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BAB I

A. Definition of Active Voice


What is the voice?
Voice is grammatical category that applies to verb. Voice expresses the relationship of
the subject to the action. Voice has two values :
Active : the subject does the action
Passive : the subject receives the action
What Is the Active Voice?
We've all heard this before from our English teachers: 'You should always write in the
active voice.' But what exactly does this mean? Here are two different ways to construct a
similar sentence.
1. Henry threw the ball.
2. The ball was thrown by Henry.
Let's take a look at the first sentence. The subject of the sentence is 'Henry,' and 'ball'
is the object, which receives the action of the verb 'threw'.
Now moving into the second sentence, we can see that 'ball' is the subject of the
sentence, and 'Henry' is now the object that receives the action of the verb 'was thrown'.
The grammatical term active voice refers to a sentence in which the subject performs
an action indicated by the verb. The first sentence is written in active voice, because Henry is
the subject and he is performing the action.
By comparison, the second sentence is written in passive voice, because Henry is no
longer the subject; now, he's just the object at the end of the sentence. In grammar, the
passive voice refers to sentences in which the verb acts upon a noun or subject, which
receives instead of initiates the action.
So, the active voice is the normal voice- the one that we use most of the time. In the
active voice, the object receives the action on the verbs.

B. Tenses of Active Voice


these are some tenses and some exsamples of active voice sentences:
1. Simple present tense
The simple present tense often refers to actions or situations that do not change
frequently. It is used to describe habits or routines. It is also used the express opinions or to
make general statements of fact. The time expressions are often used with the simple present
tense : always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely/never, every day, from time to time,
occasionally and frequently.
Notes on the simple present tense, third person singular ( he,she,it ) :
1. In the third person singular the verb always ends in s : he wants, she needs, he gives,
she thinks.
2. Verb ending in y : the third person changes the y to ies : fly -> flies, cry -> cries.
Exception : if there is a vowel before the y : play -> plays, pray -> prays
3. Add -Es to verbs ending in : -ss, -x, -sc, -ch, example : he passes, she catches, he
fixes, it pushes.
Formula :
Subject + verb-1 + object + adverb
Subject + ( does not/do not ) + verb-1 + object + adverb
Does/do + subject + verb-1 + object + adverb + ?
Subject + (is/am/are) + noun/adjective/adverb
Subject + (is/am/are) + not + noun/adjective/adverb
(is/am/are) + Subject + noun/adjective/adverb + ?
Example :
Fact :
1. The sun rises in the east
The sun does not rise in the east
Does the sun rise in the east ?
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2. The earth revolves around the sun


The earth does not revolve around the sun
Does The earth revolve around the sun ?
3. Her mother is Peruvian
Her mother is not Peruvian
Is Her mother Peruvian ?
Routine :
1. He drinks tea every morning

He does not drink tea every morning


Does He drink tea every morning ?
2. They drive to Monaco every summer
They do not drive to Monaco every summer
Do They drive to Monaco every summer ?

1. Present continuous tense


The present continuous tense describes actions or situations in progress at the moment
of speaking. This includes activities that are happening right now and current activities in a
general nature. The tense is often used for activities or situations that are temporary rather
than permanent. The time expressions are often used with the present continuous tense : now,
right now, at the moment, and today, expressions with this ( this morning, this quarter, this
semester ).
Formula :
Subject + (is/am/are) + Verb-ing + object + adverb
Subject + (is/am/are) + not + Verb-ing + object + adverb
(Is/am/are) + subject + Verb-ing + object + adverb + ?
Example :
At the moment of speaking :
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1. Amel is studying in the other room now


Amel is not studying in the other room now
Is Amel studying in the other room now ?
2. Jordan is reading a novel now
Jordan is not reading a novel now
Is Jordan reading a novel now ?
3. I am driving a car to Bandung now
I am not driving a car to Bandung now
Am I driving a car to Bandung now ?
Current activities :
1. Adit is talking a heavy load of classes this semester
Adit is not talking a heavy load of classes this semester
Is Adit talking a heavy load of classes this semester ?
2. we are planting grass in the school yard
we arent planting grass in the school yard
are we planting grass in the school yard?
Remember !
The following verbs are not normally used in the continuous tenses, except in certain idioms
or descriptions of a definite action.
Want, need, love, like, mean, prefer, dislike, hate, know, mind, think, believe, understand,
remember, recognize, appreciate, consider, seem, appear, taste, smell, hear, see, look, sound,
have, own, belong to, possess and cost.
Compare :
This apple looks good

iam looking at the apple now

2. Simple Past Tense


The simple past tense describes actions or situations that began and ended in the past.
The time expressions are often used with the simple past tense: yesterday, last night, days
ago, last year.
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Formula :
Subject + Verb-2 + Object + Adverb
Subject + did not + Verb-1 + Object + Adverb
Did + subject + Verb-1 + object + adverb + ?
Subject + (was/were) + noun/adjective/adverb
Subject + (was/were) + not + noun/adjective/adverb
(Was/were) + Subject + noun/adjective/adverb + ?

Example :
1. we made some pudding yesterday
we didnt make some pudding yesterday
did we make some pudding yesterday?
2. I saw a good film last night
I did not see a good film last night
Did I see a good film last night ?
3. Mr. Yunus was in leeds, England in 1994
Mr. Yunus was not in leeds, England in 1994
Was Mr. Yunus in leeds, England in 1994 ?

4. Past Continuous Tense


The past continuous tense describes actions in progress in the recent past ( a few/
moment before the moment of speaking) or at the specific time in the past.
Formula :
Subject + (was/were) + Verb-ing + object + adverb
Subject + (was/were) + not + Verb-ing + object + adverb
(was/were) + Subject + Verb-ing + object + adverb + ?

Example :
Recent past :
1. Oh ! you started me! I was talking a little nap
I was not talking a little nap
Was I talking a little nap ?
2. He was watching television all afternoon yesterday
He was not watching television all afternoon yesterday
Was he watching television all afternoon yesterday ?

3. she was following the exercise all morning yesterday


she wasnt following the exercise all morning yesterday
was she following the exercise all morning yesterday?
Specific time :
1. Hilda was doing her assignment when her father came last night
Hilda was not doing her assignment when her father came last night
Was Hilda doing her assignment when her father came last night ?
When and while :
1. My mother was cooking in the kitchen while my father was reading
My mother was not cooking in the kitchen while my father was reading
Was My mother cooking in the kitchen while my father was reading ?
2. Mrs. Erlina was talking to her daughter when the phone rang yesterday
Mrs. Erlina was not talking to her daughter when the phone rang yesterday
Was Mrs. Erlina talking to her daughter when the phone rang yesterday ?
3. They were talking about sport when I met them
They were not talking about sport when I met them
Were they talking about sport when I met them ?
5. Present Perfect Tense

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The present perfect tense can describe an event that happened (did not happen) at an
unknown time in the past. No specific time is given with these statement. Adverb are
frequently used with the present perfect tense : (not) yet, just, recently, and already.
Formula :
Subject + (has/have) + verb-3 + object + adverb
Subject + (has/have) + not + verb-3 + object + adverb
(has/have) + Subject + verb-3 + object + adverb + ?
Example :
1. She has taught English since five years ago
She has not taught English since five years ago
Has she taught English since five years ago ?
2. I have lived here for three years
I have not lived here for three years
Have I lived here for three years ?
3. she has sewn her dress this week
she hasnt sewn her dress this week
has she sewn her dress this week?
6. Simple Future Tense
The simple future tense refers to a time later than now, and expresses facts or
certainty. it also indicates that an actions is in the future relative to the speaker or writer.
Going to is often used to express specific future plans, or intentions. It is frequently
used in conversation. We use Going to when we say what we think will happen. Usually
there is something in the present situation that makes the speaker sure about what will
happen. Usually there is little or no difference in meaning between will and be going to
indicate inevitability (i.e. They express a simple factual statement about a future activity or
situation), but be going to is used more frequently than will in spoken English when the
speaker is expressing a definite plan or intention. The time expressions are often used with
the simple future tense : tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next month, next year.

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Formula :
Subject + (will/shall) + verb-1 + object + adverb
Subject + (will/shall) + not + verb-1 + object + adverb
(will/shall) + Subject + verb-1 + object + adverb + ?
Subject + (is/am/are + going to) + verb-1 + object + adverb
Subject + (is/am/are + not + going to) + verb-1 + object + adverb
(is/am/are) + Subject + (going to) + verb-1 + object + adverb + ?
Example :
1. He will post the letter
He will not post the letter
Will He post the letter ?
2. I shall go to Mojokerto tomorrow
I shall not go to Mojokerto tomorrow
Shall I go to Mojokerto tomorrow ?
3. She will help you with your homework tomorrow
She will not help you with your homework tomorrow
Will She help you with your homework tomorrow ?
4. I am going to bid a new motorcycle to my father
I am not going to bid a new motorcycle to my father
am I going to bid a new motorcycle to my father?
Amir : there is a movie on television tonight. Are you going to watch it ?
Farel : no, Iam too tired. Iam going to make it an early night.
Tukul : I hear Wati has won a lot of money. What is she going to do with it ?
Surip : Ive heard she is going to travel around the world
Rina

: Look at those black clouds! It is going ro rain

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BAB II
A. Summary
Voice is grammatical category that applies to verb. Voice expresses the relationship of
the subject to the action. Voice has two values :
Active : the subject does the action
Passive : the subject receives the action
So, the active voice is the normal voice- the one that we use most of the time. In the
active voice, the object receives the action on the verbs.

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