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For other uses, see City (disambiguation).

A city is a large and permanent human settlement.[1][2]

Ancient Ur of Sumer in present-day Tell el-Mukayyar in Iraq,

one of the worlds earliest cities
1908 map of Piraeus, the port of Athens, showing the grid plan
of the city

ter the Neolithic revolution. The Neolithic revolution

brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development.[6]
The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to
abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who
lived by agricultural production. The increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem
more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities
and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up this
position in his argument that agricultural activity appears
necessary before true cities can form.[7]

Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town in general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal,
or historical status based on local law.
Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation,
utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The
concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, sometimes beneting both parties in the process, but it also presents challenges to managing urban growth.[3]
A big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs
and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with
metropolitan areas and urban areas, creating numerous
business commuters traveling to urban centers for employment. Once a city expands far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or
megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the
world.[4] In terms of population, the largest city proper is
Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai.[5]


There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions

gave rise to the rst cities. Some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and
basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces.

Mohenjo-daro, a World Heritage site that was part of the Indus

Valley Civilization

According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to

qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw mateThe conventional view holds that cities rst formed af- rials to support trade and a relatively large population.[8]


is square, and each hectare inside it has the same value of

protection. The advantage is expressed as: (O'Flaherty
2005, p. 13)
(1) O = s2 , where O is the output (area protected) and s stands for the length of a side.
This equation shows that output is proportional
to the square of the length of a side.
The inputs depend on the length of the perimeter:
(2) I = 4s , where I stands for the quantity of
So there are increasing returns to scale:
A map dating 1669 showing the location of Multan, Pakistan

Bairoch points out that, due to sparse population densities that would have persisted in pre-Neolithic, huntergatherer societies, the amount of land that would be required to produce enough food for subsistence and trade
for a large population would make it impossible to control
the ow of trade. To illustrate this point, Bairoch oers
an example: Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic,
[where] the density must have been less than 0.1 person
per square kilometre.[9] Using this population density as
a base for calculation, and allotting 10% of food towards
surplus for trade and assuming that city dwellers do no
farming, he calculates that " maintain a city with a
population of 1,000, and without taking the cost of transport into account, an area of 100,000 square kilometres
would have been required. When the cost of transport is
taken into account, the gure rises to 200,000 square kilometres ....[9] Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size
of Great Britain. The urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests
that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but
this view is not widely accepted.[10]
In his book City Economics, Brendan O'Flaherty asserts Cities could persistas they have for thousands of
yearsonly if their advantages oset the disadvantages
(O'Flaherty 2005, p. 12). O'Flaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to
scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually
associated with businesses. Their applications are seen in
more basic economic systems as well. Increasing returns
to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output [and] an activity has economies of scale if
doubling output less than doubles cost (O'Flaherty 2005,
pp. 572573). To oer an example of these concepts,
O'Flaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why
cities were built: military protection (O'Flaherty 2005,
p. 13). In this example, the inputs are anything that would
be used for protection (e.g., a wall) and the output is the
area protected and everything of value contained in it.
O'Flaherty then asks that we suppose the protected area

(3) O = I 2 /16 . This equation (solving for s

in (1) and substituting in (2)) shows that with
twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the
Also, economies of scale:
(4) I = 4O1/2 . This equation (solving for
I in equation (3)) shows that the same output
requires less input.
Cities, then, economize on protection, and so protection
against marauding barbarian armies is one reason why
people have come together to live in cities ... (O'Flaherty
2005, p. 13).
Similarly, Are Cities Dying?", a paper by Harvard
economist Edward L. Glaeser, delves into similar reasons for city formation: reduced transport costs for goods,
people and ideas. Discussing the benets of proximity,
Glaeser claims that if a city is doubled in size, workers
get a ten percent increase in earnings. Glaeser furthers his
argument by stating that bigger cities do not pay more for
equal productivity than in a smaller city, so it is reasonable to assume that workers become more productive if
they move to a city twice the size as they initially worked
in. The workers do not benet much from the ten percent
wage increase, because it is recycled back into the higher
cost of living in a larger city. They do gain other benets
from living in cities, though.

2 Geography
City planning has seen many dierent schemes for how a
city should look. The most commonly seen pattern is the
grid, used for thousands of years in China, independently
invented by Alexander the Great's city planner Dinocrates
of Rhodes and favoured by the Romans, while almost a
rule in parts of pre-Columbian America. Derry, begun in
1613, was the rst planned city in Ireland, with the walls

lished, in places such as Salt Lake City and San Francisco.
Other forms may include a radial structure, in which main
roads converge on a central point. This was often a
historic form, the eect of successive growth over long
time with concentric traces of town walls and citadels.
In more recent history, such forms were supplemented
by ring-roads that take trac around the outskirts of a
town. Many Dutch cities are structured this way: a central square surrounded by concentric canals. Every city
expansion would imply a new circle (canals together with
town walls). In cities such as Amsterdam, Haarlem and
also Moscow, this pattern is still clearly visible.

3 History
Further information: Historical cities and List of largest
cities throughout history
Towns and cities have a long history, although opinions
Map of Haarlem, the Netherlands, of around 1550 showing the
city completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal,
with its square shape inspired by Jerusalem

Reconstruction of what Jerusalem looked like during the 1st century CE, based on archaeological ndings

The Round city of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq

being completed ve years later. The central diamond

within a walled city with four gates was considered a good
design for defence. The grid pattern was widely copied in
the colonies of British North America.
The ancient Greeks often gave their colonies around the
Mediterranean a grid plan. One of the best examples is
the city of Priene. This city had dierent specialised districts, much as is seen in modern city planning today. Fifteen centuries earlier, the Indus Valley Civilisation was
using grids in such cities as Mohenjo-Daro. In medieval
times there was evidence of a preference for linear planning. Good examples are the cities established by various
rulers in the south of France and city expansions in old
Dutch and Flemish cities.
Grid plans were popular among planners in the 19th century, particularly after the redesign of Paris. They cut Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization of ancient
through the meandering, organic streets that followed old India
paths. The United States imposed grid plans in new territories and towns, as the American West was rapidly estab- vary on whether any particular ancient settlement can be


considered a city. Cities formed as a result of geograph- 3.1 Ancient times

ically centralized trade, beneting the members living in
close proximity to others and facilitating interactions in- Further information: Cities of the Ancient Near East,
cluding, but not limited, to economics. These interactions Polis, and City-state
generate both positive and negative externalities between The more complex human societies, called the rst
others actions. Benets include reduced transport costs,
exchange of ideas, sharing of natural resources, large local markets, and later in their development, amenities
such as running water and sewage disposal. Possible costs
would include higher rate of crime, higher mortality rates,
higher cost of living, worse pollution, trac and high
commuting times. Cities grow when the benets of proximity between people and rms are higher than the cost.
The rst true towns are sometimes considered large settlements where the inhabitants were no longer simply
farmers of the surrounding area, but began to take on
specialized occupations, and where trade, food storage
and power were centralized. In 1950 Gordon Childe
attempted to dene a historic city with 10 general
metrics.[11] These are:

View of the Agora of Athens with the temple of Hephaestus to the

left and the Stoa of Attalos to the right

1. Size and density of the population should be above

civilisations emerged around 3000 BC in the river val2. Dierentiation of the population. Not all residents leys of Mesopotamia, India, China, and Egypt. An increase in food production led to the signicant growth
grow their own food, leading to specialists.
in human population and the rise of cities. The peoples of Southwest Asia and Egypt laid the foundations
3. Payment of taxes to a deity or king.
of Western civilization, they developed cities and strug4. Monumental public buildings.
gled with the problems of organised states as they moved
to larger territorial units
5. Those not producing their own food are supported from individual communities
by the king.
6. Systems of recording and practical science.
7. A system of writing.
8. Development of symbolic art.
9. Trade and import of raw materials.

The Indus Valley Civilization and ancient China are

two other areas with major indigenous urban traditions.
Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the
Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan, existing from about 2600 BC, was one of the largest, with a
population of 50,000 or more.[13]

10. Specialist craftsmen from outside the kin-group.

This categorisation is descriptive, and it is used as a general touchstone when considering ancient cities, although
not all have each of its characteristics.
One characteristic that can be used to distinguish a
small city from a large town is organized government.
A town accomplishes common goals through informal
agreements between neighbors or the leadership of a
chief. A city has professional administrators, regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or means to trade for them) to feed the government workers. The governments may be based on
heredity, religion, military power, work projects (such as
canal building), food distribution, land ownership, agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, nance, or a combination of those. Societies that live in cities are often
called civilizations.

Scale model of ancient Rome, 3rd century AD

In ancient Greece, beginning in the early 1st millennium

BC, there emerged independent city-states that evolved
for the rst time the notion of citizenship, becoming in the


Ancient times

Mediterranean world, where the citys regularity was facilitated by its level site near a mouth of the Nile.

A model of Native American pyramids in the Zcalo in the center

of Mexico City

This roster of early urban traditions is notable for its diversity. Excavations at early urban sites show that some
cities were sparsely populated political capitals, others
were trade centers, and still other cities had a primarily religious focus. Some cities had large dense populations, whereas others carried out urban activities in the
realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Theories that attempt to explain ancient urbanism by a single factor, such as economic benet, fail to capture the range of variation documented by
The growth of the population of ancient civilizations,
the formation of ancient empires concentrating political power, and the growth in commerce and manufacturing led to ever greater capital cities and centres of
commerce and industry, with Alexandria, Antioch and
Seleucia of the Hellenistic civilization, Pataliputra (now
Patna) in India, Chang'an (now Xi'an) in China, Carthage,
ancient Rome, its eastern successor Constantinople (later

Keith Hopkins estimates that ancient Rome had a population of about a million people by the end of the 1st century
BC,[18] after growing continually during the 3rd, 2nd, and
1st centuries BC, making it the largest city in the world
at the time.[19] Alexandrias population was also close to
Romes population at around the same time, the historian
Daily life of people from the Song period at the capital, Bianjing, Rostovtze estimates a total population close to a miltodays Kaifeng
lion based on a census dated from 32 AD that counted
180,000 adult male citizens in Alexandria.[20]
Cities of Late Antiquity underwent transformations as the
urban power base shrank and was transferred to the local
bishop (see Late Roman Empire). Cities essentially disappeared, earliest in Roman Britain and Germania and
latest in the Eastern Roman Empire and Visigothic Spain.

Constantinople, the largest and wealthiest city in Europe from the

9th through the 12th century

process the archetype of the free city, the polis.[14] The

Agora, meaning gathering place or assembly, was the
center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of
the polis.[15] These Greek city-states reached great levels
of prosperity that resulted in an unprecedented cultural
boom, that of classical Greece, expressed in architecture, drama, science, mathematics and philosophy, and
nurtured in Athens under a democratic government. The
Greek Hippodamus of Miletus (c. 407 BC) has been
dubbed the Father of City Planning for his design of
Miletus; the Hippodamian, or grid plan, was the basis for
subsequent Greek and Roman cities.[16] In the 4th century BC, Alexander the Great commissioned Dinocrates
of Rhodes to lay out his new city of Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the ancient

In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in the Andes and Mesoamerica. In the Andes, the
rst urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization), Chavin and
Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the Huari,
Chimu and Inca cultures. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is
now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru.
It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas, ourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century
BC.[21] Mesoamerica saw the rise of early urbanism in
several cultural regions, including the Preclassic Maya,
the Zapotec of Oaxaca, and Teotihuacan in central Mexico. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier
urban traditions.
In the rst millennium AD, an urban tradition developed
in the Khmer region of Cambodia, where Angkor grew
into one of the largest cities (in area) of the world.[22]
The closest rival to Angkor, the Mayan city of Tikal in
Guatemala, was between 100 and 150 square kilometres


(39 and 58 sq mi) in total size.[23] Although its population remains a topic of research and debate, newly identied agricultural systems in the Angkor area may have
supported up to one million people.[24]
Agriculture was practiced in sub-Saharan Africa since
the third millennium BC. Because of this, cities could
develop as centers of non-agricultural activity. Exactly
when this rst happened is still a topic of archeological and historical investigation. Western scholarship has
tended to focus on cities in Europe and Mesopotamia, but
emerging archeological evidence indicates that urbanization occurred south of the Sahara well before the inuence of Arab urban culture. One of the oldest sites documented thus far, Jenn-Jeno in what is today Mali, has
in fact been dated back to the third century BC. According to Roderick and Susan McIntosh, Jenn-Jeno did not
t into traditional Western conceptions of urbanity as it
lacked monumental architecture and a distinctive elite social class, but it should indeed be considered a city based
on more a more functional redenition of urban development. In particular, Jenn-Jeno featured settlement
mounds arranged according to a horizontal, rather than
vertical, power hierarchy, and served as a center of specialized production and exhibited functional interdependence with the surrounding hinterland.[25] Archaeological evidence from Jenn-Jeno, specically the presence
of non-West African glass beads dated from the third
century BC to the fourth century AD, indicates that preArabic trade contacts probably existed between JennJeno and North Africa.[26] Additionally, other early urban centers in sub-Saharan Africa, dated to around 500
AD, include Awdaghust, Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital
of Ghana, and Maranda a center located on a trade rout
between Egypt and Gao.[27]


Middle Ages

Bardejov in Slovakia - an example of a well-preserved medieval

city. The building in the centre is a city hall.

estimated population of 1.2 million at its peak, the largest

city before 19th century London and the rst with a population of over one million.[29] Others estimate that Baghdads population may have been as large as 2 million in
the 9th century.[30]
From the 9th through the end of the 12th century, the city
of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was
the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population approaching 1 million.[31][32]
During the European Middle Ages, a town was as much
a political entity as a collection of houses. City residence
brought freedom from customary rural obligations to lord
and community: "Stadtluft macht frei" (City air makes
you free) was a saying in Germany. In Continental Europe cities with a legislature of their own were not unheard of, the laws for towns as a rule other than for
the countryside, the lord of a town often being another
than for surrounding land. In the Holy Roman Empire, some cities had no other lord than the emperor. In
Italy medieval communes had quite a statelike power. In
exceptional cases like Venice, Genoa or Lbeck, cities
themselves became powerful states, sometimes taking
surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires. Similar phenomena existed
elsewhere, as in the case of Sakai, which enjoyed a considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan.

3.3 Early modern

While the city-states, or poleis, of the Mediterranean and
Baltic Sea languished from the 16th century, Europes
larger capitals beneted from the growth of commerce
This woodcut shows Nuremberg as a prototype of a ourishing following the emergence of an Atlantic trade. By the
and independent city in the 15th century
early 19th century, London had become the largest city in
the world with a population of over a million, while Paris
While David Kessler and Peter Temin consider ancient rivaled the well-developed regionally traditional capital
Rome the largest city before the 19th century, London cities of Baghdad, Beijing, Istanbul and Kyoto. During
was the rst to exceed a population of 1 million.[28] the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman
George Modelski considers medieval Baghdad, with an city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in

States from 1860 to 1910, the introduction of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large manufacturing centers began to emerge, thus allowing migration from rural
to city areas. Cities during this period were deadly places
to live in, due to health problems resulting from contaminated water and air, and communicable diseases. In the
Great Depression of the 1930s cities were hard hit by unemployment, especially those with a base in heavy industry. In the U.S. urbanization rate increased forty to eighty
percent during 19001990. Today the worlds population
is slightly over half urban,[33] and continues to urbanize,
with roughly a million people moving into cities every 24
hours worldwide.
Gdask in the 17th century

the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were 4 External eects
bound to several laws about administration, nances and
Modern cities are known for creating their own
Most towns remained far smaller, so that in 1500 only microclimates. This is due to the large clustering of heat
some two dozen places in the world contained more than absorbent surfaces that heat up in sunlight and that chan100,000 inhabitants. As late as 1700, there were fewer nel rainwater into underground ducts.
than forty, a gure that rose to 300 in 1900.
Waste and sewage are two major problems for cities, as


Industrial age

is air pollution from various forms of combustion,[34] including replaces, wood or coal-burning stoves, other
heating systems,[35] and internal combustion engines.
The impact of cities on places elsewhere, be it hinterlands or places far away, is considered in the notion of city
footprinting (ecological footprint). Other negative external eects include health consequences such as communicable diseases, crime, and high trac and commuting
times. Cities cause more interaction with more people
than rural areas, thus a higher probability to contracting
contagious diseases. However, many inventions such as
inoculations, vaccines, and water ltration systems have
also lowered health concerns. Crime is also a concern in
the cities. Studies have shown that crime rates in cities are
higher and the chance of punishment after getting caught
is lower. In cases such as burglary, the higher concentration of people in cities create more items of higher value
worth the risk of crime. The high concentration of people
also makes using auto mobiles inconvenient and pedestrian trac is more prominent in metropolitan areas than
a rural or suburban one.

Cities also generate positive external eects. The close

physical proximity facilitates knowledge spillovers, helping people and rms exchange information and generate new ideas.[36] A thicker labor market allows for better skill matching between rms and individuals. Population density enables also sharing of common infrastructure and production facilities, however in very dense
Glasgow slum in 1871
cities, increased crowding and waiting times may lead to
The growth of modern industry from the late 18th cen- some negative eects.
tury onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of Cities may have a positive inuence on the environment.
new great cities, rst in Europe and then in other regions, UN-HABITAT stated in its reports that city living can
as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants be the best solution for dealing with the rising population
from rural communities into urban areas. In the United numbers (and thus still be a good approach on dealing


with overpopulation)[38] This is because cities concentrate 6 Global cities

human activity into one place, making the environmental
damage on other places smaller.[39] However, this can be Main article: Global city
achieved only if urban planning is improved[40] and if city
services are properly maintained.
A global city, also known as a world city, is a prominent
centre of trade, banking, nance, innovation, and markets. The term global city, as opposed to megacity,
was coined by Saskia Sassen in a seminal 1991 work.[43]
megacity refers to any city of enormous size, a
5 Distinction between cities and Whereas
global city is one of enormous power or inuence. Global
cities, according to Sassen, have more in common with
each other than with other cities in their host nations.
There are probably as many dierent ways of conceiving what a city is as there are cities. A simple denition
therefore has its attractions. The simplest is that a city is
a human settlement where strangers are likely to meet.
Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man, 1977, p. 39.[41]
The dierence between towns and cities is dierently understood in dierent parts of the world.
Even within the English-speaking world there is no one
standard denition of a city: the term may be used either
for a town possessing city status; for an urban locality
exceeding an arbitrary population size; for a town dominating other towns with particular regional economic or
administrative signicance. British city status was historically conferred on settlements with a diocesan cathedral;
in more recent times towns apply to receive city status at
times of national celebration. Larger settlements which
are not designated as cities are towns, smaller settlements
are villages and very small settlements are called hamlets.
In the US city is used for much smaller settlements.
Historically, city status was a privilege granted by royal
letters of patent. The status would allow markets and/or
foreign trade, in contrast to towns. Sovereigns could establish cities by decree, e.g. Helsinki, regardless of what
was in the location beforehand. Also, with the establishment of federal governments, the new capital could
be established from scratch, e.g. Braslia, without going
through organic growth from a village to a town.
Although city can refer to an agglomeration including suburban and satellite areas, the term is not usually applied
to a conurbation (cluster) of distinct urban places, nor for
a wider metropolitan area including more than one city,
each acting as a focus for parts of the area. And the word
town (also downtown) may mean the center of the


United States terminology

In the United States, a City is any incorporated town

that has a mayor and/or a board of alderman or council.
This can be of any size. [42]

The notion of global cities is rooted in the concentration

of power and capabilities within all cities. The city is
seen as a container where skills and resources are concentrated: the better able a city is to concentrate its skills
and resources, the more successful and powerful the city.
This makes the city itself more powerful in the sense that
it can inuence what is happening around the world. Following this view of cities, it is possible to rank the worlds
cities hierarchically.[44]
Critics of the notion point to the dierent realms of power
and interchange. The term global city is heavily inuenced by economic factors and, thus, may not account
for places that are otherwise signicant. One writer, for
example argues that the term is 'reductive and skewed':
Against those writers who, by emphasizing the importance of nancial exchange systems, distinguish a few special cities as 'global
citiescommonly London, Paris, New York
and Tokyowe recognize the uneven global
dimensions of all the cities that we study. Los
Angeles, the home of Hollywood, is a globalizing city, though perhaps more signicantly in
cultural than economic terms. And so is Dili
globalizing, the small and 'insignicant' capital
of Timor Lesteexcept this time it is predominantly in political terms...[45]
In 1995, Kanter argued that successful cities can be identied by three elements: good thinkers (concepts), good
makers (competence) or good traders (connections). The
interplay of these three elements, Kanter argued, means
that good cities are not planned but managed.

Modern global cities, like New York City, often include
large central business districts that serve as hubs for
economic activity.

There is a debate about whether technology and instantaneous communications are making cities obsolete, or
reinforcing the importance of big cities as centres of the
knowledge economy.[46][47][48] Knowledge-based development of cities, globalization of innovation networks,
and broadband services are driving forces of a new city
7 Inner city
planning paradigm towards smart cities that use technology and communication to create more ecient agglomerations in terms of competitiveness, innovation, environMain article: Inner city
ment, energy, utilities, governance, and delivery of services to the citizen. Some companies are building brand
In Paris, the inner city is the richest part of the metropolinew masterplanned cities from scratch on greeneld sites.
tan area, where housing is the most expensive, and where
elites and high-income individuals dwell. In the devel Gujarat International Finance Tec-City, India
oping world, economic modernization brings poor newcomers from the countryside to build haphazardly at the
Nano City, India
edge of current settlement (see favelas, shacks and shanty
Putrajaya, Malaysia
The United States, in particular, has a culture of antiurbanism that dates back to colonial times. The American City Beautiful architecture movement of the late
19th century was a reaction to perceived urban decay and
sought to provide stately civic buildings and boulevards
to inspire civic pride in the motley residents of the urban
core. Modern anti-urban attitudes are found in the United
States in the form of a planning profession that continues
to develop land on a low-density suburban basis, where
access to amenities, work and shopping is provided almost exclusively by car rather than by foot or transit.

Bonifacio Global City, Philippines

King Abdullah Economic City, Saudi Arabia
Sejong City, South Korea
Songdo International Business District, South Korea
Dubai Waterfront, United Arab Emirates
Dubai World Central, United Arab Emirates
Masdar City, United Arab Emirates

There is a growing movement in North America called

"New Urbanism" that calls for a return to traditional city
planning methods where mixed-use zoning allows peo- 9 See also
ple to walk from one type of land-use to another. The
idea is that housing, shopping, oce space, and leisure
facilities are all provided within walking distance of each 10 References
other, thus reducing the demand for road-space and also
improving the eciency and eectiveness of mass tran- 10.1 Notes
[1] Goodall, B. (1987) The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Penguin.

21st century

[2] Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) The Social Science
Encyclopedia. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.
[3] Paul James; Meg Holden; Mary Lewin; Lyndsay Neilson; Christine Oakley; Art Truter; David Wilmoth (2013).
Managing Metropolises by Negotiating Mega-Urban
Growth. In Harald Mieg; Klaus Tpfer. Institutional
and Social Innovation for Sustainable Urban Development. Routledge.
[4] Ring, Trudy (2014). Middle East and Africa: International Dictionary of Historic Places. p. 204.
[5] The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007, Jennifer Blanke, World Economic Forum
[6] (Bairoch 1988, pp. 34)

view of Tirana, Albania from Mount Dajt in 2004.

[7] Bassett, California

[8] (Pacione 2001, p. 16)


[9] (Bairoch 1988, p. 13)

[10] (Jacobs 1969, p. 23)
[11] Childe, V. Gordon (2008).
The Urban Revolution.
Town Planning Review.
21 (1): 319.



[28] The organization of the grain trade in the early Roman

Empire, David Kessler and Peter Temin
[29] George Modelski, World Cities: 3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 0-9676230-1-4. See
also Evolutionary World Politics Homepage.

[12] Spielvogel, Jackson (2014). Western Civilization: Volume

A: To 1500. Cengage Learning. pp. 65. ISBN 978-1285-98299-1. Retrieved 11 July 2015.

[30] Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, K. A. Berney, Paul E.

Schellinger (1996). International dictionary of historic
places, Volume 4: Middle East and Africa. Taylor and
Francis: 116.

[13] Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998) Ancient Cities of the Indus

Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press, Karachi and
New York.

[31] Cameron, Averil (2009). The Byzantines. John Wiley and

Sons. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4051-9833-2. Retrieved 24
January 2015.

[14] Pocock, J. G. A. (1998). The Citizenship Debates. Chapter 2 -- The Ideal of Citizenship since Classical Times
(originally published in Queens Quarterly 99, no. 1). Minneapolis, MN: The University of Minnesota. p. 31. ISBN

[32] Laiou, Angeliki E. (2002). Writing the Economic History of Byzantium. In Angeliki E. Laiou. The Economic
History of Byzantium (Volume 1). Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. pp. 130131.

[15] Ring, Salkin, Boda, Trudy, Robert, Sharon (January 1,

1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2.
[16] Jackson, Kenneth T. (1985). Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504983-7., p.73-76
[17] Smith 2002
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[23] Map reveals ancient urban sprawl, BBC News, 14 August
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Than Rural. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
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in Classical Music. Papers in Regional Science. 94 (3):
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[39] National Geographic Magazine; Special report 2008:
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[41] Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man, Knopf (1977),

p. 39. ISBN 0-14-100757-5
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[25] McIntosh, Roderic J., McIntosh, Susan Keech. Early Urban Congurations on the Middle Niger: Clustered Cities
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[44] John Friedmann and Goetz Wol, World City Formation: An Agenda for Research and Action, International
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traces of ancient trade connections between West Africa
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[45] James, Paul; with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger,

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[27] History of African Cities South of the Sahara By Catherine

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[46] Castells, M. (ed) (2004). The network society: a crosscultural perspective. London: Edward Elgar. (ebook)


Further reading

[47] Flew, T. (2008). New media: an introduction, 3rd edn,

South Melbourne: Oxford University Press
[48] Harford, T. (2008) The Logic of Life. London: Little,



Bairoch, Paul (1988). Cities and Economic Development: From the Dawn of History to the Present.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-22603465-8.
Chandler, T. Four Thousand Years of Urban
Growth: An Historical Census. Lewiston, NY:
Edwin Mellen Press, 1987.
Geddes, Patrick, City Development (1904)
Jacobs, Jane (1969). The Economy of Cities.
New York: Random House Inc.
Paul James; Meg Holden; Mary Lewin; Lyndsay Neilson; Christine Oakley; Art Truter; David
Wilmoth (2013). Managing Metropolises by Negotiating Mega-Urban Growth. In Harald Mieg;
Klaus Tpfer. Institutional and Social Innovation for
Sustainable Urban Development. Routledge.
James, Paul; with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred B. (2015). Urban Sustainability in
Theory and Practice: Circles of Sustainability. London: Routledge.
Kemp, Roger L. Managing Americas Cities: A
Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Company, Inc., Publisher, Jeerson,
North Carolina, USA, and London, England, UK,
2007. (ISBN 978-0-7864-3151-9).
Kemp, Roger L. How American Governments Work:
A Handbook of City, County, Regional, State, and
Federal Operations, McFarland and Company, Inc.,
Publisher, Jeerson, North Carolina, USA, and
London, England, UK. (ISBN 978-0-7864-3152-6).
Kemp, Roger L. City and Gown Relations: A
Handbook of Best Practices, McFarland and Company, Inc., Publisher, Jeerson, North Carolina,
USA, and London, England, UK, (2013). (ISBN
Monti, Daniel J., Jr., The American City: A Social
and Cultural History. Oxford, England and Malden,
Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. 391 pp.
ISBN 978-1-55786-918-0.
Mumford, Lewis, The City in History (1961)
O'Flaherty, Brendan (2005). City Economics. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
ISBN 0-674-01918-0.

Pacione, Michael (2001). The City: Critical Concepts in The Social Sciences. New York: Routledge.
ISBN 0-415-25270-9.
Reader, John (2005) Cities. Vintage, New York.
Robson, W.A., and Regan, D.E., ed., Great Cities of
the World, (3d ed., 2 vol., 1972)
Rybczynski, W., City Life: Urban Expectations in a
New World, (1995)
Smith, Michael E. (2002) The Earliest Cities. In Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology, edited by
George Gmelch and Walter Zenner, pp. 319. 4th
ed. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL.
Thernstrom, S., and Sennett, R., ed., NineteenthCentury Cities (1969)
Toynbee, Arnold J. (ed), Cities of Destiny,
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. Pan historical/geographical essays, many images. Starts
with Athens, ends with The Coming World
Weber, Max, The City, 1921. (tr. 1958)

10.3 Further reading

Berger, Alan S., The City: Urban Communities
and Their Problems, Dubuque, Iowa : William C.
Brown, 1978.
Glaeser, Edward, Triumph of the City, Penguin,

11 External links
World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision,
Website of the United Nations Population Division
Human Geography at DMOZ
Urban and Regional Planning at DMOZ
Geopolis - research group that studies the worlds
urbanization, Universit Paris Diderot, France





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