GSM Interview Question -Answer

1.

What is the function of SDCCH & SACCH?

Ans. (a) SDCCH---- Slow Dedicated Control Channel.
Function---a)
Location updates
b)
SMS
c)
Ciphering Initiation
d)
Equipment Validation
e)
Subscriber authentation
f)
Call set up signaling
(b)

SACCH---Slow Associated Control Channel.
Function:
(a) Timing advance data
(b) Transmit power control
(c) transmission of signaling data
(d) radio link supervision measurements
2. What are the reasons for Hand Overs?
(Ans) . (a) Signal Strength (RX LEVEL)
(b) Signal Quality (RX Qual)
(c) Power Budget
(d)Timing Advance.
(e) Interference
2.
What are the shortcomings in handovers?
a)
Call Dropping.
b)
Ping- Pong handover
c)
Far- Away cell effect
4. What is intelligent hand over?
Ans)Fuzzy logic
a)
Neutral networks
5. What are internal & external hand over?
Ans
(1)INTERNAL HANDOVER
a)
( INTER BTS) ---- Transfer between two

channels (time slot) in same

cell.
b)
2
3

( INTRA BSC ( BTS –BTS)-----1 . transfer between BTS under control of same Bsc
Measuring the quality of radio connection
Power levels
2. EXTERNAL HANDOVER.

Define the freq. hopping parameters? Frequency Hopping Parameters GSM defines the following set of parameters: Mobile Allocation (MA): Set of frequencies the mobile is allowed to hop over. 8.1. transfer between cell under the control of diff MSC .1. Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Determines the hopping order used in the cell. Explain the major diff between BBH & SFH? Ans  In BBH the no of hopping freq is same as no of TRX. that leads to better spectrum efficiency. 10. Setting HSN = 0 provides cyclic hopping sequence and HSN = 1 to 63 provide various pseudo-random hopping sequences. It is possible to assign 64 different HSNs. How in frequency hopping there is enhancement of network capacity?  Freq hopping implement will enable more aggressive freq reuse pattern.MSC) ----1. Transfer between BTS under the control of diff BSC 2. synthesized frequency hopping. 2. Maximum of 63 frequencies can be defined in the MA list. NSS to attends the hand over 4. Base band freq hopping. ( b) INTER MSC ( MSC. while maintaing the net work quality/  Freq hopping compressing the available spectrum to make room for extra capacity .What is the frequency Hopping its imp? (Ans)  It is defined as sequential change of carrier frequency on the radio link between mobile & base station. MSC controls. 7.( a) INTER BSC (BSC_ BSC)---.  In SFH the no of Hoping freq can be in the range of 1to 63.  It can add more transceiver in the existing sites . 2.  Two types of freq hopping----. what are the advantages of Frequency Hopping? 1. . 3. Frequency Diversity Interference Averaging capacity 9. BSC TO BSC 3 .

which frequency the mobile starts do transmit on. The value of MAIO ranges between 0 to (N-1) where N is the number of frequencies defined in the MA list. Presently MAIO is set on per carrier basis. FHI.  FER is performed on speech& signaling frames  FER------. Motorola system allows to define the hopping system on a per timeslot basis. The value of FHI varies between 0 to 3. 14. This is very useful for interference averaging and to randomize the distribution of errors.  This is measured by delta measurement. slightly degraded Greater than 15%. What happens when signaling frames discarded in FER?  MS is instructed to resend. Motorola has defined an additional parameter.0 to 4%. What is TCH_ TCH Interference? How it is measured. Define the terms? . --.Explain in brief what is FER.   When TCH carries are reused that leads to co-channel interference. BCCH carries are diff 2. It is possible to define all 4 FHIs in a single cell. 11. What are the effects of freq hopping? (Ans) 1 Handovers: 2 Call setup: 3 Frame Erasure Rate (FER): 12 . So different hopping configurations are allowed for different timeslots.Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): Determines inside the hopping sequence. When TCH carrier have call activity. 4 to 15% .1. GOOD. useless 13. 15. TCH carriers in both cell 1& cell2 are same AFRCN TCH 16. What happens when speech frames discarded in FER?  System will interpolate.  Ans FER= Number of erased blocks\ total no of blocks *100  It is the right measure of voice quality. made up by an associated set of frequencies (MA) to hop over and sequence of hopping (HSN). Hopping Indicator (FHI): Defines a hopping system.

 TA -.----.Receive bit error rate  FE –frame erasure rate. BER--. CHM 5. 2.serving cell BCCH AFRCN.  TX .cell reselction Hystresis  CiMd—Ciphering mode Llcell BCCH . TA DSC 4.BCCH RH CiMd MCC MNC LAC  L2. 17.transmit power  C/I -. Explain the parameters in TEMS POCKET mobile. Logical channel ----. RA CI  BS-.TCH  BC-.  RXLEV.  L1.  RBER---1 Residual bit error rate 2 It is performed on demodulated speech frames that are not mark corrupt .recieved signal strength  TC-- traffic channel  TS - time slot number. TX C/I ARFCN RQ FE 3. Logical channel.Bad frame indication.Timing advance  CHM --C hannel Mode  RH -.Carrier to interference ratio in db  RQ -.The number of erroneous bits received Total no of bits received.base station identity code. L BS L TS BC RXLEV TC 1.BFI -.

05 means one call in 20 will be blocked call during busiest hour because of insufficient capacity.?  RX Qual is the basic measure. RAC – Routing area code. Hand over. What are the technique GSM offers which combat Multipath fading?  Equalization  Diversity  Freq Hopping  Interleaving  Channel coding 23. 1. 20. . It reflects the average BER over the certain period of time(0. What are control &traffic channels?  CONTROL CHANNEL. What is ERLANG? Unit of telephone traffic intensity is called Erlang. One ERLANG is one channel occupied continuously for one hour. Adj-channel interference. Frame erasure 3.----1 BCH 2. What are type of interference occur? Co.1. Near end.    2. 21.channel interference. 22. DCCH.5s)  RX QUAL done over 104 TDMA frames.  Limitation of RXQUAL---. 1E = 64Kbps. what do you mean by GOS?   It is the probabity of having a call blocked during busiest hour.Far end interference. 18. Ex GOS=0. 2. 19. CCCH 3. 3. Explain the analysis behind RX Qual.  LAC—Location area code. The distributions of bit error over time.

FACCH 25. Dummy Burst Access Burst. What are the optimizations you have done during Drive Test?   What are samples in gsm? Which modulation take place in GSM  In one TRU how many frames are there?  What is the value RXLEV of neighboring cell?  What do you mean by VAD? .200khz Sub Urban Environment ---.1. What are BCH. AGCH 3. --. TRAFFIC CHANNEL-. BCCH 2 .400khz Open environment ----. 24.PCH 2.    Normal Burst Frequency Correction Burst Synchronization Burst. SACCH 3. SCH  CCCH.800khz 27. What are types of bursts?      26.Half rate Full rate EFR == Enhanced full rate.SDCCH. DCCH channels?  BCH-. CCH. What is the watt to dBm conversions?  Power in dBm = 10 log( watts *100)  0 dBm= 1mili watt  1watt = 30dbm  28. RACH  DCCH---- 1. 2.1. What is adjacent channel separation in GSM? Urban Environment-------.FCCH 3.

. What is the relation link between RXQUAL& FER? Table 1. The bit error distribution affects the ability of the channel decoding to correct the errors. For the baseband hopping two HSNs exists. so the practical maximum number of frequencies in the MA-list is 63. The HSN is a cell specific parameter.2 Mobile Allocation Index Offset When there is more than one TRX in the BTS using the same MA-list the Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) is used to ensure that each TRX uses always an unique frequency. The HSNs 1 . What is BFI. The hopping sequence algorithm takes HSN and FN as an input and the output of the hopping sequence generation is aMobile Allocation Index (MAI) which is a number ranging from 0 to the number of frequencies in the MA-list subtracted by one. The frequencies in the MA-list are required to be in increasing order because of the type of signaling used to transfer the MA-list. The hopping sequence determines the order in which the frequencies in the MA-list are to be used. Each hopping TRX is allocated a different MAIO. The RXQUAL doesn’t indicate how the bit errors were distributed in a speech frame.63 are pseudo random sequences used in the random hopping while the HSN 0 is reserved for a sequential sequence used in the cyclic hopping. 30. MAIO and HSN are transmitted to a mobile together with the MA-list. RXQUAL vs. The MAIOs for the other hopping TRXs are automatically allocated according to the MAIOstep -parameter introduced in the following section. Define the hopping parameters in detail? The MA is a list of hopping frequencies transmitted to a mobile every time it is assigned to a hopping physical channel. The Frame Erasure Ratio (FER) is a ratio of discarded speech frames compared to all the received speech frames. The MA-list is automatically generated if the baseband hopping is used. The MA-list is able to point to 64 of the frequencies defined in the CA list. All the time slots in RF hopping cell follow the HSN1 as presented in Error! Reference source not found. However. 1. FER is a measure of how successfully the speech frame was received after the error correction process and it is thus a better indication of the subjective speech quality compared to the RXQUAL which gives an estimate of the link quality in terms of BER. 1. Also.. The MA-list is a subset of the CA list. 31. the MA-lists have to be generated for each cell by the network planner. In Nokia solution the MAIO offset is a cell specific parameter defining the MAIOTRX for the first hopping TRX in a cell. FER comparison according to the laboratory tests. If the network utilises the RF hopping. the BCCH frequency is also included in the CA list. The following table gives an idea of the correlation between RXQUAL and FER and between subjective speech quality and different FER classes. What is the effect of frequency hopping in RXQual? Frequency hopping causes some changes in the RXQUAL distribution.. where it is use? 2929. MAIO is added to MAI when the frequency to be used is determined from the MA-list. The zero time slots in a BB hopping cell use the HSN1 and the rest of the time slots follow the HSN2 as presented in Error! Reference source not found. . there are some differences in a way the RXQUAL distribution should be interpreted. A speech frame is generally discarded if after the decoding and error correction process any of the category 1a bits is found to be changed based on the three parity bits following them in a speech frame.1 Hopping Sequence Number The Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) indicates which hopping sequence of the 64 available is selected. Example of the hopping sequence generation is presented in Error! Reference source not found.

in most cases the quality is actually improved. the calls generating high RXQUAL samples tend to stay on. As can be seen from the figures. The relation is clearly different in the hopping case compared to the non-hopping case. This may seem to be surprising since it is expected that frequency hopping improves the network quality. it is less likely that a call is dropped because of the radio link timeout. The distributions of FER in each RXQUAL class are presented in Error! Reference source not found. This difference is a consequence of interference and frequency diversities that affect the frequency hopping network. the interference or low signal strength tend to occur randomly. This may lead to increase in the share of RXQUAL 67.The relation of downlink FER and RXQUAL was measured during a FH trial. Thus. Instead. even if no other changes have been made. Thus. the tighter the reuse becomes. there are presented some trial results of a DL RXQUAL distribution with different frequency allocation reuse patterns. and Error! Reference source not found. However. One clear observation can be made. the share of the RXQUAL classes 6 and 7 may increase after FH is switched on. There’s bigger difference in downlink than in uplink direction. This improvement of FER means that the higher RXQUAL values may be allowed in a frequency hopping network. Typically. it may be concluded that in the frequency hopping networks significant quality deterioration starts at RXQUAL class 6 while in non-hopping network this happens at RXQUAL class 5. Because of the improvement in the relative reception performance on the RXQUAL classes 4-6.. The improved tolerance against interference and low field strength in FH network means that it is less likely that the decoding of SACCH frames fails causing increment in the radio link timeout counter. the RXQUAL thresholds affecting handover and power control decisions should be set higher in a network using frequency hopping network.. . The successful error correction leads to less erased frames and thus improves the FER. at the same time the call success rate is significantly improved. Because of these effects. RXQUAL thresholds are used in the handover and power control decisions. but the improvement is more visible in the call success ratio. In the Error! Reference source not found. the less samples fall in quality class 0 and more samples fall in quality classes 1-6. In a frequency hopping network RXQUAL classes 0-5 are indicating good quality. in the non-hopping case there are significant amount of samples indicating deteriorated quality (FER>10%) in RXQUAL class 5 while in the hopping case the significant quality deterioration (FER>10%) happens in RXQUAL class 6. while in a non-hopping network it is probable that interference or low field strength will affect several consecutive bursts making it harder for the error correction to actually correct errors. However.

thus increasing the overall capacity of the system. . 34. which involve transferring a call between:  Channels (time slots) in the same cell  Cells (Base Transceiver Stations) under the control of the same Base Station Controller (BSC).-1. of course. If the interference is averaged over more than one SACCH frame. The frequency of the idle time slots changes according to the same sequence. Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a method that takes advantage of the fact that a person speaks less that 40 percent of the time in normal conversation [22]. comfort noise is created at the receiving end by trying to match the characteristics of the transmitting end's background noise. the BSC selects the TRX and the time slot for the traffic channel based on the idle channel interference measurements. Figure Error! No text of specified style in document.what are types of handover? There are four different types of handover in the GSM system. If. noise is misinterpreted as a voice signal too often. the efficiency of DTX is dramatically decreased. What do you understand by idle channel measurement?  When a new call is established or a handover is performed. considering background noise. If the cyclic hopping sequence is used. due to the digital nature of GSM. and  Cells under the control of different MSCs. a task that is not as trivial as it appears. on the other hand. what are important parameter of power saving in GSM Discontinuous transmission Minimizing co-channel interference is a goal in any cellular system. this means that the measured idle channel interference is likely to be the same for all the TRXs that use the same MA-list. An added benefit of DTX is that power is conserved at the mobile unit. This happens. but belonging to the sameMobile services Switching Center (MSC). If a voice signal is misinterpreted as noise. When the frequency hopping is used.  Cells under the control of different BSCs. Another factor to consider is that when the transmitter is turned off. It must distinguish between voice and noise inputs. there might occur differences on the measured idle channel interference levels between the TRXs on the same time slot as explained in the following section. The most important component of DTX is. since it allows better service for a given cell size.32. In a case of the random hopping. there are probably differences in the measured idle channel interferences between different time slots in the cell. Idle channel interference in a case of the random RF hopping 33 . the frequency of a hopping logical channel is changed about 217 times in a second. the averaging effect is even stronger. by turning the transmitter off during silence periods. However. or the use of smaller cells. To assure the receiver that the connection is not dead.-1. there is total silence heard at the receiving end. normally the interferers are mobiles located in interfering cells. This is illustrated in Figure Error! No text of specified style in document. the transmitter is turned off and a very annoying effect called clipping is heard at the receiving end. because the interfering mobiles are only transmitting during the time slot that has been allocated to them. In this case. The frequency hopping has a significant effect on the idle channel interference measurement results. Voice Activity Detection.

In the time between successive paging sub-channels. when almost no power is used. such as 900/1800/1900 MHz or 850/1800/1900 MHz. the mobile can go into sleep mode. used by the base station to signal an incoming call. Each mobile station needs to listen only to its own sub-channel. is structured into sub-channels. such as 850/1900 MHz or 900/1800 . All of this increases battery life considerably when compared to analog : What is Tri-band and Dual-band? A: A tri-band phone operates at three supported frequencies. The paging channel. A dualband phone operates at two frequencies.Discontinuous reception Another method used to conserve power at the mobile station is discontinuous reception.