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Conifer Cast Training

Case 1 Solidification

For Conifer Cast Version 3.0.0

Simtech Systems Inc.

Version 2008-04-10

This training will show the basics of analysing simulation results of a solidification simulation.

In order to run this training you need

PDF reader such as Adobe Acrobat


Training document Training 1 instructions.pdf (this document)


Functional licensed copy of Conifer Cast 3.0, including the solver


Simulation document Training1.SPF

Step 1, Running the simulation

First you will have to run the training file Training1.SPF. Initially the file just contains the simulation definition but not the
simulation results. This is so because simulation results can be very large and if the file included the resutls it would be
come impractically large for delivery via www and/or email.
Start the Conifer Cast 3.0 from the Icon on the desktop and from Conifer Cast open the simulation document
Training1.SPF by selecting Open from the File dropdown menu and selecting the Training1.SPF with the file dialog.
Click Calculate button in the left bottom corner of the window.
You are asked whether to start with the calculation. Answer Yes
A command line window will open in which the preprocessor will run.

Picture 1: Preprocessor in command line window

After a while the command line window will disappear and another window with title Flow-3D is calculating... appears.
This window shows the progress of simulation.

Picture 2: Progress dialog

Depending on your hardware, the simulation will take about 10-20 minutes to run into completion (12 minutes on Intel
T5600 dual-core CPU with parallel solver license).
Once the simulation is complete the window will disappear and another, smaller one appears telling that Conifer Cast is
loading the simulation results. After a while that dialog will disappear and the simulation is now complete.

Step 2, Last liquid metal

First it is good to look in where the last liquid metal remains. This will give you some idea how the feeding of the system
works. If the liquid area at the end of solidification is not connected to feeding or risers there will be no new metal flowing
in there to replace the lost volume due to solidification shrinkage. Thus porosity will appear.
From the left side toolbar click Postprocessing. The postprocessing dialog will appear.
From the postprocessing dialog select surface as Liquid volume and surface color variable as Fluid temperature.
Select Show volume to see the casting piece as transparent shading around the liquid volume.
Use the time slider or the < > arrows next to it at the top of the postprocessing window to set time to observe. Set time as

Picture 3: Last liquid metal

You should now see the volume of liquid metal at timestep t=1907.684.
For getting the correct results it is very important that the liquidus and solidus temperatures values are set correctly for
the metal in the material database.

Step 3, Last liquid metal / Using clipping to view inside the surface
Set the color scale for fluid temperature close to the liquid temperature. You do this by typing in minimum and maximum
values for the color scale to the entries Low and High under Surface color parameters.
Use the sliders under Clipping planes to move clipping planes so that you can see inside the liquid metal volume.
Now you should be able to easily study how much is there a liquid melt which have a high shrinkage.

Picture 4: Clipping inside last liquid metal

Step 4, Viewing shrinkage

Now let's take a look at the solidification shrinkage.
From the postprocessing dialog select surface variable as Metal volume.
From the Time slider at the top of postprocessing dialog, move the time to the end of simulation t=2434.747s.
Now you can see the actual shrinkage area in the last time step. Metal volume value (slider below the surface variable
selection) is by default 0.5. This means that Conifer shows the elements which are 50% full. If you set up the value 0.9
you can see the whole area of shrinkage better. Now it shows the elements which are 90% full of metal.

Picture 5: Viewing shrinkage

Step 5, Viewing empty volume

Now lets have a look where the cavity has appeared.
Change the surface variable to Void volume. Now you can see how much there is empty area inside the casting.
In the picture 4, the void volume is set to 20% showing all the elements which are 80% of full of metal.

Picture 6: Viewing empty volume

Step 6, Viewing Microporosity

Next we shall have a look at where the system predicts the microporosity to occur.
Change the surface variable to Micro-porosity.
Microporosity shows the areas which tend to have microporosity.

Picture 7: Microporosity view

If we switch the surface variable to Metal surface and the surface color variable to Micro-porosity we can then use the
cutting planes to see how microporosity relates to macroporosity.

Step 7, Viewing Niyama criterion

Niyama criterion is set up in similar way.
Change the surface variable to Niyama defect criterion.

Picture 8: Niyama criterion view

If we switch the surface variable to Metal surface and the surface color variable to Niyama defect criterion we can then
use the cutting planes to see how microporosity relates to macroporosity.

Step 8, Viewing Hot Cracking criterion

With Hot Cracking criterion it is possible to see critical areas for hot cracking. The value set up is very similar as in
microporosity and Niyma. White color represent critical area for hot cracking.
To view hot cracking select Metal volume as surface variable and Hot cracking criterion as surface color variable. Use
clipping planes to look the criterion function values inside the casting piece.

Picture 9: Hot Cracking criterion view

Step 9, Viewing Efficiency Index criterion

With feeding efficiency index it is possible to examine how the feeding is funtioning. White color tells us inwhere the
feeding is not optimum. Note that shrinkage area could have a good feeding. Problem is that it does not get metal to
subsititute the shrinkage.
To view Feeding efficiency index choose Metal volume as surface variable and Feeding efficiency index as surface
color variable. Use clipping planes to look the criterion function values inside the casting piece.

Picture 10: Efficiency Index view