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Sign and Design

DU M BA RTON OA K S S Y M P OSI A A N D COL LO QU I A

Sign and Design
Script as Image in Cross-Cultural Perspective
(300–1600 ce)

Edited by

Brigitte Miriam Bedos-Rezak
and Jeffrey F. Hamburger

D u m ba rton Oa k s R ese a rch L i br a ry a n d Col l ec t ion
Wa sh i ngton, D.C .

paper) 1. Brigitte. D.. isbn 978-0-88402-407-1 (alk. October 12–14. Monograms—History—Congresses. editor. pages cm. Signs and symbols—Religious aspects—Congresses. Illumination of books and manuscripts. 5. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Medieval—Congresses. 1957–. Printed in the United States of America by Sheridan Books. II. 2. libr ary of congr ess cip data Sign and Design: Script as Image in Cross-Cultural Perspective (300–1600 CE) (Symposium) (2012 : Dumbarton Oaks) Sign and design : script as image in cross-cultural perspective (300–1600 CE) / edited by Brigitte Miriam Bedos-Rezak and Jeffrey Hamburger.C.org/publications Book design and composition: Melissa Tandysh Managing editor: Joel Kalvesmaki . Jeffrey F.w75s54 2012 411—dc23 2015000842 www.© 2016 Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University. editor.C. Writing and art—History—Congresses. III. Washington. Bedos-Rezak. Title. Hamburger. 4. 3. 2012. Inc. 6. — (Dumbarton Oaks symposia and colloquia) Papers from the symposium Sign and Design: Script as Image in Cross-Cultural Perspective (300–1600 CE). nx650. D. I. Writing in art—Congresses. Includes bibliographical references and index.doaks. All rights reserved. Picture-writing—History—Congresses. Washington.

con t en ts Acknowledgments vii Abbreviations ix Introduction Brigitte Miriam Bedos-Rezak and Jeffrey F. Cummins 85 . Hamburger 1 T HE ICON ICI T Y OF SCR I P T 1 Visible/Legible An Iconic Typology of Writing Anne-Marie Christin † 19 2  Pictorial Talking The Figural Rendering of Speech Acts and Texts in Aztec Mexico Elizabeth Hill Boone 31 3  Chrysepes Stichourgia The Byzantine Epigram as Aesthetic Object Ivan Drpić 51 4 Rebus-Signatures Béatrice Fr aenkel 71 5  From Many into One The Transformation of Pre-Columbian Signs into European Letters in the Sixteenth Century Thomas B. F.

T E XT: I M AGI NG T HE I N EF FA BLE 6  Dynamic Signs and Spiritual Designs Herbert L. Winter 197 11  Monograms and the Art of Unhelpful Writing in Late Antiquity Antony Eastmond 219 12  The Performative Letter in the Carolingian Sacramentary of Gellone Cynthia Hahn 237 13  The Colors of the Ritual Description and Inscription of Church Dedication in Liturgical Manuscripts (10th–11th Centuries) Didier Méhu 259 Contributors 279 Index of Manuscripts 283 General Index 285 vi CONTENTS . Kessler 111 7  From Christ’s Monogram to God’s Presence An Epigraphic Contribution to the Study of Chrismons in Romanesque Sculpture Vincent Debiais 135 8  The Role of Hebrew Letters in Making the Divine Visible Katrin Kogman-Appel 153 9  The Content of Form Islamic Calligraphy between Text and Representation İrvİn Cemİl Schick 173 PER FOR M AT I V I T Y: ICON IC SCR I P T A N D T HE BODY 10  Text on/in Monuments “Lapidary Style” in Ancient Mesopotamia Irene J.

its director. Jan Ziolkowski. vii . and the publications department for their hospitality. his incredibly efficient executive assistants. it remains only to thank emphatically Dumbarton Oaks and. This has been an immensely complicated undertaking. Without the initiative. which also benefited from the constructive input of external reviewers.ack now ledgm en ts I n a ddi t ion t o t h a n k i ng ou r con t r i bu t or s for t h e c a r e w i t h which they prepared and revised their papers. Francisco Lopez and Raquel Begleiter. and support during both the conference and the preparation of this volume. and insight of these dedicated individuals. guidance. our designs would have remained desires. in particular. efficiency.

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tractate Berakhot BIE Bulletin de l’Institut d’Égypte Bm Bibliothèque municipale BMGS Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies BMMA Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art BMQ The British Museum Quarterly BnF Bibliothèque nationale de France BSl Byzantinoslavica BSOAS Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies bYoma Babylonian Talmud. ed.Χριστ.Ἀρχ. (Anvers. X e–XII e siècles CCCM Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis CCSL Corpus Christianorum.Στερ. series latina CIFM Corpus des inscriptions de la France médiévale CPh Classical Philology DACL Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie Δελτ.Μελ. tractate Yoma BZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift CahArch Cahiers archéologiques CahCM Cahiers de civilisation médiévale. 1736–1738) AH Art History AI Ars islamica AJA American Journal of Archaeology AJP American Journal of Philology ArtB Art Bulletin ArtLomb Arte lombarda bBer Babylonian Talmud. Δελτίον τῆς Χριστιανικῆς ἀρχαιολογικῆς ἑταιρείας DOP Dumbarton Oaks Papers DOS Dumbarton Oaks Studies EME Early Medieval Europe Ἐπ.Ἑτ. Ἐπετερὶς ἑταιρείας Στερεοελλαδικῶν μελετῶν EphL Ephemerides liturgicae ErJb Eranos-Jahrbuch FS Frühmittelalterliche Studien GBA Gazette des beaux-arts HSCPh Harvard Studies in Classical Philology IEJ Israel Exploration Journal IRAIK Izvestiia Russkogo arkheologicheskogo instituta v Konstantinople ix .a bbr ev i at ions AA Archäologischer Anzeiger AER De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus libri. 4 vols. Martene. E.Ἑτ.

Migne (Paris. Müller. new style (calendral) ODB The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium PG Patrologiae cursus completus. ed. Poetae latini medii aevi MGH SS Monumenta Germaniae historica. Wessel (Stuttgart. J. Series latina. Migne (Paris. Νέος Ἑλλενομνήμων n. Epistolae MM F. Acta et diplomata graeca medii aevi–sacra et profana (Vienna. st. ed. Miklosich and J. Series graeca. JbAC Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum JBL Journal of Biblical Literature JJS Journal of Jewish Studies JÖB Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik JÖBG Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinischen Gesellschaft JQR Jewish Quartly Review JRA Journal of Roman Archaeology JRS Journal of Roman Studies MarbJb Marburger Jahrbuch für Kunstwissenschaft MGH Poetae Monumenta Germaniae historica.-P. 1963–) REB Revue des études byzantines REI Revue des études islamiques RES Revue des études slaves SBN Studi bizantini e neoellenici TM Travaux et mémoires WSt Wiener Studien VizVrem Vizantiiskii vremennik ZKunstg Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte ZPapEpig Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik ZRVI Zbornik radova Vizantološkog instituta x abbreviations . Scriptores MGH Ep Monumenta Germaniae historica. 1857–66) PL Patrologiae cursus completus. K. 1860–1890) NABU Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires NC The Numismatic Chronicle Νέος Ἑλλ. ed. 1844–80) PLP Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit RBén Revue bénédictine RBK Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst. J.-P.

that goes as follows: “man kataba bismi Allāhi al-raḥmāni al-raḥīmi bi-ḥusni al-khaṭṭi dakhala al-jannata bi ghayri ḥisāb. it has been suggested recently that the word “calligraphy” itself is an eighteenth-century western term. eadem (East Lansing. Mich. Gülzarı Savab. 1991). however: the term ḥusn al-khaṭṭ. 2  Several sayings along these lines appear in Nefes-zâde İbrahim.” that is. Rather than a substitute for figurative art. Tuhfe-i Hattâtîn. So much so. İbnülemin Mahmud Kemal [İnal] (İstanbul. “whoever writes the Basmala and beautifies it. a saying attributed to the Prophet Muḥammad. 1939). where the ḥadīth is attributed to the Imām Suyūṭī. That said.” that is.” but it does have a stronger provenance. Nefes-zâde died in 1650. and that its form adds to its content in a unique way. This prominence is usually attributed to the supposed iconophobia of Islam. in fact. which in Arabic can mean either “beauty of script” or “beautiful script” and is the exact equivalent of the Greek kalligraphia. where private communications with Oleg Grabar and Heath Lowry are credited for the idea. 173 . ix.1 This is manifestly untrue. ed. ed. at least since the studies of Jacob Georg Christian Adler in the 1780s. “Introduction. that it is generally thought of as the most “quintessentially Islamic” of all arts. “whoever writes the Basmala [the formula ‘in the name of God.9 The Content of Form Islamic Calligraphy between Text and Representation I· rvi· n C emi· l S chick C alligraphy is virtually omnipresent in Islamic art and architecture. ed. For example. the fact remains that calligraphy is profoundly visual.” Though it is likely that this ḥadīth is a later fabrication. though this explanation is not satisfactory for a number of reasons.” in Brocade of the Pen: The Art of Islamic Writing. God shall forgive him [for his sins]. 3  Müstakīm-zâde Süleyman Sadeddin. occurs in Islamic sources many centuries before the eighteenth. and is thus inapplicable to the Islamic context. and goes as follows: “man kataba bismi Allāhi al-raḥmāni al-raḥīmi fa-jawwadahu ghafar Allāhu lahu. The intermediacy of Islamic calligraphy between its textual and pictorial dimensions is the subject of the present article. Kilisli Muallim Rifat (İstanbul. 1  Carol Garrett Fisher. the beneficient. calligraphy is more productively viewed as a distinct artform with its own cultural genealogy and social function.2 There is also another saying that is only slightly different. even so it certainly far antedates the eighteenth century. 1928). there is a ḥadīth. as it does not appear in the canonical compilations. the merciful’] with beautiful script [ḥusn al-khaṭṭ] shall enter paradise without accounting.. having been included in Imām Suyūṭī’s (1445–1505) collection of ḥadīths. While Islamic calligraphy has been the focus of some western scholarly attention. 36–37. and its wide circulation and several extant versions suggest the existence of a certain tradition. 10.”3 This one does not explicitly say “calligraphy.

ed. written by Mustafa Âlî of Gallipoli in 1587. Karatay Medresesi Yazı İncileri (Konya.” BIE 38. If anything.Even if we allow that the Prophet Muḥammad may have been entirely silent on the subject of calligraphy. 22. to a degree. thus conveying public messages about spatial hierarchy in the urban realm. or human beings. 174 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick plaited.8 As Richard Ettinghausen put it. 23 avril–23 juillet 2001. And as these forms became more standardized.” animals fill in the spaces between individual letters. In short. Islamic Art (Cambridge. ed. e. 5  Mustafa Âlî. trans. 2 (1954–55): 273–304. 9  Richard Ettinghausen. The Wade Cup in the Cleveland Museum of Art (Paris.” roughly. 31–33. . 1958). but rather served to emphasize certain important words in architectural inscriptions.” And in the third.g. looking at early Qur’ān manuscripts in chronological fashion makes it clear that beautiful writing was on the agenda from quite an early date. “Anthropomorphic and Zoomorphic Letters in the History of Arabic Writing. foliated. Mohammad Gharipour and İrvin Cemil Schick (Edinburgh. While the details of this process remain uncertain. and especially in architectural inscriptions such as the superb dome of the Seljuk-era Karatay madrasa in Konya (1251). Taḥqīqāt wa-ta‘ līqāt ‘alā kitāb al-Khaṭṭāṭ al-Baghdādī ‘Alī ibn Hilāl al-mashhūr bi-Ibn al-Bawwāb ([Baghdad].”4 This poem was included by Ibn Khaldūn (1332–1406) in his Muqaddimah. an English translation. 92.. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. By the ninth century. and floriated scripts that. this pictoriality was enhanced through the development of several highly ornamented variants of Kūfī script.11 In the second. sacrificed legibility for decorative effect. e. the only purpose of which was aesthetic (fig. ascenders end in human heads. . Beginning in the tenth century. 1 (1975): 50. Rice. “Islamic Art. A couple of centuries later. 54–85. For example.” BMMA 33. 1991). animals. 11  Barbara Brend. “Fāṭimid Kūfī Epigraphy on the Gates of Cairo: Between Royal Patronage and Civil Utility. 8. 7  See. “The Origin and Early Devel­ opment of Floriated Kufic. .1). barely two centuries later. however. Laurence Posselle (Paris. seems to stem mainly from two converging impulses: the general tendency to elaborate the letters. and was widely read and commented upon in the centuries that followed.6 In some manuscripts. scribes charged with writing down the Revelation were giving letters and groups of letters more and more refined forms. is given in Ibn Khaldûn. 1955). 275–89.10 In the first. and the tendency between the 10th and 13th centuries to develop floral and other ornament into birds. republished in Ars Orientalis 2 (1957): 183–213. the celebrated poem al-Qaṣīda al-rā’ iyya (Poem on the Letter Rā) by the great calligrapher Ibn Bawwāb (d. See Bahia Shehab. still there is no doubt that the term ḥusn al-khaṭṭ was used in Islamic sources before the eighteenth century. 6  See.. no. 10  D. It has been suggested recently that floriation was sometimes not purely decorative. begins with a discussion of “the essentialness of writing and the honorableness of calligraphy. ed. 2001). “Les écritures animées.” BIE 37. no.” in Calligraphy and Archi­ tecture in the Muslim World.”9 D. which he aptly named “inhabited. Rice distinguished three main types of figural inscription.7 writing and ornamentation combined in ways that blurred the distinction between script and image. it would appear that the elaboration of the apexes of some vertical letters gradually led to 4  For the Arabic text. 2:388–89. Mehmet (Emin) Eminoğlu. 2013). Mass. İbnülemin Mahmud Kemal [İnal] (İstanbul. 8  Adolf Grohmann. no. Adolf Grohmann. we can safely lay to rest the idea that the term “calligraphy” is not applicable to the Islamic context. though not one that I have followed here. 1926). 1999). S.”5 a word that he renders precisely as ḥusn al-khaṭṭ. Franz Rosenthal (Princeton. this “rather remarkable phenomenon . Rice dubbed this “animated script. inscriptions are composed entirely of human or animal figures. This trend may be said to have reached its zenith in the anthropomorphic and zoomorphic inscriptions that became fashionable during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Musée du Louvre.g. according to Barbara Brend. 1 (1955– 56): 117–22. writing acquired an increasingly pictorial character. 1022) begins with the couplet “yā man yurīdu ijādata al-taḥrīri / wa yarawmu ḥusna al-khaṭṭi wa al-taṣwīri. this style was known as waqwaq after the legendary tree bearing humanlike fruits. 9. 83–90. “O you who aspire to beautifying writing / and desire beautiful script [ḥusn al-khaṭṭ] and drawing. Menâkıb-ı Hünerverân. Arabic script at the time of the Prophet was anything but aesthetic.. the earliest known Ottoman treatise on the Islamic arts of the book. and Thérèse Bittar. first emerging in Khorasan and spreading west into Mesopotamia. S.” in L’Étrange et le merveilleux en terres d’Islam: Paris. 1967). see Muḥammad Bahjat al-Atharī.

Calif. N. ninth century (The Nasser D. 5–6 (1927): 119–20. and Türklerde Yazı Sanatı (Ankara.13 In his treatise Gulistān-i hunar (ca. Mīr Munshī al-Ḥusaynī mentioned 12  Richard Ettinghausen.1. 1 (1936): 35–43.” 84–89. e. right: in a Qur’ān manuscript in Kūfī script.” Dârülfünûn İlâhiyât Fakültesi Mecmu‘ası 2. Shepherd. Topkapı Palace Museum. Richard Ettinghausen. “Inlaid Brasses from the Workshop of Aḥmad al-Dhakī al-Mawṣilī. Its Origin and Decorations. no. . nos. See. no. and those signatures likely belong to the metalworkers. Dorothy G.” Ars Orientalis 2 (1957): 327–66. Laura T. T.. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy ([Lafayette. and amateur calligrapher İsmayıl Hakkı Baltacıoğlu argued from 1904 onward that Arabic letters originally arose from the human form. The Wade Cup. 1959). 11–85. also known as Majnūn. ruler of Qatar (Chamber of the Holy Relics. no.g. with an introduction by B. 920 (1943): 193–208. and to date several masterpieces bearing such inscriptions have come to light. and finally the Blacas ewer and another ewer at the British Museum. “The Freer Canteen. Son of Mīr-Munshī. 300–379. Islamic Metalwork in the Freer Gallery of Art (Washington. 3:611–16.” Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 46. Minorsky (Washington. and Yousif Mahmud Ghulam. 124–36. he was certainly not the originator of animated script. trans.  The name Allah in two documents written approximately two centuries apart. no. V. S. 21–33. W. courtesy of the Khalili Family Trust (right). Esin Atıl. 16  It is worth noting that the Turkish sociologist. on the top of one of the British Museum’s ewers lies the inscription “al-‘izz wa’l-baqā’ wa’l-madḥa wa’l-sana’ wa’l-rif ‘a wa’l-‘alā’ wa’l-‘āfiya wa’lshifā’ wa’l-birr wa’l-‘aṭā’ li-ṣāḥibihi abadan” (“glory and endurance and praise and laudation and eminence and high standing and health and gratification and reverence and award to its 14  Calligraphers and Painters: A Treatise by Qāḍī Aḥmad. 13  Julian Raby. even the precise identity of the metalworkers remains uncertain. “An Islamic Bronze Bowl. Zakhoder. Whether or not the animated inscriptions were actually designed by the metalworkers themselves is unknown.” in Metalwork and Material Culture in the Islamic World: Art. Qāḍī Aḥmad b.C. the Fano cup at the Cabinet des mé­dailles in the Bibliothèque nationale de France.” AI 3. D. KFQ 44). Khalili Collection of Islamic Art. Photos courtesy of Topkapı Palace Museum (left) and © The Nour Foundation. Though certainly interesting. and Bittar.. T. Rice’s pioneering study of the Wade cup and Yousif Mahmud Ghulam’s more recent reconstruction of the inscriptions on a number of metallic objects have revealed the fact that animated inscriptions mainly feature “generic” content such as benedictions or prayers for the item’s owner. and Paul Jett. 132–33. pedagogue. Minorsky. 1985).” Ars Orientalis 9 (1973): 137–56.12 Only a few of these are signed. 1 (1959): 4–10. 17–19.”14 Given that Majnūn lived around the turn of the sixteenth century.” Ars Orientalis 2 (1957): 283–326. this hypothesis is without merit since the forms of Arabic letters as we now know them evolved over a long period of time.” BMQ 16. Chase. PinderWilson. These include the Bobrinsky bucket (1163) at the State Hermitage Museum. D. 2012). 102–10. 21/397). Sāwā al-Tamīmī. Allan. 1606). Rice. Ernst Herzfeld. R.” GBA 24. Craft. Wade Cup. 1982]). 3 (1951): 85–87. The Content of Form 175 Fig. ed. 9. 17  Rice.Figural inscriptions of this kind were used almost exclusively on metalwork.15 however. D. “An Early Inlaid Brass Ewer from Mesopotamia. indeed. Venetia Porter and Mariam Rosser-Owen (London and New York. not the calligraphers. who “invented a style of writing in which combinations of letters formed images of men and beasts. Aḥvāl ve āsār-i khoshnivīsān (Tehran. 1358). the Wade cup and Mosul ewer at the Cleveland Museum of Art.. Schneider. the Zodiac ewer and a copper basin at the Musée du Louvre. “The Principle of Parsimony and the Prob­ lem of the ‘Mosul School of Metalwork’.C. a bronze penbox (1210–1211) and a canteen at the Freer Gallery. “Türk Yazılarının Tedkikine Medhal. Essays Presented to James W. often without explicitly naming him. “The Bobrinski ‘Kettle’: Patron and Style of an Islamic Bronze. and Text. “A Bronze PenCase. 1958).16 There is no denying that inscriptions in figural writing are difficult to decipher. which is the earliest dated example. 15  Mehdī Bayānī. H.17 For example. a calligrapher by the name of Maḥmūd Chapnivīs. “The ‘Wade Cup’ in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Rice. trans.. Left: in a letter reputed to have been sent in 628 by the Prophet Muḥammad to Mundhir b. “Les écritures animées.

would immediately be understood as conveying good wishes. for instance. However there were. 1998). A. then we have here a fascinating example of iconicity in the sense used by Charles Sanders Peirce. ed. . works of calligraphy in which form actually added to or enhanced the meaning of the text.19 By contrast. 4). do the pictures and writing constitute a semantic unit. in the case of onomatopoeia. inscriptions containing specific information. for whom an icon signified its object by sharing certain attributes with it. were they simply ornamental. but Bloom has suggested the following: The content was intelligible even if the in­­ scription was illegible. in which this inscription is written.’21 In other words. 19  Rice. exh. . cat. “as artists explored the possibilities of animated inscriptions. 1988). as a rule.24 In neither case. dignity). 19–20. . .g. Bloom. 22  See The Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. it did convey that meaning graphically by conjuring the hoped-for good life. e. should then be understood as signs rather than ‘mere decoration. The decorative panels . Jonathan Bloom writes. 23  See. . Mass. To put it another way. Apparently. or did they contribute meaning to their textual content? The answer to this question is not known with any certainty. . 1931– 58).18 The waqwaq style. 24  For an Ottoman example dated 1573. (Geneva. for example.2). Before discussing further the complex relationship 21  Ibid. Islamic Calligraphy/Calligraphie islamique. who offers two alternative readings for Rice’s al-raḥma (mercy): al-zīna (beauty. 9. in which the outlines of letters are filled in with pictures. however. one only needs to recognize its form. and I agree wholeheartedly. 60–61. and therefore do not mutually reinforce each other. The form of the inscription signifies its content: one does not need to read the inscription to understand it. He suggests that the latter is more likely.. . In other words. .. .23 This can also be related to inscriptions in ghubarī (dust) script. particularly in the Ottoman Empire.. is quite a bit easier to decipher than the animated inscription on the Wade cup (fig.owner. .” 330–32 n. 20  Jonathan M. 26. the images and the textual content of the inscription do not share a common meaning. . while animated inscriptions may have followed standard models that were not necessarily intended to be read letter by letter. the images of hunters and revelers represented the good life wished upon the object of the benediction. Art of Arabic Calligraphy. Indeed. forever”).”20 This brings to mind the question as to whether or not the anthropomorphic and zoomorphic forms of the animated inscriptions had any discernible meaning at the time they were produced. 128–29. This inscription is also discussed by Ettinghausen (“‘Wade Cup’. Wade Cup. That would suggest that objects tended to be customized with legible scripts.22 To put it another way. see Filiz Çağman and Şule Aksoy. . If this hypothesis is true. Osmanlı Sanatında Hat (Istanbul. 176 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick engaged in the hunt or revelry. and a line of figures 18  Ghulam. through resemblance and similarity—as. animated inscriptions were never designed to convey particularly significant information such as the names and titles of a patron or an artist: they were appropriate only for generalized good wishes. is very similar in content: “al-‘izz wa’l-iqbāl wa’l-dawla wa’l-sa‘āda wa’l-salāma wa’l-rāḥa wa’l-rutba wa’lni‘ma wa’l-‘āfiya wa’l-dawāma wa’l-ziyāda wa’lkifāya wa’l-‘ināya wa’l-baqā’ dā’im li-ṣāḥibihi” (“glory and prosperity and fortune and happiness and soundness and comfort and rank and benefaction and health and permanence and plentifulness and sufficiency and providence and endurance everlasting to its owner”). such as names and dates. that is. they made the form of the inscription increasingly complex while allowing the content of the inscription to become increasingly banal. which. 2: §§247–49. “A Mamluk Basin in the L. Mayer Memorial Institute. if the form of the inscriptions did not necessarily add to the meaning of their textual content. 313. were generally written in simpler and easier-to-read scripts. in which the outlines of letters or pictures are filled in with microcalligraphy.” Islamic Art 2 (1987): 19. Another example of the blending of writing and pictures is the so-called gulzār (flowerbed) style popular in nineteenth-century Iran. whether or not Arabic letters could be discerned among the limbs. ornament) and al-rutba (rank. Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss (Cambridge.

S. it explains neither the immense popularity of calligraphy in China and Japan. This widely held (and thoroughly modern) view is problematic on many counts. when and where there was most assuredly no prohibition of images. 1955). has a very important abstract component. 2 and fig. quite to the contrary. 20. and metalwork. Furthermore. Second. in that it takes the European historical experience as normative. Image: Figurative Art versus Iconophobia Received opinion holds that the prominence of calligraphy in the Muslim world is due to a purported Islamic ban on representational art. of course. between form and content in such works.  The first few words of the animated inscription on the Wade cup: “glory and prosperity and fortune. this view fails to account for why abstract art emerged in western Europe around the turn of the twentieth century. whether or not there is a prohibition of images in Islam. the production of these works was not a marginal or illicit activity. The Wade Cup in the Cleveland Museum of Art (Paris. it was heavily patronized by the ruling elite. 9. because there was no such absence in the first place. it will be useful to review briefly two basic concepts in the context of Islam: image and text. it is exceptionally ethnocentric. given the extreme iconophobia of the Hebrew Bible. the fact remains that an enormous number of figurative images were produced throughout history. from the eighthcentury wall paintings of Quṣayr ‘Amra (including nudes) to miniatures. not even all European societies have produced figurative art: Cycladic art. pl. nor the relative (and I emphasize “relative”) unimportance of calligraphy in the Judaic tradition. It is true. for example. Illustration by the author after D. that figurative images of humans or animals are generally not present in places of worship. And finally. Furthermore. In fact. where there is no ban on figurative representation. However. Thus. textiles. there is a long history of The Content of Form 177 .2. it is not possible to attribute the prevalence of calligraphy to the absence of images.Fig. First and foremost.” Seljuk Iran. Rice. early thirteenth century.

178 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick The question that needs to be answered. . and the moon. and many of mankind. 1996). 1–40. M. distinguishing animate objects from inanimate ones is at best artificial.”29 In other words. Muslim. 28  Muslim. is whether or not there really is a prohibition of images in Islam. and mountains. İpşiroğlu. specifying “gold or silver or pictures or colors or writing. 2004).” AI 11–12 (1946): 159–66. 1957). “Philosophie et jurisprudence illus­­ trées par les Arabes: La querelle des images en Islam. The other pertinent verse refers to jinns who were given license by God to serve Solomon. ed. This is a subject about which many volumes have been filled. 1 (1990): 27–77. and it will be said to them: ‘Make alive what you have created. Beaugé and Jean-François Clément (Paris. it is said in the Qur’ān: “Have you not seen that. İslâmda Resim Yasağı ve Sonuçları (İstanbul. 170–72. the distinction between animate and inanimate is quite foreign to Islam. Islam is generally said to prohibit images of animate objects only. He whom God has scorned. 147. Two verses may be construed as relevant to the issue. Painting in Islam: A Study of the Place of Pictorial Art in Muslim Culture (Oxford. only a minority opinion. e. trees. Y a-t-il une “Question de l’ image” en Islam? (Paris. They all bow down in worship before God. there is nothing fundamentally different between animals. contains a chapter detailing the “abhorrence” of any decoration on a mosque that distracts one from prayer.” in Gharipour and Schick. ed.”26 Thus. Bishr Farès. Arnold. ed. Libās wa Ziynah.” anṣāb. and the mountains.” in L’Image dans le monde arabe. and the aforementioned ḥadīths call for a more nuanced interpretation. specifically means “erected stones” and has sometimes been interpreted more generally as “statues. R. no. K. G. 29  al-Ḥajj 22:18. 1943). 1995). Painting in Islam: Between Prohibition and Aversion (Istanbul. 141. 32  al-Mā’idah 5:90. Schriften zum Islam. the unwillingness to decorate places of worship does not single out pictures. Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī. 1. and the stars. Silvia Naef. 25  See İrvin Cemil Schick and Mohammad Gharipour. and while the ḥadīths do betray some hostility toward them. Libās wa Ziynah.objecting not only to images in mosques but also to inscriptions. “L’Image dans le monde arabe: Interdit et possibilités. and the animals. 1973). and there are many too that deserve suffering. so that you may succeed.. This is.g. Therefore. 1996). 173. however. which brings up the difference between images of animate and inanimate objects. C.” in Mélanges Louis Massignon ([Damascus]. a view that appears to be supported by the following ḥadīth: “Those who make these images will be punished on the Day of Judgment. There are. “The Bilderverbot: A New Survey. however. 26  Yūsuf ibn Ḥasan ibn al-Mibrad. D. a treatise entitled Thimār al-maqāṣid fī dhikr al-masājid.” leading to a sweeping prohibition of all figurative representation. Verily God does what He wills. “The Lawfulness of Painting in Early Islam. Rudi Paret. and the Declaration of Doctrine. of course.. 11–42. Das Bilderverbot im Islam: Eine Einführung (Marburg. the licitness of figurative representation has been debated within the Muslim world since at least as early as the tenth century. and Almir Ibrić. e. and the sun. It goes as follows: “They made for him what he willed. The soul will be breathed in every picture prepared by him and it shall punish him in Hell. 27  Bukhārī.25 For example. The Qur’ān is by and large silent on the subject of figurative representation. and the present treatment will necessarily be cursory.30 Contrary to the general view. Muḥammad As‘ad Ṭalas (Beirut. Calligraphy and Architecture in the Muslim World. Creswell. no one can honor. and the trees. 162. For instance. floral decorations in mosques. written in the second half of the fifteenth century by Yūsuf ibn Ḥasan ibn al-Mibrad. Avoid it. Libās. al-Islām wa al-Fann (Amman. 2 (1985): 267–77.” BSOAS 48. 1981). 2004). prostrate themselves those that are in the heavens and those that are on the earth. King. 30  See. “Introduction. Thimār al-maqāṣid fī dhikr al-masājid.”28 In fact. Iconoclasm. therefore.” Der Islam: Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kultur des islamischen Orients 67. 1928).”32 The word rendered here as “idols.’”27 Another ḥadīth says that he who makes pictures “will be in the fire of Hell. their attitude is far from unambiguous.g. Ş. which holds that Islam is fundamentally and unequivocally iconophobic. G. Josef van Ess (Stuttgart. Jean-François Clément. Daan van Reenen. of sanctuaries and representations and basins like wells and cauldrons firmly anchored. Ahmad Mohammad Issa. A. before God. One says: “O ye who believe! Intoxicants and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork.31 This debate has its roots in the fact that the Qur’ān does not prohibit such representations. no. 148. 31  See. 77–109. Sir Thomas W. “Islam.

then they are so only to the extent that they attempt to imitate God’s creation. All that is in the heavens and in the earth glorifies Him. 161. Ibn Mājah.Labor. “God has said: ‘Who would be a greater evildoer than one who tries to create the like of My creatures? Let them create a seed. This is somewhat curious. 35  Abū Dāwūd. Libās wa Ziynah. Libās. the Fashioner [al-Muṣawwir]. references to other polluting objects. commentators wishing to support the prohibition of images resorted to arguing that while this may have been licit in Solomonic times.” In a number of ḥadīths. Libās. the related verb ṣawara is used to denote God’s creative action.39 “O Man! What is it that lures you away from your Lord. who created you. or Persian textiles used either in clothing or as home furnishings. Abū Dāwūd. turns out to be a dog. 130–41.”36 To understand the extreme severity of this judgement. 165. The word taṣāwīr (singular: taṣwīr) is derived from a root that signifies “to form. There is no god but Him. A well-known ḥadīth relates the story of a carpet or curtain that the Prophet’s wife ‘Ā’isha had hung at the door of her apartment. the Prophet is said to have stated that “the people who will receive the harshest punishment from God will be the muṣawwir. the Mighty.”35 In these sayings. Libās wa Ziynah. the Creator. Libās. Libās.42 The 36  Bukhārī. 104. 40  al-Infiṭār 82:6–8. Muslim. it was but a short step to consider a muṣawwir one who arrogates to him/herself the creative act that is properly God’s. Libās. Libās. factors that keep angels away also include a “man made impure by sexual defilement. it is important to note that al-Muṣawwir is mentioned in the Qur’ān as one of the attributes/names of God: “He is Allāh. And unto Him is the journeying”. Muslim.” Since the verse states that the jinns had acted with God’s permission. 121. 42  Bukhārī.” or “statues. can mean either “a painter or draftsman. 39  al-Taghābun 64:3. or create. The Content of Form 179 . Ibn Mājah.38 “He created the heavens and the earth in accordance with truth. 138. seem gratuitous in this context. the Wise. In a widely circulated account.” or “one who shapes or creates. Libās. He has fashioned you [ṣawwarakum] and has made your shapes [ṣuwarakum] beautiful. the Wise”. Abū Dāwūd. there are a number of ḥadīths (two of which are mentioned above) that show the Prophet Muḥammad’s disapproval of at least some images in certain contexts. 145–47. This is because in the Prophet’s Arabia. 164. [but] few among my servants are grateful. According to the Prophet. and the noun ṣūrat to denote its result: “He it is who fashions you [yuṣawwirukum] in the wombs as He pleases. 135. relating to the failure of the archangel Gabriel to meet the Prophet at the appointed time. 137. 100–2. fashion. and in any event it is clear that no explicit proscription of figurative representation exists in the Qur’ān. any such earlier authorization had been abrogated by Islamic law. then proportioned you into whatever shape [ṣūratin] your Lord pleased?”40 Under these circumstances. 138. pictures are qualified by association as impure and polluting. Libās wa Ziynah.”33 Here. which can also be rendered as “depictions. Libās. His are the most beautiful names. And He is the Mighty. In the canonical ḥadīth collections. the Prophet is reported to have said: “Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or there are pictures (taṣāwīr). 37  al-Ḥashr 59:24.” “images. 132. 166. 133. 38  Āl ‘Imrān 3:6. the Maker out of naught. the word translated as “representations” is tamāthīl. 132.’”41 If figurative representations are at all prohibited in Islam. Nevertheless this ḥadīth has been systematically used as evidence of the unlawfulness of figurative representation in Islam. 171. muṣawwir. By contrast.”34 In one version. notably images. 125.” and the subject of such action. the media on which pictures most often appeared were Byzantine. Libās. Muslim. Coptic. Libās wa Ziynah. 34  Bukhārī. O House of David. let them create an atom. but matters are more complicated still. 41  Bukhārī. the Bountiful. with gratitude. That is a weak argument. 150. sayings that deal with pictures are mostly assembled in the sections dedicated to dress (libās). 123. however. Muslim. 170. 160. 33  Sabā’ 34:13. 167. then formed. 169.”37 In other verses. It is partly in this context that Islamic attitudes toward figurative representation must be considered. as the culprit in most versions of the story that occasions the ḥadīth.

hostility to images is not the source of the popularity of calligraphy. Libās. is only that he says unto it ‘Be!’ and it is. in some versions. when He intends a thing.46 Be that as it may. whether it is intended for ordinary everyday use or some other purpose. or worn as a garment or a turban. 16. One of the most uncompromising is due to the Shāfi‘ī scholar Muḥyi al-Dīn Abū Zakariyā Yaḥyā b. whether it is on a garment. Libās wa Ziynah. Text: The Centrality of Writing A saying attributed to the Prophet (on the authority of ‘Ubādah ibn al-Ṣāmit) goes as follows: “The first thing that God created was the pen. al-‘Alaq. or a carpet. or a vessel. Muslim. 180 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick another such object for ordinary everyday use. . when the Arabs of his tribe prostrated themselves before the effigies of various deities. 48  Yā-Sīn 38:82. or a fals [all three are coins]. To be sure. which gives enormous importance to the written text. 138. or a dirham. Sunnah. 136– 40. or 43  Muslim. So the making of it is forbidden under every circumstance. 45  Ibn Mājah. It is stated numerous times in the Qur’ān that “His command. sometimes also translated as “Proclaim!” or “Recite!”) is. 130. 47  Abū Dāwūd. Tuhfe-i Hattâtîn. then it is not forbidden. according to tradition. . Read! And thy Lord is the most bounteous. because it implies a likeness to the creation of God (may He be exalted). Wahbah al-Zuḥaylī (Beirut and Damascus. of course. Libās wa Ziynah. and it is among the capital sins. According to several versions of the ḥadīth. 50  al-‘Alaq 96:1–5. it is necessary to take a closer look at Islamic doctrine. Who teaches by the pen. who wrote in his commentary on Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim: Painting a picture of any living thing is strictly forbidden. 104. so too is God’s creation represented by a written text. or on a pillow or cushion. it is forbidden to make use of any object on which a living thing is pictured.”48 and that is indeed the reason reference has been made to “the pen of the command ‘Be!’” (Ottoman: “hâme-i emr-i kün”). and one version of the ḥadīth states that the Prophet complained: “Whenever I enter the room I see them and it brings to my mind worldly life. al-Ḥajjāj. whether it is hung on a wall. 49  Müstakīm-zâde. Ibn Mājah. because it is threatened with severe punishment as mentioned in the ḥadīths. or a dīnār. begins as follows: “Read! In the name of thy Lord who has created—created man from a clot. ‘Ā’isha “made a pillow or two out of it” by cutting it up and stuffing it with date-palm fibers. Libās. she even states “I saw the Prophet (prayers and blessings of God be upon him) reclining against one of them. particularly in the room in which he prayed. In short. . Then what is? Here. Libās. Libās. 14:267. The ninety-sixth sura of the Qur’ān.’”47 The pen is therefore in some sense the agent of God’s will. . but their prominent display. 44  Bukhārī.”45 This clearly shows that it was not the pictures themselves that he had found objectionable. 1994). mean that there were no iconophobic interpretations of the scriptures. what should I write?’ He said: ‘Write down the destiny of all things until the final hour. Muslim. present. 104.curtain is said to have had pictures on it. 133. ed. for it is through it that all things—past. pictures—both figurative and otherwise—were produced in large numbers in the Muslim world. Most likely he felt that it uncomfortably harked back to the not-sodistant past of idolatry. Sharaf al-Nawawī (1234–1278). but one would be hard pressed to establish an inverse correlation between the presence of figurative art and the popularity of calligraphy. But if it is on a carpet that is trampled on. Sharaf al-Nawawī. taught man that which he knew not. 142. this is not uniformly true everywhere. 165. 7. al-Minhāj fī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim b. or on anything else.”50 The word “Read!” (iqrā’. Abū Dāwūd. 129. All this does not.44 Indeed. Similarly. Libās wa Ziynah.”43 Most noteworthy is what actually ended up happening to the curtain. the very first word of 46  Muḥyi al-Dīn Abū Zakariyā Yaḥyā b. or a wall. and future—were recorded and thereby made manifest.49 Just as the writing pen represents the enactment of the Divine Will. And He said to it: ‘Write!’ It said: ‘Lord. or is on any other object of ordinary everyday use.

55  al-Infiṭār 82:10–12. but does not do it.”60 To make a very long story short. but if he refrains from doing it for My sake. At the beginning of the sixty-eighth chapter of the Qur’ān. the pen immediately began to inscribe the “preserved tablet. The motif of writing and reading is ever present in the foundational texts of Islam. and will be. namely the Muslims’ purported inability to make pictures.56 Another saying attributed to the Prophet (on the authority of ‘Abdullāh bin Mas‘ūd) related the stages of development of an embryo in the womb. 52  al-Qalam 68:1. it is impossible to imagine Islam as a religious and cultural system without text. an account attributed to the Prophet (on the authority of Abū Dhar) describing his miraculous ascension to the heavens (Mi‘rāj) includes the following fascinating detail: “Then Gabriel ascended with me to a place where I heard the creaking of the pens. 54  Bukhārī. 31. Based on the account of the Prophet’s wife ‘Ā’isha. writing.”59 In turn. who know what you do. under the circumstances. significantly named al-Qalam or “the pen. according to which the Prophet reported that God said to the angels: If My slave intends to do a bad deed. and reading. noble scribes. and whether he will be blessed or wretched. in other words. his death. this term alludes to the Qur’ānic verses “Nay. and one’s fate is described in Turkish as “the writing on the forehead” (alın yazısı). be illiterate. it is related that Muḥammad would go into seclusion in a cave to meditate. then write it for him as ten good deeds up to seven hundred times. and if he does it. of course. 53  Jalāl al-dīn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Maḥallī and Jalāluddīn ‘Abd al-Raḥman ibn Abī Bakr al-Suyūṭī. It is stated in the Qur’ān. this is a glorious Qur’ān in a preserved tablet. although an individual Muslim can. Salāt. Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-‘a�zīm ([Cairo]. 57  Bukhārī. 2:230. “Verily.the Divine Revelation. and by the very agent that makes them all happen.52 The pronoun “they” in the verse is generally interpreted as referring to angels. if he does it. notably a hadīth qudsī (related by Abū Hurayra). and anyone who has witnessed a scribe or calligrapher writing with a reed pen will know precisely what the verb “creaking” refers to. deed. Little wonder.”57 Such written records about a person transform his/her life into a text. 60  al-Burūj 85:21–22. then write a good 51  Bukhārī. 18. his livelihood. one that shall speak either in his favor or against him on the Day of Judgment. the Prophet related that when God created the pen and ordered it to write. Then the soul is breathed into him. then write it as it is. when the archangel Gabriel appeared to him and ordered him to read. it is more appropriate 56  Bukhārī. as it relates to the totality of events that are to take place between the moment of creation and the end of time.”55 A similar idea appears in a number of prophetic sayings.53 Indeed. then write it as a good deed. If he intends to do a good deed. angels engaged in the act of writing are alluded to more than once. the concept of writing is fundamental to Islam. that the sentence “It was fated” is often rendered into Arabic as “written” (maktūb). The Content of Form 181 .” God takes an oath “By the pen and that which they write (with it)”—an oath.”54 This was interpreted as angels busily recording the Divine Decrees.”58 This interpretation was based in part upon a prophetic saying: according to ‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Abbās. The text implied in the verse “By the pen and that which they write (with it)” cited earlier is of a somewhat different nature. Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-‘a�zīm. 59  Nefes-zâde. 1. Bad’ al-Khalq. 58  al-Maḥallī and al-Suyūṭī. by everything that has been. over you are guardians. The very popular late fifteenth-century Qur’ānic commentary Tafsīr al-Jalālayn interprets the pen in this verse as that “with which He wrote the universe in the ‘preserved tablet’ [lawḥ al-maḥfū�z]. 3. 2:230. Tawḥīd. “God sends an angel who is ordered to write four things: he is ordered to write down his deeds. at a certain time. is. then do not write it [in his record] unless he does it. Gülzarı Savab. Rather than attributing the popularity of calligraphy in the Muslim world to a negative cause. Indeed. Bad’ al-Waḥiy.51 It was the signs of God that the Prophet was enjoined to read—signs written with the Divine pen for the edification of humankind. 124. for example. however. ah 1342).

full of errors.”62 Since the Revelation was first set to writing. inscribing objects with Arabic writing came to denote their enlistment in the divinely ordered system that is Islam. It is at once clear that Arabic inscriptions in often highly ornate mosques and other religious buildings throughout the Muslim world cannot be communications of the same nature—to be read by all and sundry. it should come as no surprise that it has also played a vital role in the daily lives of many Muslims. an inscription has to appeal to a literate person in his own language with clear. as they are today. as efforts were made to beautify and standardize it. either it contains meaningful text or it is purely ornamental. however. Given the importance of written text within Islam. Epigraphy. but to embody the power of the Word for an otherworldly audience. “How wonderful is the reed pen! How it weaves the fine cloth of royal power. embroiders the ornamental borders of the garment of the ruling dynasty.to see calligraphy as a natural expression of the centrality of writing in Islamic culture. 1971). the script that preserves the word of God came to be perceived as a Godly script. 38. others are fanciful with only the most tenuous ties to plain text—the animated writing discussed earlier being a case in point. 1974). 39. and History: Studies in Honor of George C. Many inscriptions are clear and eminently readable.”61 These are all forceful statements in support of textual practices in early Islam. 32. Far from simply serving an ornamental function. legible characters without nearby distractions. and then again. their purpose was not to be read by the average person. Even more important.” in Four Essays on Art and Literature in Islam (Leiden. “Knowledge is fugitive.” in Near Eastern Numismatics. It has often 61  Nefes-zâde İbrahim. Ettinghausen wrote that “to be effective as a communication. 63  Richard Ettinghausen. recognize) them after deciphering no more than a word or two.”63 What is surprising about this argument and others like it is that they are so often binary: either calligraphy is meant to be read. . for the connection between God and His creation. Dickran K. In particular. an inscription would certainly have been processed differently. their membership in the community of God. and when the division between orality and literacy not as firmly established. many inscriptions were meant to be talismanic or apotropaic. Some rulers’ awareness of the importance of written text is strikingly illustrated by a statement attributed to the ‘Abbāsid caliph al-Ma’mūn. inscribing objects with Arabic script actually amounts to making explicit their true nature ( fiṭrah). or it is not. “He who relies on memory is deceived. it gradually became one. as some have suggested. Eventually. is the fact that such terms as “reading” and “legibility” are culturally specific at a very fundamental level. Many calligraphic inscriptions would have contained texts familiar to large segments of the population.” while his contemporary and rival Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān similarly said. of course. “Arabic Epigraphy: Communica­ tion or Symbolic Affirmation. Arabic writing became a metonym for the Divine order. they do not mean the same thing to everyone. In addition. Miles. In fact. Indeed. tie it down with writing. . that texts are generally meaningless. This may also help answer the common question as to whether or not Islamic inscriptions were necessarily intended to be read. son of the illustrious Hārūn al-Rashīd. and in every age. Gülzar-ı Savab. and he who relies on the record is contented. . . Hence. such inscriptions represent a conscious effort at textually marking the man-made universe and reappropriating it in the name of God. and keeps up the standards of the caliphate. who was quoted by Abū Ḥayyān al-Tawḥīdī as having said. the caliph ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib is reported to have said. and that those that do have a discernible meaning are usually haphazardly chosen or formulaic. or illegible. Kouymjian (Beirut. some lean one way and some the other. “Abū Ḥayyān at-Tawḥīdī on Penman­ ship. For example. 182 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick been claimed that calligraphy is primarily ornamental. who would have been able to “read” (that is. ed. At a time when literacy was not as widespread. Arabic script has been charged with preserving it. in every location. In turn. Iconography. 62  Franz Rosenthal. Though it was hardly a worthy vessel when first recruited for this holy mission. this would certainly have been true of Qur’ānic inscriptions on the walls of mosques and other sacred buildings. 299–300. that is.

known to Turks as “The Lawgiver” and to Europeans as “The Magnificent. Abdülbâkî Gölpınarlı (Istanbul. Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Chapel Hill. Another use of the dot motif is the following playful reproach by Fuzûlî (1495–1556). meaning “crazed. whether or not they can be read letter by letter. 1975). mīm (‫ )ﻣ‬to her mouth. Here. 50–62. the dot (nuqta) to a mole on her fair skin.In short. which are identical 67  Muhibbî Dîvânı: İzahlı Metin. On the contrary. they are repositories of meaning. Anîs el-’Ochchâq: Traité des termes figurés relatifs à la description de la beauté. e. 411–25. 1992). your hair jīm. ed. 1987). offering a mystical interpretation of the wellknown romance of Leylā and Majnūn. in Ottoman poetry. Beyond Text: The Content of Form 64 The literal meaning of calligraphy is “beautiful writing. In the following couplet. Sadettin Nüzhet Ergun (Istanbul. 74–86. sīn (‫)ﺳ‬ to her teeth.. 1875). and anyone who lays eyes on you. he teasingly refers to the beauty mark right above the lips of his beloved in terms of Arabic script: Hâl-i müşkînün dehânun üzre düşmişdür galat Komadı hattatlar âdet değül mîme nukat67 Your musk-black mole must have landed above your mouth by mistake for it is not customary for calligraphers to dot the letter mīm. 1961). in April 1959. Another nice example is afforded by Sultan Süleyman I (1494/95–1566). 68  Fuzûlî Dîvânı. so if I took leave of my head. Mich. There is a long tradition of letter symbolism in the literatures of Muslim societies. 228–44. as we shall see. your eyebrows nūn 64  The resemblance between this subtitle and the title of Hayden White’s well-known book is unintentional but fortuitous. Divan Şiirinde Harf Simgeciliği (Istanbul. A calligraphic composition sometimes entails a certain “value added” in the sense that it conveys more meaning than the same words would have if they had been recited or written as plain text. Cl[ement] Huart (Paris. a contemporary of Sultan Süleyman’s: Ham ettin kaametim tek terk-i ser kıldımsa mâ’zurum Ne özrüm var eğer der olsa olmaz nokta dâl üzre68 You have bent my back. mad with passion”—is composed of letters that mime the beloved Leylā’s features. 1935). Annemarie Schimmel. reprinted in Ars Orientalis 4 (1961): 15–23 and in Rosenthal.” but Islamic calligraphy is sometimes more than that. Just as the love of the lover is the mirror image of the beauty of the beloved. O beauteous Leylā. 416. Soufisme et art visuel: Iconographie du sacré (Paris. Four Essays. as in the following couplet by the poet Bâkî (1526–1600): Dehânın mîm zülfün cîm kaşın nûn olmuştur Seni ey zülfî Leylâ her gören Mecnûn olmuştur66 Your mouth becomes a mīm. were I told “the letter dāl does not take a dot”? The image here is based upon a comparison of the letters dāl (‫ )ﺩ‬and dhāl (‫)ذ‬. 1984). 66  Bâkî Dîvânı. The Content of Form 183 . Shaker Laibi.” text of a lecture presented at the meeting of the American Oriental Society in Ann Arbor. 410. 115–47. nūn (‫ )ﻥ‬to her eye and eyebrow. A Two-Colored Brocade: The Imagery of Persian Poetry (Chapel Hill and London. and so forth. Coşkun Ak (Ankara. “Significant Uses of Arabic Writing. These images were combined in countless ways. and Franz Rosenthal.” who was a poet of some distinction writing under the pen name Muhibbî. so too does Man’s loving quest for God derive without mediation from His absolute beauty.65 Thus. and. Cheref-Eddîn Râmi [Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad Sharaf al-Dīn al-Rāmī]. Dursun Ali Tokel. becomes Majnūn. ed. the letter alif (‫ )ﺍ‬was likened to the beloved’s slender stature.g. jīm (‫ )ﺝ‬to a lock of hair curling around her ear. eadem. 139. eadem. 1998). trans. the lover’s name—Majnūn. Calligraphy and Islamic Culture (New York and London. I must be forgiven for what excuse would I give.. the medium often adds to the message. 65  See. ed. calligraphic inscriptions are very seldom purely decorative. 2003).

3).” The Journal of Indian Art and Industry 16. 73  The semâ is the ceremony that gave the “whirling” dervishes their name. e. Some mystics likened a man who has turned his back on all worldly possessions. 2011). and Ottoman poetry. Because of the crooked shape of the letter dāl. but lyric poetry was not the only area where the shape of letters provided a rich fount of metaphors. see İrvin Cemil Schick. 74  For examples.” When superimposed.71 it is only through the mediation of text. “there is not. Kur’an’ın İnsan-Biçimci Dili (Istanbul. “Calligraphy. makes the difference between denial (lā) and re-affirmation (illā). devoting himself entirely to God. and Nedim Macit. Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Fūrak al-Isbahānī al-Ash‘arī. For example.”70 Note that it is the word of God that is manifested in the form of man. hence the hunched (“dāllike”) poet must lose his head! There are countless similar examples in Arabic. that God is manifested in the form of man. which. Anthropomorphism and Interpretation of the Qur’ān in the Theology of al-Qāsim ibn Ibrāhīm: Kitāb al-Mustarshid (Leiden. and He is the most merciful of those who show mercy”)75 in the form of a bird. taken together... whose stark verticality and numerical value of one testify to the uniqueness of God. . Le problème des attributs divins dans la doctrine d’al-Aš’arī et de ses premiers grands disciples (Beirut. performing the semâ. Pelin Tünaydın (Istanbul. were likened by some mystics to the five vertical 69  Ḥā-mīm 41:53. 1996). the posture of a Mawlawī (“whirling”) dervish was interpreted as affirming the existence of God through a textual reference to the first part of the Muslim profession of faith. 124 (1913). and India. the seventeenth-century Ottoman mystic Oğlanlar Şeyhi İbrahim Efendi (d. See. The five fingers of the hand. Cinsiyet ve Kültür Üzerine. 4. the letter dāl is not dotted. but they were largely marginal. Bedeni. see Malik Aksel. the form of man exhibits the word of God. 1655) taught that “from head to toe. Toplumu. notably in pictorial calligraphies that abound throughout the Muslim world. Tasavvuf ’tan Dilimize Geçen Deyimler ve Atasözleri (Istanbul. that is. and trans. instances of the shape of His proper name can be perceived in some of his features. and the invocation “Amīr al-mū’minīn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib karam Allāhu wajhahu al-ghālib wa raḍī Allāhu ‘anhu” (“prince of the believers.. Such imagery also found its way into works of calligraphy. and not His image. 1965). they become illā. 1996). 2002). and prostration—were likewise likened to the letters alif. Kitāb Mushkil al-Ḥadīth. ed.” but with the addition of another alif. “except for. For example. Binyamin Abrahamov. Relatedly. dāl.73 Thus. this letter. Daniel Gimaret. and representing His form would have simply been inconceivable for a Muslim. 3. chap. and Chaubey Bisvesvar Nath. 70  Cited (from a manuscript copy of Sohbetnâme in his per- sonal library) byAbdülbâki Gölpınarlı. Dieu à l’ image de l’ homme: Les anthropomorphismes de la sunna et leur interprétation par les théologiens (Paris.g. 1967). no. “lā ilāha illā Allāh” (“there is no god but God”). The letters lām and alif spell out the word lā. ed. or defeat. by means of his word.save for the dot.”69 and some Muslim thinkers sought such signs in the appearance of human beings. mysticism also made extensive use of letter symbolism.72 The positions taken by the body during daily prayers—standing. A Medieval Critique of Anthropomorphism: Ibn al-Jawzī’s Kitāb Akhbār as-Sifāt (Leiden. old age. and mīm. the compound lām-alif and the additional alif look very much like a Mawlawī dervish in his robes. 75  Yūsuf 12:64. the word dâlî (“dāl-like”) was sometimes used in Ottoman to mean “hunchbacked”. ed.  9. Persian. was often contrasted to the upright alif. aw Ta’wīl al-Akhbār al-Mutashābiha. 71  This is not to say that anthropomorphist tendencies never existed in the Muslim world.74 Many of these are relatively modern. Islamic tradition regards God as absolutely transcendent. Daniel Gimaret (Damascus. Iran. for example. as such. the body of the dervish. Merlin Swartz. 184 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick strokes in the name Allāh. Hence the double entendre: unlike dhāl. 1977). The Qur’ān proclaims: “And We shall show them Our signs in the horizons and in themselves. corresponding to the additional alif. 1997). particularly Turkey. constitute the name Ādam (fig. Michel Allard. ed. to the letter alif—the first letter of the alphabet. 72  For illustrations of this and other examples described here. moreover. genuflection. to indicate a stooped posture due to exhaustion. 2003). Kâinâtı Yazmak: İslâm. Türklerde Dinî Resimler: Yazı-Resim (Istanbul. but not all. This was seen as illustrating the fact that prayer is a human being’s central function. a scroll dedicated to the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II (known as “The Conqueror”) contains the Qur’ānic verse “fa Allāhu khayrun ḥāfi�zan wa huwa arḥamu al-rāḥimīn” (“but God is better at guarding.

for instance. The Content of Form 185 Fig. genuflection. various versions were (and remain) popular in Turkey and elsewhere. and their names were often written on the ships. 2878. 600– 1600 (London. however. 80  Topkapı Palace Museum.82 Likewise.79 It is signed İsmail Derdi and dated 1690. ed. Roxburgh. 77  “Allāhu lā ilāha illā huwa al-ḥayyu al-qayyumu lā ta’khudhuhu sinatun wa lā nawmun lahu mā fī al-samāwāti wa mā fī al-arḍi man dhā alladhī yashfa‘u ‘indahu illā bi’idhnihi ya‘lamu mā bayna aydīhim wa mā khalfahum wa lā yuḥīṭūna bishayin min ‘ilmihi illā bi-mā shā’ wasi‘a kursīyyuhu al-samāwāti wa al-arḍa wa lā ya’ūduhu ḥif�zuhumā wa huwa al-‘aliyyu al-‘a�zīmu” (“Allah! There is no God save Him. the Tremendous. Valérie Gonzalez has distinguished between works of pictorial calligraphy in which the text and image share a single referent. This explanation is overly simplistic. no. 9. while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will.81 The examples above include both cases. thus. “The Double Ontology of Islamic Calligraphy: A Word-Image on a Folio from the Museum of Raqqada (Tunisia). but was probably made in the late sixteenth century in India. It has been suggested that such pictorial calligraphic compositions were a way of getting around the prohibition of figurative representation—in other words.  The positions taken by the body during daily prayers—standing. Unto Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. a horse. Rogers.80 76  Topkapı Palace Museum. 258–59. the Eternal. lot 99. 180–81. In the bird and the horse.78 An Ottoman calligraphic inscription in the form of a ship contains the names of the Seven Sleepers (aṣḥāb al-kahf ) and their dog. M. 79  The story of the Seven Sleepers and their dog is told in the Qur’ān. 1995). He is the Sublime. 83. On the other hand. Uğur Derman 65th Birthday Festschrift. a means of licit cheating (hile-i şeriyye).H. UK. “Les sept Dormants d’Éphèse (Ahl-al-Kahf) en Islam et en Chrétienté: Recueil documentaire et iconographique. sale L11227. and those in which their referents are distinct. G.83 It is not difficult to see the logic behind the latter category. spelling the name Ādam. may the generosity of God be upon his victorious countenance. one of the best known verses in the Qur’ān that describes God’s absolute power. . the fact that the inscription is shaped like a lion emphasizes the caliph’s nickname. 82  Aksel. ed. and may God be pleased with him”) in the form of a lion (fig. the lion contains an invocation of the caliph ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib. 313–40. reproduced in Çağman and Aksoy. 1 (1961): 9–11. Türklerde Dinî Resimler. 2005). Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him.4). While their names do not appear in the Qur’ān. İrvin Cemil Schick (Istanbul. there is no obvious relationship between form and content. 78  This work is reproduced in Anthony Welch. Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years. whose nicknames were khaydar (“lion”) and asad Allāh (“lion of God”).” in M. 325/66. dāl. and is dated 1458. The scroll is the work of ‘Aṭā Allāh Muḥammad of Tabriz. REI 29. a ewer.‘Alī son of Abū Ṭālib. reproduced in David J.76 A calligraphic horse formerly in the collection of Stuart Cary Welch contains the Throne Verse. 1979). Osmanlı Sanatında Hat. 83–89. Author’s collection. 83  See L[ouis] Massignon. 9. Such lion-shaped calligraphic compositions were quite popular among Alevîs belonging to the Bektashi order. al-Kahf 18:9–26. London. Khalili (London. or a Qur’ānic verse in the form of a bird. and prostration— likened to the letters alif. Calligraphy in the Arts of the Muslim World (Folkestone. E. or a mosque is less obvious. Who is he that intercedes with Him save by His leave? He knows that which is in front of them and that which is behind them. Empire of the Sultans: Ottoman Art from the Collection of Nasser D. 2000). the fact that the ship contains the names of the Seven Sleepers is significant because the Ottoman navy was believed to have been entrusted to them.”) al-Baqara 2:255. 6 April 2011. 288–89. where form and content enjoy a direct connection. possibly Bijapur in the Deccan. His throne includes the heavens and the earth. J.” Part 7. say. and He is never weary of preserving them. It was sold at Sotheby’s. the Alive.. and mīm.3. and fails to understand the meaning 81  Valérie Gonzalez.Y. Calligraphy by Mohamed Zakariya (2001).77 It is undated. the reason for writing a prayer.

without which the latter would collapse. may the generosity of God be upon his victorious countenance. in the alternation of the night and the day. but are there as proof for those who can see them. which is in truth the supporting scaffolding of the human body. and the clouds which they trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth. Doubters who demanded special evidence from past prophets or from the Prophet Muḥammad were denied miracles. while these signs will confirm the faith of those capable of discernment.Fig. In the Qur’ān. Iran. 9. they can also reinforce unbelief on the part of those unwilling to be guided. nothing less than visual confirmation of the Muslim faith. to perceive His signs throughout. in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth. in a way. Photo courtesy of Topkapı Palace Museum of writing in the Islamic worldview. in the rain which God sends down from the skies. in the change of the winds.84 In short. Calligraphic images are. 2878. ‘Alī son of Abū Ṭālib. The question is why such works of pictorial calligraphy were made.4. [Here] indeed are signs for a people that are wise. Moreover. Topkapı Palace Museum. and may God be pleased with him” in the form of a lion.H. naturalizing the 84  al-Baqarah 2:164. therefore. which provide incontrovertible proof of the existence of God and of the truth of His prophets. and to interpret them correctly as proof of both His power and His mercy. Calligraphic images foreground the “signs of God” that have been hidden in His creation. Yet. akin to an x-ray image that exposes the normally invisible skeleton. for God has placed his signs in plain sight for the wise to see: Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth. E. 186 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead. it overlooks the fact that the societies where such works of pictorial calligraphy were most commonly produced—Turkey. .  The invocation “prince of the believers. From a scroll signed ‘Aṭā Allāh Muḥammad of Tabriz (1458). in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind. and India— were precisely the societies in which figurative images were most plentiful. They are. it is incumbent upon believers to read God’s creation. mention is repeatedly made of God’s signs.

9. Türklerde Dinî Resimler. As for the pictorial calligraphies in which text and image share a single referent. The Bektashi Order of Dervishes (Lon­­don and Hartford. He lifted his veil and revealed himself to be their father. The text forming the bird is a couplet about a certain dervish known in his day as Seyyid Hasan Leylek Dede. and the word leylek is Turkish for “stork.” It is said that the dervish earned this nickname because he was very tall and lanky. After the murder.. Here. 36–37. Conn. The Content of Form 187 .5. 1937). Kâinâtı Yazmak.5). Turkey.Fig. Aksel. and the caliph’s sons loaded the coffin and ‘Alī’s famed sword. What is most important here is that the text and the image are related at a very basic level. he told them. the dhūlfiqār. 237. Liturgical Objects and Pictorial Art. 139. It reads as follows: Aşk-ı Mevlânâ ile hayretzede Mevlevî Seyyid Hasan Leylek Dede 85  Aksel. The text speaks of a dervish known by the nickname “the Stork. 99–102.  The Caliph ‘Alī driving the camel carrying his own coffin. from which several copies were subsequently made. a camel driver would arrive. Türklerde Dinî Resimler. onto the camel. who 86  See John Kingsley Birge. Author’s collection.” Manuscripts of the Middle East 4 (1989): 8. Mawlānā Jalāluddīn al-Rūmī. Ḥasan and Ḥusayn. “The Iconography of Bektashiism: A Survey of Themes and Symbolism in Clerical Costume. nineteenth century.86 He is said to have predicted his own assassination to his sons. seyyid indicates that he was a direct descendant of the Prophet. Bedeni. they were to load his coffin onto the camel and follow the driver wherever he went (fig. Ecstatic with love for Mawlānā Mawlawī Sayyid Hasan Leylek Dede. Hasan was his given name. Another popular theme in pictorial calligraphy concerns a well-known story about Caliph ‘Alī. and Frederick De Jong. An example is the stork-shaped inscription designed by the Ottoman calligrapher Abdülgani Efendi in 1763. with his sons Ḥasan and Ḥusayn in tow.85 It survived as a stencil. Schick. The poem that composes the image celebrates the devotion of this dervish to his master. Then they followed the camel and its driver into the desert. 77–78. Toplumu. these are rarer but often much more interesting. 9. artist’s belief system by projecting it onto the weft of daily existence. Anonymous Alevī-Bektashī calligraphy.” and it is also written in the shape of a stork. Eventually they tired and begged the camel driver to stop and show his face. His predictions came true: a mysterious camel driver wearing a veil arrived. dede is a title indicating that he had some seniority in the dervish order.

Indeed. 9. O ‘Alī”) or ḥadīth (“anā madīna al-‘ilm wa ‘Alīyun bābuhā” or “I am the city of knowledge and ‘Alī is its gate”). which makes the calligraphy look very much like a bridge and its reflection in the river. “madad yā ‘Alī” or “help. and says “shifā’ al-qulūb liqā’ al-maḥbūb” (“The well-being of the hearts [depends on] the coming-together of the lovers. Ali ve Devesi Levhaları. 188 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick the Sakarya River in the town of Geyve. Adapazarı. The panels illustrating this story are remarkably narrative: Caliph ‘Alī himself is constituted by an invocation (here.87 Sometimes the pictorial calligraphy is quite subtle. A relatively early architectural example. that is. 1495/1496. ed.  “The well-being of the hearts [depends on] the comingtogether of the lovers. Here.” This in itself is not unusual. Geyve. a style that  is called muthannā or “doubled. on the other hand. The text is in Arabic. province of Adapazarı. this one from the late fifteenth century.6. Turkey. However. 5–40. it is horizontal. .6). mirrored calligraphies are usually divided into left and right halves. “Hz. but there is a very interesting detail in the calligraphy that deserves a more careful look.”) This is certainly an apt inscription for a bridge. It is dated 901 AH (1495/96 CE). the axis of symmetry is usually vertical. see İrvin Cemil Schick. 2014). his sons Ḥasan and Ḥusayn are made up of their own names. Emine Gürsoy Naskali and Erkan Demir (Istanbul.” Inscription on the Sultan Bâyezîd II Bridge on the Sakarya River. is the inscription on the Sultan Bâyezîd II Bridge on 87  For more on images of Caliph ‘Alī and his camel. Photograph by Mehmed Özçay had risen from the dead.Fig. signed ‘Abd Allāh.” in Deve Kitabı. and so forth. in Turkey (fig. 9. The inscription is written twice in mirror-images.

of which the most popular is the one by Caliph ‘Alī as recorded in Tirmidhī’s (824–892) al‑Shamā’ il. it would hang down in waves. and is taken to mean that the latter’s mission is evidence of God’s grace. 2006). Hâfız Osman Efendi (1642–1689) (fig. Türk Hat Sanatının Şaheserleri ([Ankara]. kuşak (belt). The examples discussed so far all have a rather discernible pictorial component. 47. nor was it fleshy. it would not have conveyed the full range of meanings that this masterpiece embodies. the Qur’ānic verse stating that the Prophet has been sent to humanity by God as an act of mercy is written in the form of a hand. Istanbul. Letters in Gold. göbek (belly). 89  On the hilye. His hair was not short and curly. but also from the fact that the components of the panel were named (from top to bottom) başmakam (head station). and he was the last of the prophets. 72–74. and 49. A case in point is the genre known as hilye‑i şerîfe or hilye‑i saadet. just as the affirmation it represents is “in hand” by virtue of the sacred revelation. 19. see Derman. nor was he too short. apparently invented in the late seventeenth century by the Ottoman calligrapher 88  al-Anbiyā 21:107. and Faruk Taşkale and Hüseyin Gündüz. it begins on the left. There are a number of recorded descriptions of the Prophet’s appearance. yet it was somewhat circular. trans. A much more sophisticated example is a work by the Turkish calligrapher Mustafa Halim Özyazıcı (1898–1964) (fig. 221. within a recognizable composition. I do not grieve So long as proof of mercy is in hand: “And we have not sent you” In other words. In short. describing. Uğur Derman. a compilation of narratives relating to the Prophet. Dated 1348 AH (1929/30 CE). Between his two shoulders was the Seal of Prophethood. Mohamed Zakariya and Mohamed Asfour (Istanbul. That these panels were intended as portraits is clear not only from this descriptive text. the central medallion contains the following text: [It is related] from ‘Alī (may God be pleased with him) that when he described the attributes of the Prophet (may prayers to God and peace be upon him). he said: He was not too tall. When he walked. this panel is composed of two parts. 34–37. The same verse could have been written as plain script. He was large boned and broad shouldered. His torso was hairless except for a thin line that stretched down his chest to his belly. His hands and feet were rather large. The text in the form of a hand is a wellknown verse from the Qur’ān that reads: “wa mā arsalnāka illā raḥmatan li al-‘ālamīn” (“and we have not sent you but as mercy to the worlds”).  9. Uğur Derman.8). but in fact what at first sight appears to be plain text can also simultaneously be an image. and etek (skirt).another curious detail about this inscription is that instead of beginning on the right-hand side. see M. His eyes were large and black. the text and the image share a single referent. 1998). pls. 18.89 These are “word portraits” of the Prophet Muḥammad. Hat sanatında hilye-i şerîfe/Characteristics of the Prophet Muhammed in Calligraphic Art (Istanbul. Mohamed Zakariya (New York. 42. The Content of Form 189 . this is both text and picture. he would turn his entire body toward him. Here. 9. trans. The Art of Calligraphy in the Islamic Heritage. On the calligrapher Hâfız Osman Efendi.88 It is spoken by God to the Prophet Muḥammad. When he looked at someone. 1982). he would lean forward as if going down a slope. and therefore the writing is upside-down. This may well be because the upside-down letters bā represent the arches of the bridge.7). Under the hand are two lines of poetry in Turkish. and no matter how beautiful the script. nor was it lank. With slight variations. his physical and moral attributes. and M. and his eyelashes were long. 1998). His complexion was rosy white. Uğur Derman. and the meaning of the text corresponds exactly to the meaning of the image into which the text has been woven. which say: Ne kadar müznib olsam da yine olmam gam-nâk Hüccet-i rahmet iken elde: “Ve mâ erselnâk(e)” No matter how great a sinner I may be. he was of medium height amongst the nation. M. His face was not overly plump. Letters in Gold: Otto­ man Calligraphy from the Sakıp Sabancı Collection.

  “And we have not sent you but as mercy to the worlds” (al-Anbiyā 21:107). Gibb. On the poet Hakanî Mehmed Bey (d. 1606). “From Text to Art Form in the Ottoman Hilye. according to which the Prophet is reported to have said: “Whoever 90  Tim Stanley. see E. A. and the Ottoman compounds hilye‑i şerîfe (noble hilye) and hilye‑i saadet (felicitous hilye) denote the features or appearance of the Prophet Muḥammad. Fikri Yavuz and İsmail Özen (Istanbul. 9.” in Studies in Islamic Art and Architecture in Honor of Filiz Çağman (forthcoming). Author’s collection.” paper read at the 21st Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies on “The Byzantine Eye: Word and Perception. 1900– 1909). 3:193–98. 1972?–75). 21–24 March 1987.7.90 This poem was in turn based on a possibly spurious tradition.” University of Birmingham. A History of Ottoman Poetry (London. W. Mustafa Halim Özyazıcı. where the name is transcribed as Kháqání. Tim Stanley has suggested that while the hilye may have arisen as the Muslim counterpart of the Orthodox Christian icon (in view of the fact that a figural representation of the Prophet would have been frowned upon in the Sunni tradition). dated 1929–1930. Osmanlı Müellifleri. . ed. written by the sixteenth-century Ottoman poet Hakānî 190 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick Mehmed Bey.Fig. and Bursalı Mehmed Tâhir Bey. 2:171–72. The Arabic word ḥilyah refers to the features or appearance of a person. J. followed by a couplet in Turkish. it was most likely inspired by the celebrated poem known as Hilye-i Hakānî. See also his “Sublimated Icons: The Hilye-i Şerife as an Image of the Prophet. Turkey.

8. albeit one made of plain text. dated 1697/1698. Turkey. Topkapı Palace Museum Library. 9.1430. Hafız Osman Efendi. God will spare him the fire of Hell.” were the words reportedly spoken by the Prophet. then he created his hilye panels primarily as objects of contemplation: “whoever sees my hilye. not “whoever reads my hilye. Photo courtesy of Topkapı Palace Museum sees my hilye after me is as though he has seen me.  Hilye-i Şerîfe (word-portrait of the Prophet). And whoever is true to me. G. The four roundels at the corners often contain the names of the Four Rightly Guided The Content of Form 191 .Y. Osman did indeed draw his inspiration from the Hilye-i Hakanî. 12.”91 If Hâfız 91  [Hakanî Mehmed Bey]. and he will not be driven naked on the Day of Judgment.Fig. and he will not experience the trials of the grave. ah 1264). it is an image.” As such. Hilye-i Hakanî ([Istanbul].

in fact. virtually identical captions accompany pictures in the ordinary sense of the word. sometimes the companions of the Prophet. As the word for “picture. the Prophet.) . the medallion is not identical to the name. an icon.” rasmun. and begs the question.  The names of the Caliphs Abū Bakr and ‘Umar placed between captions. trans. 9. Indeed. What is so interesting is that often these medallions appear below (or are placed between) a caption that does nothing but state the obvious. 9.” This is a common pattern. Of Grammatology. then the accompanying caption might say something like “This is the name of His Excellency Muḥammad. Istanbul. nineteenth century. then the caption might say “This is the name of His Excellency Abū Bakr. might one perhaps refer to such inscriptions as “the signifier of the signifier of the signifier”? (Cf. and even the Seven Sleepers and their dog (fig. Photograph courtesy of Atika Müzayede.Fig. Caliphs of Sunni Islam. Turkey. e. Anonymous Ottoman devotional manuscript. in many such books. 1976]. Devotional manuscripts began to feature pages with large medallions containing the names of God.) Starting in the eighteenth century or so.g. if one can read the caption. Jacques Derrida. The answer to this puzzle is that the caption refers in fact to two distinct objects: when it says “this. may prayers to God and peace be upon Him. and when it says “the name of Muḥammad.” If the name in the medallion is Abū Bakr. For example. 1. chap. may God be pleased with him. images of holy relics such as the mantle of the Prophet or his footprint. why 192 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick were the captions added in the first place? After all.” it is referring to the proper name of the Prophet.” it is referring to the medallion below it. we see an interesting new development.. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak [Baltimore and London. Private collection.9). then surely one can also read the central medallion. it is an image of the name. is very similar to 92  With apologies to Derrida. the Rightly Guided Caliphs. (Sometimes they contain the various titles of the Prophet Muḥammad. if the name Muḥammad appears in the central medallion.92 It is.9. In other words.

it is instructive to consider a panel that produces meaning not only through its textual content but also through its form (fig. Turkey. Mehmed Nazif Bey. 9. who lived between 1846 and 1913. 9.Fig.e.” ismun. The phrase “al-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm. The poem is of no great literary value. In addition. the captions both look and sound almost exactly alike. the Fātiḥa. The Content of Form 193 . the word for “name.  Poem in praise of the Basmala.” appears in the opening chapter of the Qur’ān. and reads as follows: Alem kaldırsa bir yerde kaçan sultân-ı Bismillâh Olur lâhutiyân ârâyiş-i dîvân-ı Bismillâh Sırât-ı Müstakıymi anla hatt-ı istivâsından Varır Allâh’a doğru menhec-i âsân-ı Bismillâh As soon as Sultan Bismillāh raises his flag The angels become the pillars of the court of Bismillāh Interpret its equator as al-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm The short route of Bismillāh leads towards God.” or “the straight path. dated 1901/2.10. however. Islam. It is by the great late Ottoman calligrapher al-ḥajj Mehmed Nazif Bey. As a final example.” i.10). and is taken to mean “the true faith.. The panel is dated 1319 AH (1901/2 CE) and features a short poem in Turkish extolling the virtues of the Basmala. Author’s collection.

it is “thinner than a hair and more trenchant than a sword. many people who are perfectly fluent in Arabic. However. In an ordinary text. going from right to left. by playing on the lengthened arc in the words bismi. will reach the side of God. Those who can cross the bridge.” in the words of the poets. calligraphers traditionally lengthened the arc when writing this particular formula. . look at this material as simple text. It is both. where it refers to the Basmala as a “short route” that leads to God. which. By the same token. so that once again the form of the writing echoes the meaning of the text itself. the formula is likened to the bridge of Ṣirāṭ. which the poet qualifies as an “equator” (khaṭṭ al-istiwā). but do not have much of an appreciation for the art of calligraphy. and the only way to truly appreciate Islamic calligraphy is to look at it as standing between script and image. calligraphy is exclusively neither one nor the other. between text and representation. Form and content mutually inflect each other. Islamic calligraphy is beautiful to look at. and those who fail to reach the other side will fall down into the eternal fires of Hell.Sufis believe that there is a bridge by this name that every soul is required to cross after death. In the poem. a visual analogy is drawn be­­ tween the bridge of Ṣirāṭ and the words Bismillāh. on the other hand. and many who cannot read Arabic script enjoy it as abstract art. The formula Bismillāh leads the 194 I· rvI· n CemI· l Schick believer to God. however. But there is more: in the last line of the poem. and it actually looks like the very bridge over which the believer’s soul is to reach God in the afterlife. leads straight to Allāh. With its lengthened arc. the calligrapher has actually shortened the arc. So we have here a bit of visual iconicity. these words would be written with a short arc.