / TSR) • A mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC).3. A functional single line diagram of the Dynamic Flow Controller is shown in Figure 1. (This is optional depending on the system reactive power requirements) . The DFC is a hybrid device between a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and switched series compensation.19.4 SHUNT AND SERIES DEVICES 3.4.

• The relieve of overload and work in stressed situations is handled by the TSC / TSR. . The mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC) will provide voltage support in case of overload and other conditions. The operation of a DFC is based on the following rules: • TSC / TSR are switched when a fast response is required.Fig 3. • The switching of the PST tap-changer should be minimized particularly for the currents higher than normal loading. However. a DFC might consist of a number of series TSC or TSR. in general. Normally the reactance of reactors and the capacitors are selected based on a binary basis to result in a desired stepped reactance variation. the principle of phase-angle control used in TCSC can be applied for a continuous control as well. If a higher power flow resolution is needed. a reactance equivalent to the half of the smallest one can be added. The switching of series reactors occurs at zero current to avoid any harmonics.6 Principle configuration of DPFC Based on the system requirements.

Assuming that the power flow has a load factor close to one. the two parts of the series voltage will be close to collinear. However. The controllable reactance will inject a voltage in quadrature with the throughput current. we assume an inductance in parallel representing parallel transmission paths. The steady state control range for loadings up to rated current is illustrated in Figure 1. This control is accomplished by control of the injected series voltage.• The total reactive power consumption of the device can be optimized by the operation of the MSC. influence on reactive power balance and effectiveness at high/low loading the two parts of the series voltage has quite different characteristics. tap changer and the switched capacities and reactors. . In order to visualize the steady state operating range of the DFC.20. in terms of speed of control. The overall control objective in steady state would be to control the distribution of power flow between the branch with the DFC and the parallel path. where the x-axis corresponds to the throughput current and the y-axis corresponds to the injected series voltage. The PST (assuming a quadrature booster) will inject a voltage in quadrature with the node voltage.

If more inductance is switched in and/or the tap is increased. Starting at rated current (2 kA) the short circuit reactance by itself provides an injected voltage (approximately 20 kV in this case).7 Operational diagram of a DFC Operation in the first and third quadrants corresponds to reduction of power through the DFC. The maximum series voltage in the first quadrant is . the series voltage increases and the current through the DFC decreases (and the flow on parallel branches increases). The operating point moves along lines parallel to the arrows in the figure. The slope of the line passing through the origin (at which the tap is at zero and TSC / TSR are bypassed) depends on the short circuit reactance of the PST. The slope of these arrows depends on the size of the parallel reactance. whereas operation in the second and fourth quadrants corresponds to increasing the power flow through the DFC.Fig 3.

if the throughput current decreases (due e. giving an almost constant maximum voltage in the second quadrant. to changing loading of the system) the series voltage will decrease.2 UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER: The UPFC is a combination of a static compensator and static series compensation.obtained when all inductive steps are switched in and the tap is at its maximum. Next. it will not matter whether the TSC / TSR steps are in or out.g.4. In this case. At zero current. they will not contribute to the series voltage. . 3. It acts as a shunt compensating and a phase shifting device simultaneously. the operating range will be limited by the line corresponding to maximum tap and the capacitive step being switched in (and the inductive steps by-passed). the series voltage at zero current corresponds to rated PST series voltage. moving into the second quadrant. Now. the capacitive step is approximately as large as the short circuit reactance of the PST. assuming maximum tap and inductance. Consequently.

as shown in Figure 1.Fig 3. provides the full controllability for voltage and power flow. OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF UPFC The basic components of the UPFC are two voltage source inverters (VSIs) sharing a common dc storage capacitor. One VSI is connected to in shunt to the .21. The DC-circuit allows the active power exchange between shunt and series transformer to control the phase shift of the series voltage. This setup. an UPFC is getting quite expensive. Due to the high efforts for the Voltage Source Converters and the protection. The series converter needs to be protected with a Thyristor bridge. which are connected via two voltage source converters with a common DC-capacitor.8 Principle configuration of an UPFC The UPFC consists of a shunt and a series transformer. and connected to the power system through coupling transformers. which limits the practical applications where the voltage and power flow control is required simultaneously.

and the active power is transmitted to the dc terminals.9 Functional scheme of UPFC The series inverter is controlled to inject a symmetrical three phase voltage system (Vse).transmission system via a shunt transformer. of controllable magnitude and phase angle in series with the line to control active and reactive power flows on the transmission line. the net real power absorbed from the line by the UPFC is equal only to the losses of the inverters and their transformers. while the other one is connected in series through a series transformer. The shunt inverter is operated in such a way as to demand this dc terminal power (positive or negative) from the line keeping the voltage across the storage capacitor Vdc constant. The reactive power is electronically provided by the series inverter. So.1 Fig 3. A basic UPFC functional scheme is shown in fig. So. this inverter will exchange active and reactive power with the line. .

. ish into the transmission line. The actual value of the injected voltage can be obtained in several ways. So in that case. the series inverter is operating as SSSC that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the current flow. voltage feedback signals are obtained from the sending end bus feeding the shunt coupling transformer. is also required. The series inverter controls the magnitude and angle of the voltage injected in series with the line to influence the power flow on the line. For this mode of control. In particular. the shunt inverter is operating as a STATCOM that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the voltage magnitude at the connection point. Instead. The UPFC has many possible operating modes. the shunt inverter is operating in such a way to inject a controllable current. The shunt inverter can be controlled in two different modes: VAR Control Mode: The reference input is an inductive or capacitive VAR request. and hence the power low on the transmission line. Automatic Voltage Control Mode: The shunt inverter reactive current is automatically regulated to maintain the transmission line voltage at the point of connection to a reference value. Direct Voltage Injection Mode: The reference inputs are directly the magnitude and phase angle of the series voltage. For this mode of control a feedback signal representing the dc bus voltage. The shunt inverter control translates the var reference into a corresponding shunt current request and adjusts gating of the inverter to establish the desired current.The remaining capacity of the shunt inverter can be used to exchange reactive power with the line so to provide a voltage regulation at the connection point. Vdc. The two VSI’s can work independently of each other by separating the dc side.

14. Line Impedance Emulation mode: The reference input is an impedance value to insert in series with the line impedance Automatic Power Flow Control Mode: The reference inputs are values of P and Q to maintain on the transmission line despite system changes. the control objectives of a UPQC are quite different from that of a UPFC. In addition. Fig 3. The configuration of such a device (termed as Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC)) is shown in Fig. the DC bus voltage can be regulated by the shunt connected DSTATCOM while the DVR supplies the required energy to the load in case of the transient disturbances in source voltage.4. 3.10 Block diagram of UPQC CONTROL OBJECTIVES OF UPQC .15.3 UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER The provision of both DSTATCOM and DVR can control the power quality of the source current and the load bus voltage. if the DVR and STATCOM are connected on the DC side.Phase Angle Shifter Emulation mode: The reference input is phase displacement between the sending end voltage and the receiving end voltage. This is a versatile device similar UPQCHowever.

The series connected converter has the following control objectives 1. The compensate for the harmonics in the load current by injecting the required harmonic currents 3. To control the power factor at the input port of the UPQC (where the source is connected. by injecting the harmonic voltages 3. To balance the source currents by injecting negative and zero sequence components required by the load 2. To control the power factor by injecting the required reactive current (at fundamental frequency) 4. Note that the power factor at the output port of the UPQC (connected to the load) is controlled by the shunt converter. Operation of UPQC . To balance the voltages at the load bus by injecting negative and zero sequence voltages to compensate for those present in the source.The shunt connected converter has the following control objectives 1. 2. To regulate the magnitude of the load bus voltage by injecting the required active and reactive components (at fundamental frequency) depending on the power factor on the source side 4. To regulate the DC bus voltage. To isolate the load bus from harmonics present in the source voltages.

Y) = 1 X T ( τ )Y(τ)dτ ∫ 2 0 Let the load current IL and the source voltage VS be decomposed into two Components given by IL = 1P Vs = V S I 1L P + I τL + V τS . we get the relation (VL. the series converter is represented by a voltage source VC and the shunt converter is represented by a current source IC.IC)+(VC.11 Here. defined by T (X. Unlike in the case of a UPFC (discussed in chapter 8). Neglecting losses in the converters. the voltages and currents may contain negative and zero sequence components in addition to harmonics. Note that all the currents and voltages are 3 dimensional vectors with phase coordinates.11 Equivalent circuit of UPQC The operation of a UPQC can be explained from the analysis of the idealized equivalent circuit shown in Fig 3.Fig 3.IS) =0 where X.Ydenote the inner product of two vectors.

V ¿L =−V ¿C +V 1CP . VLi = 0. If the reference current (I¤C ) of the shunt converter and the reference voltage (V ¤ C) of the series converter are chosen as I ¿C =I ¿L . fundamental frequency components and PL = ⃒ V ¿L I ¿S ⃒ cos ∅l= ⃒ V 1S P I ¿S ⃒ cos ∅ S where V ¤ L and I¤S are the reference quantities for the load bus voltage and the source current respectively. the following relation applies for I1p L . the fundamental frequency. fundamental frequency components. positive sequence component in IrL does not contribute to the active power in the load. VL I PL =¿ .Where I1p L contains only positive sequence. IrL and V rS contain rest of the load current and the source voltage including harmonics. However. the desired load voltages and source currents must contain only positive sequence. Similar comments apply to V 1pS . Ál is the power factor angle at the load bus while Ás is the power factor angle at the source bus (input port of UPQC). Note that V ¤ L(t) and I¤S (t) are sinusoidal and balanced. To meet the control objectives. Thus. L ) ¿(V L . I1pL is not unique and depends on the power factor at the load bus. I 1L P) This implies that hIrL .

To ensure the regulation of the load bus voltage it may be necessary to inject variable active voltage (in phase with the source current). if the magnitude of V ¤ L is to be controlled.30) implies that V 1p C is the reactive voltage in quadrature with the desired source current. V ¿L ) ¿ ¿ ¿ S The above equation shows that for the operating conditions assumed. V L=V 1S P +V 1CP ++ ∆V C ( I S .I ¿S=I 1L P . V ¿L =V 1SP +V 1CP Note that the constraint (14. However. If we express V C ¿V ¿C + ∆ V C . I C =I ¿C + ∆ I C I S=I ¿S −∆ I C . it may not be feasible to achieve this by injecting only reactive voltage. ∆ V C ) + ( V L . I )=0=( I ¿C . It is easy to derive that V (¿ ¿ C . a UPQC can be viewed as a inaction of a DVR and a STATCOM with no active power °ow through the DC link. I¤S . ∆ I C )=0 . but changes due to system disturbances or fault. The situation gets complicated if V 1p S is not constant.

The unbalance and harmonics in the source voltage can arise due to uncompensated nonlinear and unbalanced loads in the upstream of the UPQC.IC ) This implies that both ¢VC and ¢IC are perturbations involving positive sequence.¿ ¿ (IS . The perturbation in VC is initiated to ensure that ⃒ V ¿C +∆ V C +Vs ⃒= ⃒ V L ⃒= constant . The injection of capacitive reactive voltage by the series converter has the advantage of raising the source voltage magnitude.V C) = 0 = ( V L . fundamental requency quantities (say. the power balance on the DC side of the shunt and series converter. 2. 1. . resulting from symmetric voltage sags).

such as for instance. This inverter is similar to the half-bridge inverter. and currently to form elaborate high-power static power topologies. they are widely used in power supplies. As expected. Although the power range they cover is the low one.7. Full-Bridge VSI Fig 4.CHAPTER-4 VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER 4. both switches and (or and ) cannot be on simultaneously because a short circuit across the dc link voltage source .1 Single-phase full-bridge VSI. The main features of both approaches are reviewed and presented in the following. however. single-phase UPSs. the multi cell configurations that are reviewed in Section 14.1 SINGLE-PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTERS Single-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs) can be found as half-bridge and full-bridge topologies. Figure 14.8 shows the power topology of a full-bridge VSI. a second leg provides the neutral point to the load.

3. which are vi and -vi. the ac output voltage waveform features only two values. The undefined condition should be avoided so as to be always capable of defining the ac output voltage. 4. There are four defined (states 1. 14. which is twice that obtained with half-bridge VSI topologies.2) are used to generate the ac output voltage in this approach. It should be noted that the on state in switch in the half-bridge corresponds to both switches state in the full-bridge configuration. To generate the states. This is called bipolar carrier-based SPWM. and 4) and one undefined (state 5) switch states as shown in Table 14. Thus.2. Among them are the PWM (bipolar and unipolar) techniques. the modulating technique should ensure that either the top or the bottom switch of each leg is on at any instant. In order to avoid the short circuit across the dc bus and the undefined ac output voltage condition. Similarly. bridge corresponds to both switches and and being in the on in the on state in the halfbeing in the on state in the full-bridge configuration.2 Bipolar PWM Technique States 1 and 2 (Table 14. a carrier-based technique can be used as in half-bridge configurations (Fig. Several modulating techniques have been developed that are applicable to fullbridge VSIs. The ac output voltage waveform in a full-bridge VSI is basically a sinusoidal waveform that features a fundamental component of amplitude expression v^ 01= v^ ab 1=v i ma that satisfies the . 2.3). It can be observed that the ac output voltage can take values up to the dc link value vi .vi would be produced. where only one sinusoidal modulating signal has been used.

Thus. and v bN v bN 1 =−v aN 1 . the unipolar PWM technique uses the states 1. in the over modulation region the fundamental component of amplitude satisfies the expression 4 v i < ^v 01=^v ab 1 < v i π In contrast to the bipolar approach. the output voltage v 0 =v ab = v aN ∧v bN v aN −v bN are identical but 180_ out of will not contain even harmonics. . (including the over modulation region (ma > 1)). Thus. 2. but considering that the maximum ac output voltage is the dc link voltage vi .In the linear region of the modulating technique (ma 1). Thus. if mf is taken even. and for operations at smaller and larger values of odd mf (including the over modulation region (ma > 1)). than in half bridge VSIs. Identical conclusions can be drawn for the frequencies and amplitudes of the harmonics in the ac output voltage and dc link current.−v i the signal vc is used to generate van. because the phase voltages phase. However. the ac output voltage waveform can instantaneously take one of three values. Identical conclusions can be drawn for the amplitude of the fundamental component and harmonics in the ac output voltage and dc link current. than in full-bridge VSIs modulated by the bipolar SPWM. and to generate the ac output voltage. the harmonics in the ac output voltage appear at . which is twice that obtained in the half-bridge VSI.On the other hand. 3. and for operations at smaller and larger values of mf. namely v i . v^ 01=2∗v aN 1 =v i m a −v 0 is used to generate v 01=v aN 1−v bN 1=2∗v aN 1 thus This is called unipolar carrier-based PWM.

… ) Moreover. fifth and seventh harmonics and to perform fundamental magnitude control (N .and quarter-wave symmetry. .4. … … … where k = 1. the equations to be solved are: ………….4. This feature is considered to be an advantage because it allows the use of smaller filtering components to obtain high-quality voltage and current waveforms while using the same switching frequency as in VSIs modulated by the bipolar approach.3 Selective Harmonic Elimination: In contrast to half-bridge VSIs. even harmonics are not present v (¿ ¿0 h =0. . this approach is applied in a per-line fashion for full-bridge VSIs. The ac output voltage features odd half. therefore. (17.19) . 5. 5.normalized odd frequencies fh centered around twice the normalized carrier frequency mf and its multiples.4.. 3. 14. 3. and the harmonics in the dc link current appear at normalized frequencies fp centered around twice the normalized carrier frequency mf and its multiples. . For instance. . to eliminate the third. p=l mf ± k ±1 l=2. where k =1. h=2. should feature N pulses per half-cycle in order to adjust the fundamental component and eliminate N ÿ 1 harmonics. Specifically h=lmf ± k l=2.6. 4).8). 4. . the ac output voltage waveform ¿^ ¿ v 0 =v ab in Fig. Specifically. … … . .

7.) of harmonics are given by N −∑ (−1) k=1 k cos n α k = π v^ 01 4 vi number .. ….5.1 1 1 1 (¿ α 1) .(¿ α 4 )=0 (¿ α 3)−cos ¿ cos ¿ (¿ α 2)+ cos ¿ cos ¿ 5 5 5 5 (¿ α 1) .(¿ α 4 )=0 (¿ α 3)−cos ¿ cos ¿ (¿ α 2)+ cos ¿ cos ¿ 7 7 7 7 (¿ α 1) .(¿ α 4 )=π v^ 01 /( v i 4 ) (¿ α 3 )−cos ¿ cos ¿ (¿ α 2)+cos ¿ cos ¿ 3 3 3 3 (¿ α 1) .(¿ α 4 )=0 (¿ α 3)−cos ¿ cos ¿ (¿ α 2)+ cos ¿ cos ¿ The general expressions to eliminate an arbitrary N ( N−1=3.

Ideal waveforms for the unipolar SPWM (a) carrier and modulating signals. This is known as output control by voltage cancellation.N −∑ (−1)k cos n α k =0 k=1 Where α 1. (d) ac output .2N-1 α 1< α 2 <…< α N < π 2 Shows a special case where only the fundamental ac output voltage is controlled.5. … … α N should satisfy for n=3. (b) switch state. which derives from the fact that its implementation is easily attainable by using two phase-shifted square-wave switching signals as shown in Fig 4. (c) switch . α 2.…. state..2 The full-bridge VSI.

voltage. (h) dc current spectrum. (b) spectrum of (a).3 The half-bridge VSI. (j) diode current. Ideal waveforms for the SHE technique: (a) ac output voltage for third. (f) ac output current. (c) ac output voltage for fundamental control. (i) switch current. Fig 4. (g) dc current. (d) spectrum of (c). fifth. . (e) ac output voltage spectrum. and seventh harmonic elimination.

h=1.5 The full-bridge VSI. In this case. (d) ac .5.4 Chopping angles for SHE and fundamental voltage control in halfbridge VSIs: (a) fundamental control and third.Fig 4. fifth.…… π h It can also be observed in Fig. Thus. (b) fundamental control. state. (b) switch state. Fig 4.12c that for square wave operation is achieved. and seventh harmonic elimination. 14. (c) ac output voltage. the amplitude of the fundamental component and harmonics in the ac output voltage are given by 4 1 v^ 0 h = v i cos ( h x1 ) .3. Ideal waveforms for the output control by voltage cancellation: (a) switch output voltage spectrum. the fundamental a output voltage is given by 4 v^ 01= v i π Where the fundamental load voltage can be controlled by the manipulation of the dc link voltage.


and harmonics [14]. is expected as one of the most powerful solutions to large capacity sensitive loads to voltage flicker/imbalance. In other words.CHAPTER-5 MODELING OF CASE STUDY UPQC 5. the UPQC has the capability of improving power quality at the point of installation on power distribution systems or industrial power systems.Recent research efforts have been made towards utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) to solve almost all power quality problems for example voltage sag. • UPQC provides the VAR requirement of the load.1 Introduction The best protection for sensitive loads from sources with inadequate quality. unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) . so that the supply voltage and current are always in phase. • It eliminates the harmonics in the supply current. no additional power factor correction equipment is necessary. is shunt-series connection i. thus improves utility current quality for nonlinear loads. The UPQC. voltage swell. therefore. voltage outage and over correction of power factor and unacceptable levels of harmonics in the current and voltage The basic configuration of UPQC is shown in figure 1 The main purpose of a UPQC is to compensate for supply voltage flicker/imbalance. Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) for non-linear and a voltage sensitive load has following facilities. negative sequence current.e. . reactive power. therefore.

• UPQC maintains load end voltage at the rated value even in the presence of supply voltage sag. Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) consists of two IGBT based Voltage source converters (VSC). The UPQC consists of two three phase inverters connected in cascade in such a manner that Inverter I is connected in series with the supply voltage through a transformer inverter II is connected in parallel with the load. Figure 1 shows the system configuration of a single-phase UPQC. The two inverters operate in a coordinated manner. to eliminate the harmonics and to regulate the common dc link voltage. The main purpose of the shunt compensator is to compensate for the reactive power demanded by the load. The series compensator is operated in PWM voltage controlled mode. • The voltage injected by UPQC to maintain the load end voltage at the desired value is taken from the same dc link. to correct voltage fluctuations and to prevent harmonic load current from entering the power system. It is a type of hybrid APF and is the only versatile device which can mitigate several power quality problems related with voltage and current simultaneously therefore is multi functioning devices that compensate various voltage disturbances of the power supply. one shunt and one series cascaded by a common DC bus. It injects voltage in quadrature advance to the supply voltage (current) such that the load end voltage is always maintained at the desired value. The Unified Power Quality Conditioner is a custom power device that is employed in the distribution system to mitigate the disturbances that affect the performance of sensitive and/or critical load. The shunt converter is connected in parallel to . thus no additional dc link voltage support is required for the series compensator.

2 TOPOLOGY FOR POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT The STATCOM based current control voltage source inverter injects the current into the grid in such a way that the source current are harmonic free and their phase-angle with respect to source voltage has a desired value. The injected current will cancel out the reactive part and harmonic part of the load and induction generator current. Fig 5. consists of wind energy generation system and battery energy storage system with UPQC. It provides VAR support to the load and supply harmonic currents. . the grid voltages are sensed and are synchronized in generating the current command for the inverter. thus it improves the power factor and the power quality.1 block diagram of upqc 5. Whenever the supply voltage undergoes sag then series converter injects suitable voltage with supply [2]. The grid connected system in Figure 3. The proposed grid connected system is implemented for power quality improvement at point of common coupling (PCC). To accomplish these goals. Thus UPQC improves the power quality by preventing load current harmonics and by correcting the input power factor.the load.

it does not require a separate field circuit.4 BESS-STATCOM The battery energy storage system (BESS) is used as an energy storage element for the purpose of voltage regulation. It is not possible to extract all kinetic energy of wind. The available power of wind energy system is presented asunder the equation. wind generations are based on constant speed topologies with pitch control turbine. called power coefficient Cp of the wind turbine. and is given in eq 5.2 grid connected system for power quality improvement of proposed system 5. The induction generators used in the proposed scheme because of its simplicity.Fig 5. it can accept constant and variable loads. thus it extract a fraction of power in wind. The BESS will naturally maintain dc capacitor voltage constant and is best suited in STATCOM since it rapidly .3 WIND ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEM In this configuration. and has natural protection against short circuit.

The STATCOM is a three-phase voltage source inverter having the capacitance on its DC link and connected at the point of common coupling. Fig 5. The STATCOM injects a compensating current of variable magnitude and frequency component at the bus of common coupling. The battery is connected in parallel to the dc capacitor of STATCOM.4 system operational scheme in upqc . It also control the distribution and transmission system in a very fast rate.injects or absorbed reactive power to stabilize the grid system. When power fluctuation occurs in the system. the BESS can be used to level the power fluctuation by charging and discharging operation.

so as to maintain the power quality norms in the grid system. And the parallel capacitive bank is to supply the reactive power to the IM running as the generator. The pitch angle controller makes the angle of the turbine blade to adjust in such a way that the speed of rotation at every velocity of the wind is maintained constant. The current control strategy is included in the control scheme that defines the functional operation of the STATCOM compensator in the power system. to the induction generator and to the non linear load in the grid system. A single STATCOM using insulated gate bipolar transistor is proposed to have a reactive power support.The shunt connected STATCOM with battery energy storage is connected with the interface of the induction generator and non-linear load at the PCC in the grid system. CHAPTER-6 SIMULATION RESULTS 6. Here we are using the induction generator as generating machine due to its advantages over other machines for its simplicity and economical factors. The STATCOM compensator output strategy. Here we considered the per unit values in the closed loop that can be seen from the Figure 5. pitch control. Induction Generator. The rms values of the current and voltage generated is taken and the power is being calculated at every .1 SIMULATION MODEL: Wind generation using wind turbine.

60 Hz.sampling time interval and the wave form is being traced in the scope. Operating frequency 60 HZ.015 ohms . Rr 0. 415V.35KVA.01 ohms Rs 0. Induction generator 3.2 PARAMETERS Grid voltage 415 V. Speed 1440 rpm. Fig 6. A timer is used in figure for assigning the wind velocity at 3 different states which will be linearise after some loop operations.1 voltage source inverter with battery and controller 6.

Fig 6.DC Link Volt 800V. Inverter . Switching Frequency 2 kHz.06H. DC Link Capacitance 100μF.Ls=Lr 0. Non linear load 25 KW.2 Over all Circuit Diagram in Simulink with UPQC 6.3 RESULTS .

4 without UPQC .3 line current Total harmonic distortion Fig 6.Fig 6.

5 with UPQC .Fig 6.

The operation of the control system developed for the UPQC in MATLAB/SIMULINK for maintaining the power quality is to be simulated. Thus the proposed scheme in the grid connected system fulfils the power quality requirements and maintains the grid voltage free from distortion and harmonics. The power quality issues and its consequences on the consumer and electric utility are presented. thus it gives an opportunity to enhance the utilization factor of transmission line. It maintains the source voltage and current in-phase and support the reactive power demand for the wind generator and load at PCC in the grid system. Thus the integrated wind generation and FACTS device with BESS have shown the outstanding performance in maintaining the voltage profile as per requirement. .CHAPTER-7 CONCLUSIONS In this paper we present the FACTS device (UPQC) -based control scheme for power quality improvement in grid connected wind generating system and with nonlinear load. It has a capability to cancel out the harmonic parts of the load current.

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