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What is load flow analysis ?

Load flow analysis is probably the most important of all network calculations
since it concerns the network performance in its normal operating conditions.
A load flow study is a steady-state analysis which is performed to investigate the
magnitude and phase angle of the voltage at each bus and the real and reactive
power flows in the system components.
Load flow analysis has a great importance in future expansion planning, in
stability studies and in determining the best economical operation for existing
systems. Also load flow results are very valuable for setting the proper protection
devices to insure the security of the system.
In order to perform a load flow study, full data must be provided about the studied
system, such as connection diagram, parameters of transformers and lines, rated
values of each equipment, and the assumed values of real and reactive power for
each load.

Necessity of load flow analysis:


i.
ii.

iii.

iv.
v.

To keep the voltage level of certain buses within closed tolerances by


proper reactive power scheduling.
The total active power generation must be equal to the load demand plus
losses. This should be divided amongst the generators in a unique ratio
for optimum economic operation. Load flow studies are used to maintain
the above ratio.
To analyze the effectiveness of alternative plans for future system
expansion to meet the increased load demand or for designing a new
system.
To determine the best location for capacitors or voltage regulator for
improvement of voltage regulation.
Load flow studies are required at various stages of transient or dynamic
stability analysis.

Why run load flows?


- Check loading, losses and voltage profile

When to perform load flows


Network planning and operation
Generation scheduling, optimization
Steady state initial conditions for short circuit and stability calculations

Classification of buses:
Different buses at the network can be classified as:
1.The Load Buses (PQ bus)
2.The Generator Bus (PV bus)
3.The Slack or Swing Bus

Description of buses:
1. The Load Buses (PQ bus)
A non-generator bus. The active and reactive powers are specified at this bus. The
voltage magnitude and phase angle are unknown.
2. The Generator Bus (PV bus)
The bus is also known as Voltage controlled busbecause the voltage magnitude
can be kept constant. At this bus the netactive power and the voltage magnitude
are specified. The reactive power and the voltage phase angle are unknown.
3. Slack bus (swing bus)
It is a special generator bus serving as the reference bus. Its voltage is assumed to
be fixed in both magnitude and phase. In here, P and Q are unknown.

Load Flow Solution


There are four quantities of interest associated with each bus:
1. Real Power, P
2. Reactive Power, Q
3. Voltage Magnitude, V
4. Voltage Angle,

Solution Methods
There are many methods for solving nonlinear equations,
such as:
- Gauss Seidel.
- Newton Raphson.
- Fast Decoupled.

Guess Solution
The process is implemented in two stages:
The first calculates the approximate angles, and the second
calculates the approximate voltage magnitudes.
For total buses N calculate the voltage at any bus K , Where P k and Qk are given
is,
Pk = Real /Active power
Qk = Reactive power

1 Pk JQk N
VK
YknVn

Ykk
Vk
n 1

For 2nd bus,


4

1 P2 JQ2
V2

Y
V

2n n

Y22
V2
n 1

1 P2 JQ2
V2
Y21V1 Y23V3 Y24V4

Y22 V2

For 3rd bus,


4

1 P3 JQ3
V3
Y3nVn

Y33
V3
n 1

1 P3 JQ3
V3
Y31V1 Y32V2 Y34V4

Y33 V3

For 4th bus,

1 P4 JQ4
V4
Y41V1 Y42V2 Y43V3

Y44 V4

Admittance bus Ybus is,

Ybus

Y11
Y
21
Y31

Y41

Y12
Y22
Y32
Y42

Y13
Y23
Y33
Y43

Y14
Y24
Y34

Y44