A general cavitation algorithm that accommodates for an arbitrary density–pressure relation is presented. It is now possible to model
the compressibility of the lubricant in such a way that the density–pressure relation is realistic throughout the contact. The algorithm
preserves mass continuity for cavitation caused by bearing geometry and surface topography. It is a commonly accepted physical
assumption that the contribution of the pressure driven flow is negligible in the cavitated region. This phenomenon is adopted in the
present algorithm, which is similar to that of Elrod, and is modeled by a switch function that terminates the pressure gradient at the
cavitation regions. Results with this algorithm for different density–pressure relations are presented and discussed. The effects of inlet
conditions, such as surface roughness and starvation, on the load carrying capacity of the contact are analyzed.

© All Rights Reserved

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A general cavitation algorithm that accommodates for an arbitrary density–pressure relation is presented. It is now possible to model
the compressibility of the lubricant in such a way that the density–pressure relation is realistic throughout the contact. The algorithm
preserves mass continuity for cavitation caused by bearing geometry and surface topography. It is a commonly accepted physical
assumption that the contribution of the pressure driven flow is negligible in the cavitated region. This phenomenon is adopted in the
present algorithm, which is similar to that of Elrod, and is modeled by a switch function that terminates the pressure gradient at the
cavitation regions. Results with this algorithm for different density–pressure relations are presented and discussed. The effects of inlet
conditions, such as surface roughness and starvation, on the load carrying capacity of the contact are analyzed.

© All Rights Reserved

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www.elsevier.com/locate/triboint

Fredrik Sahlin, Andreas Almqvist, Roland Larsson, Sergei Glavatskih

Division of Machine Elements, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, SE 97187, Sweden

Received 12 October 2005; received in revised form 1 February 2007; accepted 10 February 2007

Abstract

A general cavitation algorithm that accommodates for an arbitrary densitypressure relation is presented. It is now possible to model

the compressibility of the lubricant in such a way that the densitypressure relation is realistic throughout the contact. The algorithm

preserves mass continuity for cavitation caused by bearing geometry and surface topography. It is a commonly accepted physical

assumption that the contribution of the pressure driven ow is negligible in the cavitated region. This phenomenon is adopted in the

present algorithm, which is similar to that of Elrod, and is modeled by a switch function that terminates the pressure gradient at the

cavitation regions. Results with this algorithm for different densitypressure relations are presented and discussed. The effects of inlet

conditions, such as surface roughness and starvation, on the load carrying capacity of the contact are analyzed.

r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic lubrication; Cavitation

1. Introduction

Cavitation usually occurring in the regions of diverging

lubricated contact gap imply sub-ambient pressures of the

lubricant. These low pressures lead to a transformation of

the liquid into a gasliquid mixture. Different types of

cavitation models have been proposed over the years to

replicate this behavior in theoretical simulations. Some of

the algorithms preserve lubricant mass continuity whereas

others do not. By simulating the behavior of rough surfaces,

several cavitation regions might appear inside the contact.

Hence, preserving mass continuity becomes crucial.

Jakobsson and Floberg [1] developed a mass preserving

cavitation theory. They assumed a constant pressure in the

cavitation region, i.e. the pressure gradient is zero. They

also derived a set of conditions to locate the cavitation

boundaries. Later, Floberg extended their theory of

cavitation and implemented it in numerous bearing types

[25]. Elrod [6] and Elrod and Adams [7] developed a

cavitation algorithm using a single equation throughout

the lubrication region without the need for explicit

equations to locate the cavitation boundaries, and used a

Corresponding author. Tel.: +46 920491242; fax: +46 920491047.

0301-679X/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2007.02.009

region of cavitation. Vijayaraghavan and Keith [8] developed an algorithm like Elrod and introduced a more

rigorous derivation that was further developed in [9]. This

algorithm was derived under the assumption that the bulk

modulus is constant. For real lubricants the bulk modulus

varies with pressure. For a wide pressure range and under

certain conditions it is important to use a realistic

compressibility model for the lubricant. However, treating

the bulk modulus as a constant could produce good results

for a narrow pressure range.

The cavitation algorithm presented here uses the

Reynolds equation and is based on the assumption that

the pressure gradient is zero in the cavitation region and the

presence of only Couette ow. It inherits a switch function

similar to the Elrod algorithm to modify the Reynolds

equation at the locations of cavitation. With this algorithm,

an arbitrary densitypressure relation of the lubricant can

be applied. Thus, measured compressibility factors from

real lubricants can be used to achieve more realistic results.

2. Theory

The governing equation that constitutes the basis for the

current algorithm is the Reynolds equation. A simple

ARTICLE IN PRESS

F. Sahlin et al. / Tribology International 40 (2007) 12941300

3

u qrh

rh

r

rp 0.

2 qx

12Z

(1)

the solution variable, describing the Couette ow (rst

term) and Poiseuille ow (second term). The Reynolds

equation is well-suited for thin lm ow, where h and its

rate of change is small with respect to the other spatial

coordinates.

The density of all liquid lubricants depends on the

pressure among other variables. The densitypressure

relation changes abruptly when the lubricant undergoes

cavitation, resulting in a mixture of liquid and gas. At this

condition the pressure remains close to constant but the

density decreases rapidly. To mimic the behavior of

cavitation, the Reynolds equation needs to be modied.

Using the density as the dependent variable instead of

pressure is convenient. We start by dening the nondimensional density as

r

y ,

(2)

rc

where rc is the density at ambient pressure pc . Assuming

that p py it is possible to apply the chain rule on the

pressure gradient, i.e.

dp

ry.

rp

dy

Combining Eqs. (1), (2) and (3) result in

3

u qyh

yh dp

r

ry 0,

2 qx

12Z dy

(3)

(4)

variable and the only pressure inuence in the equation is

through the pressure derivative dp=dy. In the cavitation

region the pressure is assumed to be constant, p pc [1].

Hence, the pressure gradient is zero, i.e.

rp 0,

(5)

However, the mass will be preserved and transported by

means of only the Couette ow. By denition, y 1 at the

cavitation boundary; thus, to accomplish the termination

of the pressure gradient we utilize the unit step function

(

1; y41; full film region;

g

(6)

0; yp1; cavitation region:

Applying the above step function to the expression for the

pressure gradient in Eq. (3) yields a Reynolds equation in

the form:

3

u qyh

yh dp

r

(7)

g ry 0.

2 qx

12Z dy

Here, a single equation preserving the lubricant mass

describes the ow both in the full lm and in the cavitation

region. This is a more general form of already existing

1295

that an arbitrary densitypressure relation could be used.

Thus, more realistic densitypressure relations that accurately reect the behavior of real lubricants can easily be

applied.

3. Compressibility

The compressibility of the lubricant can be treated in

several ways. It can be expressed through the bulk modulus

dened as

dp

.

(8)

dy

If b is considered constant, integrating it once gives the

expression for pressure and density:

by

p pc b ln y()y eppc =b .

(9)

used to model the compressibility of lubricants. However,

in real lubricants b varies with density and the expression is

therefore only valid in a limited pressure range. Another is

the Dowson and Higginson expression [10]:

y

C 1 C 2 p pc

,

C 1 p pc

(10)

tted to the measured compressibility data of a mineral oil.

Since the Reynolds equation in the form presented here can

obey an arbitrary compressibility relation for the lubricant,

the use of some other measured data as input would be

reasonable. Hence, as a test case for the current cavitation

algorithm, the compressibility for a mineral oil will be used

here with data from Tuomas and Isaksson [11], who

conducted measurements in a high pressure chamber with

pressures ranging from ambient up to about 3 GPa. The

coefcients in the Dowson and Higginson expression were

tted to the measured data. This t can be seen in Fig. 1

with the measured data and the original Dowson and

Higginson expression.

The relation in Eq. (9) is also plotted, where b 3:3 GPa

is the bulk modulus taken for the curve t at y 1. The

best correlation between the expressions can be observed in

the proximity of ambient pressure, though it deviates

exponentially with pressure rise. The same notation for the

compressibility relations in Fig. 1 will be used in the

following gures. The acronym MNL is used to show that

the compressibility relation originates from the measured

mineral oil data. The cavitation pressure pc 105 Pa will

be used in the numerical examples. Cavitation and ambient

pressure will be treated synonymously.

4. Numerical examples

The Reynolds equation is discretized by using a central

differencing on the Poiseuille term and a second order

backward differencing on the Couette term. Because of the

ARTICLE IN PRESS

F. Sahlin et al. / Tribology International 40 (2007) 12941300

D & H, Orig

1.3

D & H, MNL (fitted)

Const. , MNL

Measured mineral oil data (MNL)

1.2

1.15

1.1

1.05

1

200

400

600

800

p MPa

Fig. 1. Compressibility models for the measured mineral oil data. The

original Dowson and Higginson expression with C 1 0:59e9 and

C 2 1:34, a Dowson and Higginson expression tted to the measured

data with C 1 2:22e9 and C 2 1:66, an exponential expression with b

3:3 GPa tted at y 1 for the tted D and H expression.

process on the form yn f yn1 ; . . . for n 0; 1; . . . is used

to solve the discrete system. The switch function g is

updated each iteration. The iterative convergence of the

solution is always ensured to be a value below 108 and the

grid is ensured to be ne enough to produce a grid

independent solution.

To compare solutions for different compressibility

models, the normalized integrated difference between the

current solution c and a solution c% , is dened as

Z Lx

Z L x

Z Lx

%

%

%

(11)

c dx,

Sc

c dx

c dx

0

x Lx =22

Lx =22

5.08

2.54

0

e

u

0.0762

xm

solution is pressure. In the numerical examples, only onedimensional problems will be considered, where Lx is the

domain length. This means that the geometries are treated

as innitely wide with no side leakage.

Dirichlet boundary conditions are used at the inlet (w)

and outlet (e) of the domain by specifying a constant

pressure p or non-dimensional density y. If yo1 at the

boundary the domain will be termed starved, if y 1

the domain is ooded and if y41 the domain is

pressurized. As a rst comparative test case, a parabolic

geometry modeled by

H H0 A

10-5

3

p MPa

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

x m

Fig. 3. Pressure solutions with boundary conditions yw 1:0001 and

ye 1; b. 0:069 GPa with S%

p 12%; Z 0:039 Pa s and u 4:57 m=s.

(12)

with the same physical dimensions and operating conditions as in Vijayaraghavan and Keith [8]. The geometry is

seen in Fig. 2.

In Fig. 3, a pressurized inlet is used and the pressure

solutions shown are from the Dowson and Higginson

expression tted to the measured mineral oil data as well as

10-5

hm

1.25

the expression for the constant b 6:9 107 Pa, the same

as applied in [8].

The solution from the constant b expression mimics the

results from [8], but differs from the Dowson and

Higginson expression in load carrying capacity by 12%.

A large difference is expected, since the Dowson and

Higginson expression represents b 3:34 GPa at p pc ,

which is signicantly different from 0:069 GPa used in

Ref. [8]. Fig. 4 shows the twin parabolic geometry used in

[8] and the corresponding pressure solutions are shown in

Fig. 5. The two pressure maxima are similar, but the

pressurized inlet causes the pressure maximum to the left to

be slightly higher (1.6 kPa). The difference in load carrying

capacity between the two compressibility relations is 15%.

Continuing with the same type of geometry as in Fig. 2,

though with H 0 2 mm, A H 0 and Lx 0:1 m, y 1

both at inlet and outlet and is thus ooded. The

corresponding dimensionless density solution where the

tted expression is compared with the original Dowson and

Higginson expression is shown in Fig. 6.

From left to right, a slight liquid compression occurs and

full lm solutions are achieved until the gap expands to a

level where the liquid does not occupy the complete gap

hm

1296

5.08

2.54

0

w

0

e

u

0.0762

xm

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2.5

50

40

1.5

30

p MPa

p MPa

1

0.5

1297

20

10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.02

0.04

yw 1:0001 and ye 1; b. 0:069 GPa with S%

p 15%; Z 0:039 Pa s

and u 4:57 m=s.

0.08

0.1

Fig. 7. Pressure solutions across the domain for the parabolic geometry

with H 0 2 mm and A H 0 and boundary conditions yw 1 and ye 1;

S%

p 1:7%; Z 0:04 Pa s and u 0:25 m=s.

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.06

xm

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.5

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

xm

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

xm

Fig. 6. Density solutions across the domain for the parabolic geometry

with H 0 2 mm and A H 0 and boundary conditions yw 1 and ye 1;

S%

y 0:61%; Z 0:04 Pa s and u 0:25 m=s.

Fig. 8. Density solutions across the domain for the parabolic geometry

with H 0 2 mm and A H 0 and boundary conditions yw 0:55 and

ye 1; S%

y 0:64%; Z 0:04 Pa s and u 0:25 m=s.

to termination of the Poiseuille ow and the lubricant

being only transported by means of the Couette ow. The

fractional lm content (y) rapidly decreases further to the

right in the domain. At the outlet boundary the lubricant is

abruptly reformed into full lm again. A signicant

difference in compression can be seen at the full lm

portion. Pressure solutions for the same conditions can be

seen in Fig. 7.

The differences in pressure between the expressions are

small, only 1.7%, even though the differences in compression (the solution variable) between the two compressibility

expressions are substantial.

The dimensionless density solutions for the tted and

original Dowson and Higginson expression for a starved

inlet with a fractional lm content of 55%, i.e. y 0:55,

can be seen in Fig. 8.

From the left, only the Couette ow is present until the

gap contracts sufciently to compress the liquid and

reformation into full lm occurs abruptly. The reformation

point shifts slightly between the two compressibility

expressions. Further to the right the solutions mimic the

earlier case with ooded inlet conditions. The lm rupture

boundaries appear at the same locations. In the cavitated

region the equation is hyperbolic because of the Couette

term. Hence, no information is signaled from the downstream locations and, consequently, upstream differencing

is applied. The lack of inuence from the downstream

locations in the cavitated zones together with the switch

function give rise to this abrupt and somewhat unexpected

reformation into full lm. The corresponding pressure can

be seen in Fig. 9, where greater differences arise between

the two Dowson and Higginson expressions, i.e. 7:4%.

Here, the expression for b constant, taken for the tted

expression at y 1, is added to the gure to show that the

difference in solutions between this and the tted Dowson

and Higginson expression is negligible (overlapping lines)

for these conditions. Fig. 1 illustrates that the tted

expression and the constant b expression are close at a

pressure range of 0100 MPa, reected in the results where

the simulations are conducted without exceeding the limits

of hydrodynamic pressures. Fig. 10 applies the same

physical conditions as in Fig. 9 and the solutions are

obtained for different values of b.

Substantial differences in pressures are seen between the

solutions, indicating the importance of using a relevant

value of the bulk modulus for the lubricant to be simulated.

In Fig. 11, a linearly converging lm thickness is used

with H 0 1 mm and A 0:25 mm, where the inlet lm

thickness is H 0 A and the outlet lm thickness is H 0 .

ARTICLE IN PRESS

F. Sahlin et al. / Tribology International 40 (2007) 12941300

1298

30

D & H - MNL

D & H - Orig

Const , MNL

25

p MPa

20

15

10

5

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

xm

Fig. 9. Pressure solutions across the domain for the parabolic geometry

with H 0 2 mm and A H 0 and boundary conditions yw 0:55 and

%

ye 1; .: S%

p 7:4%; b: Sp 0:11%; Z 0:04 Pa s and u 0:25 m=s.

30

Const , MNL

Const

Const

25

p MPa

20

15

10

5

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

load difference of 22%. Great differences are also seen in

Fig. 12 for the different values of b.

The conditions at the inlet are signicant in many

respects. We have seen that various compressibility models

produce similar solutions in a pressure range reaching up

to 50 MPa, but become signicantly different if the inlet is

starved. Let us use the tted Dowson and Higginson

compressibility expression and focus on some geometrical

aspects. In Fig. 13, two sinusoidal waves applied to the left

half of the geometry are shown. The inlet lm thickness is

H 0 and H 0 A, respectively, but is the same at the end of

the two sinusoidal waves.

Pressure solutions for this geometry can be seen in

Fig. 14. Geometry with the smaller lm thickness at the

inlet produces higher pressures. The results are somewhat

unexpected, since the geometry with a greater lm

thickness at the inlet is likely to cause a greater compression of the uid.

In this case, however, the sinusoidal geometry is able to

pull a larger amount of uid into the domain up to the

point where the gap expands and the uid cavitates. The

non-dimensional density at the location of the rst

sinusoidal wave is shown in Fig. 15. Here, the uid tends

to become more compressed for geometry 2 until the earlier

diverging gap leads to an earlier cavitation, thus affecting

the compression.

0.1

xm

40

Fig. 10. Pressure solutions across the domain for the parabolic geometry

with H 0 2 mm and A H 0 and boundary conditions yw 0:55 and

ye 1; b .3:34=2; b3:34 2 GPa with S%

p 8:4; 4:8%; Z 0:04 Pa s

and u 0:25 m=s.

p MPa

40

D & H - MNL

D & H - Orig

Const , MNL

p MPa

30

Const , MNL

Const

Const

30

20

10

20

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

xm

10

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

Fig. 12. Pressure solutions across the domain for the converging gap

geometry with H 0 1 mm and A 0:25 mm and boundary conditions

yw 0:85 and ye 1; b .3:34=2; b3:34 2 GPa with S%

p 25; 19%;

Z 0:04 Pa s and u 0:25 m=s.

xm

Fig. 11. Pressure solutions across the domain for the converging gap

geometry with H 0 1 mm and A 0:25 mm and boundary conditions

%

yw 0:85 and ye 1; .: S%

p 22%; b: Sp 0:54%; Z 0:04 Pa s and

u 0:25 m=s.

hm

10-5

at the inlet while ambient density is applied at the outlet.

Also for this case, the constant b expression produces

results close to the mineral oil with a load difference of

0:54%. However, the original Dowson and Higginson

1.5

1

0.5

0

w

0

0.1

xm

Fig. 13. Geometries with parallel gaps, two sinusoidal waves with a

difference in frequency both at xoL=2 with H 0 10 mm and

A 0:5 H 0 .

ARTICLE IN PRESS

F. Sahlin et al. / Tribology International 40 (2007) 12941300

1.5

1299

2.5

1

2

p MPa

1.5

p MPa

0.5

1

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

xm

0.5

Fig. 14. Pressure solutions across the domain for the sinusoidal geometry

at xoL=2 with H 0 10 mm and A 0:5 H 0 and boundary conditions

pw 1e 05 and pe 1e 05 Pa; S%

Z 0:04 Pa s and

p 35%;

u 0:25 m=s.

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

xm

Fig. 17. Pressure solutions across the domain for the cos2 at xoL=2

modied step geometry with H 0 10 mm and A 0:5 H 0 and boundary

conditions pw 2 105 and pe 105 Pa; Z 0:04 Pa s and u 0:25 m=s.

1

2

1.0003

5. Conclusions

1

4

xm

8

10-3

Fig. 15. Density solutions across the domain for the sinusoidal geometry

at xoL=2 with H 0 10 mm and A 0:5 H 0 and boundary conditions

pw 1e 05 and pe 1e 05 Pa; Z 0:04 Pa s and u 0:25 m=s.

1

2

hm

10-5

1.5

1

0.5

0

w

0

0.1

xm

Fig. 16. Geometries with parallel gaps, two squared sinusoidal waves with

a difference in frequency both at xoL=2 with H 0 10 mm and

A 0:5 H 0 .

get a lm thickness as in Fig. 16. Here, the smallest lm

thickness is H 0 .

The pressure results can be viewed in Fig. 17.

If the inlet is ooded, geometry 1 cavitates throughout

the domain producing zero load carrying capacity. Since

the inlet lm thickness for geometry 2 is larger than H 0 ,

some uid compression can occur and the pressure will rise

across the domain producing a load carrying capacity. If

the geometry is pressurized, it is now even possible for

geometry 2 to produce a pressure build-up.

an arbitrary compressibility relation and cavitation has

been derived. It has been shown that different compressibility models can produce signicantly different results in a

hydrodynamic pressure range. Load carrying capacity is

especially sensitive to the type of compressibility relation

used if the inlet is starved, indicating the need to employ

realistic densitypressure relations. To predict cavitation

regions, fractional lm content and pressure better, more

physical dependent variables, such as viscosity, might be

needed. Surface roughness close to the inlet has been

shown to have important effects on load carrying capacity.

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research for nancing this research.

References

[1] Jakobsson B, Floberg L. The nite journal bearing, considering

vaporization. Technical Report 190, Institute of Machine Elements,

Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; 1957.

[2] Floberg L. The two-groove journal bearing, considering cavitation.

Technical Report 231, Institute of Machine Elements, Chalmers

University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; 1960.

[3] Floberg L. Lubrication of two cylinder surfaces, considering

cavitation. Technical Report 232, Institute of Machine Elements,

Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; 1961.

[4] Floberg L. On hydrodynamic lubrication with special reference to

sub-cavity pressure and number of streamers in cavitation regions.

Acta Polytech ScandMech Engng Ser 19.

[5] Floberg L. Sub-cavity pressure and number of oil streamers in

cavitation regions with special reference to the innite journal

bearing. Acta Polytech ScandMech Engng Ser. 37.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

1300

[7] Elrod HG, Adams ML. A computer program for cavitation and

starvation problems. Cavitation and related phenomena in lubrication, 1975. p. 3742.

[8] Vijayaraghavan D, Keith Jr TG. Development and evaluation of a

cavitation algorithm. STLE Tribol Trans 1989;32(2):22533.

numerical scheme applied to a cavitation algorithm. J Tribol 112(1).

[10] Dowson D, Higginson GR. Elastohydro-dynamic lubrication.

Oxford; 1966.

[11] Tuomas R, Isaksson O. Compressibility of oil/refrigerant lubricants

in elasto-hydrodynamic contacts. J Tribol 2006;128(1) 21820.

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