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You are on page 1of 26

by A.C.Rose-Innes & E. H. Rhoderick 2nd Ed.

References:

Introduction to superconductivity

by M. Tinkham 2nd Ed.

superconductivity by C. P. Poole, Jr., H. A. Farach, and R.

J. Creswick

Outline

1 Introduction-zero resistance

2. Perfect diamagnetism

3. Electrodynamics/The London theory

4. The critical magnetic field

5. Thermodynamics of the transition

6. The intermediate state

7. Transport currents in superconductors

8. The superconducting properties of small specimens

9. Ginzburg- Landau theory

9. The microscopic theory/BCS theory

10. Tunneling/Josephson effect

11. Type-II superconductivity

12. Hi-Tc superconductors

resistivity

resistivity

Zero resistance

impure metal

superconductor

T

Residual resistivity 0

TC

Critical temperature

transition temperature

Discovery of superconductivity

H. Kamerlingh Onnes

(Leiden University)

He was the first to liquify helium (1908),

for which he was awarded the Nobel prize

in 1913, and he discovered

superconductivity in 1911

According to Onnes, "Mercury has passed

into a new state, which on account of its

extraordinary electrical properties may be

called the superconductive state".

H. K. Onnes, Commun.

Phys. Lab.12,120, (1911)

Discovery of superconductivity H. Kamerlingh Onnes(1911) in Hg

1913 Nobel prize

Ochsenfeld(1933)

Ginzburg-Landau theory: 1950s

2003 Nobel prize (with Abrikosov)

BCS theory: J. Bardeen, L. Cooper and J.R.

Schrieffer(1957) 1972 Nobel prize

Hi-Tc superconductivity: J. G. Bednorz and K. A.

Muller(1986) in Ba-La-Cu-O system.

Transition temperatures

Nb

Tc

Lead (Pb)

V

Lanthanum (La)

Tantalum(Ta)

Mercury (Hg)

Tin (Sn)

Indium (In)

Thallium (Tl)

Rhenium (Re)

Protactinium (Pa)

Thorium (Th)

Aluminum (Al)

Gallium (Ga)

Molybdenum (Mo)

Zinc (Zn)

Osmium (Os)

Zirconium (Zr)

9.25K

7.80 K

7.196 K

5.40 K

4.88 K

4.47 K

4.15 K

3.72 K

3.41 K

2.38 K

1.697 K

1.40 K

1.38 K

1.175 K

1.083 K

0.915 K

0.85 K

0.66 K

0.61 K

BCC(Type 2)

HEX(Type 2)

FCC

BCC(Type 2)

HEX

BCC

RHL

TET

TET

HEX

HEX

TET

FCC

FCC

ORC

BCC

HEX

HEX

HEX

Americium (Am)

Cadmium (Cd)

Ruthenium (Ru)

Titanium (Ti)

Uranium (U)

Hafnium (Hf)

Iridium (Ir)

Beryllium (Be)

Tungsten (W)

Platinum (Pt)*

Rhodium (Rh)

0.60 K

0.517 K

0.49 K

0.40 K

0.20 K

0.128 K

0.1125 K

0.023 K

0.0154 K

0.0019 K

0.000325 K

HEX

HEX

HEX

HEX

ORC

HEX

FCC

HEX

BCC

FCC

FCC

*compacted powder

MgB2

Nb3Ge

39K

23.2K

Transition temperature(Hi-Tc)

Physik B64, 189, (1986)

Persistent current

The inductance of the loop

8r

L = 0 r ln 2

a

r

2a

2r

R= 2

a

=L R

< 1026 m

i (t ) = i (0)e t

For Cu ~ 1.56 cm

Resistanceless circuit

The flux due to external field

threading a closed loop x=ABapp

dBa

di

A

= Ri + L

dt

dt

x=ABapp

dBa

di

A

=L

dt

dt

Li + ABa = constant

The total magnetic flux threading

a closed loop = x+L=constant

i

L=Li

Bapp

Superconducting solenoid

The current is generated by the

power supply P, and is adjusted

by the rheostat R. Once the

current is brought to the desired

value, the switch XY can be

closed. Since S and XY form a

closed resistanceless loop, the

magnetic field flux threaded by

the loop remains the same. Now

one can disconnect the power

supply and the solenoid runs in

the persistent mode.

2. Perfect diamagnetism

Perfect diamagnetism

superconductor

Perfect diamagnetism

Perfect conductor

Constant magnetic flux

Flux expulsion: field cooled

B=0

Meissner effect

B = 0

Recall the result deduced

in page 14

superconductor

Perfect conductor

ZFC

FC

Permeability

B = 0 ( H + M ) = 0 (1 + ) H

M = H

= 1

Magnetic susceptibility

Magnetic permeability

=0

Bapp = 0 H

Surface currents

B = 0 J

J = M

Hole in Superconductor

Surface currents

Penetration depth

Boundary condition

H & = H &

Happ

H app = H in

Bapp

Hin

Bin

Bapp = 0 H app

Bin = 0

distributed within a depth,

superconductor

London theory

B ( x) = B (0)e x /

Bapp

B(x)

1

=

0 (1 t 4 )1/ 2

t = T TC

superconductor

+

The measurement of penetration depth

Self inductance of the solenoid, L is a

function of penetration depth

The tank circuit form an oscillator of

a typical frequency

C

Tank circuit

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